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1.  Short course radiotherapy with simultaneous integrated boost for stage I-II breast cancer, early toxicities of a randomized clinical trial 
Background
TomoBreast is a unicenter, non-blinded randomized trial comparing conventional radiotherapy (CR) vs. hypofractionated Tomotherapy (TT) for post-operative treatment of breast cancer. The purpose of the trial is to compare whether TT can reduce heart and pulmonary toxicity. We evaluate early toxicities.
Methods
The trial started inclusion in May 2007 and reached its recruitment in August 2011. Women with stage T1-3N0M0 or T1-2N1M0 breast cancer completely resected by tumorectomy (BCS) or by mastectomy (MA) who consented to participate were randomized, according to a prescribed computer-generated randomization schedule, between control arm of CR 25x2 Gy/5 weeks by tangential fields on breast/chest wall, plus supraclavicular-axillary field if node-positive, and sequential boost 8x2 Gy/2 weeks if BCS (cumulative dose 66 Gy/7 weeks), versus experimental TT arm of 15x2.8 Gy/3 weeks, including nodal areas if node-positive and simultaneous integrated boost of 0.6 Gy if BCS (cumulative dose 51 Gy/3 weeks). Outcomes evaluated were the pulmonary and heart function. Comparison of proportions used one-sided Fisher's exact test.
Results
By May 2010, 70 patients were randomized and had more than 1 year of follow-up. Out of 69 evaluable cases, 32 were assigned to CR (21 BCS, 11 MA), 37 to TT (20 BCS, 17 MA). Skin toxicity of grade ≥1 at 2 years was 60% in CR, vs. 30% in TT arm. Heart function showed no significant difference for left ventricular ejection fraction at 2 years, CR 4.8% vs. TT 4.6%. Pulmonary function tests at 2 years showed grade ≥1 decline of FEV1 in 21% of CR, vs. 15% of TT and decline of DLco in 29% of CR, vs. 7% of TT (P = 0.05).
Conclusions
There were no unexpected severe toxicities. Short course radiotherapy of the breast with simultaneous integrated boost over 3 weeks proved feasible without excess toxicities. Pulmonary tests showed a slight trend in favor of Tomotherapy, which will need confirmation with longer follow-up of patients.
Trail registration
ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00459628
doi:10.1186/1748-717X-7-80
PMCID: PMC3432009  PMID: 22656865
Early breast cancer; Hypofractionation; Simultaneous integrated boost (SIB); Image guided radiation treatment (IGRT); Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT)
2.  Uptake and Costs of Hypofractionated vs Conventional Whole Breast Irradiation After Breast Conserving Surgery in the United States, 2008–2013 
JAMA  2014;312(23):2542-2550.
IMPORTANCE
Based on randomized evidence, expert guidelines in 2011 endorsed shorter, hypofractionated whole breast irradiation (WBI) for selected patients with early-stage breast cancer and permitted hypofractionated WBI for other patients.
OBJECTIVES
To examine the uptake and costs of hypofractionated WBI among commercially insured patients in the United States.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS
Retrospective, observational cohort study, using administrative claims data from 14 commercial health care plans covering 7.4%of US adult women in 2013, we classified patients with incident early-stage breast cancer treated with lumpectomy and WBI from 2008 and 2013 into 2 cohorts: (1) the hypofractionation-endorsed cohort (n = 8924) included patients aged 50 years or older without prior chemotherapy or axillary lymph node involvement and (2) the hypofractionation-permitted cohort (n = 6719) included patients younger than 50 years or those with prior chemotherapy or axillary lymph node involvement.
EXPOSURES
Hypofractionated WBI (3–5 weeks of treatment) vs conventional WBI (5–7 weeks of treatment).
MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES
Use of hypofractionated and conventional WBI, total and radiotherapy-related health care expenditures, and patient out-of-pocket expenses. Patient and clinical characteristics included year of treatment, age, comorbid disease, prior chemotherapy, axillary lymph node involvement, intensity-modulated radiotherapy, practice setting, and other contextual variables.
RESULTS
Hypofractionated WBI increased from 10.6%(95%CI, 8.8%–12.5%) in 2008 to 34.5%(95%CI, 32.2%–36.8%) in 2013 in the hypofractionation-endorsed cohort and from 8.1% (95%CI, 6.0%–10.2%) in 2008 to 21.2%(95%CI, 18.9%–23.6%) in 2013 in the hypofractionation-permitted cohort. Adjusted mean total health care expenditures in the 1 year after diagnosis were $28 747 for hypofractionated and $31 641 for conventional WBI in the hypofractionation-endorsed cohort (difference, $2894; 95%CI, $1610–$4234; P < .001) and $64 273 for hypofractionated and $72 860 for conventional WBI in the hypofractionation-permitted cohort (difference, $8587; 95%CI, $5316–$12 017; P < .001). Adjusted mean total 1-year patient out-of-pocket expenses were not significantly different between hypofractionated vs conventional WBI in either cohort.
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE
Hypofractionated WBI after breast conserving surgery increased among women with early-stage breast cancer in 14 US commercial health care plans between 2008 and 2013. However, only 34.5%of patients with hypofractionation-endorsed and 21.2%with hypofractionation-permitted early-stage breast cancer received hypofractionated WBI in 2013.
doi:10.1001/jama.2014.16616
PMCID: PMC4271796  PMID: 25494006
3.  Characterizing fatigue associated with sunitinib and its impact on health-related quality of life in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma 
Cancer  2014;120(12):1871-1880.
BACKGROUND
Using phase 3 trial data for sunitinib versus interferon (IFN)-α in treatment-naive patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma, retrospective analyses characterized sunitinib-associated fatigue and its impact on patient-reported health-related quality of life (HRQoL).
METHODS
Patients received sunitinib at a dose of 50 mg/day on a schedule of 4 weeks on/2 weeks off (375 patients) or IFN-α at a dose of 9 MU subcutaneously 3 times per week (360 patients). HRQoL was self-assessed using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Kidney Symptom Index–15-item (FKSI-15) questionnaire, with fatigue assessed using its Disease-Related Symptoms subscale. Fatigue was also assessed by providers using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE). A repeated-measures model (M1) and random intercept-slope model (M2) characterized sunitinib-associated fatigue over time. Another repeated-measures model examined the relationship between HRQoL scores and CTCAE fatigue grade.
RESULTS
M1 demonstrated that the initial increase in patient-reported fatigue with sunitinib was worst during cycle 1, with mean values numerically better at subsequent cycles; most pairwise comparisons of consecutive CTCAE fatigue cycle means were not found to be statistically significant. M2 demonstrated that the overall trend (slope) for patient-reported and CTCAE fatigue with sunitinib was not statistically different from 0. The relationship between most HRQoL scores and CTCAE fatigue was close to linear regardless of treatment, with lower scores (worse HRQoL) corresponding to higher fatigue grade. The majority of HRQoL scores were better with sunitinib versus IFN-α for the same CTCAE fatigue grade.
