Tooth wear is the non-carious loss of tooth tissue, which results from three processes namely attrition, erosion and abrasion. These can occur in isolation or simultaneously. Very mild tooth wear is a physiological effect of aging. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of tooth wear among 16-year old Malay school children and determine a feasible sample size for further study. Fifty-five subjects were examined clinically, followed by the completion of self-administered questionnaires. Questionnaires consisted of socio-demographic and associated variables for tooth wear obtained from the literature. The Smith and Knight tooth wear index was used to chart tooth wear. Other oral findings were recorded using the WHO criteria. A software programme was used to determine pathological tooth wear. About equal ratio of male to female were involved. It was found that 18.2% of subjects have no tooth wear, 63.6% had very mild tooth wear, 10.9% mild tooth wear, 5.5% moderate tooth wear and 1.8 % severe tooth wear. In conclusion 18.2% of subjects were deemed to have pathological tooth wear (mild, moderate & severe). Exploration with all associated variables gave a sample size ranging from 560 – 1715. The final sample size for further study greatly depends on available time and resources.
pilot study; tooth wear; prevalence and sample size determination
This conventional literature review discusses whether pathological tooth wear is age dependant. It briefly reviews the components of tooth wear and the prevalence of tooth wear in children, adolescents and adults. The emphasis on terminology relating to tooth wear varies. In some countries, the role of erosion is considered the most important, whereas others consider the process to be a combination of erosion, attrition and abrasion often with one being more dominant. The importance of tooth wear or erosion indices in the assessment and the evidence for progression within subject and within lesions is described. The data from the few studies reporting pathological levels of wear reported in children and adults are discussed, in particular its relationship with age. There is little evidence to support the concept that pathological levels of erosion or wear are age dependant. There is, however, some evidence to suggest that normal levels of erosion or wear are age dependant.
Erosion; Tooth wear; Tooth wear index; Attrition; Abrasion
The tibial post in posterior-stabilized total knees is a potential source of polyethylene wear debris, but the relationship between the shape and location of the tibial post in relation to the tibiofemoral bearing surfaces and the subsequent wear damage patterns remains unknown.
We used observations made on retrieved implant components from three contemporary posterior-stabilized knee designs to examine how differences in tibial post design affected wear damage on the post.
We examined 113 retrieved Zimmer NexGen®, 103 Exactech Optetrak®, and 58 Smith and Nephew Genesis® II posterior-stabilized inserts using a subjective scale to grade post damage.
All 274 inserts demonstrated wear damage. Total wear scores and scores for wear damage on the anterior post differed among designs: Optetrak® 20 ± 4 and 5 ± 1, NexGen® 13 ± 4 and 3 ± 1, and Genesis® II 8 ± 3 and 1 ± 1, respectively. The Optetrak® had predominantly anterior wear damage, the NexGen® had more global wear damage, and the Genesis® II had predominantly posterior wear damage. Tibial post wear damage and anterior post wear damage were primarily determined by implant design and to a lesser extent by length of implantation and revision diagnosis.
Although tibial post wear damage is multifactorial, the primary determinant of wear damage, and specifically anterior wear damage, is implant design.
The constraint provided by the posterior-stabilized post-cam contact in modern knee arthroplasties is reflected in the wear damage patterns that occur during in vivo use. Unintended constraint such as anterior impingement should be addressed through design modifications for future posterior-stabilized knee arthroplasties.
In various people of the Western world, gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) has been reported to be a common problem. Various studies have also assessed the relationship between GOR and dental erosion. The authors are not aware of such studies in Nigerians. It is therefore the aims of the present study to estimate the prevalence of GOR; to estimate the prevalence of dental erosion in patients with GORD; to document the oral findings in patients diagnosed with GORD and to compare these findings with previous studies elsewhere.
A total of 225 subjects comprising of 100 volunteers and 125 patients diagnosed with GORD were involved in this study. History of gastric juice regurgitation and heartburn were recorded. Oral examination to quantify loss of tooth structure was done using the tooth wear index (TWI) designed by Smith and Knight (1984).
