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1.  Mind the gap—reaching the European target of a 2-year increase in healthy life years in the next decade 
Background: The European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing seeks an increase of two healthy life years (HLY) at birth in the EU27 for the next 10 years. We assess the feasibility of doing so between 2010 and 2020 and the differential impact among countries by applying different scenarios to current trends in HLY. Methods: Data comprised HLY and life expectancy (LE) at birth 2004–09 from Eurostat. We estimated HLY in 2010 in each country by multiplying the Eurostat projections of LE in 2010 by the ratio HLY/LE obtained either from country and sex-specific linear regression models of HLY/LE on year (seven countries retaining same HLY question) or extrapolating the average of HLY/LE in 2008 and 2009 to 2010 (20 countries and EU27). The first scenario continued these trends with three other scenarios exploring different HLY gap reductions between 2010 and 2020. Results: The estimated gap in HLY in 2010 was 17.5 years (men) and 18.9 years (women). Assuming current trends continue, EU27 HLY increased by 1.4 years (men) and 0.9 years (women), below the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing target, with the HLY gap between countries increasing to 18.3 years (men) and 19.5 years (women). To eliminate the HLY gap in 20 years, the EU27 must gain 4.4 HLY (men) and 4.8 HLY (women) in the next decade, which, for some countries, is substantially more than what the current trends suggest. Conclusion: Global targets for HLY move attention from inter-country differences and, alongside the current economic crisis, may contribute to increase health inequalities.
doi:10.1093/eurpub/ckt030
PMCID: PMC3784798  PMID: 23487547
2.  The joint action on healthy life years (JA: EHLEIS) 
Background
Life expectancy has been increasing during the last century within the European Union (EU). To measure progress in population health it is no longer sufficient to focus on the duration of life but quality of life should be considered. Healthy Life Years (HLY) allow estimating the quality of the remaining years that a person is expected to live, in terms of being free of long-standing activity limitation. The Joint Action on Healthy Life Years (JA: EHLEIS) is a joint action of European Member States (MS) and the European Union aiming at analysing trends, patterns and differences in HLY, as well as in other Summary Measures of Population Health (SMPH) indicators, across the European member states.
Methods
The JA: EHLEIS consolidates existing information on life and health expectancy by maximising the European comparability; by analysing trends in HLY within the EU; by analysing the evolution of the differences in HLY between Member States; and by identifying both macro-level as micro-level determinants of the inequalities in HLY. The JA: EHLEIS works in collaboration with the USA, Japan and OECD on the development of new SMPHs to be used globally. To strengthen the utility of the HLY for policy-making, annual meetings with policy-makers are planned.
Results
The information system allows the estimation of a set of health indicators (morbidity and disability prevalence, life and health expectancies) for Europe, Member States and shortly their regional levels. An annual country report on HLY in the national languages is available. The JA: EHLEIS is developing statistical attribution and decomposition tools which will be helpful to determine the impact of specific diseases, life styles or other determinants on differences in HLY. Through a set of international workshops the JA: EHLEIS aims to develop a blueprint for an international harmonized Summary Measure of Population Health.
Conclusion
The JA: EHLEIS objectives are to monitor progress towards the headline target of the Europe 2020 strategy of increasing HLY by 2 years by 2020 and to support policy development by identifying the main determinants of active and healthy ageing in Europe.
doi:10.1186/0778-7367-71-2
PMCID: PMC3598905  PMID: 23379576
Health status indicators; Gender; Socioeconomic status; Public health; Health expectancy; Healthy life years; EU
3.  Gender differences in healthy life years within the EU: an exploration of the “health–survival” paradox 
Objectives
To evaluated the female–male health–survival paradox by estimating the contribution of women’s mortality advantage versus women’s disability disadvantage.
Methods
Disability prevalence was measured from the 2006 Survey on Income and Living Conditions in 25 European countries. Disability prevalence was applied to life tables to estimate healthy life years (HLY) at age 15. Gender differences in HLY were split into two parts: that due to gender inequality in mortality and that due to gender inequality in disability. The relationship between women’s mortality advantage or disability disadvantage and the level of population health between countries was analysed using random-effects meta-regression.
Results
Women’s mortality advantage contributes to more HLY in women; women’s higher prevalence of disability reduces the difference in HLY. In populations with high life expectancy women’s advantage in HLY was small or even a men’s advantage was found. In populations with lower life expectancy, the hardship among men is already evident at young ages.
