Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is one of the most common malignancies in southern China. The China 1992 TNM staging system has been widely used for prognosis prediction of NPC patients in China. Although NPC patients can be classified according to their clinical stage in this system, their prognosis may vary significantly.
280 cases of NPC with clinical follow-up data were collected and expressions of survivin and VEGF in tumor tissues were investigated by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Apoptosis index (AI) in 100 cases of NPC was detected by the TUNEL method.
Expression of survivin and VEGF were significantly associated with TNM stage, T-stage and metastasis of NPC. The patients with survivin and VEGF over-expression presented lower 5-year survival rate, as compared to those of low-expression (42.32% vs. 70.54%, 40.1% vs. 67.8%, respectively, P < 0.05), especially in advanced stage patients (36.51% vs. 73.41%, 35.03% vs. 65.22%, respectively, P < 0.05). The 5-year survival rate in NPC patients with survivin and VEGF dual over-expression was significantly lower than that of patients with dual low-expression (18.22% vs. 73.54%, respectively; P = 0.0003). Multivariate analysis indicated that both survivin and VEGF over-expression in NPC tumor tissues were strong independent factors of poor prognosis in NPC patients. The mean AI in the 39 survivin low-expression cases was 144.7 ± 39.9, which was significantly higher than that in 61 survivin over-expression cases (111.6 ± 39.8) (T test, P < 0.05).
Survivin and VEGF over-expression are independent prognostic factors for the patients with NPC. These results also suggest that tumor survivin and VEGF expressions are valuable prognostic markers for prognosis prediction in NPC patients.
Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) provides excellent locoregional control for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), and has gradually replaced two-dimensional conventional radiotherapy as the first-line radiotherapy technique. Furthermore, in the new seventh edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging system, retropharyngeal lymph nodes were upgraded from N0 to N1 disease as a result of their negative impact on the distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) rates of NPC. This retrospective study was conducted in order to review the treatment outcomes and patterns of failure in NPC patients with N0 disease after IMRT in order to effectively guide treatment in the future.
We retrospectively reviewed data from 506 biopsy-proven nonmetastatic NPC patients. There were 191 patients with negative cervical lymph node involvement. According to the seventh edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging system, 110 patients (21.7%) were staged with N0 disease, and 81 patients (16.0%) were reclassified with N1 disease due to the presence of RLN metastasis. All patients received IMRT as the primary treatment.
In patients with negative cervical lymph node involvement, distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) was significantly higher in patients without retropharyngeal lymph node (RLN) metastasis than those with RLN metastasis (95.9% vs. 88.1% respectively, P = 0.04). For N0 disease, the 5-year overall survival (OS), local relapse-free survival (LRFS), nodal relapse-free survival (NRFS) and DMFS rates were 93.8%, 97.1%, 99.1% and 95.9%, respectively. For T1N0, T2N0, T3N0 and T4N0, OS was 97.8%, 100%, 93.8% and 76.9%, LRFS was 100%, 92.9%, 100% and 88.9% and DMFS was 96.6%, 90.9%, 100% and 93.3%, respectively. OS and LRFS were higher in T1-3 N0 patients than T4N0 patients (P < 0.01 and P = 0.01, respectively).
The seventh edition of the AJCC N-staging system improves prognostic accuracy by upgrading RLN metastasis to N1 disease. IMRT produces excellent survival rates in T1-3 N0 disease; however, T4N0 disease remains a challenge and additional improvements are required to achieve a favorable prognosis for these NPC patients.
Current staging systems have limited ability to adjust optimal therapy in advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). This study aimed to delineate the correlation between tumor volume, treatment outcome and chemotherapy cycles in advanced NPC.
A retrospective review of 110 patients with stage III-IV NPC was performed. All patients were treated first with neoadjuvant chemotherapy, then concurrent chemoradiation, and followed by adjuvant chemotherapy as being the definitive therapy. Gross tumor volume of primary tumor plus retropharyngeal nodes (GTVprn) was calculated to be an index of treatment outcome.
GTVprn had a close relationship with survival and recurrence in advanced NPC. Large GTVprn (≧13 ml) was associated with a significantly poorer local control, lower distant metastasis-free rate, and poorer survival. In patients with GTVprn ≧ 13 ml, overall survival was better after ≧4 cycles of chemotherapy than after less than 4 cycles.
The incorporation of GTVprn can provide more information to adjust treatment strategy.