CONCLUSIONS
Patients reported worse fatigue during the first sunitinib cycle. However, in subsequent consecutive cycles, less fatigue was reported with no statistically significant worsening. CTCAE fatigue assessment may not fully capture patient treatment experience. Cancer 2014;120:1871–1880. © 2014 American Cancer Society.
Using phase 3 trial data for sunitinib versus interferon-α in treatment-naive patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma, retrospective analyses characterized sunitinib-associated fatigue and its impact on patient-reported health-related quality of life. Patients reported worse fatigue during the first sunitinib cycle, but in subsequent consecutive cycles less fatigue was reported with no statistically significant worsening; provider-assessed fatigue did not appear to fully capture patient treatment experience.
doi:10.1002/cncr.28660
PMCID: PMC4231253  PMID: 24634003
sunitinib; metastatic renal cell carcinoma; fatigue; health-related quality of life; phase 3
4.  Accelerated hypofractionated radiotherapy as adjuvant regimen after conserving surgery for early breast cancer: interim report of toxicity after a minimum follow up of 3 years 
Background
Accelerated hypofractionation is an attractive approach for adjuvant whole breast radiotherapy. In this study we evaluated the adverse effects at least 3 years post an accelerated hypofractionated whole breast radiotherapy schedule.
Methods
From October 2004 to March 2006, 39 consecutive patients aged over 18 years with pTis, pT1-2, pN0-1 breast adenocarcinoma who underwent conservative surgery were treated with an adjuvant accelerated hypofractionated radiotherapy schedule consisting of 34 Gy in 10 daily fractions over 2 weeks to the whole breast, followed after 1 week by an electron boost dose of 8 Gy in a single fraction to the tumour bed. Skin and lung radiation toxicity was evaluated daily during therapy, once a week for one month after radiotherapy completion, every 3 months for the first year and from then on every six months. In particular lung toxicity was investigated in terms of CT density evaluation, pulmonary functional tests, and clinical and radiological scoring. Paired t-test, Chi-square test and non-parametric Wilcoxon test were performed.
Results
After a median follow-up of 43 months (range 36-52 months), all the patients are alive and disease-free. None of the patients showed any clinical signs of lung toxicity, no CT-lung toxicity was denoted by radiologist on CT lung images acquired about 1 year post-radiotherapy, no variation of pulmonary density evaluated in terms of normalised Hounsfield numbers was evident. Barely palpable increased density of the treated breast was noted in 9 out of 39 patients (in 2 patients this toxicity was limited to the boost area) and teleangectasia (<1/cm2) limited to the boost area was evident in 2 out of 39 patients. The compliance with the treatment was excellent (100%).
Conclusion
The radiotherapy schedule investigated in this study (i.e 34 Gy in 3.4 Gy/fr plus boost dose of 8 Gy in single fraction) is a feasible and safe treatment and does not lead to adjunctive acute and late toxicities. A longer follow up is necessary to confirm these favourable results.
doi:10.1186/1756-9966-29-9
PMCID: PMC2837631  PMID: 20100335
5.  Fatigue and radiotherapy: (A) experience in patients undergoing treatment. 
British Journal of Cancer  1998;78(7):899-906.
Cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy frequently report fatigue. However, knowledge of the importance of fatigue for these patients and of the factors associated with their fatigue is limited. The aim of the current investigation was to gain more insight into fatigue as related to radiotherapy by answering the following questions. First, how is the experience of fatigue best described? Secondly, to what extent is fatigue related to sociodemographic, medical (including treatment), physical and psychological factors? Finally, is it possible to predict which patients will suffer from fatigue after completion of radiotherapy? Patients with different types of cancer receiving radiotherapy with curative intent (n = 250) were interviewed before and within 2 weeks of completion of radiotherapy. During treatment, patients rated their fatigue at 2-weekly intervals. Results indicate a gradual increase in fatigue over the period of radiotherapy and a decrease after completion of treatment. Fatigue scores obtained after radiotherapy were only slightly, although significantly, higher than pretreatment scores. After treatment, 46% of the patients reported fatigue among the three symptoms that caused them most distress. Significant associations were found between post-treatment fatigue and diagnosis, physical distress, functional disability, quality of sleep, psychological distress and depression. No association was found between fatigue and treatment or personality characteristics. Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that the intensity of pretreatment fatigue was the best predictor of fatigue after treatment. In view of this finding, a regression analysis was performed to gain more insight into the variables predicting pretreatment fatigue. The degree of functional disability and impaired quality of sleep were found to explain 38% of the variance in fatigue before starting radiotherapy. Fatigue in disease-free patients 9 months after treatment is described in paper (B) in this issue.
PMCID: PMC2063131  PMID: 9764581
6.  Simultaneous integrated boost for adjuvant treatment of breast cancer- intensity modulated vs. conventional radiotherapy: The IMRT-MC2 trial 
BMC Cancer  2011;11:249.
Background
Radiation therapy is an essential modality in the treatment of breast cancer. Addition of radiotherapy to surgery has significantly increased local control and survival rates of the disease. However, radiotherapy is also associated with side effects, such as tissue fibrosis or enhanced vascular morbidity. Modern radiotherapy strategies, such as intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), can shorten the overall treatment time by integration of the additional tumor bed boost significantly. To what extent this might be possible without impairing treatment outcome and cosmetic results remains to be clarified.
Methods/Design
The IMRT-MC2 study is a prospective, two armed, multicenter, randomized phase-III-trial comparing intensity modulated radiotherapy with integrated boost to conventional radiotherapy with consecutive boost in patients with breast cancer after breast conserving surgery. 502 patients will be recruited and randomized into two arms: patients in arm A will receive IMRT in 28 fractions delivering 50.4 Gy to the breast and 64.4 Gy to the tumor bed by integrated boost, while patients in arm B will receive conventional radiotherapy of the breast in 28 fractions to a dose of 50.4 Gy and consecutive boost in 8 fractions to a total dose of 66.4 Gy.
Discussion
Primary objectives of the study are the evaluation of the cosmetic results 6 weeks and 2 years post treatment and the 2- and 5-year local recurrence rates for the two different radiotherapy strategies. Secondary objectives are long term overall survival, disease free survival and quality of life.
Trial Registration
ClinicalTrials.gov Protocol ID: NCT01322854.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-11-249
PMCID: PMC3150341  PMID: 21676232
7.  Fatigue After Treatment for Early Stage Breast Cancer 
Cancer  2007;110(8):1851-1859.
BACKGROUND
Evidence suggests that fatigue may be a greater problem for cancer survivors than people without cancer. The present study sought to determine whether fatigue was greater in women who had completed treatment for early-stage breast cancer relative to a demographically matched comparison group of women with no cancer history.
METHODS
As part of a larger study, women with stage 0-II breast cancer were recruited before the start of chemotherapy and radiotherapy (n = 100) or radiotherapy only (n = 121). Fatigue was assessed at the end of treatment and 2, 4, and 6 months later. An age- and geographically matched sample of women with no history of cancer was recruited and assessed for comparison purposes.
