Acute cerebral edema is a significant cause of death in patients treated for diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome.
We present the case of a 44-year-old African American woman admitted with acute severe headache and diagnosed with diabetic hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome. Computed tomography of the head showed diffuse leukoencephalopathy, but sparing of the cortex. We were concerned for acute cerebral edema secondary to hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed numerous collections of cystic spaces in the white matter of both hemispheres representing tumefactive perivascular spaces. Her headache improved with correction of the hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state.
Although the clinical presentation and head computed tomography were concerning for cerebral edema, the distinctive features on brain magnetic resonance imaging helped to clarify the diagnosis and differentiate it from other processes.
Tumefactive perivascular spaces; Cerebral edema; Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome
We hypothesized that the edema fluid-to-plasma protein (EF/PL) ratio, a non-invasive measure of alveolar capillary membrane permeability, can accurately determine the etiology of acute pulmonary edema.
390 mechanically ventilated patients with acute pulmonary edema were enrolled. A clinical diagnosis of acute lung injury (ALI), cardiogenic pulmonary edema, or a mixed etiology was based on expert medical record review at the end of hospitalization. The EF/PL ratio was measured from pulmonary edema fluid and plasma samples collected at intubation.
209 patients had a clinical diagnosis of ALI, 147 had a diagnosis of cardiogenic pulmonary edema and 34 had a mixed etiology. The EF/PL ratio had an area under the receiver-operating curve of 0.84 for differentiating ALI from cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Using a predefined cutoff of 0.65, the EF/PL ratio had a sensitivity of 81% and a specificity of 81% for the diagnosis of ALI. An EF/PL ratio ≥ 0.65 was also associated with significantly higher mortality and fewer ventilator free days.
Non-invasive measurement of the EF/PL ratio is a safe and reliable bedside method for rapidly determining the etiology of acute pulmonary edema that can be used at the bedside in both developed and developing countries.
acute pulmonary edema; acute lung injury; acute respiratory distress syndrome; alveolar capillary membrane permeability; diagnosis
Inflammation may play an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic macular edema, a major cause of vision loss in persons with diabetes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate combined antiinflammatory therapy and laser approaches for treating patients with diabetic macular edema.
In this prospective, factorial, randomized, multicenter trial, we compared cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitor (celecoxib) with placebo and diode grid laser with standard Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study focal laser treatment in 86 participants with diabetic macular edema. The primary outcome is change in visual acuity of ≥15 letters from baseline, and the secondary outcomes include a 50% reduction in the retinal thickening of diabetic macular edema measured by optical coherence tomography and a 50% reduction in leakage severity on fluorescein angiography.
Visual acuity and retinal thickening data from >2 years of follow-up did not show evidence of differences between the medical and laser treatments. However, participants assigned to the celecoxib group were more likely to have a reduction in fluorescein leakage when compared with the placebo group (odds ratio = 3.6; P < 0.01).
This short-term study did not find large visual function benefits of treatment with celecoxib or diode laser compared with those of standard laser treatment. A suggestive effect of celecoxib in reducing fluorescein leakage was observed.
diabetic macular edema; celecoxib; diode grid laser photocoagulation; ETDRS type focal photocoagulation; optical coherence tomography
Patients with diabetes often present with lower extremity (LE) edema; however, because of concomitant peripheral arterial disease, compression therapy is generally avoided by providers in fear of compromising arterial circulation. This pilot study sought to assess whether diabetic socks with mild compression (18–25 mm Hg) can reduce LE edema in patients with diabetes without negatively impacting vascularity.
Eighteen subjects (9 males, 9 females) aged 61 ± 11 years with diabetes, LE edema, and a mean ankle–brachial index (ABI) of 1.10 ± 0.21 successfully completed this uncontrolled study. At baseline, subjects were fitted and instructed to wear the socks during all waking hours. Follow-up visits occurred weekly for four consecutive weeks. Edema was quantified through midfoot, ankle, and calf circumferences and cutaneous fluid measurements. Vascular status was tracked via ABI.
