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1.  Hepatosplenic alpha/beta T-cell lymphoma masquerading as cirrhosis 
A 59-year-old man with diabetes mellitus, prior hepatitis B infection and recently diagnosed cirrhosis with prior Babesiosis presented to our institution from an outside hospital with six months of worsening abdominal pain, myalgias and fevers. On admission, physical examination revealed jaundice, hepatosplenomegaly and diffuse lymphadenopathy. Laboratory investigations demonstrated mild anemia, thrombocytopenia, hyperbilirubinemia and elevated lactate dehydrogenase. Tests for human immunodeficiency virus, and active Babesia microti infection were negative, however Epstein-Barr virus DNA by quantitative PCR was markedly elevated. CT scan revealed features suggestive of a cirrhotic liver without focal mass lesions as well as massive splenomegaly with axillary, retroperitoneal and inguinal lymphadenopathy. Bone marrow and lymph node biopsies were obtained which ultimately revealed hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma. The patient’s initial liver biopsy from five months prior to presentation was re-evaluated by our institution’s pathologists. Histologic analysis showed hepatic sinusoidal and portal infiltration of atypical lymphocytes morphologically identical to those present on the more recently excised lymph node tissue. The hepatic sinusoidal lymphoid cells were strongly positive for CD2, CD3 and CD5 whereas CD4, CD8 stained only minor subsets of the T cells. Subsequent flow cytometric immunophenotypying of peripheral blood identified T-cell receptor alpha/beta positive cells that lacked CD4 and CD8 (double negative alpha/beta T cells). Given the established bone marrow involvement, he was diagnosed with stage IV disease and treated with chemotherapy. His clinical course involved multiple hospitalizations complicated by hyponatremia, neutropenic fevers and pulmonary emboli. Following his fourth cycle of chemotherapy, he developed worsening liver failure and expired approximately three months after initial diagnosis of lymphoma. Hepatosplenic lymphoma of alpha/beta T cells is a rare malignancy with largely unclear risk factors and varied clinical presentations. Notably, diffuse infiltration of liver parenchyma is a prominent feature and the disease can mimic cirrhosis clinically as well as radiographically. Early recognition of this aggressive lymphoma is important and should be considered in the evaluation of patients in whom the etiology of cirrhosis remains in question.
PMCID: PMC3635184  PMID: 23730508
Liver cirrhosis; T-cell lymphoma; autoimmune hepatitis; Babesia microti
2.  Tracheal adenoid cystic carcinoma masquerading asthma: A case report 
Tracheal tumors are often misdiagnosed as asthma and are treated with inhaled steroids and bronchodilators without resolution.
Case Presentation
Here, a patient with tracheal adenoid cystic carcinoma who had been previously diagnosed with difficult asthma was reported. The possibility of the presence of localized airway obstruction was raised when the flow-volume curve suggesting fixed airway obstruction, was obtained.
The presenting case report emphasizes the fact that not all wheezes are asthma. It is critical to bear in mind that if a patient does not respond to appropriate anti-asthma therapy, localized obstructions should be ruled out before establishing the diagnosis of asthma.
PMCID: PMC526771  PMID: 15494074
3.  Primary Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma of Penis Masquerading as a Non-Healing Ulcer in the Penile Shaft 
Nephro-urology Monthly  2013;5(3):840-842.
Primary malignant lymphoma of the male external genitalia is extremely rare and it is even rarer in the penis. Because of its rarity, the possibility of delay in diagnosis and mismanagement is always there. It can present as a nodule, non-healing ulcer, stricture urethra or periurethral abscess. We report a case presenting first a nodule and later on as a non-healing ulcer which was diagnosed by corporal biopsy and managed successfully with chemotherapy.
PMCID: PMC3830913  PMID: 24282797
Biopsy; Lymphoma; Ulcer; Penis
4.  Adult-Onset Still's Disease Masquerading as Sepsis in an Asplenic Active Duty Soldier 
Case Reports in Medicine  2012;2012:349521.