The aim of this study was to assess the validity of the 7th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) TNM system (TNM-7) for patients undergoing hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
Partial hepatectomies performed for 879 patients from 1993 to 2005 were retrospectively reviewed. Clinicopathological factors, surgical outcome, overall survival (OS), and disease-free survival (DFS) were analyzed to evaluate the predictive value of the TNM-7 staging system.
According to the TNM-7 system, differences in five-year survival between stages I, II, and III were statistically significant. Subgroup analysis of stage III patients revealed that the difference between stages II and IIIA was not significant (OS, p = 0.246; DFS, p = 0.105). Further stratification of stages IIIA, IIIB and IIIC also did not reveal significant differences. Cox proportional hazard models of stage III analyses identified additional clinicopathological factors affecting patient survival: lack of tumor encapsulation, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) values > 68 U/L, and blood loss > 500 mL affected DFS whereas lack of tumor encapsulation, AST values > 68 U/L, blood loss > 500 mL, and serum α-fetoprotein (AFP) values > 200 ng/mL were independent factors impairing OS. Stage III factors including tumor thrombus, satellite lesions, and tumor rupture did not appear to influence survival in the stage III subgroup.
In terms of 5-year survival rates, the TNM-7 system is capable of stratifying post-hepatectomy HCC patients into stages I, II, and III but is unable to stratify stage III patients into stages IIIA, IIIB and IIIC. Lack of tumor encapsulation, AST values > 68 U/L, blood loss > 500 mL, and AFP values > 200 ng/mL are independent prognostic factors affecting long-term survival.
American Joint Committee on Cancer; Tumor encapsulation; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Partial hepatectomy; TNM-7
The purpose of this study was to describe the MRI findings of inflammatory pseudotumours (IPTs) involving the nasopharynx and to differentiate IPTs from nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The medical records and imaging studies of 7 patients (6 men, 1 woman; age range, 32–71 years; mean age, 52.4±18 years) with IPT involving the nasopharynx were reviewed retrospectively. The MRI findings were compared with those of seven patients with advanced NPC with skull base invasion. All patients with IPT involving the nasopharynx presented with single or multiple cranial neuropathies; six reported pain; and four patients had a recent history of otitis media. Three were initially misdiagnosed as having NPC according to MRI findings, and all underwent nasopharyngeal biopsy to exclude malignancy. 7/7 (100%) patients received systemic corticosteroid treatment; 7/7 (100%) showed initial rapid resolution of clinical symptoms or radiographical findings; 3/7 (42.9%) had resolution of all signs and symptoms; 3/7 (42.9%) still have limited residual symptoms; and 1/7 (14.3%) suffered recurrence 3 years after remission. The characteristic MR findings of IPT include an infiltrative growth pattern, minimal to mild mass effect, hypointensity on T2 weighted images, and moderate homogeneous enhancement after contrast administration. Intact nasopharyngeal mucosa, internal carotid artery encasement and narrowing, extensive pachymeningeal thickening and a relative paucity of associated neck lymphadenopathy are additional MR findings that favour the diagnosis of IPT rather than NPC. In conclusion, IPT involving the nasopharynx has characteristic MR findings which, together with clinical and laboratory presentations, are helpful in differentiating IPT from malignant tumours, especially NPC.
The 7th AJCC tumor node metastasis (TNM) staging system modified the classification of the lymph node metastasis widely compared to the 6th edition. To evaluate the prognostic predictability of the new TNM staging system, we analyzed the survival rate of the gastric cancer patients assessed by the 7th staging system.
Materials and Methods
Among 2,083 patients who underwent resection for gastric cancer at the department of surgery, Hanyang Medical Center from July 1992 to December 2009, This study retrospectively reviewed 5-year survival rate (5YSR) of 624 patients (TanyN3M0: 464 patients, TanyNanyM1: 160 patients) focusing on the number of metastatic lymph node and distant metastasis. We evaluated the applicability of the new staging system.
There were no significant differences in 5YSR between stage IIIC with more than 29 metastatic lymph nodes and stage IV (P=0.053). No significant differences were observed between stage IIIB with more than 28 metastatic lymph nodes and stage IV (P=0.093). Distinct survival differences were present between patients who were categorized as TanyN3M0 with 7 to 32 metastatic lymph nodes and stage IV. But patients with more than 33 metastatic lymph nodes did not show any significant differences compared to stage IV (P=0.055). Among patients with TanyN3M0, statistical significances were seen between patients with 7 to 30 metastatic lymph nodes and those with more than 31 metastatic lymph nodes.