Repeated measures analysis of variance and least significant difference post hoc analyses were used for data analyses. Calf circumferences showed a statistically significant (p < .05) decrease of 1.3 ± 0.28 cm after just one week and remained significantly smaller than baseline throughout the study. Foot circumferences were significantly reduced at week 2 (−0.98 ± 0.35 cm) and remained significantly below baseline for the remainder of the study. The ankle also demonstrated a trend of circumference reduction but was not statistically significant. Cutaneous edema significantly reduced by week 3 (−3.1 ± 1.3 U) and remained so at week 4. Ankle–brachial index significantly increased (0.14 ± 0.049) at week 2 but was not significantly higher at weeks 3 or 4. No adverse events occurred during the study.
Mild compression therapy (18–25 mm Hg) decreased swelling in diabetes patients with LE edema without compromising vascularity.
compression; diabetes; edema; lower extremity
Diabetic muscle infarction (DMI) is an unusual complication of diabetes mellitus. It is usually seen in long-standing diabetes mellitus. This article presents a case of DMI in the left forearm of a 58-year-old woman. She had a swollen forearm. The level of creatine kinase was 5930 U/L. Her condition was initially suspected for either cellulitis or venous thrombosis. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study of the forearm showed diffuse edema and abnormal signals of the left forearm. The diagnosis of DMI was made. She was treated conservatively and her symptoms resolved within a short period of time. DMI should be considered as a differential diagnosis of any painful and swollen limb in diabetic patients.
Diabetes mellitus; infarction; muscle
The importance of a good clinical history has been emphasized by reviewing the most common diagnostic criteria in cardiac patients. Dyspnea of cardiac origin should be differentiated from respiratory disturbances, neuroses, unfitness, etc. Orthopnea, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, cardiac asthma and acute pulmonary edema are manifestations of left ventricular failure. Peripheral edema is most frequently due to circulatory disturbances of the lower extremities. Edema of cardiac origin is bilateral, related to postural changes and associated with cardiomegaly. Hepatic and renal problems are also common causes of edema. Chest pain due to myocardial ischemia (angina pectoris) is characteristic in its location, radiation, onset and relief. It should be differentiated from the many other causes of chest pain (neurosis, pericarditis, myalgia, etc.) by a carefully taken history. Palpitations and syncope are common symptoms of severe cardiac disease. Patients with these complaints should be thoroughly investigated. Syncope of cardiac origin (Stokes-Adams attack) should be differentiated from epileptic seizures.
Differentiating cardiogenic pulmonary edema from other bilateral lung diseases such as pneumonia is frequently difficult. We conducted a retrospective study to identify predictors for cardiogenic pulmonary edema and non-cardiogenic causes of bilateral lung infiltrates in chest radiographs.
The study included patients who had newly developed bilateral lung infiltrates in chest radiographs and patients who underwent echocardiography. Cases were divided into two groups based on the echocardiographic findings: the cardiogenic pulmonary edema group and the non-cardiogenic group. Clinical characteristics and basic laboratory findings were analyzed to identify predictors for differential diagnosis between cardiogenic and non-cardiogenic causes of bilateral chest infiltrates.
We analyzed 110 subjects. Predictors of cardiogenic pulmonary edema were higher brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels, lower C-reactive protein (CRP) levels on the day of the event (<7 mg/dL), age over 60 years, history of heart disease, and absence of fever and sputum. CRP on the day of the event was an independent factor to differentiate cardiogenic and non-cardiogenic causes of newly developed bilateral chest infiltrates. Also, the validity was comparable to BNP.
Clinical symptoms (sputum and fever), medical history (dyslipidemia and heart disease), and laboratory findings (BNP and CRP) could be helpful in the differential diagnosis of patients with acute bilateral lung infiltrates in chest radiographs.
C-Reactive Protein; Natriuretic Peptide, Brain; Pulmonary Edema
A 75-year-old male who was undergoing chronic hemodialysis developed abrupt-onset pitting edema and pain in the dorsum of both hands and feet. Biochemical analysis disclosed increased C-reactive protein, and negative rheumatoid factor and antinuclear antibody. Radiological examination showed no bony erosion. Computed tomography and gallium scintigraphy revealed no active infection or neoplasms. The clinical diagnosis was remitting seronegative symmetrical synovitis with pitting edema (RS3PE) syndrome. The pitting edema and inflammatory response quickly subsided after low-dose prednisolone therapy. This case demonstrates that RS3PE syndrome could be a differential diagnosis in elderly patients undergoing dialysis who develop pitting edema and joint pain.