This is a case of a 26-year-old active duty male with a history of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) and surgical asplenia who presented with a one-week history of fevers, myalgias, arthralgias, and rigors. His evaluation upon presentation was significant for a temperature of 103 degrees F, white blood cell count of 36 K with a granulocytic predominance, and elevated transaminases. He was treated empirically with broad-spectrum antibiotics with concern for a systemic infection with an encapsulated organism. During his stay, he developed four SIRS criteria and was transferred to the progressive care unit for suspected sepsis. He continued to have twice-daily fevers and a faint, salmon-colored centripetal rash was eventually observed during his febrile episodes. After a nondiagnostic microbiologic and serologic workup, he was diagnosed with adult-onset Still's Disease and started on intravenous methylprednisolone with brisk response. He was discharged on oral prednisone and was started on anakinra. Adult-onset Still's disease is a rare condition that presents with varying severity, and this is the first reported case, to our knowledge, of its diagnosis in an asplenic patient. Its management in the setting of asplenia is complicated by the need for antibiotic therapy with each episode of fever.
PMCID: PMC3522482  PMID: 23251171
5.  Jervell and Lange-Nielson Syndrome masquerading as intractable epilepsy 
The long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a cause of syncope and sudden death. Jervell and Lange–Nielson syndrome (JLNS) is an uncommon form of LQTS, having autosomal recessive transmission, and is associated with congenital deafness. We report a case of JLNS in a child who presented to us with refractory epilepsy. The cardiac cause of seizures was suspected as the child was hypotensive and pulseless during the episode of seizures. The child was diagnosed as JLNS based on Schwartz diagnostic criteria for LQTS and congenital sensorineural deafness. The child responded well to β-blocker therapy. Antiepileptic drugs were stopped. The screening of family members with ECG revealed a QT interval more than required for diagnosis of LQTS but they were asymptomatic. All asymptomatic family members were also put on metoprolol. All of them showed great improvement with the reduction of the QT interval on ECG. The patient was doing well on immediate follow-up.
PMCID: PMC3345596  PMID: 22566733
Long QT syndrome; Jervell and Lange–Nielsen syndrome; seizures
6.  Falciparum malaria masquerading as appendicitis 
BMJ Case Reports  2011;2011:bcr0120113742.
The incidence of falciparum malaria is very high in India. Falciparum malaria is a multiorgan disease which can present with extremely varied presentations. The severity of the disease and difficulty in its diagnosis require a keen sense of suspicion on the part of the treating physician to diagnose it. Here is an unusual case of falciparum malaria presenting as acute appendicitis. This case did not respond to artemether therapy and that also points towards drug resistance emerging in malaria. The child was operated upon and appendix was found to be inflamed. After a tumultuous postoperative course with symptoms suggestive of acute renal failure, a diagnosis of falciparum malaria was made and quinine started. Recovery was uneventful thereafter.
PMCID: PMC3063271  PMID: 22701067
7.  Vasculitis masquerading as aortic valve endocarditis 
Heart  2005;91(5):e37.
Small vessel vasculitis and endocarditis can both present with multisystem involvement and may present a diagnostic dilemma. Renal and cardiac involvement is common in small vessel vasculitis and rarely small vessel vasculitis may cause heart block. When a patient presents with diffuse symptoms, deteriorating renal function, and heart block, endocarditis and vasculitis should be included in the differential diagnosis. The case is discussed of a man with a history of aortic valve endocarditis who presented again with similar symptoms, deteriorating renal function, and heart block. There was no evidence of aortic valve endocarditis with abscess formation. A renal biopsy confirmed small vessel vasculitis and the patient responded promptly to immunosuppressive treatment. Correct diagnosis is essential in such cases, as immunosuppression in true endocarditis can be catastrophic. In this case, with the correct diagnosis, immunosuppression proved life saving and prevented erroneous aortic valve surgery.
PMCID: PMC1768888  PMID: 15831622
endocarditis; heart block; small vessel vasculitis
8.  Primary Cutaneous Vasculitis Masquerading as Drug Induced following Aspirin Desensitization 
Case Reports in Medicine  2013;2013:745714.
Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) is a well-known clinical condition. Aspirin desensitization followed by daily aspirin therapy is the treatment of choice. We report a challenging case of primary cutaneous vasculitis following aspirin desensitization in a patient with AERD. The vasculitis was likely suppressed with higher dose systemic steroid use to control asthma. Aspirin desensitization led to improved asthma control and steroid reduction, which led to manifestation of prior suppressed cutaneous vasculitis. In our case, there was no evidence of systemic involvement and the patient had a favorable outcome with appropriate therapy.
PMCID: PMC3857825  PMID: 24348575
9.  Culture-negative subacute bacterial endocarditis masquerades as granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener’s granulomatosis) involving both the kidney and lung 
BMC Nephrology  2012;13:174.
Subacute bacterial endocarditis (SBE) occasionally exhibits positive cytoplasmic anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (c-ANCA) of the anti-proteinase-3 (PR-3) type. Clinically, it mimics ANCA-associated vasculitis, such as Wegener's disease with glomerulonephritis. Lung abscesses are the most common manifestation of lung involvement. We herein report a case of culture-negative SBE strongly c-ANCA/PR3-positive accompanied by pulmonary involvement and glomerulonephritis. In this case, we took biopsies of both the lung and kidney, although renal biopsy is usually preferred over lung biopsy. The lung biopsy showed severe alveolar capillaritis, suggesting vasculitis consistent with polyangiitis. The renal biopsy revealed glomerulonephritis with a membranoproliferative pattern. To our knowledge, this is the first such reported case.
Case presentation
A 68-year-old Chinese male patient presented to our hospital with a fever, cough, chest pain, and recurrent peripheral edema. He had a past medical history significant for treated schistosomiasis 20 years previously. Physical examination revealed palpable purpura, mild hypertension, hepatosplenomegaly, and a holosystolic cardiac murmur (Levine 2/6). Echocardiography showed tricuspid valve vegetations with moderate to severe regurgitation. Serum c-ANCA/PR3 and cryoglobulin were strongly positive. Renal biopsy results indicated membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis with several crescents. Chest CT revealed multiple intraparenchymal and subpleural nodules, and lung biopsy showed polyangiitis. The patient’s ANCA titers, glomerulonephritis, and pulmonary injury all resolved after antibiotic therapy.
SBE may present with positive c-ANCA/PR3, multiple pulmonary nodules, pulmonary polyangiitis, and glomerulonephritis clinically mimicking granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's granulomatosis).
PMCID: PMC3574827  PMID: 23268737
Subacute bacterial endocarditis; PR3/c-ANCA; Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's granulomatosis); Glomerulonephritis
10.  Metastatic B-cell lymphoma masquerading as infectious retinitis and vasculitis 
Oncology Letters  2012;3(6):1245-1248.
Intraocular lymphoma is a rare ocular malignancy that may occur in the retina or the uvea. Retina or vitreoretinal lymphoma accounts for the majority of cases and is often secondary to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. In the present study, a 66-year-old Caucasian male with a history of Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinemia with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, presented with blurred vision in the left eye one month following cycle 4 of an R-CHOP regimen. At the time of onset, the patient was being treated for bacterial pneumonia. Visual acuity was 20/25 in his right eye (OD) and 20/30 in the left (OS). Ophthalmologic examination showed intraretinal white infiltrates associated with hemorrhage in the superotemporal midperiphery of the retina and vitritis OS. Initial diagnostic considerations included infectious (cytomegalovirus retinitis, syphilis, toxoplasmosis, tuberculosis), inflammatory (retinal vasculitis associated with autoimmune disease or hypercoagulable states) or malignant (intraocular lymphoma) diseases. The patient did not respond to intravitreal injection of foscarnet and oral valgancyclovir. Systemic work-up and aqueous fluid biopsy were inconclusive. Diagnostic vitrectomy yielded inconclusive results and the patient continued to have progressive loss of vision. A repeat diagnostic vitrectomy with retinal and subretinal biopsy confirmed large B cells consistent with metastatic B-cell lymphoma. A concomitant PET/CT scan was performed that revealed bilateral new pulmonary nodules resulting in additional chemotherapy. Our case shows the diagnostic dilemmas in patients with systemic lymphoma and the possible role of concurrent systemic restaging in patients with ocular complaints, even when in systemic remission.