RESULTS
Relative to comparison subjects, breast cancer survivors reported more days of fatigue in the past week at all 4 study assessments (P < .05). These differences appeared to be clinically meaningful in that a greater percentage of patients than nonpatients earned scores in the abnormal range on this measure at each assessment (P < .05). Additional analyses indicated that differences in fatigue between patients and comparison subjects were attributable primarily to heightened fatigue in women who received both chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
CONCLUSIONS
Findings suggest that fatigue is a greater problem for breast cancer survivors in the 6 months after completion of chemotherapy than for women with no cancer history. Future research should include longer-term follow-up to determine the persistence of fatigue in this population of survivors.
doi:10.1002/cncr.22993
PMCID: PMC2646727  PMID: 17847016
fatigue; breast cancer; adjuvant therapy; survivorship
8.  Radiation induced pneumonitis following whole breast radiotherapy treatment in early breast cancer patients treated with breast conserving surgery: a single institution study 
Hippokratia  2013;17(3):233-238.
Background: Hypofractionated Radiotherapy (RT) regimens for breast cancer, although reduce cost and time for patients and health care systems, could have a negative impact on normal underlying lung tissue. We studied and compared lung function and the post–RT radiological changes using High-Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) in early breast cancer patients, treated with 3-Dimentional conformal whole breast radiotherapy (WBRT) using either conventional or hypofractionated regime.
Patients and Methods: Between 2008 and 2009, 61 early breast cancer patients (T1-2N0M0) were randomised into two groups .Group A (n=31) received standard radiotherapy with 50Gy/25f/5w plus boost 10Gy/5f/1w to tumour bed. Group B (n=30) received 43.2Gy/16f/22d plus boost 10Gy/5f/1w to tumour bed. Patients of both groups were subjected to dynamic lung testing, using spirometry and gas diffusion tests on Day 0 (D0, before RT), during RT and after completion of RT at 3 and 6 months. HRCT scans were performed in all patients at baseline, and 3,6,12 months after completion of RT. Respiratory symptoms were recorded at 3 and 6 months post completion of RT. Dosimetric factors, such as Central Lung Dose (CLD), lung Volume receiving more 20 Gy (V20), D25 and Mean Lung Dose (MLD) were calculated for all patients.
Results: At 3 months after RT, the pulmonary changes were classified at HRCT as follows: 91.8 % were Grade 0, 8.19 % Grade 1, and 0 % Grade 2. At 6 months, 86.98 % were Grade 0, 11.47 % Grade 1, and 1.6 % Grade 2. At 12 months, 88.52 % were Grade 0, 9.19 % Grade 1 and 3.27% Grade 2. Univariate analysis showed strong association between radiation pneumonitis, age and all dosimetric parameters. There was no association between fractionation type and incidence of RN. FEV1, FVC, FEV 25, FEV 50 and DLCO showed no statistically significant reduction in both treatment groups in 3 and 6 months following completion of RT, compared to baseline. Multivariate analysis showed no relation between HRCT findings and other variables (age, smoking, chemotherapy, hormonotherapy, V20).
Conclusion: Lung toxicity, as assessed with HRCT and PFTs, was minimal in both treatment arms and our results are in consistency with other published data. Hypofractionated RT was a safe modality and well tolerated by the majority of the patients. Longer follow-up is required for robust assessment of incidence of late lung fibrosis in our series.
PMCID: PMC3872459  PMID: 24470733
Hypofractionated breast radiotherapy; whole breast radiotherapy; radiation pneumonitis; spirometric tests; high resolution computed tomography
9.  Breast cancer (non-metastatic) 
Clinical Evidence  2011;2011:0102.
Introduction
Breast cancer affects at least 1 in 10 women in the UK, but most present with primary operable disease, which has an 80% 5-year survival rate overall.
Methods and outcomes
We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of interventions after breast-conserving surgery for ductal carcinoma in situ? What are the effects of treatments for primary operable breast cancer? What are the effects of interventions in locally advanced breast cancer (stage 3B)? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to April 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).
Results
We found 83 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions.
Conclusions
In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: adding chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide/methotrexate/fluorouracil and/or anthracycline and/or taxane-based regimens), or hormonal treatment to radiotherapy; adjuvant treatments (aromatase inhibitors, adjuvant anthracycline regimens, tamoxifen); axillary clearance; axillary dissection plus sentinel node dissection; axillary radiotherapy; axillary sampling; combined chemotherapy plus tamoxifen; chemotherapy plus monoclonal antibody (trastuzumab); extensive surgery; high-dose chemotherapy; hormonal treatment; less extensive mastectomy; less than whole-breast radiotherapy plus breast-conserving surgery; multimodal treatment; ovarian ablation; primary chemotherapy; prolonged adjuvant combination chemotherapy; radiotherapy (after breast-conserving surgery, after mastectomy, plus tamoxifen after breast-conserving surgery, to the internal mammary chain, and to the ipsilateral supraclavicular fossa, and total nodal radiotherapy); sentinel node biopsy; and standard chemotherapy regimens.
Key Points
Breast cancer affects at least 1 in 10 women in the UK, but most present with primary operable disease, which has an 80% 5-year survival rate overall.
In women with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), radiotherapy reduces local recurrence and invasive carcinoma after breast-conserving surgery. The role of tamoxifen added to radiotherapy for DCIS remains unclear because of conflicting results.
In women with primary operable breast cancer, survival may be increased by full surgical excision, tamoxifen, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, ovarian ablation, or trastuzumab (in women who over-express HER2/neu oncogene). Incomplete excision may increase the risk of local recurrence, but less-extensive mastectomy that excises all local disease is as effective as radical mastectomy at prolonging survival, with better cosmetic results. Axillary clearance (removal of all axillary lymph nodes) achieves local disease control, but has not been shown to increase survival, and can cause arm lymphoedema. Sentinel lymph node biopsy or 4-node sampling may adequately stage the axilla with less morbidity compared with axillary clearance. Adjuvant tamoxifen reduces the risk of recurrence and death in women with oestrogen-positive tumours. Primary chemotherapy may facilitate successful breast-conserving surgery instead of mastectomy. Adjuvant combination chemotherapy improves survival compared with no chemotherapy, with greatest benefit likely with anthracycline-based regimens at standard doses for 4 to 6 months.Radiotherapy decreases recurrence and mortality after breast-conserving surgery. Post-mastectomy radiotherapy for women who are node-positive or at high risk of recurrence decreases recurrence and mortality. Adjuvant aromatase inhibitors improve disease-free survival compared with tamoxifen, but their effect on overall survival is unclear. Adjuvant taxane-based regimens may improve disease-free survival over standard anthracycline-based therapy.
In women with locally advanced breast cancer, radiotherapy may be as effective as surgery or tamoxifen at increasing survival and local disease control. Adding tamoxifen or ovarian ablation to radiotherapy increases survival compared with radiotherapy alone, but adding chemotherapy may not reduce recurrence or mortality compared with radiotherapy alone.We don't know if chemotherapy alone improves survival in women with locally advanced breast cancer as we found few trials.
PMCID: PMC3217212  PMID: 21718560
10.  Up-to-date results of carbon-ion radiotherapy for prostate cancer 
Journal of Radiation Research  2014;55(Suppl 1):i28-i29.