Conclusions
The results suggest that the health–survival paradox is a function of the level of population health, dependent on modifiable factors.
doi:10.1007/s00038-012-0361-1
PMCID: PMC3557379  PMID: 22618297
Europe; Gender; Health expectancy; Health inequality; Healthy life years; Health–survival paradox
4.  The Old-Age Healthy Dependency Ratio in Europe 
Journal of Population Ageing  2012;5(3):151-162.
The aim of this study is to answer the question of whether improvements in the health of the elderly in European countries could compensate for population ageing on the supply side of the labour market. We propose a state-of-health-specific (additive) decomposition of the old-age dependency ratio into an old-age healthy dependency ratio and an old-age unhealthy dependency ratio in order to participate in a discussion of the significance of changes in population health to compensate for the ageing of the labour force. Applying the proposed indicators to the Eurostat’s population projection for the years 2010–2050, and assuming there will be equal improvements in life expectancy and healthy life expectancy at birth, we discuss various scenarios concerning future of the European labour force. While improvements in population health are anticipated during the years 2010–2050, the growth in the number of elderly people in Europe may be expected to lead to a rise in both healthy and unhealthy dependency ratios. The healthy dependency ratio is, however, projected to make up the greater part of the old-age dependency ratio. In the European countries in 2006, the value of the old-age dependency ratio was 25. But in the year 2050, with a positive migration balance over the years 2010–2050, there would be 18 elderly people in poor health plus 34 in good health per 100 people in the current working age range of 15–64. In the scenarios developed in this study, we demonstrate that improvements in health and progress in preventing disability will not, by themselves, compensate for the ageing of the workforce. However, coupled with a positive migration balance, at the level and with the age structure assumed in the Eurostat’s population projections, these developments could ease the effect of population ageing on the supply side of the European labour market.
doi:10.1007/s12062-012-9068-6
PMCID: PMC3412045  PMID: 22924086
Population ageing; Old-age dependency ratio; Health indicators; Older workforce
5.  Quantifying Options for Reducing Coronary Heart Disease Mortality By 2020 
Circulation  2013;127(25):2477-2484.
Introduction
The AHA 2020 Strategic Impact Goal proposes a 20% improvement in cardiovascular health of all Americans. We aimed to estimate the potential reduction in coronary heart disease (CHD) deaths.
Methods and Results
We used data on 40,373 CVD-free adults from NHANES (1988–2010). We quantified recent trends for six metrics (total cholesterol [TC]; systolic blood pressure [SBP]; physical inactivity; smoking; diabetes; obesity) and generated linear projections to 2020. We projected the expected number of CHD deaths in 2020 if 2006 age- and sex-specific CHD death rates remained constant, which would result in approximately 480,000 CHD deaths in 2020 (12% increase). We used the previously validated IMPACT CHD model to project numbers of CHD deaths in 2020 under two different scenarios.
A) Assuming a 20% improvement in each CVH metric, we project 365,000 CHD deaths in 2020, (range 327,000–403,000) a 24% decrease reflecting modest reductions in TC (−41,000), SBP (−36,000), physical inactivity (−12,000), smoking (−10,000), diabetes (−10,000), and obesity (−5,000). B) Assuming that recent risk factor trends continue to 2020, we project 335,000 CHD deaths (range 274,000–386,000), a 30% decrease reflecting improvements in TC, SBP, smoking and physical activity (~167,000 fewer deaths), offset by increases in diabetes and BMI (~24,000 more deaths).
Conclusions
Two contrasting scenarios of change in CVH metrics could prevent 24–30% of the CHD deaths expected in 2020, though with differing impacts by age. Unfavorable continuing trends in obesity and diabetes would have substantial adverse effects. This analysis demonstrates the utility of modelling to inform health policy.
doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.112.000769
PMCID: PMC3795417  PMID: 23661723
heart disease; American Heart Association; epidemiology; risk factor
6.  Gender differences in health of EU10 and EU15 populations: the double burden of EU10 men 
European Journal of Ageing  2010;7(4):219-227.