We report a case of radiation necrosis in an unusual location, the pons, in a patient who had received chemoradiation for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) over one year prior to presentation. This patient presented with subacute onset of ataxic hemiparesis and slurred speech. Initial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies showed two 1–2cm peripherally contrast-enhancing lesions in the pons with extensive surrounding edema. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) played a key role in narrowing the differential diagnosis to radiation necrosis. The patient underwent biweekly bevacizumab therapy and has remained clinically stable with radiologic improvement of his lesion. In addition to this case, we present an overview of the use of advanced neuroimaging in distinguishing radiation necrosis of the central nervous system (CNS) from other entities as well as the role of bevacizumab in treatment.
Radiation necrosis; pons; nasopharyngeal carcinoma; MR spectroscopy; bevacizumab
Abrupt and life-threatening presentations in connective tissue diseases (CTD) are rarely reported. Their early recognition and specific management could change course disease. SLE is a multisystem inflammatory disease that is often difficult to diagnose in the emergency department (ED).
A 26-year-old woman presented to the ED with a 48 hour history of progressive dispnea, generalized edema and left lower chest pain with non-productive cough. On examination, patient was feeling very ill, afebrile, tachycardic, tachypneic and a peripheral oxygen saturation of 94% on 40% supplemented oxygen with raised jugular venous pressure was noted. Intermittently, she presented an obtunded state of consciousness. A large pericardial, pleural and abdominal effusion was confirmed and a broad differential diagnosis was made. The patient had a 6 months history of inflammatory polyarthralgias involving initially interphalangeal joints, evolving, sometime later, the knees and elbows bilaterally and she was started glucocorticoids. 12 days before admission, she had had symptoms of a urethritis episode. In the context of an immunosupressed patient, with initial focal urologic complains, evidence of multiorgan dysfunction and a picture resembling a distributive shock, dictated a low threshold for sepsis.
Separating an acute episode of SLE from sepsis, on emergency grounds, can even be the most challenging decision. In the ED, acute life-threatening and multisystemic conditions should arise the suspicion of autoimmune diseases, particularly SLE.
Postoperative effusions and edema and capillary leak syndrome in children after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass constitute considerable clinical problems. Overshooting immune response is held to be the cause. In a prospective study we investigated whether preoperative immune status differences exist in patients at risk for postsurgical effusions and edema, and to what extent these differences permit prediction of the postoperative outcome.
One-day preoperative serum levels of immunoglobulins, complement, cytokines and chemokines, soluble adhesion molecules and receptors as well as clinical chemistry parameters such as differential counts, creatinine, blood coagulation status (altogether 56 parameters) were analyzed in peripheral blood samples of 75 children (aged 3–18 years) undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass surgery (29 with postoperative effusions and edema within the first postoperative week).
Preoperative elevation of the serum level of C3 and C5 complement components, tumor necrosis factor-α, percentage of leukocytes that are neutrophils, body weight and decreased percentage of lymphocytes (all P < 0.03) occurred in children developing postoperative effusions and edema. While single parameters did not predict individual outcome, >86% of the patients with postoperative effusions and oedema were correctly predicted using two different classification algorithms. Data mining by both methods selected nine partially overlapping parameters. The prediction quality was independent of the congenital heart defect.
Indicators of inflammation were selected as risk indicators by explorative data analysis. This suggests that preoperative differences in the immune system and capillary permeability status exist in patients at risk for postoperative effusions. These differences are suitable for preoperative risk assessment and may be used for the benefit of the patient and to improve cost effectiveness.
complement; discriminant analysis; interleukin; predisposition; selectin
Retractile mesenteritis is a rare, idiopathic condition characterized by nonspecific inflammation of the mesenteric adipose tissue. The majority of patients present with abdominal pain and/or a palpable mass. In the present report, a 68-year-old man with peripheral edema and mild hypoalbuminemia is presented. Protein-losing gastroenteropathy was confirmed with an abnormal stool alpha1-antitrypsin clearance test and retractile mesenteritis was diagnosed at laparoscopy. This rare condition may respond to therapy with corticosteroids, azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, colchicine, progesterone, tamoxifen or thalidomide. Gastroenterologists should consider the diagnosis of protein-losing enteropathy in patients who present with unexplained peripheral edema or hypoalbuminemia. The test of choice to confirm this diagnosis is the stool alpha1-antitrypsin clearance test.