Carbon ion radiotherapy (C-ion RT) for prostate cancer was started in 1995 using the Heavy-Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Japan. After preceding phase I/II dose-escalation studies of 20 fractions over 5 weeks, a phase II study was initiated in April 2000 using the treatment techniques and the recommended dose fractionations established by the phase I/II studies. This study was also successfully completed in October 2003 when the C-ion RT for solid tumors, including the prostate cancer, was approved as ‘Advanced Medicine’ by the Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare. Since then, more than 1400 patients have been treated with C-ion RT as of February 2012, and advancement of hypofractionation has also been achieved. In this paper, the treatment outcomes in 1144 patients who underwent the established C-ion RT between April 2000 and July 2012 were analyzed.
Out of 1144 patients, 585 patients were categorized as high-risk group, which includes patients having at least one of the following conditions: T3 clinical stage, Gleason's score of 8 or higher and PSA of 20 or higher. One hundred and ninety-seven patients who met the conditions such as clinical stage of T2a or lower, Gleason's score of 6 or lower and PSA of <20 were categorized as low-risk group. Three hundred and sixty-two patients who were not included in either high- or low-risk group were categorized as intermediate-risk group. All patients were pathologically proven to have adenocarcinoma of the prostate, and Gleason's score was determined by the chief pathologist of our study group. Written consent was obtained from all patients included in the clinical study. Patients with the following conditions were not registered in the clinical trial: having distant metastases, having synchronous primary malignancy, not histologically proven cancer, without informed consent, post-operative/post-irradiation recurrence.
All patients were treated with three field irradiations (vertical one field and horizontal opposing two fields). The prostate and proximal part of the seminal vesicle were contoured as clinical target volume (CTV), and planning target volume (PTV) was set with 5–10 mm margins around the CTV. On the way of radiotherapy, a part of irradiation field of the posterior side was cut to reduce the rectal dose. The 197 patients in the low-risk group did not undergo androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), whereas the 947 patients of intermediate- and high-risk groups underwent ADT. The patients of intermediate-risk group underwent about 6 months of neoadjuvant ADT, and the patients of high-risk group also underwent about 6 months of neoadjuvant ADT and sequential adjuvant ADT for more than 18 months. The median age of all patients was 68 years, and the median follow-up time was 48.7 months (range: 3.6–151.1 months).
The 5-year overall survival rate and biochemical relapse-free rate of the entire groups was 95.7% and 91.0%, respectively. T-stage and Gleason's score were significant prognostic factors for both the biochemical control and patient survival and initial PSA was also a predictive factor for survival. Regarding the late radiation toxicity, the incidence of rectal toxicity of grade 2 or worse was 1.1% and that of genitourinary toxicity was 6.5%. These outcomes seemed to be better than those of the past publications [ 1– 4]. In addition, the incidence of toxicity in patients treated with more hypofractionated C-ion RT of 16 fractions over 4 weeks was lower than those of 20 fraction treatment. These favorable outcomes can be thought as apparent evidence of physical and biological advantages of the hypofractionated C-ion RT.
doi:10.1093/jrr/rrt177
PMCID: PMC3941550
carbon-ion radiation therapy; prostate cancer; hypofractionation
11.  Phase I-II study of hypofractionated simultaneous integrated boost using volumetric modulated arc therapy for adjuvant radiation therapy in breast cancer patients: a report of feasibility and early toxicity results in the first 50 treatments 
Background
To report results in terms of feasibility and early toxicity of hypofractionated simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) approach with Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) as adjuvant treatment after breast-conserving surgery.
Methods
Between September 2010 and May 2011, 50 consecutive patients presenting early-stage breast cancer were submitted to adjuvant radiotherapy with SIB-VMAT approach using RapidArc in our Institution (Istituto Clinico Humanitas ICH). Three out of 50 patients were irradiated bilaterally (53 tumours in 50 patients). All patients were enrolled in a phase I-II trial approved by the ICH ethical committee. All 50 patients enrolled in the study underwent VMAT-SIB technique to irradiate the whole breast with concomitant boost irradiation of the tumor bed. Doses to whole breast and surgical bed were 40.5 Gy and 48 Gy respectively, delivered in 15 fractions over 3 weeks. Skin toxicities were recorded during and after treatment according to RTOG acute radiation morbidity scoring criteria with a median follow-up of 12 months (range 8–16). Cosmetic outcomes were assessed as excellent/good or fair/poor.
Results
The median age of the population was 68 years (range 36–88). According to AJCC staging system, 38 breast lesions were classified as pT1, and 15 as pT2; 49 cases were assessed as N0 and 4 as N1. The maximum acute skin toxicity by the end of treatment was Grade 0 in 20/50 patients, Grade 1 in 32/50, Grade 2 in 0 and Grade 3 in 1/50 (one of the 3 cases of bilateral breast irradiation). No Grade 4 toxicities were observed. All Grade 1 toxicities had resolved within 3 weeks. No significant differences in cosmetic scores on baseline assessment vs. 3 months and 6 months after the treatment were observed: all patients were scored as excellent/good (50/50) compared with baseline; no fair/poor judgment was recorded. No other toxicities or local failures were recorded during follow-up.
Conclusions
The 3-week course of postoperative radiation using VMAT with SIB showed to be feasible and was associated with acceptable acute skin toxicity profile. Long-term follow-up data are needed to assess late toxicity and clinical outcomes.
doi:10.1186/1748-717X-7-145
PMCID: PMC3488023  PMID: 22929062
Breast cancer; Simultaneous integrated boost; Hypofractionation; Volumetric modulated arc therapy
12.  Radiation-related quality of life parameters after targeted intraoperative radiotherapy versus whole breast radiotherapy in patients with breast cancer: results from the randomized phase III trial TARGIT-A 
Background
Intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) is a new treatment approach for early stage breast cancer. This study reports on the effects of IORT on radiation-related quality of life (QoL) parameters.
Methods
Two hundred and thirty women with stage I-III breast cancer (age, 31 to 84 years) were entered into the study. A single-center subgroup of 87 women from the two arms of the randomized phase III trial TARGIT-A (TARGeted Intra-operative radioTherapy versus whole breast radiotherapy for breast cancer) was analyzed. Furthermore, results were compared to non-randomized control groups: n = 90 receiving IORT as a tumor bed boost followed by external beam whole breast radiotherapy (EBRT) outside of TARGIT-A (IORT-boost), and n = 53 treated with EBRT followed by an external-beam boost (EBRT-boost). QoL was collected using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaires C30 (QLQ-C30) and BR23 (QLQ-BR23). The mean follow-up period in the TARGIT-A groups was 32 versus 39 months in the non-randomized control groups.
Results
Patients receiving IORT alone reported less general pain (21.3 points), breast (7.0 points) and arm (15.1 points) symptoms, and better role functioning (78.7 points) as patients receiving EBRT (40.9; 19.0; 32.8; and 60.5 points, respectively, P < 0.01). Patients receiving IORT alone also had fewer breast symptoms than TARGIT-A patients receiving IORT followed by EBRT for high risk features on final pathology (IORT-EBRT; 7.0 versus 29.7 points, P < 0.01). There were no significant differences between TARGIT-A patients receiving IORT-EBRT compared to non-randomized IORT-boost or EBRT-boost patients and patients receiving EBRT without a boost.