PMCID: PMC3392561  PMID: 22783426
B-cell lymphoma; metastasis; uveitis; vasculitis; vitreoretinal lymphoma; vitrectomy
11.  Central Pontine and Extrapontine Myelinolysis: The Great Masquerader—An Autopsy Case Report 
Central pontine myelinolysis is a demyelinating disorder characterized by the loss of myelin in the center of the basis pontis usually caused by rapid correction of chronic hyponatremia. The clinical features vary depending on the extent of involvement. Demyelination can occur outside the pons as well and diagnosis can be challenging if both pontine and extrapontine areas are involved. We herein report a case of myelinolysis involving pons, lateral geniculate bodies, subependymal region, and spinal cord. To the best of our knowledge, this case represents the second case of spinal cord involvement in osmotic demyelination syndrome and the first case of involvement of thoracic region of spinal cord.
PMCID: PMC3970353  PMID: 24716023
12.  Ovarian Teratoma Masquerading as a CSF Pseudocyst in a Female with a Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt 
Case Reports in Medicine  2009;2009:240705.
Background. In today's fast-paced and high-acuity emergency departments, clinicians are often compelled to triage cases so rapidly that a differential diagnosis consistent with the history and physical examination is not comprehensive. Case Report. This case report describes the unexpected finding of a cystic ovarian neoplasm in a young female with an abdominal mass and a ventriculoperitoneal shunt, initially diagnosed as a cerebrospinal fluid pseudocyst. We use this case to illustrate that the astute clinician must always synthesize a diagnosis from all data sources and not to rely on initial radiographic evaluations. Conclusions. This remarkable case demonstrates that all differential diagnoses must be entertained in order to rapidly and accurately diagnose a patient with a cystic abdominal mass.
PMCID: PMC2729319  PMID: 19718253
13.  Nodular fasciitis of the external ear masquerading as pleomorphic adenoma: A potential diagnostic pitfall in fine needle aspiration cytology 
Cytojournal  2008;5:14.
Nodular fasciitis (NF) is a benign myofibroblastic proliferation in soft tissue. The most common sites are extremities, followed by the trunk and head and neck region. It is infrequently seen in the post-auricular region of pinna.
Case presentation
We present here an interesting case of a young male who had a swelling in the post-auricular region; on cytology, it was diagnosed as pleomorphic adenoma; however, biopsy revealed characteristic morphology of NF.
The case highlights the potential pitfall of cytology in diagnosing NF, especially because of unusual site and morphologic overlap.
PMCID: PMC2669681  PMID: 19495400
Cytology; nodular fasciitis; pleomorphic adenoma; post-aural region
14.  Infantile Hemangiomas Masquerading as Other Periocular Disorders 
Case Reports in Pediatrics  2012;2012:290645.
Periocular tumors are common in infancy. The most common periocular tumors are capillary hemangiomas, which are present in 1-2% of newborns and develop in 10%–12% of children by the age of 1 year old. Deep capillary hemangiomas may be more challenging to diagnose than superficial capillary hemangiomas and can be confused with other orbital lesions. Deep orbital hemangiomas can mimic teratoma, lymphangioma, rhabdomyosarcoma, metastatic neuroblastoma, and granulocytic sarcoma. In this paper, we describe 2 pediatric cases where previously diagnosed dermoid cyst and dacrocystocele were found to be capillary hemangiomas upon biopsy. Approaches to distinguish capillary hemangiomas from other periocular tumors are further discussed. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of periocular hemangiomas imitating a dermoid cyst and a dacrocystocele. These cases emphasize the importance of including infantile hemangiomas in the differential diagnosis of subcutaneous periocular abnormalities.
PMCID: PMC3350251  PMID: 22606529
15.  Mirizzi’s syndrome masquerading as cholangiocarcinoma: a case report 
Mirizzi’s syndrome is a rarely observed disorder that presents with obstructive jaundice. The condition is caused by a stone impacted in the gall bladder neck or cystic duct that impinges on the common hepatic duct, with or without a cholecystocholedochal fistula. The condition is often confused with other serious conditions such as hilar cholangiocarcinoma, which present with similar clinical and imaging findings, and a pre-operative diagnosis may be a serious challenge.