In the new staging system, modifications of N classification is mandatory to improve prognostic prediction. Further study involving a greater number of cases is required to demonstrate the most appropriate cutoffs for N classification.
Stomach neoplasms; Neoplasm staging; Lymph nodes
To evaluate the prognostic value of maximum primary tumor diameter (MPTD) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).
Three hundred and thirty-three consecutive, newly-diagnosed NPC patients were retrospectively reviewed. Kaplan-Meier analysis and the log-rank test were used to estimate overall survival (OS), failure-free survival (FFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) and local relapse-free survival (LRFS). Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to assess the prognostic value of MPTD.
Median follow-up was 66 months (range, 2–82 months). Median MPTD in stage T1, T2, T3 and T4 was 27.9, 37.5, 45.0 and 61.3 mm, respectively. The proportion of T1 patients with a MPTD ≤ 30 mm was 62.3%; 72% and 62.9% of T2 and T3 patients had a MPTD > 30–50 mm, and 83.5% of T4 patients had a MPTD > 50 mm. For patients with a MPTD ≤ 30 mm, > 30–50 mm and > 50 mm, the 5-year OS, FFS, DMFS and LRFS rates were 85.2%, 74.2% and 56.3% (P < 0.001); 87%, 80.7% and 62.8% (P < 0.001); 88.7%, 86.4% and 72.5% (P = 0.003); and 98.2%, 93.2% and 86.3% (P = 0.012), respectively. In multivariate analysis, MPTD was a prognostic factor for OS, FFS and DMFS, and the only independent prognostic factor for LRFS. For T3-T4 patients with a MPTD ≤ 50 mm and > 50 mm, the 5-year OS, FFS and DMFS rates were 70.4% vs. 58.4% (P = 0.010), 77.5% vs. 65.2% (P = 0.013) and 83.6% vs. 73.6% (P = 0.047), respectively. In patients with a MPTD ≤ 30 mm, 5-year LRFS in T1, T2, T3 and T4 was 100%, 100%, 88.9% and 100% (P = 0.172).
Our data suggest that MPTD is an independent prognostic factor in NPC, and incorporation of MPTD might lead to a further refinement of T staging.
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma; Magnetic resonance imaging; Maximum primary tumor diameter; TNM stage; Survival
Circulating plasma Epstein Barr Virus DNA (EBV-DNA) is a sensitive and specific marker of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The mainstay of treatment of metastatic NPC is systemic chemotherapy and resection for solitary metastasis. Despite high response rate to chemotherapy, complete remission is uncommonly seen.
We report a case of recurrent metastatic NPC in a 43-year-old man, who achieved complete remission three times with chemotherapy and surgery. Serial plasma EBV-DNA levels were measured during the course of disease. The patient had three episodes of recurrences of NPC manifested as distant metastasis. Both time, rise in the plasma EBV-DNA level preceded detection of recurrences by imaging. Following systemic chemotherapy, he achieved complete remission each time, of which was confirmed by 18-flourodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and hepatectomy pathology. The plasma EBV-DNA level dropped to zero copy/ml at the time of each remission.
This case highlights the high chemosensitivity of NPC by illustrating a rare occurrence of complete response of metastatic NPC to chemotherapy. This case also underscores the usefulness of EBV-DNA as a useful tool in monitoring NPC by its ability to detect early recurrence and excellent correlation with treatment response.
Gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma (G-NEC) is a rare, highly malignant tumor that exhibits aggressive growth leading to vascular invasion, distant metastasis and extremely poor prognosis. We studied the clinicopathological findings of seven patients at our institute to better under this disease.
Seven cases of G-NEC were identified among 1,027 cases of gastric carcinoma that underwent gastrectomy at Kansai Rousai Hospital between 2002 and 2010. We studied the pathological and immunohistochemical features of gastric neuroendocrine carcinomas at both the primary site and metastatic lymph nodes.
The mean patient age was 73 years (range 63 to 86 years). There were no females in this series. The final staging was Stage I in one case, Stage II in two, Stage III in two and Stage IV in two. A total of 31 metastatic lymph nodes were found in these patients. This study revealed that the ratio of neuroendocrine cells was similar between the primary and metastatic sites, which tended to show the same expression patterns of neuroendocrine markers.
Metastatic lymph nodes showed heterogeneous immunohistochemical expression patterns similar to the primary sites. G-NEC is far advanced at diagnosis and rapidly reaches the lymph nodes retaining its heterogeneity, carrying a worse prognosis than common gastric cancer.