Conclusions
In the randomized setting, important radiation-related QoL parameters after IORT were superior to EBRT. Non-randomized comparisons showed equivalent parameters in the IORT-EBRT group and the control groups.
doi:10.1186/1748-717X-8-9
PMCID: PMC3896671  PMID: 23294485
Quality of life; Targeted intraoperative radiotherapy; Breast cancer; Boost; TARGIT-A trial
13.  High-dose accelerated hypofractionated three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (at 3 Gy/fraction) with concurrent vinorelbine and carboplatin chemotherapy in locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: a feasibility study 
Background
Increasing the radiotherapy dose can result in improved local control for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and can thereby improve survival. Accelerated hypofractionated radiotherapy can expose tumors to a high dose of radiation in a short period of time, but the optimal treatment regimen remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing high-dose accelerated hypofractionated three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (at 3 Gy/fraction) with concurrent vinorelbine (NVB) and carboplatin (CBP) chemotherapy for the treatment of local advanced NSCLC.
Methods
Untreated patients with unresectable stage IIIA/IIIB NSCLC or patients with a recurrence of NSCLC received accelerated hypofractionated three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy. The total dose was greater than or equal to 60 Gy. The accelerated hypofractionated radiotherapy was conducted once daily at 3 Gy/fraction with 5 fractions per week, and the radiotherapy was completed in 5 weeks. In addition to radiotherapy, the patients also received at least 1 cycle of a concurrent two-drug chemotherapy regimen of NVB and CBP.
Results
A total of 26 patients (19 previously untreated cases and 7 cases of recurrent disease) received 60Gy-75Gy radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy. All of the patients underwent evaluations for toxicity and preliminary therapeutic efficacy. There were no treatment-related deaths within the entire patient group. The major acute adverse reactions were radiation esophagitis (88.5%) and radiation pneumonitis (42.3%). The percentages of grade III acute radiation esophagitis and grade III radiation pneumonitis were 15.4% and 7.7%, respectively. Hematological toxicities were common and did not significantly affect the implementation of chemoradiotherapy after supportive treatment. Two patients received high dose of 75 Gy had grade III late esophageal toxicity, and none had grade IV and above. Grade III and above late lung toxicity did not occur.
Conclusion
High-dose accelerated hypofractionated three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy with a dose of 60 Gy or greater with concurrent NVB and CBP chemotherapy might be feasible. However esophagus toxicity needs special attention. A phase I trial is recommended to obtain the maximum tolerated radiation dose of accelerated hypofractionated radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy.
doi:10.1186/1748-717X-8-198
PMCID: PMC3751137  PMID: 23937855
Non-small-cell lung cancer; Accelerated hypofractionated radiotherapy; Concurrent chemoradiotherapy; Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy; Vinorelbine; Carboplatin
14.  Hypofractionated radiotherapy after conservative surgery for breast cancer: analysis of acute and late toxicity 
Background
A variety of hypofractionated radiotherapy schedules has been proposed after breast conserving surgery in the attempt to shorten the overall treatment time. The aim of the present study is to assess acute and late toxicity of using daily fractionation of 2.25 Gy to a total dose of 45 Gy to the whole breast in a mono-institutional series.
Methods
Eighty-five women with early breast cancer were assigned to receive 45 Gy followed by a boost to the tumour bed. Early and late toxicity were scored according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria. For comparison, a group of 70 patients with similar characteristics and treated with conventional fractionation of 2 Gy to a total dose of 50 Gy in 25 fractions followed by a boost, was retrospectively selected.
Results
Overall median treatment duration was 29 days for hypofractionated radiotherapy and 37 days for conventional radiotherapy. Early reactions were observed in 72/85 (85%) patients treated with hypofractionation and in 67/70 (96%) patients treated with conventional fractionation (p = 0.01). Late toxicity was observed in 8 patients (10%) in the hypofractionation group and in 10 patients (15%) in the conventional fractionation group, respectively (p = 0.4).
Conclusions
The hypofractionated schedule delivering 45 Gy in 20 fractions shortened the overall treatment time by 1 week with a reduction of skin acute toxicity and no increase of late effects compared to the conventional fractionation. Our results support the implementation of hypofractionated schedules in clinical practice.
doi:10.1186/1748-717X-5-112
PMCID: PMC3000406  PMID: 21092288
15.  Psychosocial encounters correlates with higher patient-reported functional quality of life in gynecological cancer patients receiving radiotherapy 
Background
Our objective was to assess longitudinal health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients treated with radiotherapy for gynecologic malignancy and assess the relationship of psychosocial encounters on HRQoL.
Methods
Women with gynecologic malignancy were prospectively enrolled and HRQoL assessed before, during, and after radiotherapy treatment using validated measures. Treatment and demographic information were reviewed. Mixed-effects models were used to assess changes in quality of life (QoL) over time and association of psychologist and social worker encounters with overall QoL as well as subdomains of QoL.
Results
Fifty-two women were enrolled and 41 completed at least one assessment. Fatigue (p = 0.008), nausea (p = 0.001), feeling ill (p = 0.007), and being bothered by side effects (p < 0.001) worsened on treatment with subsequent improvement. By follow-up, patients reported increased functional well-being (FWB) with significant decrease in worry (p = 0.003), increase in enjoyment of things usually done for fun (p = 0.003) and increase in contentment (p = 0.047). Twenty-three patients had at least one interaction with a social worker or psychologist during treatment. Each additional interaction was associated with a 2.12 increase in FWB score from before to after treatment (p = 0.002), and 1.74 increase from on to after treatment (p = 0.011). Additional interactions were not significantly associated with changes in overall FACT score (p = 0.056) or SWB (p = 0.305).
Conclusions
Patient-reported HRQoL significantly worsened during radiotherapy treatment with subsequent improvement, affirming transiency of treatment-induced toxicities. Our preliminary study suggests that clinically-recommended psychological and social work interventions have potential value with respect to improving patient QoL during radiotherapy. Larger studies are needed to validate our findings.
doi:10.1186/s13014-015-0339-2
PMCID: PMC4332924  PMID: 25657054
Gynecologic cancer; Radiation therapy; Patient reported outcomes; FACT-G; MDASI; Psychological support
16.  A comparative study of different dose fractionations schedule of thoracic radiotherapy for pain palliation and health-related quality of life in metastatic NSCLC 
Introduction:
To investigate the effect of different hypo fractionated thoracic radiotherapy schedules in relation to thoracic pain relief, overall survival and post radiotherapy HRQOL in metastatic NSCLC.
Material and methods:
Stage IV NSCLC and had intra-thoracic symptoms, included in the study. Patients were randomly assigned to three treatments arms. (i) 17 Gy in 2 fractions in one week (ii) 20 Gy in five fractions in one week. (iii) 30 Gy in 10 fractions in two weeks. BPI module was used to assess pain score before and after the thoracic radiotherapy. Functional assessment of cancer therapy-G (FACT-G) used to investigate changes in HRQOL. Clinicians’ assessment of symptom improvement were recorded at 2nd, 6th and 12th weeks after completion of TRT.