Edema; Gastroenteropathy; Hypoalbuminemia; Retractile mesenteritis
Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are insulin-sensitizing agents that are associated with peripheral edema and have been reported to be associated with diabetic macular edema (DME). We hypothesized that TZDs produce subclinical increases in retinal thickness that may be detected by optical coherence tomography (OCT) but are not seen on routine dilated funduscopic examination.
Research Design and Methods
We used OCT to screen for subclinical DME in a cross-sectional study of patients with type 2 diabetes; 29 patients were taking TZDs and 58 were not taking TZDs. We analyzed data using multiple linear regression analysis to investigate associations of retinal thickness with clinical characteristics.
There was no significant difference between the central subfield retinal thickness in the non-TZD group (206.4 ± 28.0 microns; n = 59) and TZD group (204.1 ± 26.1 microns; n = 29) (p = .72) nor were there significant differences in any other retinal subfield. There was no significant correlation of retinal thickness with laboratory results studies—peripheral edema, gender, age, duration of diabetes, individual, or combinations of medications. Retinal thickness differences between regions displayed normal anatomical variation. However, ethnic differences were found in which African-Americans had thinner retinas in all regions than Caucasians regardless of whether or not they used TZDs.
These data suggest that TZDs do not cause subclinical DME in a demographically diverse patient population with diabetes. The established normal ranges for macular thickness may require adjustment based on ethnicity.
diabetic macular edema; optical computerized tomography; oral antidiabetic agents; retinal thickness; type diabetes 2 diabetes mellitus; thiazolidinediones
Brain edema is a serious consequence of hemispheric stroke and traumatic brain injury and contributes significantly to patient mortality. In the present study, we measured water contents in hippocampal slices as an in vitro-model of edema formation. Excitotoxic conditions induced by N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA, 300 μM), as well as ischemia induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) caused cellular edema formation as indicated by an increase of slice water contents. In the presence of furosemide, an inhibitor of the Na,K,Cl-cotransporter, NMDA-induced edema were reduced by 64% while OGD-induced edema were unaffected. The same observation, i.e. reduction of excitotoxic edema formation but no effect on ischemia-induced edema, was made with chloride transport inhibitors such as DIDS and niflumic acid. Under ischemic conditions, modulation of GABAA receptors by bicuculline, a GABA antagonist, or by diazepam, a GABAergic agonist, did not significantly affect edema formation. Further experiments demonstrated that low chloride conditions prevented NMDA-induced, but not OGD-induced water influx. Omission of calcium ions had no effect. Our results show that NMDA-induced edema formation is highly dependent on chloride influx as it was prevented by low-chloride conditions and by various compounds that interfere with chloride influx. In contrast, OGD-induced edema observed in brain slices were not affected by modulators of chloride fluxes. The results are discussed with reference to ionic changes occurring during tissue ischemia.
Section: Neurophysiology, Neuropharmacology and other forms of Intercellular Communication.
edema; furosemide; DIDS; niflumic acid; NMDA receptor; oxygen-glucose deprivation
This study evaluated the effects of Beraprost sodium (Berasil) on subjective leg symptoms in patients with peripheral arterial disease caused by diabetes mellitus.
Ninety-four diabetic patients with peripheral arterial disease were treated with Beraprost in a fixed-dose, prospective, multicenter, cohort study. Beraprost (40 µg) was administered orally 3 times daily (120 µg/day) for 12 weeks. We developed a new disease-specific symptom questionnaire, which evaluated the effect of peripheral arterial disease on leg discomfort in daily life and assessed therapeutic responses to treatment. Patients were asked for their subjective assessment of symptoms on a written questionnaire before treatment and after 12 weeks of therapy.
There was significant improvement in all estimated subjective symptoms (burning, coldness, edema, exertional pain, stabbing, and paresthesias) in the lower extremities at 12 weeks (p < 0.001). There were 18 patients with neuropathy in whom significant improvement was noted for 6 subjective symptoms at 12 weeks (p < 0.05). Adverse events considered to be drug-related were observed in 4 patients (4.3%), all of which were mild and resolved with discontinuation of the medication.