This study compares gender differences in Healthy Life Years (HLY) and unhealthy life years (ULY) between the original (EU15) and new member states (EU10). Based on the number of deaths, population and prevalence of activity limitations from the Statistics of Living and Income Conditions Survey (SILC) survey, we calculated HLY and ULY for the EU10 and EU15 in 2006 with the Sullivan method. We used decomposition analysis to assess the contributions of mortality and disability and age to gender differences in HLY and ULY. HLY at age 15 for women in the EU10 were 3.1 years more than those for men at the same age, whereas HLY did not differ by gender in the EU15. In both populations ULY at age 15 for women exceeded those for men by 5.5 years. Decomposition showed that EU10 women had more HLY because higher disability in women only partially offset (−0.8 years) the effect of lower mortality (+3.9 years). In the EU15 women’s higher disability prevalence almost completely offset women’s lower mortality. The 5.3 fewer ULY in EU10 men than in EU10 women mainly reflected higher male mortality (4.5 years), while the fewer ULY in EU15 men than in EU15 women reflected both higher male mortality (2.9 years) and higher female disability (2.6 years). The absence of a clear gender gap in HLY in the EU15 thus masked important gender differences in mortality and disability. The similar size of the gender gap in ULY in the EU-10 and EU-15 masked the more unfavourable health situation of EU10 men, in particular the much stronger and younger mortality disadvantage in combination with the virtually absent disability advantage below age 65 in men.
doi:10.1007/s10433-010-0169-x
PMCID: PMC2995874  PMID: 21212821
Health expectancy; Life expectancy; Healthy life years; Gender differences
7.  Forecasting Diabetes Prevalence in California: A Microsimulation 
Preventing Chronic Disease  2011;8(4):A80.
Introduction
Setting a goal for controlling type 2 diabetes is important for planning health interventions. The purpose of this study was to explore what may be a feasible goal for type 2 diabetes prevention in California.
Methods
We used the UCLA Health Forecasting Tool, a microsimulation model that simulates individual life courses in the population, to forecast the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in California's adult population in 2020. The first scenario assumes no further increases in average body mass index (BMI) for cohorts entering adolescence after 2003. The second scenario assumes a gradual BMI decrease for children entering adolescence after 2010. The third scenario builds on the second by extending the same BMI decrease to people aged 12 to 65 years. The fourth scenario builds on the third by eliminating racial/ethnic disparities in physical activity.
Results
We found the predicted diabetes prevalence of the first, second, third, and fourth scenarios in 2020 to be 9.93%, 9.91%, 9.76%, and 9.77%, respectively. We found obesity prevalence for type 2 diabetes patients in 2020 to be 34.2%, 34.0%, 25.7%, and 25.6% for the 4 scenarios. Life expectancy in the third (80.56 y) and fourth (80.94 y) scenarios compared favorably with that of the first (80.32 y) and second (80.32 y) scenarios.
Conclusion
For the next 10 years, behavioral risk factor modifications are more likely to affect obesity prevalence and life expectancy in the general population and obesity prevalence among diabetic patients than to alter type 2 diabetes prevalence in the general population. We suggest setting more specific goals for reducing the prevalence of diabetes, such as reducing obesity-related diabetes complications, which may be more feasible and easier to evaluate than the omnibus goal of lowering overall type 2 diabetes prevalence by 2020.
PMCID: PMC3136987  PMID: 21672404
8.  Costs and Cost-Effectiveness of Training Traditional Birth Attendants to Reduce Neonatal Mortality in the Lufwanyama Neonatal Survival Study (LUNESP) 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(4):e35560.
Background
The Lufwanyama Neonatal Survival Project (“LUNESP”) was a cluster randomized, controlled trial that showed that training traditional birth attendants (TBAs) to perform interventions targeting birth asphyxia, hypothermia, and neonatal sepsis reduced all-cause neonatal mortality by 45%. This companion analysis was undertaken to analyze intervention costs and cost-effectiveness, and factors that might improve cost-effectiveness.
Methods and Findings
We calculated LUNESP's financial and economic costs and the economic cost of implementation for a forecasted ten-year program (2011–2020). In each case, we calculated the incremental cost per death avoided and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted in real 2011 US dollars. The forecasted 10-year program analysis included a base case as well as ‘conservative’ and ‘optimistic’ scenarios. Uncertainty was characterized using one-way sensitivity analyses and a multivariate probabilistic sensitivity analysis. The estimated financial and economic costs of LUNESP were $118,574 and $127,756, respectively, or $49,469 and $53,550 per year. Fixed costs accounted for nearly 90% of total costs. For the 10-year program, discounted total and annual program costs were $256,455 and $26,834 respectively; for the base case, optimistic, and conservative scenarios, the estimated cost per death avoided was $1,866, $591, and $3,024, and cost per DALY averted was $74, $24, and $120, respectively. Outcomes were robust to variations in local costs, but sensitive to variations in intervention effect size, number of births attended by TBAs, and the extent of foreign consultants' participation.