Twenty patients with GORD presented with dental erosion in the maxillary anterior teeth with TWI scores ranging from 1–3. The prevalence of erosion was found to be statistically significant between GORD patients (16%) and control (5%) (p < 0.05), but not significant between endoscopic diagnostic groups (p > 0.05).
The present study supports the consideration of dental erosion as the extra-oesophageal manifestation of GORD. However the association between GORD and burning mouth sensation needs more investigation.
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare complex multsystemic genetic disorder characterized by severe neonatal hypotonia, endocrine disturbances, hyperphagia and obesity, mild mental retardation, learning disabilities, facial dysmorphology and oral abnormalities. The purpose of the present study was to explore the prevalence of tooth wear and possible risk factors in individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome.
Forty-nine individuals (6-40 years) with PWS and an age- and sex-matched control group were included. Tooth wear was evaluated from dental casts and intraoral photographs and rated by four examiners using the Visual Erosion Dental Examination (VEDE) scoring system and the individual tooth wear index IA. In accordance with the VEDE scoring system, tooth wear was also evaluated clinically. Whole saliva was collected.
Mean VEDE score was 1.70 ± 1.44 in the PWS group and 0.46 ± 0.36 in the control group (p < 0.001). Median IA was 7.50 (2.60-30.70) in the PWS group and 2.60 (0.90-4.70) among controls (p < 0.001). In the PWS group tooth wear correlated significantly with age (VEDE; r = 0.79, p < 0.001, IA; r = 0.82, p < 0.001) and saliva secretion (VEDE; r = 0.46, p = 0.001, IA; r = 0.43, p = 0.002). Tooth grinding was also associated with tooth wear in the PWS group, as indicated by the mean VEDE 2.67 ± 1.62 in grinders and 1.14 ± 0.97 in non-grinders (p = 0.001) and median IA values 25.70 (5.48-68.55) in grinders and 5.70 (1.60-9.10) in non-grinders (p = 0.003). Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed with tooth wear as the dependent variable and PWS (yes/no), age, tooth grinding and saliva secretion as independent variables. PWS (yes/no), age and tooth grinding retained a significant association with tooth wear, VEDE (p < 0.001) and log IA (p < 0.001). The only factor significantly associated with tooth wear in the control group was age.
Our study provides evidence that tooth wear, in terms of both erosion and attrition, is a severe problem in Prader-Willi syndrome. There is therefore considerable need for prosthodontic rehabilitation in young adults with PWS.
Prader-Willi syndrome; Tooth wear; Tooth grinding; Saliva secretion; Rehabilitation
Background & objectives:
Pulmonary function tests have been evolved as clinical tools in diagnosis, management and follow up of respiratory diseases as it provides objective information about the status of an individual's respiratory system. The present study was aimed to evaluate pulmonary function among the male and female young Kelantanese Malaysians of Kota Bharu, Malaysia, and to compare the data with other populations.
A total of 128 (64 males, 64 females) non-smoking healthy young subjects were randomly sampled for the study from the Kelantanese students’ population of the University Sains Malaysia, Kota Bharu Campus, Kelantan, Malaysia. The study population (20-25 yr age group) had similar socio-economic background. Each subject filled up the ATS (1978) questionnaire to record their personal demographic data, health status and consent to participate in the study. Subjects with any history of pulmonary diseases were excluded from the study.
The pulmonary function measurements exhibited significantly higher values among males than the females. FEV1% did not show any significant inter-group variation probably because the parameter expresses FEV1 as a percentage of FVC. FVC and FEV1 exhibited significant correlations with body height and body mass among males whereas in the females exhibited significant correlation with body mass, body weight and also with age. FEV1% exhibited significant correlation with body height and body mass among males and with body height in females. FEF25-75% did not show any significant correlation except with body height among females. However, PEFR exhibited significant positive correlation with all the physical parameters except with age among the females. On the basis of the existence of significant correlation between different physical parameters and pulmonary function variables, simple and multiple regression norms have been computed.
Interpretation & conclusions:
From the present investigation it can be concluded that Kelantanese Malaysian youths have normal range of pulmonary function in both the sexes and the computed regression norms may be used to predict the pulmonary function values in the studied population.