Case presentation
We present the case of a 44-year-old Asian man with Mirizzi’s syndrome who was initially diagnosed as having cholangiocarcinoma based on his clinical presentation, raised cancer antigen 19–9 levels and radiological findings. Our patient was diagnosed as having Mirizzi’s syndrome intra-operatively and subsequently a cholecystectomy was performed with restoration of biliary drainage. Careful clinical assessment during surgery with the help of intra-operative frozen section helped in establishing the definitive diagnosis and altered the surgical procedure for our patient.
Pre-operative diagnosis of Mirizzi’s syndrome could be challenging as the clinical, biochemical and radiological presentation is similar to other conditions causing obstructive jaundice such as choledocholithiasis, bile duct stricture or cholangiocarcinoma. A high index of suspicion and careful surgical assessment may help in establishing a diagnosis and alter the clinical course for our patient.
PMCID: PMC3423052  PMID: 22703944
Mirizzi’s syndrome; Cholangiocarcinoma; Obstructive jaundice
16.  Plurihormone secreting pituitary macroadenoma masquerading as thyrotoxicosis: Clinical presentation and diagnostic challenges 
Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) secreting adenomas are the rarest type of pituitary adenomas (1:1000000 in the population; 0.2- 2.8% of adenomas). Plurihormonal thyrotropic adenomas are even rarer usually having cosecretion of growth hormone (GH) and prolactin. We report perhaps for the first time, TSH, GH, adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and gonadotropins secreting pituitary macroadenoma diagnosed in a 40 year lady presenting with features of thyrotoxicosis for 5 months, amenorrhea for 3 months and newly diagnosed diabetes and hypertension for 2 months along with headache, nausea, and vomiting, who had acromegaloid habitus, grade-II goitre, increased uptake on Technitium-99 pertechnate thyroid scan (4.1%; normal: 0.24-3.34%), with increased T3 (5.98 pg/ ml; 1.5-4.1), increased T4 (2.34 ng/dl; 0.9-1.8), inappropriately high TSH (2.32 μIU/ml; 0.4-4.2), insulin like growth factor-1 (711 ng/ ml; 109-264), non-suppressed post-glucose GH (15.9 ng/ml; <1 ng/ml), normal estradiol (52 pg/ml; 21-251), inappropriately high luteinizing hormone (53.5 mIU/ml; 1.1-11.6), inappropriately high follicle stimulating hormone (59 mIU/ml; 3-14.4), non-suppressed overnight dexamethasone cortisol (5.8 mcg/dl; <2), elevated ACTH (58 pg/ml 5-15), withdrawal bleed on progestrogen challenge, bitemporal hemianopia on automated perimetry and pituitary macroadenoma on MRI imaging of sella. Thyroid hormone resistance was ruled out by documenting normal sex hormone binding globulin and ferritin levels. Her clinical and biochemical phenotype was not suggestive of multiple hormone resistance seen in pseudohypoparathyroidism. This report intends to highlight the challenges in the diagnosis of plurihormonal thyrotropic adenoma.
PMCID: PMC3603059  PMID: 23565411
Gonadotropins; growth hormone; pituitary adenoma; plurihormonal; thyroid stimulating hormone
17.  Penile nodule with inguinal lymphadenopathy: Prostatic adenocarcinoma masquerading as penile cancer 
Although anatomically the penis is closely related to the prostate, penile metastasis from prostate cancer is an uncommon phenomenon. These patients usually present late in the course of the disease with wide spread metastasis. We report a patient who presented with a penile mass and inguinal lymphadenopathy. He was clinically diagnosed as a case of penile cancer but the penile mass as well as the inguinal lymphadenopathy was subsequently diagnosed to be metastases from carcinoma of the prostate.
PMCID: PMC3649602  PMID: 23671367
Carcinoma of the penis; carcinoma of the prostate; penile metastasis; prostate cancer
18.  von Hippel-Lindau disease-associated solid microcystic serous adenomas masquerading as pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors 
Surgery  2012;152(6):1106-1117.