Conclusions
Based on established guidelines, the strategy of using trained TBAs to reduce neonatal mortality was ‘highly cost effective’. We strongly recommend consideration of this approach for other remote rural populations with limited access to health care.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0035560
PMCID: PMC3335866  PMID: 22545117
9.  Prevalence of the American Heart Association's “Ideal Cardiovascular Health” Metrics in a Rural, Cross‐sectional, Community‐Based Study: The Heart of New Ulm Project 
Background
The American Heart Association (AHA) recently created the construct of “ideal cardiovascular health” based on 7 cardiovascular health metrics to measure progress toward their 2020 Impact Goal. The present study applied this construct to assess the baseline cardiovascular health of a rural population targeted with a community‐based cardiovascular disease prevention program.
Methods and Results
The sample consists of 4754 New Ulm, Minn, adult residents who participated in either the 2009 or 2011 community heart health screenings offered by the Hearts Beat Back: The Heart of New Ulm (HONU) Project (mean age 52.1 years, 58.3% women). Data collected at the screenings were analyzed to replicate the AHA's ideal cardiovascular health measure and the 7 metrics that comprise the construct. Screening participants met, on average (±SD), 3.4 (±1.4) ideal cardiovascular health metrics. Only 1.0% of participants met the AHA's definition of ideal health in all metrics and 7.1% met ≤1 ideal health metric. Higher proportions of women met the ideal category in all metrics except physical activity. Women over the age of 60 were less likely to meet the ideal category for cholesterol and hypertension than were men in the same age range.
Conclusion
Prevalence of ideal cardiovascular health is extremely low in this rural population. To make progress toward the 2020 Impact Goal, targeted community‐based interventions must be implemented based on the most prevalent cardiovascular risk factors.
doi:10.1161/JAHA.113.000058
PMCID: PMC3698762  PMID: 23619743
cardiovascular diseases; coronary disease; prevention; risk factors
10.  Does the development of new medicinal products in the European Union address global and regional health concerns? 
Background
Since 1995, approval for many new medicinal products has been obtained through a centralized procedure in the European Union. In recent years, the use of summary measures of population health has become widespread. We investigated whether efforts to develop innovative medicines are focusing on the most relevant conditions from a global public health perspective.
Methods
We reviewed the information on new medicinal products approved by centralized procedure from 1995 to 2009, information that is available to the public in the European Commission Register of medicinal products and the European Public Assessment Reports from the European Medicines Agency. Morbidity and mortality data were included for each disease group, according to the Global Burden of Disease project. We evaluated the association between authorized medicinal products and burden of disease measures based on disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in the European Union and worldwide.
Results
We considered 520 marketing authorizations for medicinal products and 338 active ingredients. New authorizations were seen to increase over the period analyzed. There was a positive, high correlation between DALYs and new medicinal product development (ρ = 0.619, p = 0.005) in the European Union, and a moderate correlation for middle-low-income countries (ρ = 0.497, p = 0.030) and worldwide (ρ = 0.490, p = 0.033). The most neglected conditions at the European level (based on their attributable health losses) were neuropsychiatric diseases, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases, sense organ conditions, and digestive diseases, while globally, they were perinatal conditions, respiratory infections, sense organ conditions, respiratory diseases, and digestive diseases.
Conclusions
We find that the development of new medicinal products is higher for some diseases than others. Pharmaceutical industry leaders and policymakers are invited to consider the implications of this imbalance by establishing work plans that allow for the setting of future priorities from a public health perspective.
doi:10.1186/1478-7954-8-34
PMCID: PMC3017015  PMID: 21172012
11.  The Role of Colleges and Schools of Pharmacy in the Advent of Healthy People 2020 
As the need for more experiential sites increases, colleges and schools of pharmacy should consider innovative and strategic approaches to expansion including adding programs that would address the target areas emphasized by Healthy People 2020. Healthy People 2020 encompasses the following areas: adolescent health, early and middle childhood, genomics, global health, health information technology, healthcare-associated infections, hearing and other sensory or communicating disorders (ear, nose, throat-voice, speech and language), weight status, older adults, quality of life and well-being, and social determinants of health. Academic leaders should consider what role exists for pharmacy practice in these areas and focus future program and curriculum development on Healthy People 2020 topic areas.