FEV1; FEV1%; FVC; Malaysian; PEFR; pulmonary function
OBJECTIVES AND SETTING: To address helmet wearing by 13-17 year olds this study posed the following research questions: 'Do education programs continue to be necessary even after the community wearing rate has increased?' and 'Are helmet laws more effective in encouraging wearing among certain age groups?' Victoria was the first place in the world to introduce bicycle helmet legislation. Experiences in Victoria therefore provide a good model for the introduction of similar legislation in other areas. This study is the first to examine teenagers' attitudes towards helmet wearing after the introduction of compulsory helmet wearing legislation. METHODS: A survey of 1240 year 9 and year 10 students, aged 13-17 years, from 14 secondary schools in the outer south eastern suburbs of Melbourne, was conducted in September 1993. Information about bicycle use, helmet wearing, and attitudes towards helmets was obtained by a self report questionnaire. RESULTS: Bicycles are a popular form of wheeled recreation/self transport among teenagers. 65% of teenagers reported that they owned a helmet but only one third wore a helmet the last time they rode a bicycle. Fewer than 25% of students always wore a helmet when they rode a bicycle, despite compulsory helmet wearing legislation. Major factors leading to teenagers not wanting to wear a helmet were appearance and comfort. Both safety considerations and parental pressures were factors that influenced a teenager to wear a helmet. CONCLUSIONS: The major areas that need to be addressed are low helmet wearing rates; the low priority given to safety issues compared with comfort and peer acceptance; an ignorance of the need for helmets in all riding situations; and a perception that the legislation would not be enforced.
Objectives—To assess the level of cycle helmet wearing among young people in two counties in the South East of England in 1994, and to identify the factors associated with helmet wearing.
Design—Cross sectional survey in a convenience sample.
Setting—Secondary schools in East Sussex and Kent.
Subjects—Students in year 7 (aged 10–12 years) and year 11 (aged 14–16 years).
Main outcome measures—Self reported "always wears a helmet".
Results—Among those who ride a bicycle, 32% of boys and 29% of girls aged 10–12 years, and 14% of boys and 10% of girls aged 14–16, reported that they always wear helmets. The variables that were most consistently associated with helmet wearing (that is significantly associated with helmet wearing in at least five of the six age, sex, and county subgroups) were: "parental encouragement to wear a helmet", "closest friend wears a helmet", "belief that laws that make children wear helmets are good", and "sometimes rides off-road".
Conclusions—The self reported rates of always wearing a cycle helmet in East Sussex and Kent are consistent with overseas findings for populations who had not been exposed to intensive helmet promotion. The evidence suggests that parental encouragement has a favourable effect on rates of cycle helmet use among secondary schoolchildren, which is separate from and additional to peer influences. When designing a helmet promotion programme, therefore, it will have added impact if both parents and children are addressed.
Anthropologists have for many years considered human tooth wear a normal physiological phenomenon where teeth, although worn, remain functional throughout life. Wear was considered pathological only if pulpal exposure or premature tooth loss occurred. In addition, adaptive changes to the stomatognathic system in response to wear have been reported including continual eruption, the widening of the masticatory cycle, remodelling of the temporomandibular joint and the shortening of the dental arches from tooth migration. Comparative studies of many different species have also documented these physiological processes supporting the idea of perpetual change over time. In particular, differential wear between enamel and dentine was considered a physiological process relating to the evolution of the form and function of teeth. Although evidence of attrition and abrasion has been known to exist among hunter-gatherer populations for many thousands of years, the prevalence of erosion in such early populations seems insignificant. In particular, non-carious cervical lesions to date have not been observed within these populations and therefore should be viewed as ‘modern-day’ pathology. Extrapolating this anthropological perspective to the clinical setting has merits, particularly in the prevention of pre-mature unnecessary treatment.