Results:
Pain relief, HRQOL and OS were equivalent in all the three arms. The median OS were 6 months, 5 months, 6 months in arm A, B and arm C, respectively.
Conclusion:
Protracted palliative thoracic radiotherapy renders no added advantage of relief of symptoms, HRQOL and overall survival compared to short course palliative TRT in metastatic NSCLC.
doi:10.4103/0970-2113.142111
PMCID: PMC4220316  PMID: 25378842
Health-related quality of life; non-small cell lung carcinoma; overall survival; palliative thoracic radiotherapy; pain relief
17.  Hypofractionated helical intensity-modulated radiotherapy of the prostate bed after prostatectomy with or without the pelvic lymph nodes - the PRIAMOS trial 
BMC Cancer  2012;12:504.
Background
While evidence on safety and efficacy of primary hypofractionated radiotherapy in prostate cancer is accumulating, data on postoperative hypofractionated treatment of the prostate bed and of the pelvic lymph nodes is still scarce. This phase II trial was initiated to investigate safety and feasibility of hypofractionated treatment of the prostate bed alone or with the pelvic lymph nodes.
Methods/design
A total of 80 prostate cancer patients with the indication for adjuvant radiotherapy will be enrolled, where 40 patients with a low risk of lymph node involvement (arm 1) and another 40 patients with a high risk of lymph node involvement (arm 2) will each receive 54 Gy in 18 fractions to the prostate bed. Arm 2 will be given 45 Gy to the pelvic lymph nodes additionally. Helical Tomotherapy and daily image guidance will be used.
Discussion
This trial was initiated to substantiate data on hypofractionated treatment of the prostate bed and generate first data on adjuvant hypofractionated radiotherapy of the pelvic lymph nodes.
Trial registration
ClinicalTrials.gov; NCT01620710
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-12-504
PMCID: PMC3495015  PMID: 23114055
Prostate cancer; Radiotherapy; Hypofractionation; Helical tomotherapy; Prostate bed; Pelvic lymph nodes
18.  Improving Symptom Communication Through Personal Digital Assistants: The CHAT (Communicating Health Assisted by Technology) Project 
Background
Communication problems impede effective symptom management during chemotherapy. The primary aim of this pilot randomized controlled trial was to test the effects of a personal digital assistant–delivered communication intervention on pain, depression, and fatigue symptoms among breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Secondary aims included assessment of 1) study feasibility, 2) patient and clinician responses to study participation, and 3) intervention effects on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and communication self-efficacy.
Methods
Intervention group participants (n = 27) completed symptom inventories at baseline, once per week during treatment, and at posttreatment. Depending on symptom severity, they viewed race-concordant videos on how to communicate about pain, depression and/or fatigue, using the personal digital assistant. Symptom records were tracked and shared with clinicians. Control group participants (n = 23) received usual care. Longitudinal random effects modeling assessed the changes in average symptom scores over time. Descriptive statistics assessed study feasibility and intervention effects on HRQoL and communication self-efficacy. Postintervention focus groups, interviews, and surveys assessed responses to study participation.
Results
Mean age of the participants was 51.0 years; 42 participants (84%) were white. In comparison with control, intervention group participants reported lower average pain severity over time (P = .015). Mean pain interference scores over time were marginally different between groups (P = .07); mean depression and fatigue scores over time were statistically nonsignificant. Feasibility outcomes and perspectives about study participation were positive. Mean pre–post decreases in HRQoL were generally higher among intervention group participants; pre–post changes in communication self-efficacy were equivalent.
Conclusion
Mixed findings of the study indicate the need for future research.
doi:10.1093/jncimonographs/lgt027
PMCID: PMC3881996  PMID: 24395985
19.  Randomized Controlled Trial of a Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Plus Hypnosis Intervention to Control Fatigue in Patients Undergoing Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer 
Journal of Clinical Oncology  2014;32(6):557-563.
Purpose
The objective of this study was to test the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy plus hypnosis (CBTH) to control fatigue in patients with breast cancer undergoing radiotherapy. We hypothesized that patients in the CBTH group receiving radiotherapy would have lower levels of fatigue than patients in an attention control group.
Patients and Methods
Patients (n = 200) were randomly assigned to either the CBTH (n = 100; mean age, 55.59 years) or attention control (n = 100; mean age, 55.97 years) group. Fatigue was measured at four time points (baseline, end of radiotherapy, 4 weeks, and 6 months after radiotherapy). Fatigue was measured using the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy (FACIT) –Fatigue subscale and Visual Analog Scales (VASs; Fatigue and Muscle Weakness).
Results
The CBTH group had significantly lower levels of fatigue (FACIT) at the end of radiotherapy (z, 6.73; P < .001), 4-week follow-up (z, 6.98; P < .001), and 6-month follow-up (z, 7.99; P < .001) assessments. Fatigue VAS scores were significantly lower in the CBTH group at the end of treatment (z, 5.81; P < .001) and at the 6-month follow-up (z, 4.56; P < .001), but not at the 4-week follow-up (P < .07). Muscle Weakness VAS scores were significantly lower in the CBTH group at the end of treatment (z, 9.30; P < .001) and at the 6-month follow-up (z, 3.10; P < .02), but not at the 4-week follow-up (P < .13).
Conclusion
The results support CBTH as an evidence-based intervention to control fatigue in patients undergoing radiotherapy for breast cancer. CBTH is noninvasive, has no adverse effects, and its beneficial effects persist long after the last intervention session. CBTH seems to be a candidate for future dissemination and implementation.
doi:10.1200/JCO.2013.49.3437
PMCID: PMC3918539  PMID: 24419112
20.  Randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effects of progressive resistance training compared to progressive muscle relaxation in breast cancer patients undergoing adjuvant radiotherapy: the BEST study 
BMC Cancer  2013;13:162.
Background
Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is one of the most common and distressing side effects of cancer and its treatment. During and after radiotherapy breast cancer patients often suffer from CRF which frequently impairs quality of life (QoL). Despite the high prevalence of CRF in breast cancer patients and the severe impact on the physical and emotional well-being, effective treatment methods are scarce.
Physical activity for breast cancer patients has been reported to decrease fatigue, to improve emotional well-being and to increase physical strength. The pathophysiological and molecular mechanisms of CRF and the molecular-biologic changes induced by exercise, however, are poorly understood.
In the BEST trial we aim to assess the effects of resistance training on fatigue, QoL and physical fitness as well as on molecular, immunological and inflammatory changes in breast cancer patients during adjuvant radiotherapy.