Beraprost is effective as a treatment for improving various subjective symptoms in the lower extremities, such as burning, coldness, edema, exertional pain, stabbing, and paresthesias, in diabetic patients with peripheral arterial disease.
Peripheral arterial disease; Intermittent claudication; Diabetes mellitus; Beraprost sodium; Prostaglandin I2
It is widely accepted that acute demyelinating plaques in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) demonstrate increased apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and increased diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) signals on MRI. These imaging characteristics in acute MS lesions have been postulated to be due to peripheral vasogenic edema that typically increases the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). This assumption is commonly used to differentiate stroke from MS lesions since acute and subacute stroke lesions demonstrate increased DWI signal with reduced ADC due to acute cytotoxic edema.
We report a case of active relapsing-remitting MS with two new symptomatic contrast-enhancing lesions. The lesions had reduced diffusion on the ADC map in the early acute phase of MS exacerbation. The reduced ADC signal was subsequently “converted” to increased ADC signal which coincided with the development of profound peripheral vasogenic edema seen on T2-weighted images. To our knowledge, this is the first serial MRI study describing decreased ADC signal in the early acute phase of contrast-enhancing MS lesion. The implications of decreased diffusion in the acute phase of MS lesions for the disease pathogenesis are discussed.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of intravitreal ranibizumab (Lucentis, Genentech, South San Francisco, Calif, USA) combined with cataract surgery for the prevention of clinically significant macular edema (CSME) in patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR). This prospective interventional case series included fifty-four eyes of 54 patients with a previous diagnosis of nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) without macular edema preoperatively. Subjects were assigned in a 1 : 1 ratio to receive an intraoperative intravitreal ranibizumab injection (n = 27) or not (control group, n = 27) associated with standardised phacoemulsification surgery. The main outcome measure was the incidence of CSME one and three months after surgery. One month after surgery the incidence of CSME in the control group was 25.92% and 3.70% in the treatment group and at three months was 22.22% and 3.70%, respectively. Short-term results suggest that intravitreal ranibizumab immediately after phacoemulsification prevents CS ME in patients with NPDR.
Many of the common systemic diseases present characteristic changes in the fundus of the eye, but fundoscopy is often performed by an ophthalmologist. Our purpose was to assess the value of fundoscopy for the general practitioners (GPs) regarding the diagnosis and management of the cases which they face in daily practice.
689 patients were referred by GPs to the outpatient ophthalmology department for fundoscopy during the year 2010. The causes of this referral, the results of ophthalmoscopy and its significance in the final diagnosis were recorded and analyzed.
In 22 patients (3.1%), fundoscopy revealed optic disc edema. In 7 patients with head trauma (9.7%), fundoscopy revealed intravitreous haemorrhage and Berlin edema. From the patients with photopsias or floaters, 5 (10.2%) had retinal detachment. Finally, in cases with diabetes mellitus or hypertension, ophthalmoscopy was very important to detect the existence and grade the degree of diabetic or hypertensive retinopathy, if they appeared, and as a result to evaluate the prognosis of the disease.
Fundoscopy is fundamental for the GP, as it may help to confirm or exclude the diagnosis of many common diseases. Nevertheless, there are clinical entities where ophthalmoscopy should be performed by an ophthalmologist, in order to be more specific and accurate, and GP should be able to recognise these cases.
Fundoscopy; general practice; ophthalmoscopy.
This study was designed to examine choroidal thickness in patients with diabetes using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography.
Forty-nine patients (49 eyes) with diabetes and 24 age-matched normal subjects underwent high-definition raster scanning using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography with frame enhancement software. Patients with diabetes were classified into 3 groups: 11 patients with mild or moderate nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy and no macular edema, 18 patients with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema, and 20 patients with treated proliferative diabetic retinopathy and no diabetic macular edema (treated proliferative diabetic retinopathy). Choroidal thickness was measured from the posterior edge of the retinal pigment epithelium to the choroid/sclera junction at 500-μm intervals up to 2,500 μm temporal and nasal to the fovea.