Tooth wear; Attrition; Abrasion; Erosion; Adaptation
To obtain the caries experience and, plaque accumulation severity and pit and fissure morphology in first permanent molars in 7–8 children in Wuhan, as a reasonable prediction of caries risk and preventive attention in the future, a convenient sample of five primary schools in the vicinity of the Wuhan University School and Hospital of Stomatology was drawn. Two calibrated examiners orally examined all present grade 2 children in the classroom, using standard caries plaque and tooth morphology criteria. Dental caries was scored at enamel (D2) and dentine (D3) for tooth and surface level. Independent variables were age, gender and school. Data analysis used analysis of variance and t-test. The sample comprised 1 043 7- and 8-year-olds. The prevalence of dental caries in permanent dentition was 8.7% and in primary dentition, 68.7%. Mean Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth/S (DMFT/S) scores were 0.11 and 0.14, respectively. Mean dmft/s scores were 2.8 and 5.0. The d-component constituted 75% of the d3mft index, while enamel carious lesions constituted 36% of the total number of carious lesions (d2,3-component). Prevalence of medium and deep pits and fissures was 84.6%. Prevalence of medium and severe plaque accumulation was 67.4%. Prevalence of dental caries in the deciduous and permanent dentitions of 7- to 8-year-old children was high. Deep pits and fissures in high caries risk children should be sealed.
dental caries; oral epidemiology; plaque; tooth morphology
This study was done to determine the prevalence of dental anomalies and facial profile abnormality and its association with the non-syndromic cleft lip and palate (CLP) as compared to the non-cleft children. A comparative cross sectional study was conducted where the case group consist of 98 non-syndromic CLP children-unilateral (UCLP) and bilateral (BCLP) who attended the Combined Clinic at Kota Bharu Dental Clinic (KBDC) while the comparison group comprised of 109 non-cleft children who attended the outpatient clinic at KBDC. Their ages were between 3 to 12 years old. Clinical oral and facial profile examinations were carried out to look for dental anomalies (morphology, number and alignment of teeth) and facial profile abnormality. The prevalence of anomalies in morphology of teeth in CLP (24.5%) and non-cleft (10.1%), number of teeth in CLP (44.9%) and non-cleft (7.3%), mal-alignment in CLP (79.6%) and non-cleft (27.5%) and facial profile abnormality in CLP (26.5%) and non-cleft (9.1 %). There was a significant association between CLP and anomalies in morphology, number, mal-alignment and abnormality in facial profile; (p < 0.05). Therefore, there was a high prevalence and risk of dental anomalies and facial profile abnormality in the CLP children compared to the non-cleft children.
cleft lip and palate; dental anomalies; hypodontia; supernumerary; facial profile
Association between some socio-demographic attributes and tooth wear among adult male population in a rural community of Igbo-ora, Southwestern Nigeria was investigated in this cross-sectional study.
Cross-sectional study among 200 consenting adult males in Igbo-ora was carried out using a 10-item semi-structured questionnaire to obtain data on socio-demographics. Oral examination to establish the presence of tooth wear lesions was carried out by two examiners. Frequencies and percentages of relevant variables were generated. Multivariate analysis was used to test associations between categorical variables at P<0.05.
The mean age of participants was 35.6±11.7 years. One hundred and six (53.0%) subjects had one form of tooth wear lesion. Sixty eight (34.0%) of the subjects had attrition only and 96 (48.0%) had multiple tooth wear lesions. There was an association between age group, marital status, level of education and tooth wear (p<0.05). However, the association between occupation and tooth wear was not statistically significant (p>0.05). After adjusting for marital status, occupation and level of education, the association between age group and tooth wear was still significant. Though marital status was found to be associated with tooth wear, this association was not significant after adjusting for age, occupation and level of education. The association between some of the socio-demographic factors studied and the types of tooth wear was statistically significant (p<0.05).
Age group was the only independent predictor of tooth wear.
Socio-demographic; Rural Community; Tooth Wear; Nigerian
Tooth erosion is a growing dental problem; however, the role of diet in the aetiology of tooth erosion is unclear. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the association between tooth erosion occurrence and the consumption of acidic foods and drinks among undergraduate university students.