Patients with von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL) commonly develop pancreatic cysts and neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs). Solid microcystic serous adenoma (SMSA), a rare tumor described in VHL patients, can be mistaken for PNET on imaging.
Clinical, pathologic and radiologic data were reviewed on VHL patients who underwent surgery for a pre-operative diagnosis of PNET since 1994 at one institution. Blinded to the pathological diagnoses, radiologists reassessed available imaging.
For 55 patients, 79 pancreatectomies were performed for presumed PNETs. Ten (18.2%) patients underwent 12 (15.2%) resections for tumors diagnosed as SMSA on final pathology. The average size of a SMSA leading to surgery was 3.6 ±0.4 cm. Four out of 11 SMSAs were still mistaken for PNETs when imaging was reassessed. Mean FDG-PET SUV was higher for 17 PNETs (12.1 ±1.2) compared to 6 SMSAs (4.2 ±0.5; p=0.002). The mean doubling time of SMSAs and PNETs was similar. Seven (15.2%) patients with pathologically-proven PNETs had malignant disease.
SMSAs can mimic PNETs on non-functional imaging; FDG-PET may help differentiate them. A high index of suspicion is needed to minimize operations performed for SMSA and to counsel VHL patients of their risks of undergoing surgery for a lesion with no known malignant potential.
PMCID: PMC3501588  PMID: 23107912
19.  Pinworm infection masquerading as colorectal liver metastasis 
Enterobius vermicularis is responsible for a variety of diseases but rarely affects the liver. Accurate characterisation of suspected liver metastases is essential to avoid unnecessary surgery. In the presented case, following a diagnosis of rectal cancer, a solitary liver nodule was diagnosed as a liver metastasis due to typical radiological features and subsequently resected. At pathological assessment, however, a necrotic nodule containing E vermicularis was identified. Solitary necrotic nodules of the liver are usually benign but misdiagnosed frequently as malignant due to radiological features. It is standard practice to diagnose colorectal liver metastases solely on radiological evidence. Without obtaining tissue prior to liver resection, misdiagnosis of solitary necrotic nodules of the liver will continue to occur.
PMCID: PMC3954360  PMID: 22943320
Liver; Misdiagnosis; Enterobius; Pinworms
20.  Munchausen Syndrome Masquerading as Bleeding Disorder in a Group of Pediatric Patients 
This short communication is about Munchausen's syndrome in a group of pediatric patients and co morbid Munchausen's syndrome by proxy. A 7-year-old girl presented with spontaneous bleeding from forehead, eyes and scalp. The girl was investigated thoroughly by pediatricians at a tertiary care hospital in western India for all possible bleeding disorders, but there was no conclusive diagnosis. After two days, cases with similar complaints were reported among children residing in the same locality and with similar socioeconomic background. All of them were investigated in detail for possible causes of bleeding but nothing came out. There was a media reporting of the cases as a mysterious bleeding disorder. At this point of time, an expert opinion from the psychiatrist was demanded. Covert video surveillance and series of interviews revealed Munchausen's syndrome and possible Munchausen's syndrome by proxy. An in-depth literature review with special reference to Munchausen's syndrome was carried out to come to a final conclusive diagnosis.
PMCID: PMC3195164  PMID: 22021962
Munchausen's syndrome; Munchausen's syndrome by proxy; spontaneous bleeding disorder
21.  Acute Systemic Viral Infection Masquerading as an Infiltrating Lymphoma in an Elderly Patient: A Case Report and Review of the Literature 
Case Reports in Medicine  2013;2013:318358.
Primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection occurs mainly in adolescents and young adults, with more than 90% of adults having serological evidence of past infection. Primary infection in those over the age of 40 is associated with an atypical and often more severe presentation that can lead to more extensive and invasive, and often unnecessary, diagnostic testing. The incidence of severe EBV-related illness in older adults has been observed to be increasing in industrialized nations. The characteristic presentation of infectious mononucleosis (IM) syndrome in elderly patients (age > 65) is not clearly defined in the literature. Here, we describe a case of primary EBV infection in an 80-year-old female and review the literature regarding primary seroconversion in elderly patients.