PMCID: PMC3101208  PMID: 21655410
introductory pharmacy practice experiences; advanced pharmacy practice experiences; experiential education; public health; Healthy People 2020
12.  Towards personal health care with model-guided medicine: long-term PPPM-related strategies and realisation opportunities within ‘Horizon 2020’ 
The EPMA Journal  2014;5(1):8.
At the international EPMA Summit carried out in the EU Parliament (September 2013), the main challenges in Predictive, Preventive and Personalised Medicine have been discussed and strategies outlined in order to implement scientific and technological innovation in medicine and healthcare utilising new strategic programmes such as ‘Horizon 2020’.
The joint EPMA (European Association for Predictive, Preventive and Personalised Medicine) / IFCARS (International Foundation for Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery) paper emphasises the consolidate position of the leading experts who are aware of the great responsibility of being on a forefront of predictive, preventive and personalised medicine. Both societies consider long-term international partnerships and multidisciplinary projects to create PPPM relevant innovation in science, technological tools and practical implementation in healthcare. Personalisation in healthcare urgently needs innovation in design of PPPM-related medical services, new products, research, education, didactic materials, propagation of targeted prevention in the society and treatments tailored to the person. For the paradigm shift from delayed reactive to predictive, preventive and personalised medicine, a new culture should be created in communication between individual professional domains, between doctor and patient, as well as in communication with individual social (sub)groups and patient cohorts. This is a long-term mission in personalised healthcare with the whole spectrum of instruments available and to be created in the field.
doi:10.1186/1878-5085-5-8
PMCID: PMC4038822  PMID: 24883142
Predictive preventive personalised medicine; Healthcare; ICT; Model-guided medicine; Evidence-based medicine; Medical information and model management system; Patient-specific model; Horizon 2020
13.  Using mortality follow-up of surveys to estimate social inequalities in healthy life years 
Background
The estimation of healthy life years (HLY) by socio-economic status (SES) requires two types of data: the prevalence of activity limitation by SES generally extracted from surveys and mortality rates by SES generally derived from a linkage between the SES information in population databases (census, register) and mortality records. In some situations, no population-wide databases are available to produce mortality rates by SES, and therefore some alternatives must be explored. This paper assesses the validity of calculating HLY by SES using mortality rates derived from a linkage between surveys and mortality records.
Methods
Two surveys were chosen to explore the validity of the proposed approach: The Belgian Health Interview Survey (HIS) and the Belgian Survey on Income and Living Conditions (SILC). The mortality follow-up of these surveys were used to calculate HLY by educational level at age 25. These HLY were compared with HLY estimates calculated using the mortality follow-up of the 2001 census. The validity of this approach was evaluated against two criteria. First, the HLY calculated using the census and those calculated using the surveys must not be significantly different. Second, survey-based HLY must show significant social inequalities since such inequalities have been consistently reported with census-based HLY.
Results
Both criteria were met. First, for each educational category, no statistically significant difference was found when comparing census-based and survey-based HLY estimates. For instance, men in the lowest educational category have shown a HLY of 34 years according to the HIS, and while this figure was 35.5 years according to the census, this difference was not statistically significant. Second, the survey-based HLY have shown a significant social gradient. For instance, men in the highest educational category are expected to live 9.5 more HLY than their counterparts in the lowest educational category based on the HIS estimates, compared with 7.3 HLY based on the census estimates.
Conclusions
This article suggests that using the mortality follow-up of a nationally representative cross-sectional survey is a valid approach to monitor social inequalities in HLY in the absence of population-wide data.
doi:10.1186/1478-7954-12-13
PMCID: PMC4030465  PMID: 24855457
Healthy life years; Socioeconomic status; Surveys; Mortality follow-up; Monitoring
14.  Future Supply and Demand for Oncologists : Challenges to Assuring Access to Oncology Services 
Journal of Oncology Practice  2007;3(2):79-86.
Purpose
To conduct a comprehensive analysis of supply of and demand for oncology services through 2020. This study was commissioned by the Board of Directors of ASCO.