A total of 150 undergraduate students (33 males and 117 females) aged 19 to 24 years at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia participated in this study. The Basic Erosive Wear Examination was used to assess the occurrence of tooth erosion. Information regarding dental hygiene practices, usual dietary habits, and consumption of acidic foods and drinks was obtained through a structured questionnaire.
In all, 68% of subjects had tooth erosion. Subjects who reported having received information about healthy eating were less likely to have tooth erosion (χ2 [1, N = 150] = 7.328, P = 0.007). The frequencies of milk (OR = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.13–0.67) and tea/coffee (adjusted OR = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.19–0.95) consumption were negatively associated with tooth erosion. Dental hygiene practice, the frequency and amount of acidic food and drink intake, and body mass index classification were not significantly associated with the risk of tooth erosion (P > 0.05).
A high prevalence of tooth erosion was observed among this group of students. Preventive measures, such as dietary advice and increased consumption of milk at a younger age, may reduce the occurrence of tooth erosion among this age group.
beverages; cross-sectional study; food habits; public health; tooth erosion; young adult
The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of dental caries, periodontal diseases and tooth wear in bariatric patients, and relate the oral health conditions to saliva flow.
Fifty-two patients who had undergone bariatric surgery (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass) and 50 severely obese patients indicated for bariatric surgery were submitted to clinical examinations with regard to dental caries (DMFT index), periodontal condition (CPI index), dental wear (DWI index – Dental wear index) and saliva flow. The data were statistically analyzed by the Student’s-t, Mann-Whitney, Spearman Correlation and Chi-square (χ2) tests at 5% significance level.
The DMFT index was 16.11±5.19 in the surgical group and 16.06±6.29 in the control group (P>.05). The mean CPI was 3.05±0.84 for the operated group and 2.66±1.25 for the obese patients with no significant difference between them (P>.05). There was statistically significant difference between the groups for the presence of periodontal pockets (P=.021). All the patients presented some degree of tooth wear, however, with no significant difference between the two groups (P=.82). The mean saliva flow values of the surgical group and control group were 0.64±0.46 mL/min and 0.66±0.49 mL/min, respectively. There was no significant difference in saliva flow and all oral conditions analyzed (P>.05).
The prevalence of oral diseases was similar in severely obese patients who were candidates for bariatric surgery and in patients who had been submitted to bariatric surgery. Nevertheless, there was higher prevalence of periodontal pockets in the operated group.
Oral health; tooth erosion; periodontal diseases; dental caries; xerostomia; obesity; bariatric surgery
Refractive errors (RE) are the most common cause of avoidable visual impairment in children. But benefits of visual aids, which are means for correcting RE, depend on the compliance of visual aids by end users.
To study the compliance of spectacle wear among rural school children in Pune district as part of the sarva siksha abhiyan (education for all scheme) after 6 - 12 months of providing free spectacles.
Settings and Design:
Cross-sectional follow-up study of rural secondary school children in western India.
Materials and Methods:
The students were examined by a team of optometrists who collected the demographic details, observed if the child was wearing the spectacles, and performed an ocular examination. The students were asked to give reasons for non-wear in a closed-ended questionnaire.
Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression used for data analysis.
Of the 2312 students who were dispensed spectacles in 2009, 1018 were re-examined in 2010. 523 students (51.4%) were female, the mean age was 12.1 years 300 (29.5%) were wearing their spectacles, 492 (68.5%) students claimed to have them at home while 211 (29.4%) reported not having them at all. Compliance of spectacle wear was positively associated to the magnitude of refractive error (P < 0.001), father's education (P = 0.016), female sex (P = 0.029) and negatively associated to the visual acuity of the better eye (P < 0.001) and area of residence (P < 0.0001). Of those that were examined and found to be myopic (N = 499), 220 (44%) wore their spectacles to examination. Factors associated with compliance to spectacle usage in the myopic population included increasing refractive error (P < 0.001), worsening visual acuity (P < 0.001), and higher academic performance (P < 0.001). The causes for not wearing spectacles were ‘lost spectacles’ 67(9.3%), ‘broken spectacles’ 125 (17.4%), ‘forgot spectacles at home’ 117 (16.3%), ‘uses spectacles sometimes’ 109 (15.2%), ‘teased about spectacles’ 142 (19.8%) and ‘do not like the spectacles’ 86 (12%).