G-NEC grows rapidly and metastasizes to the lymph nodes, retaining its pathological and immunohistochemical heterogeneity even at the metastatic sites.
Ki67; Immunohistochemistry; Heterogeneity
Central nervous system metastases from nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) are uncommon. The patient presented was diagnosed with aggressive advanced NPC resistant to treatment and complicated by a solitary brain metastasis. A PubMed database search was conducted to review the existing literature regarding brain metastases of NPC, using the search terms “nasopharyngeal neoplasia,” “nasopharyngeal carcinoma,” “nasopharynx,” “radiotherapy,” “central nervous system,” and “brain” in section of “Title/Abstract.” The articles were first evaluated by title and then by abstract, and thereafter appropriate manuscripts were evaluated by full text. References of the published papers were also reviewed.
The aim of this study was to determine whether baseline C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and CRP kinetics predict the overall survival in metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (mNPC) patients.
A total of 116 mNPC patients from January 2006 to July 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Serum CRP level was measured at baseline and thereafter at the start of each palliative chemotherapy cycle for all patients.
Patients with higher values of baseline CRP (≥ 3.4 mg/L) had significantly worse survival than those with lower baseline CRP values (< 3.4 mg/L). Patients were divided into four groups according to baseline CRP and CRP kinetics: (1) patients whose CRP < 3.4 mg/L and never elevated during treatment; (2) patients whose CRP < 3.4 mg/L and elevated at least one time during treatment; (3) patients whose CRP ≥ 3.4 mg/L and normalized at least one time during treatment; and (4) patients whose CRP ≥ 3.4 mg/L and never normalized during treatment. The patients were further assigned to non-elevated, elevated, normalized, and non-normalized CRP groups. Overall survival rates were significantly different among the four groups, with three-year survival rates of 68%, 41%, 33%, and 0.03% for non-elevated, elevated, normalized, and non-normalized CRP groups respectively. When compared with the non-elevated group, hazard ratios of death were 1.69, 2.57, and 10.34 in the normalized, elevated, and non-normalized groups (P < 0.001).
Baseline CRP and CRP kinetics may be useful to predict the prognosis of metastatic NPC patients treated with palliative chemotherapy and facilitate individualized treatment. A prospective study to validate this prognostic model is still needed however.
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a non-lymphomatous, squamous cell carcinoma that occurs in the epithelial lining of the nasopharynx, an area that shows varying degrees of differentiation. Although relatively rare worldwide, NPC has substantial incidence and mortality in populations in Southeast Asia and in people with Southern Chinese ancestry. In Malaysia, NPC is a leading cancer type. In the clinic, NPC presents on a very wide spectrum. Therefore, a high degree of suspicion on the part of the clinician and an increased awareness by the patient is essential for the recognition of an early lesion. Early detection of the cancer is important as it affects the patient’s prognosis and the mode of treatment. Managing patients with NPC is very challenging as patients usually present late when the cancer is already in an advanced stage. Here, we review the challenges in the management of NPC.
nasopharyngeal carcinoma; management; challenges; medical sciences
Our previous study showed a close relationship between computed tomography (CT)-derived bidimensional measurement of primary tumor and retropharyngeal nodes (BDMprn) and gross tumor volume of primary tumor and retropharyngeal nodes (GTVprn) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and better prognosis for NPC patients with smaller BDMprn. In this study, we report the results on of a study to validate the use of BDM in a separate cohort of NPC patients.
We retrospectively reviewed 103 newly diagnosed NPC cases who were treated with radiotherapy/concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) or CCRT with adjuvant chemotherapy from 2002 to 2009. We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure BDMprn. We calculated overall survival, recurrence-free and distant metastasis-free survival curves and set a BDMprn cut off point to categorize patients into a high- or low-risk group. We then used Cox proportional hazard model to evaluate the prognostic influence of BDMprn after correcting age, gender and chemotherapy status.
After adjusting for age, gender, and chemotherapy status, BDMprn remained an independent prognostic factor for distant metastasis [Hazard ratio (HR) = 1.046; P = 0.042] and overall survival (HR = 1.012; P = 0.012). Patients with BDMprn < 15 cm2 had a greater 3-year overall survival rate than those with BDMprn ≧ 15 cm2 (92.3% vs. 73.7%; P = 0.009). They also had a greater 3-year distant metastasis-free survival (94% vs.75%; P = 0.034).