Methods/design
The BEST study is a prospective randomized, controlled intervention trial investigating the effects of a 12-week supervised progressive resistance training compared to a 12-week supervised muscle relaxation training in 160 patients with breast cancer undergoing adjuvant radiotherapy. To determine the effect of exercise itself beyond potential psychosocial group effects, patients in the control group perform a group-based progressive muscle relaxation training. Main inclusion criterion is histologically confirmed breast cancer stage I-III after lumpectomy or mastectomy with indication for adjuvant radiotherapy. Main exclusion criteria are acute infectious diseases, severe neurological, musculosceletal or cardiorespiratory disorders. The primary endpoint is cancer-related fatigue; secondary endpoints include immunological and inflammatory parameters analyzed in peripheral blood, saliva and urine. In addition, QoL, depression, physical performance and cognitive capacity will be assessed.
Discussion
The BEST study is the first randomized controlled trial comparing progressive resistance training with muscle relaxation training in breast cancer patients during adjuvant radiotherapy. Based on the analysis of physiological, immunological and inflammatory parameters it will contribute to a better understanding of the physiological and psychosocial effects and the biological mechanisms of resistance training. The ultimate goal is the implementation of optimized intervention programs to reduce fatigue, improve quality of life and potentially the prognosis after breast cancer.
Trial registration
ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01468766
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-13-162
PMCID: PMC3617011  PMID: 23537231
21.  Improvement in quality of life measures in patients with refractory hepatitis C, responding to re-treatment with Pegylated interferon alpha -2b and ribavirin 
Background
In this paper, we report the health related quality of life (HRQOL) data from patients with hepatitis C viral infection (HCV) who were refractory to prior therapy and had re-treatment with a combination of Pegylated interferon alpha-2b and ribavirin. We hypothesized that the HRQOL will improve in those patients who attain sustained viral response similar to naïve patients undergoing treatment for HCV.
Methods
HRQOL data was obtained from 152 patients enrolled into a randomized study for re-treatment of HCV refractory to prior therapy with interferon alpha-2b in combination with ribavirin. The treatment protocol was for 48 weeks and had a high and low dose arm. The HRQOL data was collected at baseline, weeks 24 and 48 of treatment, and at 24 week follow-up after treatment. A repeated measures statistical model was used for comparing the HRQOL domain scores between the responders and non-responders and the treatment groups. The responders and non-responders were also compared to the age and sex adjusted national mean scores.
Results
Twenty-five of the 152 (17%) patients achieved a sustained viral response. At baseline, HRQOL is lower in HCV patients compared to national norms. The norm based HRQOL domain scores for the different domains of the SF-36 instrument were as follows: physical functioning = 47.13, role-physical = 46.87, bodily pain = 48.00, general health = 44.01, vitality = 45.39, social functioning = 47.05, role-emotional = 48.88, mental health = 48.76, physical component score 43.26 and mental component score = 46.17. The scores decreased during therapy in those who would be responders and non-responders, but the pattern of change was different. During the treatment, the HRQOL domain scores of responders decrease notably in the domain of vitality. At week 48 vitality scores were worst in responders. 5 of the 8 domain scores were lower compared to baseline in non-responders. At 24 weeks post treatment follow up, HRQOL in those refractory patients who respond to re-treatment tended to be better than the national average in the domains of vitality (p = .06), social functioning (p = .06) and role-emotional (p = .03) while the non-responders improved their scores in domains of physical function and bodily pain.
Conclusion
We conclude that patients who are to be responders and non-responders behave differently in terms of the HRQOL domain scores when re-treated with a combination of interferon alpha 2b and ribavirin. The responders sustained a significant decrease in the domain score of vitality while 5 of the 8 domain scores decrease in non-responders at the end of treatment. At the end of follow up, in responders, the HRQOL score tended to be better than the national average notably in the domains of role-emotional, vitality and social functioning. On the other hand, in non-responders, the domain scores of physical function improve, while that of role-emotional worsened.
doi:10.1186/1477-7525-4-30
PMCID: PMC1479317  PMID: 16696859
22.  Evidence from a breast cancer hypofractionated schedule: late skin toxicity assessed by ultrasound 
Background
Feasibility of whole breast hypofractionated radiotherapy schedules in breast conserving therapy is recognized however concerns remain about the role of the boost dose on the overall treatment’s potential toxicity. In this study we report on the possibility to quantitatively evaluate radiation induced toxicity in patients treated with an abbreviated course with major concern in the irradiated boost region.
Methods
Eighty-nine patients who underwent conservative surgery for early-stage breast cancer followed by adjuvant accelerated hypofractionated whole breast radiotherapy were included in this study to assess skin and subcutaneous tissue late toxicity by means of ultrasonographic quantitative examination. For each patient the skin thickness was measured at four positions: on the irradiated breast, in the boost region and in the corresponding positions in the contra-lateral not treated breast. All patients were scanned by the same radiologist to reduce potential inter-operator variability, the operator was blind to the scoring of the patient CTCv3 late toxicity as well as patient treatment characteristics. Ultrasound assessment and clinical evaluation were compared.
Results
The median time between the end of adjuvant radiotherapy and ultrasound examination was 20.5 months. The measured mean skin thickness in the irradiated breast was 2.13 ± 0.72 mm while in the mirror region of the contra-lateral healthy breast was 1.61 ± 0.29 mm. The measured mean skin thickness in the irradiated boost region was 2.25 ± 0.79 mm versus 1.63 ± 0.33 mm in the corresponding region of contra-lateral healthy breast. The mean increment in skin thickness respect to the counterpart in the healthy breast was 0.52 ± 0.67 mm and 0.62 ± 0.74 mm for the breast and the boost region respectively. A significant direct correlation was found between the increment in skin thickness in the irradiated breast and in the boost region with fibrosis (G ≥ 1).
Conclusions
In this study results from a breast cancer hypofractionated schedule in terms of late skin toxicity are reported. In particular our study confirms that late cutaneous reactions can be reliably assed by ultrasonographic examination, also discriminating between regions irradiated at different doses, and that this instrumental evaluation is in agreement with clinical stated toxicity.
doi:10.1186/1756-9966-32-80
PMCID: PMC4029440  PMID: 24423027
Breast cancer ultrasound tissue characterization; Radiation toxicity; Hypofractionactionated radiotherapy
23.  A randomized hypofractionation dose escalation trial for high risk prostate cancer patients: interim analysis of acute toxicity and quality of life in 124 patients 
Background
The α/β ratio for prostate cancer is postulated being in the range of 0.8 to 2.2 Gy, giving rise to the hypothesis that there may be a therapeutic advantage to hypofractionation. To do so, we carried out a randomized trial comparing hypofractionated and conventionally fractionated image-guided intensity modulated radiotherapy (IG-IMRT) in high-risk prostate cancer. Here, we report on acute toxicity and quality of life (QOL) for the first 124 randomized patients.
Methods
The trial compares 76 Gy in 38 fractions (5 fractions/week) (Arm 1) to 63 Gy in 20 fractions (4 fractions/week) (Arm 2) (IG-IMRT). Prophylactic pelvic lymph node irradiation with 46 Gy in 23 fractions sequentially (Arm 1) and 44 Gy in 20 fractions simultaneously (Arm 2) was applied. All patients had long term androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) started before RT. Both physician-rated acute toxicity and patient-reported QOL using EPIC questionnaire are described.