Spectacle compliance was poor amongst school children in rural Pune; many having significant vision loss as a result.
Refractive errors; school eye health; spectacle compliance; visual aids
To estimate the prevalence of tooth wear and to investigate factors associated with tooth wear in patients from general practices in the Northwest United States.
Data on the diagnosis and treatment of oral diseases during the previous year were collected in a survey with a systematic random sample of patients (n = 1530) visiting general dentists from the Northwest Practice-based REsearch Collaborative in Evidence-based DENTistry (PRECEDENT) (n = 80). Prevalence ratios (PRs) of moderate to severe occlusal and incisal tooth wear by patient characteristics were estimated using cluster-adjusted multiple binomial regression for adults (18+ years) and children/adolescents (3–17 years).
For adults, the mean number of teeth with wear facets was 5.4 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 4.6–6.2] and 51% of the adults had four or more teeth with wear. Participants 45–64 and 65+ years old were 1.3 (95% CI = 1.1–1.6) and 1.4 (95% CI = 1.1–1.8) times as likely to have 4+ teeth with moderate to severe wear facets as participants 18–44 years old. Adult males had a 20% (PR = 1.2; 95% CI = 1.1–1.4) higher prevalence of wear than adult females. Adults who were using, or had ever used occlusal splints had higher prevalence of tooth wear compared to those who never used such appliances (PR = 1.3; 95% CI = 1.0–1.5). Adults with any periodontal bone loss also had a 20% higher prevalence of wear than adults without periodontal disease (PR = 1.2; 95% CI = 1.0–1.4). For children/adolescents, the mean number of teeth with moderate to severe wear facets was 1.6 (95% CI = 0.9–2.6) and 31% of the children had one or more teeth with wear facets. The adjusted prevalence ratio of tooth wear (1+ teeth with wear facets) for boys was 1.6 times as high (95% CI = 1.1–2.4) as compared with girls. The prevalence of wear for children 12+ years old was 50% (PR = 0.5; 95% CI = 0.3–0.8) lower than that of children <12 years old. Angle’s class II was associated with higher tooth wear prevalence (PR = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.3–2.6) than class I. Children with posterior or anterior open bite had lower prevalence of wear than their counterparts (PR = 0.6; 95% CI = 0.3–1.0). No associations were observed between tooth wear and orthodontic treatment, missing teeth, and race/ethnicity.
Tooth wear is a prevalent condition in this population. Among adults, higher prevalences of tooth wear were observed among those who were older, males, had used occlusal splints and had periodontal disease. Among children, higher prevalences were associated with younger age, male gender, class II malocclusion and the absence of open bite. Submitted on behalf of the Northwest PRECEDENT network, with support from NIDCR grants DE016750 and DE016752.
dental practice-based research; malocclusion; Northwest PRECEDENT; tooth attrition
We aimed to assess the oral health status and risk factors for dental caries and periodontal disease among Sudanese adults resident in Khartoum State. To date, this information was not available to health policy planners in Sudan.
A descriptive population-based survey of Sudanese adults aged ≥ 16 years was conducted. After stratified sampling, 1,888 adult patients from public dental hospitals and dental health centres scattered across Khartoum State, including different ethnic groups present in Sudan, were examined in 2009-10. Data were collected using patient interviews and clinical examinations. Dental status was recorded using the DMFT index, community periodontal index (CPI), and a validated tooth wear index.
Caries prevalence was high, with 87.7% of teeth examined having untreated decay. Periodontal disease increased in extent and severity with age. For 25.8% of adults, tooth wear was mild; 8.7% had moderate and 1% severe toothwear. Multivariate analysis revealed that decay was less prevalent in older age groups but more prevalent in southern tribes and frequent problem based attenders; western tribes and people with dry mouths who presented with less than18 sound, untreated natural teeth (SUNT). Older age groups were more likely to present with tooth wear; increasing age and gender were associated with having periodontal pocketing ≥ 4 mm.