Reliable measurements of choroidal thickness were obtainable in 75.3% of eyes examined. Mean choroidal thickness showed a pattern of thinnest choroid nasally, thickening in the subfoveal region, and thinning again temporally in normal subjects and patients with diabetes. Mean subfoveal choroidal thickness was thinner in patients with diabetic macular edema (63.3 μm, 27.2%, P < 0.05) or treated proliferative diabetic retinopathy (69.6 μm, 30.0%, P < 0.01), compared with normal subjects. There was no difference between nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy and normal subjects.
Choroidal thickness is altered in diabetes and may be related to the severity of retinopathy. Presence of diabetic macular edema is associated with a significant decrease in the choroidal thickness.
choroid; choroidal angiopathy; diabetes mellitus; diabetic retinopathy; optical coherence tomography
Diabetic macular edema (DME) is one of the manifestations of diabetic retinopathy leading to loss of central vision and visual acuity. It manifests itself with swelling around the central part of the retina, the area responsible for sharp vision. Current treatment includes laser therapy and intravitreal steroids with preventative measures including diabetes control. No one treatment has guaranteed control of diabetic macular edema which leads to deteriorating visual acuity, function and quality of life in patients. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been shown to be a critical stimulus in the pathogenesis of macular edema secondary to diabetes.1 Antiangiogenic therapy encompassed treatment with anti-VEGF which inhibits VEGF-driven neovascularization hence macular edema leading to decreased visual acuity.
For this review, we evaluated the effectiveness of intravitreal anti-VEGF in treating DME.
We identified five trials (n = 525) using electronic databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials [Central], Medline®, and Excerpta Medica Database [EMBASE®]) in October 2008, supplemented by hand searching of reference lists, review articles, and conference abstracts.
We included all randomized clinical trials (RCTs) evaluating any form of intravitreal anti-VEGF for treating DME. The main outcome factor was change in best-corrected visual acuity and central macular thickness. One author assessed eligibility, methodological quality, and extracted data. Meta analysis was performed when appropriate.
We included three trials of adequate methodological quality in our meta-analysis. Patients treated with anti-VEGF showed improvement in visual acuity of −0.17 (95% confidence interval [CI]: −0.23, −0.10) and central macular thickness −84.69 (95% CI: −117.09, −52.30). Patients treated with combined anti-VEGF and intravitreal triamcinolone showed improvement of visual acuity of −0.19 (95% CI: −0.27, −0.11) and central macular thickness mean change being –111.20 (95% CI: −148.13, −74.28).
Anti-VEGF has been associated with an improvement in visual acuity and central macular thickness in the analysis, however trial analysis was of a short duration and further research is needed to determine long-term benefits.
anti-VEGF; diabetic macular edema; ranizubimab; Avastin®; pegaptanib
Diabetic macular edema is the major cause of visual acuity impairment in diabetic patients. The exact etiopathogenesis is unknown and, currently, grid/focal retinal laser photocoagulation represents the recommended treatment. It has been demonstrated that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a key role in the pathogenesis of diabetic macular edema by mediating vascular permeability and accumulation of intracellular and extracellular fluid, and thereby represents an appealing candidate as a therapeutic target for the treatment of diabetic macular edema. The advent of intravitreal anti-VEGF drugs has opened up a new era for the management of diabetic macular edema. At present, three anti-VEGF substances are available for routine clinical use, ie, pegaptanib, ranibizumab, and bevacizumab. The aim of this review is to summarize the evidence supporting the use of ranibizumab in clinical practice. Most of the studies analyzed in this review are prospective, controlled clinical trials that have focused on documenting the therapeutic effect of ranibizumab and its safety, providing encouraging results.