Results
There were no differences in overall maximum acute gastrointestinal (GI) or genitourinary (GU) toxicity. Compared to conventional fractionation (Arm 1), GI and GU toxicity both developed significantly earlier but also disappeared earlier in the Arm 2, reaching significant differences from Arm 1 at week 8 and 9. In multivariate analyses, only parameter shown to be related to increased acute Grade ≥1 GU toxicity was the study Arm 2 (p = 0.049). There were no statistically significant differences of mean EPIC scores in any domain and sub-scales. The clinically relevant decrease (CRD) in EPIC urinary domain was significantly higher in Arm 2 at month 1 with a faster recovery at month 3 as compared to Arm 1.
Conclusions
Hypofractionation at 3.15 Gy per fraction to 63 Gy within 5 weeks was well tolerated. The GI and GU physician-rated acute toxicity both developed earlier but recovered faster using hypofractionation. There was a correlation between acute toxicity and bowel and urinary QOL outcomes. Longer follow-up is needed to determine the significance of these associations with late toxicity.
doi:10.1186/1748-717X-8-206
PMCID: PMC3846611  PMID: 24007322
24.  Impact of interval from breast conserving surgery to radiotherapy on local recurrence in older women with breast cancer: retrospective cohort analysis 
Objectives To determine if the length of interval between breast conserving surgery and start of radiotherapy affects local recurrence and to identify factors that might be associated with delay in older women with breast cancer.
Design Retrospective cohort analysis with Cox proportional hazards models to study the association between time to radiotherapy and local recurrence, and propensity score and instrumental variable analyses to confirm findings. Logistic regression investigated factors associated with later start of radiotherapy.
Setting Linked database (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program-Medicare) in the United States
Participants 18 050 women aged over 65 with stage 0-II breast cancer diagnosed in 1991-2002 who received breast conserving surgery and radiotherapy but not chemotherapy.
Main outcome measure Local recurrence.
Results Median time from surgery to start of radiotherapy was 34 days, with 29.9% (n=5389) of women starting radiotherapy after six weeks. Just over 4% (n=734) of the cohort experienced a local recurrence. After adjustment for clinical and sociodemographic factors, intervals over six weeks were associated with increased likelihood of local recurrence (hazard ratio 1.19, 95% confidence interval 1.01 to 1.39, P=0.033). When the interval was modelled continuously (assessing accumulation of risk by day), the effect was statistically stronger (hazard ratio 1.005 per day, 1.002 to 1.008, P=0.004). Propensity score and instrumental variable analysis confirmed these findings. Instrumental variable analysis showed that intervals over six weeks were associated with a 0.96% increase in recurrence at five years (P=0.026). In multivariable analysis, starting radiotherapy after six weeks was significantly associated with positive nodes, comorbidity, history of low income, Hispanic ethnicity, non-white race, later year of diagnosis, and residence outside the southern states of the US.
Conclusions There is a continuous relation between the interval from breast conserving surgery to radiotherapy and local recurrence in older women with breast cancer, suggesting that starting radiotherapy as soon as possible could minimise the risk of local recurrence. There are considerable disparities in time to starting radiotherapy after breast conserving surgery. Regions of the US known to have increased rates of breast conserving surgery had longer intervals before radiotherapy, suggesting limitations in capacity. Given the known negative impact of local recurrence on survival, mechanisms to ameliorate disparities and policies regarding waiting times for treatment might be warranted.
doi:10.1136/bmj.c845
PMCID: PMC2831170  PMID: 20197326
25.  Breast cancer (non-metastatic) 
Clinical Evidence  2007;2007:0102.
Introduction
Breast cancer affects at least 1 in 10 women in the UK, but most present with primary operable disease, which has an 80% 5-year survival rate overall.
Methods and outcomes
We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of interventions after breast-conserving surgery for ductal carcinoma in situ? What are the effects of treatments for primary operable breast cancer? What are the effects of interventions in locally advanced breast cancer (stage IIIB)? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to February 2006 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).
Results
We found 79 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions.
Conclusions
In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: adding chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide/methotrexate/ fluorouracil and/or anthracycline and/or taxane-based regimens), or hormonal treatment to radiotherapy; adjuvant treatments (aromatase inhibitors, adjuvant anthracycline regimens, tamoxifen); axillary clearance; axillary dissection plus sentinel node dissection; axillary radiotherapy; axillary sampling; combined chemotherapy plus tamoxifen; chemotherapy plus monoclonal antibody (trastuzumab); extensive surgery; high-dose chemotherapy; hormonal treatment; less extensive mastectomy; less than whole breast radiotherapy plus breast conserving surgery; multimodal treatment; ovarian ablation; primary chemotherapy; prolonged adjuvant combination chemotherapy; radiotherapy (after breast-conserving surgery, after mastectomy, plus tamoxifen after breast-conserving surgery, to the internal mammary chain, and to the ipsilateral supraclavicular fossa, and total nodal radiotherapy); sentinel node biopsy; and standard chemotherapy regimens.
Key Points
Breast cancer affects at least 1 in 10 women in the UK, but most present with primary operable disease, which has an 80% 5-year survival rate overall.
In women with ductal carcinoma in situ, radiotherapy reduces local recurrence and invasive carcinoma after breast-conserving surgery, but may not improve survival.
In women with primary operable breast cancer, survival may be increased by full surgical excision, tamoxifen, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, ovarian ablation or trastuzumab (in women who overexpress HER2/neu oncogene). Incomplete excision may increase the risk of local recurrence, but less-extensive mastectomy that excises all local disease is as effective as radical mastectomy at prolonging survival, with better cosmetic results. Axillary clearance (removal of all axillary lymph nodes) achieves local disease control, but has not been shown to increase survival, and can cause arm lymphoedema. Sentinel lymph node biopsy or 4-node sampling may adequately stage the axilla with less morbidity compared with axillary clearance. Adjuvant tamoxifen reduces the risk of recurrence and death in women with oestrogen-positive tumours, but adverse effects begin to outweigh benefit after 5 years of treatment. Primary chemotherapy may facilitate successful breast-conserving surgery instead of mastectomy. Adjuvant combination chemotherapy improves survival compared with no chemotherapy, with greatest benefit likely with anthracycline-based regimens at standard doses for 4-6 months.Radiotherapy decreases recurrence and mortality after breast-conserving surgery. Post-mastectomy radiotherapy for women who are node-positive or at high risk of recurrence decreases recurrence and mortality, but may increase mortality in node-negative women. Adjuvant aromatase inhibitors improve disease-free survival compared with tamoxifen, but their effect on overall survival is unclear.Adjuvant taxoid regimens may improve disease-free survival over standard anthracycline-based therapy.
In women with locally advanced breast cancer, radiotherapy may be as effective as surgery or tamoxifen at increasing survival and local disease control. Adding tamoxifen or ovarian ablation to radiotherapy increases survival compared with radiotherapy alone, but adding chemotherapy may not reduce recurrence or mortality compared with radiotherapy alone.Chemotherapy alone, while widely used, does not improve survival in women with locally advanced breast cancer.
PMCID: PMC2943780  PMID: 19450345

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