The prevalence of untreated caries and periodontal disease was high in this population. There appear to be some barriers to restorative dental care, with frequent use of dental extractions to treat caries and limited use of restorative dentistry. Implementation of population-based strategies tailored to the circumstances of Sudanese population is important to improve oral health status in Sudan.
The management of tooth wear has been a subject of increasing interest from both preventive and restorative points of view. Severe tooth wear is frequently multifactorial and variable. Successful management is a subject of interest in dentistry. A critical aspect is to determine the occlusal vertical dimension (OVD) and a systematic approach that can lead to a predictable and favorable treatment prognosis. Management of patients with worn dentition is complex and difficult. Accurate clinical and radiographic examinations, a diagnostic wax-up, and determining OVD are crucial. This paper describes the full-mouth rehabilitation of a 47-year-old bruxer with a severely worn dentition.
Background and aims
Dental caries is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases in children and DMFT index is the most important quantitative factor for measuring tooth health. The purpose of the present study was to determine prevalence and bilateral occurrence of first permanent molar caries in 12-year-old Iranian students.
Materials and methods
This cross-sectional study was carried out on 563 twelve-year-old stu-dents (307 boys and 256 girls), randomly selected from private and public schools of Rafsanjan, Iran, in 2006. All students were examined clinically for dental caries using the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria by a specialist on a dental chair in Rafsanjan Dental School. Data was analyzed using chi-square and t-test.
The mean DMFT score of first permanent molars was 1.9 ± 1.6 (1.83 boys, 1.98 girls) and 31.4% (32.9% boys, 29.7% girls) of the students were caries free. There were no significant differences between boys and girls. Decayed (D) component yielded to be 40.9%, missing (M) 0.35% and filled (F) 6.22%. Maxillary and mandibular first permanent molars had 80.8% and 84% bilateral caries occurrence, respectively. There were no significant differences between the caries prevalence of right and left sides.
Caries prevalence among 12-year-old students in Rafsanjan, Iran is less than the global standards of WHO and FDI for 2000, but close to the gold standard for 2010. Bilateral caries occurrence in the first permanent molars was concluded to be high in the study population.
Bilateral occurrence; dental caries; DMFT; first molar; Iran
Some of the efforts that have been made to document tooth wear are reviewed here with an emphasis on nonhuman mammals, literature with which dentists may not be very familiar. We project a change in research strategy from the description of wear at various scales of measurement towards investigation of the mechanical mechanisms that actually create the texture of a worn surface. These studies should reveal exactly how tooth tissue is lost and what aspects of the structure of dental tissues affect this. The most important aspects of the interaction between the tooth surface and wear particles would appear to be particle size, particle shape, their mechanical properties with respect to those of tooth tissues, and the influence of saliva.
A new scoring system, the Basic Erosive Wear Examination (BEWE), has been designed to provide a simple tool for use in general practice and to allow comparison to other more discriminative indices. The most severely affected surface in each sextant is recorded with a four level score and the cumulative score classified and matched to risk levels which guide the management of the condition. The BEWE allows re-analysis and integration of results from existing studies and, in time, should initiate a consensus within the scientific community and so avoid continued proliferation of indices. Finally, this process should lead to the development of an internationally accepted, standardised and validated index. The BEWE further aims to increase the awareness of tooth erosion amongst clinicians and general dental practitioners and to provide a guide as to its management.
Erosion; Tooth wear; Diagnosis; Examination; Index; Epidemiology
Prosthetic-restorative approach for the restoration of tooth wear. Case report
This article presents a case report of combined prosthetic-adhesive rehabilitation in a patient with a generalized tooth wear.
A combined treatment adhesive - prosthetic was proposed to a male patient of 65 years old having a clinically significant tooth wear, with dentine exposure and with a reduction in clinical crown height. The erosive/abrasive worn dentition have been reconstructed with direct resin composite restorations on the posterior teeth and with zirconia crown on the anterior teeth.
Direct composite restorations have a number of distinct advantages. These restorations have proved durable and aesthetic, protect tooth structure and posterior occlusal contact is predictably re-established.