The predictive ability of BDMprn was validated in a separate NPC cohort. A BDMprn of 15 cm2 can be used to separate NPC patients into high- and low-risk groups and predict survival rates and metastasis potential. It can, therefore, be used as a reference to design clinical trials, predict prognosis, and make treatment decisions.
To compare the results of external beam radiotherapy in combination with 3D- computed tomography (CT)-implanted interstitial high dose rate brachytherapy (ERT/3D-HDR-BT) versus conventional external beam radiotherapy (ERT) for the treatment of stage T2b nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).
Forty NPC patients diagnosed with stage T2b NPC were treated with ERT/3D-HDR-BT under local anesthesia. These patients received a mean dose of 60 Gy, followed by 12-20 Gy administered by 3D-HDR-BT. Another 101 patients diagnosed with non-metastatic T2b NPC received a mean dose of 68 Gy by ERT alone during the same period.
Patients treated with ERT/3D-HDR-BT versus ERT alone exhibited an improvement in their 5-y local failure-free survival rate (97.5% vs. 80.2%, P = 0.012) and disease-free survival rate (92.5% vs. 73.3%, P = 0.014). Using multivariate analysis, administration of 3D-HDR-BT was found to be favorable for local control (P = 0.046) and was statistically significant for disease-free survival (P = 0.021). The incidence rate of acute and chronic complications between the two groups was also compared.
It is possible that the treatment modality enhances local control due to improved conformal dose distributions and the escalated radiation dose applied.
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a highly prevalent disease in Southeast Asia and its prevalence is clearly affected by genetic background. Various theories have been suggested for its high incidence in this geographical region but to these days no conclusive explanation has been identified. Chromosomal imbalances identifiable through comparative genomic hybridization may shed some light on common genetic alterations that may be of relevance to the onset and progression of NPC. Review of the literature, however, reveals contradictory results among reported findings possibly related to factors associated with patient selection, stage of disease, differences in methodological details etc. To increase the power of the analysis and attempt to identify commonalities among the reported findings, we performed a meta-analysis of results described in NPC tissues based on chromosomal comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). This meta-analysis revealed consistent patters in chromosomal abnormalities that appeared to cluster in specific "hot spots" along the genome following a stage-dependent progression.
The characteristics of cervical lymphatic metastasis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) are not completely understood. As such, radiotherapy to the entire lymphatic of the neck bilaterally has been empirically practiced even in early stage disease, although not supported by clinical evidence. We studied the pattern and probability of nodal metastasis through a meta-analysis of published evidences, with an aim to establish an evidence-based guideline for selecting and delineation of clinical target volume of neck lymphatics for conformation radiation for NPC.
A literature search yielded an initial 411 original articles, and 13 studies with 2920 NPC cases staged via MRI were included in this analysis. The occurrence of nodal metastasis was calculated and analyzed according to the respective regional nodal levels.
85% of NPC cases presented with lymphadenopathy. The most commonly involved regions include retropharyngeal (69%) and level II lymph nodes (70%). The overall probability of levels III, IV, and V nodal involvement are 45%, 11%, and 27%, respectively. Low-risk node groups included the supraclavicular, levels IA/IB and VI nodes, and parotid nodes with involvement rates at 3%, 0%, 3%, 0%, and 1%, respectively. Nodal metastases followed an orderly pattern and the probability of "skip" metastasis between levels varied between 0.5-7.9%.
Lymph node metastasis in NPC follows a predictable and orderly pattern. The rarity of metastasis in certain nodal groups and "skip" metastasis suggest that reduced treatment volume is feasible in conformal radiotherapy for NPC.
Nasopharyngeal cancer; Lymph nodes; Lymphatic metastasis; Meta-analysis
Nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPC) are radiosensitive, and radiotherapy is the standard curative treatment. Furthermore, it has been shown that combined radiochemotherapy improves prognosis in locally advanced stages. Further encouraging results have been obtained with adjuvant interferon-beta after primary radio(chemo)therapy in childhood undifferentiated NPC. Aim of the present study was to evaluate the treatment results after long-term follow-up after radio(chemo)therapy for adult NPC with special reference to patients with undifferentiated carcinomas treated with adjuvant interferon-beta.
Patients and methods
From 02/1992 to 07/2008, 26 adult patients with NPC without distant metastases were treated (17 squamous cell carcinomas, 9 undifferentiated carcinomas). The treatment concepts changed over the years: 13 patients were treated with radiotherapy alone, 13 patients received combined radiochemotherapy. Additionally, six patients with undifferentiated carcinomas were treated with adjuvant interferon-beta after radiochemotherapy for 6 months.