ranibizumab; diabetic macular edema; anti-VEGF; diabetic macular edema
Central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) is frequent in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), but the treatment of the macular edema with this disease is extremely difficult. We report a case of cystoid macular edema (CME) secondary to unilateral CRVO in a patient with SLE that responded to intravitreous injection of an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agent. A 33-year-old Japanese woman was referred to our department with unilateral impairment of vision. Microperimetry (MP-1) showed a cessation of foveal sensitivity. Fluorescein angiography showed CME without ischaemia of the macular region or peripheral retina (nonischemic CRVO). A diagnosis of CME and unilateral nonischemic CRVO combined with SLE was made and intravitreous anti-VEGF therapy was given. A sample of aqueous humor was harvested at the start of intravitreous injection after obtaining informed consent. Then the levels of VEGF and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 were measured in the aqueous humor by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, revealing that VEGF was 234 pg/mL and MCP-1 was 501 pg/mL. Two weeks later, left eye vision improved to 20/20. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) showed considerable amelioration of retinal swelling and CME. MP-1 showed a marked increase of foveal sensitivity. However, she had recurrence of edema 3 months later. After harvesting aqueous humor again, intravitreous injection of an anti-VEGF agent was repeated for CME. The aqueous VEGF and MCP-1 levels were 156 pg/mL and 360 pg/mL, respectively. These findings suggest that inflammation was improved by intravitreous injection of bevacizumab. Intravitreous injection of anti-VEGF agents may be effective for CME due to nonischemic CRVO in SLE patients if their inflammatory factor levels are low.
systemic lupus erythematosus; central retinal vein occlusion; cystoid macular edema; anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agent; vascular endothelial growth factor; monocyte chemotactic protein-1
Objective: To verify the diagnostic efficiency of venous duplex ultrasound and lymphangioscintigraphy (LAS) in establishing the cause of leg edema and to clarify the pathology of these leg edemas.
Materials and Methods: Between April 2009, and March 2010, 62 patients with leg edema of unknown origin were referred to the Edema Clinic of the Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine. All patients underwent a venous duplex ultrasound scan and LAS.
Results: Of 62 patients, lymphatic insufficiency, venous insufficiency or both was diagnosed in 42 (68%), and lymphedema, in 29 (47%). Venous duplex ultrasound detected obvious venous disorders in only 13 (21%), and for 20 patients, the ultrasound and LAS did not reveal any abnormalities; however, for 15 of the 20 (24% of all patients), venous edema was attributed to functional causes.
Conclusion: Venous duplex ultrasound and LAS assisted in the diagnosis of leg edema of unknown origin and also proved useful in establishing treatment strategies.
leg; lymphedema; venous insufficiency; duplex scan; scintigraphy
Diabetic macular edema (DME) is the leading cause of blindness in the diabetic population. However, there is limited understanding of the epidemiology of DME with visual impairment (VI) and treatment in patients with diabetes in Canada. This observational, retrospective study used records from the Southwestern Ontario database to observe the demographics, prevalence, and treatment characteristics of VI due to DME compared to a healthy population in a real-world Canadian setting. Data was compared between a cohort of 8,368 diabetic (type 1 or 2) patients, who were ≥18 years old and had a diagnosis of DME with VI (visual acuity <20/40 in Snellen equivalent), and 76,077 age- and gender-matched subjects representing a healthy population. Among diabetic patients, prevalence of DME was 15.7%, and prevalence of VI due to DME was 2.56%. Laser monotherapy was the most frequently used treatment. Public funding covered costs for 85% of persons with DME while 18% were paid for with private funds. This study provides insight into the demographics, prevalence, and treatment of VI due to DME in a representative Canadian cohort. This data can help to inform evaluation of current DME treatment patterns and of proposed new treatment on drug plan budgets in Canada.
Four peripheral vasodilators — tolazoline HCl (Priscoline), nicotinic acid, nicotinyl alcohol (Roniacol), and nylidrin HCl (Arlidin)—were studied in 203 patients over a 13-year period as treatment for macular degenerative changes in the eye.
Visual acuity was improved or maintained in 87%. Excellent results were obtained in the treatment of macular edema following cataract surgery and in older patients with diabetic retinopathy. In 126 out of 145 patients with senile macular degeneration, improvement or stabilization was obtained.
For all the types of macular degeneration, nylidrin HCl was the most effective of the drugs studied and had the fewest side effects.
A recent report based upon animal experiments advises against the use of peripheral vasodilators in degenerative arterial diseases of the eye; however, the assumption made therein that blood volume is a measure of blood flow cannot be accepted. Peripheral vasodilator therapy, which long-term clinical study has shown to be valuable in the treatment of macular degeneration, should not therefore be denied to these patients.