Methods
New data on physician supply gathered from surveys of practicing oncologists, oncology fellows, and fellowship program directors were analyzed, along with 2005 American Medical Association Masterfile data on practicing medical oncologists, hematologists/oncologists, and gynecologic oncologists, to determine the baseline capacity and to forecast visit capacity through 2020. Demand for visits was calculated by applying age-, sex-, and time-from-diagnosis-visit rate data from the National Cancer Institute's analysis of the 1998 to 2002 Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database to the National Cancer Institute's cancer incidence and prevalence projections. The cancer incidence and prevalence projections were calculated by applying a 3-year average (2000–2002) of age- and sex-specific cancer rates from SEER to the US Census Bureau population projections released on March 2004. The baseline supply and demand forecasts assume no change in cancer care delivery and physician practice patterns. Alternate scenarios were constructed by changing assumptions in the baseline models.
Results
Demand for oncology services is expected to rise rapidly, driven by the aging and growth of the population and improvements in cancer survival rates, at the same time the oncology workforce is aging and retiring in increasing numbers. Demand is expected to rise 48% between 2005 and 2020. The supply of services provided by oncologists during this time is expected to grow more slowly, approximately 14%, based on the current age distribution and practice patterns of oncologists and the number of oncology fellowship positions. This translates into a shortage of 9.4 to 15.0 million visits, or 2,550 to 4,080 oncologists—roughly one-quarter to one-third of the 2005 supply. The baseline projections do not include any alterations based on changes in practice patterns, service use, or cancer treatments. Various alternate scenarios were also developed to show how supply and demand might change under different assumptions.
Conclusions
ASCO, policy makers, and the public have major challenges ahead of them to forestall likely shortages in the capacity to meet future demand for oncology services. A multifaceted strategy will be needed to ensure that Americans have access to oncology services in 2020, as no single action will fill the likely gap between supply and demand. Among the options to consider are increasing the number of oncology fellowship positions, increasing use of nonphysician clinicians, increasing the role of primary care physicians in the care of patients in remission, and redesigning service delivery.
doi:10.1200/JOP.0723601
PMCID: PMC2793740  PMID: 20859376
15.  Enhancing Advocacy for Eye Care at National Levels: What Steps to Take for the Next Decade? 
The global initiative for the elimination of avoidable blindness by the year 2020-(VISION 2020- The Right to Sight), established in 1999, is a partnership of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), governments, bilateral organizations, corporate bodies and the World Health Organization. The goal is to eliminate the major causes of avoidable blindness by the year 2020. Significant progress has been made in the last decade. For example, the adoption of three major World Health Assembly resolutions (WHA 56.26, 59.25 and 62.1) requesting governments to increase support and funding for the prevention of blindness and eye care. Additionally, the approval of the VISION 2020 declaration, development of plans and establishment of prevention of blindness committees and a designation of a coordinator by most participating countries represent other major achievements. Furthermore there has been increased political and professional commitment to the prevention of visual impairment and an increase in the provision of high-quality, sustainable eye care. Most of these achievements have been attributed to the advocacy efforts of VISION 2020 at the international level. The full success of this global initiative will likely depend on the extent to which the WHA resolutions are implemented in each country. However, most ratifying countries have not moved forward with implementation of these resolutions. To date, only few countries have shown consistent government support and funding for eye care pursuant to the resolutions. One of the main reasons for this may be inadequate and inappropriate advocacy for eye care at the national level. As such it is believed that the success of VISION 2020 in the next decade will depend on intense advocacy campaigns at national levels. This review identified some of the countries and health programs that have had fruitful advocacy efforts, to determine the factors that dictated success. The review highlights the factors of successful advocacy in two countries (Australia and Pakistan) that secured continued government support. The review further explores the achievements of the HIV/AIDs control network advocacy in securing global and national government support. Common factors for successful advocacy at the national level were identified to include generation of evidence data and effective utilization of the data with an appropriate forum and media to develop a credible relationship with prominent decision makers. Aligning eye care programming to the broad health and development agendas was a useful advocacy effort. Also a broad all-encompassing coalition of all stakeholders provides a solid platform for effective and persistent advocacy for government support of eye care.