A combinations of direct and indirect restorations, based on the new vertical dimension of occlusion (VDO), can help to reestablish anatomy and function.
VDO; tooth wear; resin restoration; full-mouth rehabilitation
Teeth represent an essential component of the foraging apparatus for any mammal, and tooth wear can have significant implications for survival and reproduction. This study focuses on tooth wear in wild baboons in Amboseli, southern Kenya. We obtained mandibular and maxillary tooth impressions from 95 baboons and analyzed digital images of replicas made from these impressions. We measured tooth wear as the percent dentine exposure (PDE, the percent of the occlusal surface on which dentine was exposed), and we examined the relationship of PDE to age, behavior, and life history variables. We found that PDE increased significantly with age for both sexes in all three molar types. In females, we also tested the hypotheses that long-term patterns of feeding behavior, social dominance rank, and one measure of maternal investment (the cumulative number of months that a female had dependent infants during her lifetime) would predict tooth wear when we controlled for age. The hypothesis that feeding behavior predicted tooth wear was supported. The percent of feeding time spent consuming grass corms predicted PDE when controlling for age. However, PDE was not associated with social dominance rank or maternal investment. Am J Phys Anthropol 000:000–000, 2010.
aging; feeding behavior; foraging; Papio cynocephalus
Aims: To describe cycle helmet owning and wearing among children in a deprived area and to investigate the association between helmet ownership and wearing and socioeconomic deprivation.
Methods: Cross sectional survey in 28 primary schools in deprived areas of Nottingham; 1061 year 5 schoolchildren were studied.
Results: All year 5 children attending school on the day of the survey completed the questionnaire (87% of children registered at participating schools). Children residing in a deprived area were less likely to own a bike and more likely to ride it four days a week or more. Half the children owned a helmet (52%), but only 29% of these always wore their helmet. Children in deprived areas were less likely to own a helmet, but those that owned a helmet were not less likely to always wear one. Family encouragement and parental warning of dangers of not wearing a helmet were associated with increased helmet ownership rates. Family encouragement and best friends wearing a helmet were associated with higher rates of helmet wearing.
Conclusions: Programmes aimed at preventing head injury among child cyclists will need to address the inequality in helmet ownership that exists between children residing in deprived and non-deprived areas. Strategies to increase family encouragement to wear a helmet may be useful, as may those recognising the importance of the attitudes and behaviours of peers, such as peer education programmes. Further work is required to assess how exposure to risk of cycling injury varies with deprivation.
Half of all dental restorations fail within 10 years, with secondary caries and restoration fracture being the main reasons. Calcium phosphate (CaP) composites can release Ca and PO4 ions and remineralize tooth lesions. However, there has been no report on their long-term mechanical durability. The objective of this study was to investigate the wear, thermal-cycling, and water-aging of composites containing amorphous calcium phosphate nanoparticles (NACP). NACP of 112-nm and glass particles were used to fabricate four composites: (1) 0% NACP+75% glass; (2) 10% NACP+65% glass; (3) 15% NACP+60% glass; and (4) 20% NACP+50% glass. Flexural strength and elastic modulus of NACP nanocomposites were not degraded by thermal-cycling. Wear depth increased with increasing NACP filler level. Wear depths of NACP nanocomposites after 4 × 105 cycles were within the range for commercial controls. Mechanical properties of all the tested materials decreased with water-aging time. After 2 years, the strengths of NACP nanocomposites were moderately higher than the control composite, and much higher than the resin-modified glass ionomers. The mechanism of strength loss for resin-modified glass ionomer was identified as microcracking and air-bubbles. NACP nanocomposites and control composite were generally free of microcracks and air-bubbles. In conclusion, combining NACP nanoparticles with reinforcement glass particles resulted in novel nanocomposites with long-term mechanical properties higher than those of commercial controls, and wear within the range of commercial controls. These strong long-term properties, plus the Ca-PO4 ion release and acid-neutralization capability reported earlier, suggest that the new NACP nanocomposites may be promising for stress-bearing and caries-inhibiting restorations.
dental nanocomposite; amorphous calcium phosphate; wear; thermal-cycling; long-term water-aging; stress-bearing