After a median follow-up of 96 months, 17 patients remain alive. Collectively, our 5-year overall-survival and loco-regional control rates were 74% (radiochemotherapy 81%, radiotherapy alone 68.5%) and 87% (radiochemotherapy 100%, radiotherapy alone 72.7%), respectively. All treatment regimens used were feasible; especially, adjuvant interferon-beta was applied as provided without high grade toxicity. All patients with undifferentiated carcinomas treated with adjuvant interferon-beta stayed alive until the end of the follow-up.
In summary, our data affirm that NPC in adults are curable by primary radio(chemo)therapy. Furthermore, our data indicate that adjuvant interferon-beta application in undifferentiated NPC in adults is feasible and shows promising results. Further prospective clinical trials are needed to finally establish adjuvant interferon beta in curative treatment of adult NPC.
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma; Interferon-beta; Radiochemotherapy; EBV
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has the highest metastatic potential among head and neck cancers. Distant metastasis is the major cause of treatment failure. The role of interleukin-8 (IL-8) in NPC progression remains unknown. Our multivariate survival analyses of 255 patients with NPC revealed that higher IL-8 expression in primary NPC tissue was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival, disease-free survival, and distant metastasis-free survival of the patients. In vitro study revealed that IL-8 was highly expressed in the established high-metastasis NPC clone S18 relative to the low-metastasis cells. Suppression of IL-8 by short-hairpin RNA reduced the expression of IL-8 in S18 cells and subsequently inhibited migration, invasion, and hepatic metastasis of the cells without influencing cellular growth. Overexpression of IL-8 in S26 cells resulted in increased migration, invasion, and metastasis capabilities of the cells without affecting cellular growth. Exogenous IL-8 enhanced the migration and invasion of low-metastasis CNE-2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. An epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) could be induced by IL-8 in various NPC cell lines. The high level of phosphorylated AKT in S18 cells could be suppressed by knocking down IL-8 expression. Further, IL-8-promoted migration and invasion could be abolished by either the application of the phosphoinositide-3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 or the knock down of AKT expression by using small-interfering RNA. In summary, IL-8 serves as an independent prognostic indicator of overall survival, disease-free survival, and metastasis-free survival for patients with NPC. IL-8 promotes NPC metastasis via autocrine and paracrine means, involving activation of AKT signaling and inducing EMT in NPC cells.
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is one of the leading causes of cancer death in Indonesia. At initial diagnosis, 80% of the patients present with advanced stage disease. In Indonesia, primary medical care is generally provided by the health care centres; named Puskesmas. The lack of knowledge of various aspects of NPC of the General practitioners (GPs) working in these centers might contribute to the diagnostic delay. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge of these GPs on different aspects of NPC including symptoms, risk factors and incidence.
One hundred six GPs in the Puskesmas in the Yogyakarta province were subjected to a questionnaire on different aspects of NPC based on literature and interviews with Head and Neck Surgeons.
All GPs approached participated and in total 106 questionnaires were filled in. All participants were aware of NPC as a disease and 89% confirmed that it is a serious problem in Indonesia. However, 50% of the participants believed NPC has a low incidence in their region. The question on early symptoms gave a mean 4.2 answers of which 50% were incorrect.
The GPs provided a total of 318 answers when asked for the risk factors of NPC, 75% of which were incorrect. Fifty seven GPs (54%) stated that they did not receive sufficient education on NPC at the university and insufficient knowledge was gained during daily practice. Ninety-two percent of the GPs were interested in additional education, preferably in form of lectures, meetings or folders.
This study revealed that GPs in the Puskesmas in Yogyakarta lack knowledge on all aspects of NPC. This is an important finding as NPC is endemic in Indonesia and the Puskesmas are the institutions which provide primary medical health care in the country. Further education of the GPs in these endemic areas could be a first step to increase the rate of early detection. Therefore, we suggest 1) to conduct a medical awareness campaign for GPs on the most important subjects concerning NPC, and 2) as soon as NPC awareness among GPs has risen, provide further education on the risk factors, the early symptoms and the incidence, education to the community. We propose to extend this study to other areas in Indonesia (i.e. Jakarta, Surabaya, Central Java), using models that have been developed in Yogyakarta.
Undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC; WHO type III) is 100% associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and the fourth most prevalent cancer in Indonesian males. Therapy failure is high, since most patients come to the hospital at an advanced stage of disease. Screening for early-stage NPC is needed. Here, a simple and economical two-step enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system is proposed for diagnosing NPC in high-risk populations, employing the peptide-based immunoglobulin A (IgA) EBNA1 plus viral capsid antigen p18 ELISA as an initial screening test and the IgA early antigen (EA) ELISA using a different set of EBV antigens as a confirmation test. A total of 151 NPC patients and 199 regional healthy EBV carriers were used to evaluate the two-step ELISA approach. Routinely, EBV IgG immunoblotting is used as a standard confirmation test. The sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing NPC by the two-step ELISA approach increased from 85.4% to 96.7% and 90.1% to 98%, respectively, with positive predictive values and negative predictive values increasing from 78.7 and 93.9% to 97.3 and 97.5%, respectively, relative to the immunoblotting confirmation system. On discrepant samples, additional testing was done by EBV DNA load quantification in blood. Results showed that 5/11 discrepant NPC samples with an elevated IgA EA ELISA also had elevated an EBV DNA load in the circulation (range, 3,200 to 25,820 copies/ml). Therefore, the IgA EA ELISA is proposed as a confirmation test in first-line NPC serological screening studies. This two-step EBV ELISA system provides a standardized approach for NPC screening and may be used in combination with dried blood sampling in future field studies for identification of early-stage NPC in high-risk regions.
To study survival and long-term morbidities of children with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).
Patients and Methods
Retrospective review of children with NPC treated at St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital between 1961 and 2004. Prognostic factors and long term effects of therapy were analyzed.
Fifty-nine patients (median age 14.1 years) were identified. Most were male (66.1%) and Black (54.2%) and had lymphoepithelioma (93.2%). Thirty-five (59.3%), 20 (33.9%) and 4 (6.8%) patients were staged IV, III and II respectively. All patients received radiotherapy (RT) to primary tumor, and most received cervical RT (98.3%) and chemotherapy (88.1%). The 15-year survival and event-free survival (EFS) were 67.2%±7.5% and 63.5%±7.8%, respectively. Five patients (8.5%) developed subsequent malignancies 8.6–27 years after NPC diagnosis. EFS was improved in patients diagnosed after 1980 (74.8%±10.0% vs. 45.5%±10.1%, p=0.031), patients with stage III compared to stage IV (79.3%±9.6% vs. 56.2%±11.8%, p=0.049), patients that received cisplatin (81.0%±10.7% vs. 45.8%±9.7%, p=0.013), and patients treated with RT≥50Gy (71.4%±9.3% vs. 43.8%±11.6%, p=0.048). Whites had higher distant failure than Blacks (41.7%±10.4% vs. 15.6±6.5%, p=0.045). The 15-year cumulative incidence (CI) of any morbidity, sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL), primary hypothyroidism, and growth hormone deficiency (GHD) were 83.7%±5.4%, 52.9%±6.7%, 42.7%±6.6%, and 14.1%±4.7%, respectively. There were dose-response relationships between RT dose and primary hypothyroidism and GHD.
Outcome of children with NPC improved over the past 4 decades with cisplatin-based chemotherapy and higher RT doses. However, many survivors had long-term treatment-related morbidities.
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma; children; long-term effects
To compare the radiation-induced temporal lobe injury (TLI) in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) or two-dimensional conventional radiotherapy (2D-CRT).
Patients and Methods
1276 cases of NPC treated with IMRT or 2D-CRT were retrospectively reviewed. A diagnosis of TLI was made on follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
The crude incidence of TLI was 7.5% and 10.8% (P = 0.048), and the actuarial 5-year incidence was 16% and 34.9% (P<0.001) for the IMRT and 2D-CRT groups, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed both T stage (P<0.001) and radiation technique (P<0.001) as independent predictors. Patients with T1, T2 and T3 disease had a significantly higher risk when treated with 2D-CRT (P = 0.005, 0.016, <0.001, respectively). This trend was not evident for T4 patients (P = 0.680). The 2D-CRT group had a longer latency for the development of TLI (P<0.001). Those with T4 disease had a shorter median time to TLI (P = 0.006, 0.042, <0.001 when compared with T1, T2 and T3, respectively).
IMRT is superior to 2DRT for the management of T1-T3 NPC in terms of sparing the temporal lobe. The high incidence of TLI in T4 disease needs to be addressed.