PMCID: PMC3583113  PMID: 23476662
22.  Isolated uveal tuberculoma masquerading as an intraocular tumor in an immunocompetent patient—a clinical-pathologic study with diagnosis by PCR 
The aim of this article is to report a case of uveal tuberculoma simulating an intraocular tumor in which the diagnosis was only possible by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis.
This is a case report.
A36-year-old male presented with a progressive growing intraocular tumor and no history or positive test for other systemic disease. The eye eventually turned blind and painful and was enucleated. Histopathologic analysis revealed a granulomatous reaction and caseation necrosis but failed to identify any causative microorganisms. Final tuberculosis diagnosis was only possible by quantitative PCR.
Isolated uveal tuberculoma can present in an otherwise healthy patient with negative systemic tuberculosis evaluation. PCR can be used to confirm tuberculosis when other methods have failed.
PMCID: PMC3102857  PMID: 21484174
Tuberculoma/Patology; Tuberculoma/Diagnosis; Uveal neoplasms/Diagnosis; Polymerase chain reaction/Methods
23.  Isolated uveal tuberculoma masquerading as an intraocular tumor in an immunocompetent patient—a clinical-pathologic study with diagnosis by PCR 
The aim of this article is to report a case of uveal tuberculoma simulating an intraocular tumor in which the diagnosis was only possible by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis.
This is a case report.
A36-year-old male presented with a progressive growing intraocular tumor and no history or positive test for other systemic disease. The eye eventually turned blind and painful and was enucleated. Histopathologic analysis revealed a granulomatous reaction and caseation necrosis but failed to identify any causative microorganisms. Final tuberculosis diagnosis was only possible by quantitative PCR.
Isolated uveal tuberculoma can present in an otherwise healthy patient with negative systemic tuberculosis evaluation. PCR can be used to confirm tuberculosis when other methods have failed.
PMCID: PMC3102857  PMID: 21484174
Tuberculoma/Patology; Tuberculoma/Diagnosis; Uveal neoplasms/Diagnosis; Polymerase chain reaction/Methods
24.  Metastatic prostate cancer masquerading clinically and radiologically as a primary caecal carcinoma 
Prostatic carcinoma is the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths in males in the West. Approximately 20% of patients present with metastatic disease. We describe the case of a patient with metastatic prostate cancer to the bowel presenting clinically and radiologically as a primary caecal cancer.
Case presentation
A 72 year-old man presented with abdominal discomfort and a clinically palpable caecal mass and a firm nodule on his thigh, the latter behaving clinically and radiologically as a lipoma. Computed tomographic (CT) scan showed a luminally protuberant caecal mass with regional nodal involvement. The patient was being treated (Zoladex®) for prostatic cancer diagnosed 6 years previously and was known to have bony metastases. On admission his PSA was 245.4 nmol/ml. The patient underwent a right hemicolectomy. Histology showed a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma which was PSA positive, confirming metastatic prostatic adenocarcinoma to the caecum. The patient underwent adjuvant chemotherapy and is free from recurrence a year later.
Metastasis of prostatic carcinoma to the bowel is a very rare occurrence and presents a challenging diagnosis. The diagnosis is supported by immunohistochemistry for PSA. The treatment for metastatic prostate cancer is mainly palliative.
PMCID: PMC1779271  PMID: 17207288
25.  Scabies masquerading as Letterer-Siwe's disease. 
Letterer-Siwe's disease was diagnosed from clinical appearance and initial assessment of a skin biopsy in a child with a 2-month history of skin rash. Fine erythematous papules were scattered on the trunk. The biopsy showed epidermal thickening and an inflammatory infiltrate chiefly in the upper layers of the dermis; deeper in the dermis the infiltrate was perivascular and periappendicular, histiocytes predominating in some areas and lymphocytes in others. A diagnosis of scabies was made after burrows were demonstrated on palms and soles and the mite of scabies was isolated from them.
PMCID: PMC1878693  PMID: 953920

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