doi:10.4103/0974-9233.92119
PMCID: PMC3277028  PMID: 22346118
Advocacy; Eye Care; Vision 2020
16.  Variation in the Distribution of Four Cacti Species Due to Climate Change in Chihuahua, Mexico 
This study is about four cacti species in the state of Chihuahua, (Coryphantha macromeris, Mammillaria lasiacantha, Echinocereus dasyacanthus and Ferocactus wislizenii). Geographic distribution was inferred with MaxEnt. Projection was estimated under three scenarios simulated from IPCC (A2, B1 and A1B) and four periods (2000, 2020, 2050 and 2080) with 19 climatic variables. MaxEnt projects a species decrease in 2020 under scenario A2, increasing in the following years. In 2080 all species, except E. dasyacanthus, will occupy a larger area than their current one. Scenario B1 projected for 2050 a decrease for all species, and in 2080 all species except E. dasyacanthus will increase their area. With A1B, C. macromeris decreases 27% from 2020 to 2050. E. dasyacanthus increases from 2020 to 2050 and decreases 73% from 2020 to 2080. M. lasiacantha decreases 13% from 2020 to 2080 and F. wislizenii will increase 13% from 2020 to 2080. Some species will remain stable on their areas despite climate changes, and other species may be affected under the conditions of the A1B scenario. It is important to continue with studies which give a broader perspective about the consequences of climate change, thus enabling decision-making about resource management.
doi:10.3390/ijerph110100390
PMCID: PMC3924450  PMID: 24368429
MaxEnt; modelation; cacti; climatic change; Coryphantha macromeris; Mammillaria lasiacantha; Echinocereus dasyacanthus; Ferocactus wislizenii; distribution
17.  Projecting Climate Change Effects on Forest Net Primary Productivity in Subtropical Louisiana, USA 
Ambio  2011;40(5):506-520.
This study projected responses of forest net primary productivity (NPP) to three climate change scenarios at a resolution of 5 km × 5 km across the state of Louisiana, USA. In addition, we assessed uncertainties associated with the NPP projection at the grid and state levels. Climate data of the scenarios were derived from Community Climate System Model outputs. Changes in annual NPP between 2000 and 2050 were projected with the forest ecosystem model PnET-II. Results showed that forest productivity would increase under climate change scenarios A1B and A2, but with scenario B1, it would peak during 2011–2020 and then decline. The projected average NPP under B1 over the years from 2000 to 2050 was significantly different from those under A1B and A2. Forest NPP appeared to be primarily a function of temperature, not precipitation. Uncertainties of the NPP projection were due to large spatial resolution of the climate variables. Overall, this study suggested that in order to project effects of climate change on forest ecosystem at regional level, modeling uncertainties could be reduced by increasing the spatial resolution of the climate projections.
doi:10.1007/s13280-011-0135-7
PMCID: PMC3357820  PMID: 21848139
Climate change; Subtropical forests; Net primary productivity; Pnet-II; Uncertainty; Community Climate System Model 3.0 (CCSM3.0)
18.  A population-based study of prevalence and adherence trends in average risk colorectal cancer screening, 1997-2008 
Background
Increasing colorectal cancer screening (CRCS) is important for attaining the Healthy People 2020 goal of reducing CRC-related morbidity and mortality. Evaluating CRCS trends can help identify shifts in CRCS, as well as specific groups that might be targeted for CRCS.
Methods
We utilized medical records to describe population-based adherence to average-risk CRCS guidelines from 1997-2008 in Olmsted County, MN. CRCS trends were analyzed overall and by gender, age, and adherence to screening mammography (women only). We also performed an analysis to examine whether CRCS is being initiated at the recommended age of 50.
Results
From 1997-2008, the size of the total eligible sample ranged from 20585 to 21468 people. CRCS increased from 22% to 65% for women and from 17% to 59% for men (p<0.001 for both) between 1997 and 2008. CRCS among women current with mammography screening increased from 26% to 74%, and this group was more likely to be adherent to CRCS than all other subgroups analyzed (p<0.001).The mean ages of screening initiation were stable throughout the study period, with a mean age of 55 years among both men and women in 2008.
Conclusions
While overall CRCS tripled during the study period, there is still room for improvement.
Impact
Working to decrease the age at first screening, exploration of gender differences in screening behavior, and targeting women adherent to mammography but not to CRCS appear warranted.
doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-11-0818
PMCID: PMC3339802  PMID: 22144500
19.  Estimates and Projections of Value of Life Lost From Cancer Deaths in the United States 
Background
Value-of-life methods are increasingly used in policy analyses of the economic burden of disease. The purpose of this study was to estimate and project the value of life lost from cancer deaths in the United States.