The purpose of this study was to conduct a quality improvement (QI), applied practical review of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) 7th edition, Carcinoma of the Eyelid staging system. AJCC utilizes a primary tumor, lymph node, metastasis (pTNM) cancer staging approach.
We wanted to determine if the AJCC pTNM carcinoma staging system identified patients with highly aggressive carcinoma of the eyelid. We also wanted to determine if there were any unexpected issues in its practical application.
We conducted a 15-year, consecutive, retrospective review of all cases of excisional biopsy for carcinoma of the eyelid. We reviewed the original histopathology slides and complete pathology records for each case.
Over a 15-year review period, 52 cases of excisional biopsy for carcinoma of the eyelid were identified. The average age of the study population was 72 years. Nodular well-differentiated basal cell carcinoma (BCC) was the predominant histology for 85% of cases. Morpheaform/metatypical BCC was the next dominant at 9%. Squamous cell carcinoma and sebaceous carcinoma followed at 4% and 2%, respectively. We were able to assign clear staging to 50 of the 52 cases with the available pathology data. The stage results were as follows: stage 1A 72%, stage 1B 22%, stage II 4%, stage III 2%, with no cases of stage IV metastatic disease.
The 7th edition AJCC Carcinoma of the Eyelid chapter proved to be a practical tool for carcinoma staging of the eyelid. The largest tumor dimension remains an effective predictive factor. High-grade pathologic prognostic factors such as tumor necrosis or perineural spread had a 100% association with a final stage of II or greater. Concordance and compliance was 100% for the recommended site-specific pathologic risk factors. Regarding squamous cell carcinoma of the eyelid, three new required data points had a 0% reporting rate over 15 years. Overall, smaller less invasive tumors were classified as stage 1A and 1B tumors. More invasive and higher risk tumors fell into appropriate higher staging classifications. The newly recommended prognostic site-specific tumor factors appear to work well with a high concordance with staging severity, and strong medical community acceptance.
eyelid; pathology; oncology
Stage migration consequent upon new cancer staging definitions may result in artifactual alterations in stage-specific survival and prognosis. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of the new TNM7 oesophageal cancer (OC) system on stage categorisation and survival when compared with historical controls.
A total of 202 patients diagnosed with operable OC and undergoing oesophagectomy (118 neoadjuvant chemotherapy) were studied. Patients originally classified and staged using TNM6 were retrospectively re-staged using TNM7.
Re-classification of TNM7 resulted in stage migration in 11.9% of patients (9.9% downstaged, 2.0% upstaged) when compared with TNM6. Five-year survival for stages I, II and III was 78%, 46% and 18% using TNM6, compared with 62%, 51% and 18%, respectively, using TNM7. Univariable analysis revealed that histological grade (P=0.006), pT (P<0.0001), TNM6 pN (P<0.0001), TNM7 pN (P<0.0001), number of lymph node metastases (P<0.0001), TNM6 stage group (P<0.0001), TNM7 stage group (P<0.0001) and TNM7 prognostic group (P<0.0001) were all associated with survival. Multivariable analysis revealed that only the TNM7 prognostic group was independently and significantly associated with survival.
TNM7 is a better prognostic tool than TNM6 and represents an important advance in staging OC.
oesophageal cancer; TNM staging; prognosis
This study was designed to evaluate whether the revised 2010 Tumour Node Metastasis (TNM) staging system could lead to a more accurate prediction of the prognosis of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients. A total of 1216 patients who had undergone radical nephrectomy or partial nephrectomy for RCC from 2003 to 2011 were enrolled. All of the patients had pathologically confirmed clear cell RCC (ccRCC). All cases were staged by both the 2002 and 2010 TNM staging systems after pathological review, and survival data were collected. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression models were used to evaluate cancer-specific survival (CSS) and progression-free survival (PFS) after surgery. Continuous variables, such as age and tumour diameter, were calculated as mean values and standard deviations (s.d.) or as median values. Survival was calculated by the Kaplan–Meier method, and the log-rank test assessed differences between groups. Statistically significant differences in CSS and PFS were noted among patients in T3 subgroups using the new 2010 staging system. Therefore, the revised 2010 TNM staging system can lead to a more accurate prediction of the prognosis of ccRCC patients. However, when using the revised 2010 staging system, we found that more than 92% of patients (288/313) with T3 tumours were staged in the T3a subgroup, and their survival data were not significantly different from those of patients with T2b tumours. In addition, T2 subclassification failed to independently predict survival in RCC patients.
kidney neoplasm; prognosis; renal cell carcinoma; TNM stage