Methods
We estimated and projected US age-specific mortality rates for all cancers and for 16 types of cancer in men and 18 cancers in women in the years 2000–2020 and applied them to US population projections to estimate the number of deaths in each year. Cohort life tables were used to calculate the remaining life expectancy in the absence of cancer deaths—the person-years of life lost (PYLL). We used a willingness-to-pay approach in which the value of life lost due to cancer death was calculated by multiplying PYLL by an estimate of the value of 1 year of life ($150 000). We performed sensitivity analyses for female breast, colorectal, lung, and prostate cancers using varying assumptions about future cancer mortality rates through the year 2020.
Results
The value of life lost from all cancer deaths in the year 2000 was $960.6 billion; lung cancer alone represented more than 25% of this value. Projections for the year 2020 with current cancer mortality rates showed a 53% increase in the total value of life lost ($1472.5 billion). Projected annual decreases of cancer mortality rates of 2% reduced the expected value of life lost in the year 2020 from $121.0 billion to $80.7 billion for breast cancer, $140.1 billion to $93.5 billion for colorectal cancer, from $433.4 billion to $289.4 billion for lung cancer, and from $58.4 billion to $39.0 billion for prostate cancer.
Conclusions
Estimated value of life lost due to cancer deaths in the United States is substantial and expected to increase dramatically, even if mortality rates remain constant, because of expected population changes. These estimates and projections may help target investments in cancer control strategies to tumor sites that are likely to result in the greatest burden of disease and to interventions that are the most cost-effective.
doi:10.1093/jnci/djn383
PMCID: PMC2720776  PMID: 19066267
20.  Millennium development goals and eye health 
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology  2012;60(5):411-415.
In September 2000, world leaders made a commitment to build a more equitable, prosperous and safer world by 2015 and launched the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). In the previous year, the World Health Organization and the International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness in partnership launched the global initiative to eliminate avoidable blindness by the year 2020–VISION 2020 the Right to Sight. It has focused on the prevention of a disability-blindness and recognized a health issue–sight as a human right. Both global initiatives have made considerable progress with synergy especially on MDG 1–the reduction of poverty and the reduction in numbers of the blind. A review of the MDGs has identified the need to address disparities within and between countries, quality, and disability. Noncommunicable diseases are emerging as a challenge to the MDGs and Vision 2020:0 the Right to Sight. For the future, up to and beyond 2015, there will be need for both initiatives to continue to work in synergy to address present and emerging challenges.
doi:10.4103/0301-4738.100538
PMCID: PMC3491267  PMID: 22944751
Millennium development goals; eye health; Vision 2020 the Right to Sight
21.  ASEAN benchmarking in terms of science, technology, and innovation from 1999 to 2009 
Scientometrics  2012;92(3):549-573.
This article provides an empirical assessment of the performance of the member states of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations in terms of science, technology, and innovation. This study is relevant because it employs a larger data set, examines more countries, and covers more years than previous studies. The results indicate that these countries had differing patterns of performance, and the pattern of growth among them was asymmetrical. Additional findings suggest that these countries performed idiosyncratically with respect to the six quantitative dimensions we examined. Our research includes a form of comparative policy evaluation that might assist the monitoring of the implementation of “Vision 2020”. The results simplify how we determine the relative strengths and weaknesses of national innovation systems and are relevant to policy discussions. In relation to transferability, the findings demonstrate similarities to the European Union with regard to performance and governance.
doi:10.1007/s11192-011-0603-7
PMCID: PMC3416979  PMID: 22904577
62-07 Data analysis; 01A29 Southeast Asia ASEAN; O38 Government Policy; O33 Technological Change: Choices and Consequences; Diffusion Processes
22.  Development of a community-based model for respiratory care services 
Background
Chronic respiratory diseases are a major cause of mortality and morbidity, and represent a high chronic disease burden, which is expected to rise between now and 2020. Care for chronic diseases is increasingly located in community settings for reasons of efficiency and patient preference, though what services should be offered and where is contested. Our aim was to identify the key characteristics of a community-based service for chronic respiratory disease to help inform NHS commissioning decisions.
Methods
We used the Delphi method of consensus development. We derived components from Wagner’s Chronic Care Model (CCM), an evidence-based, multi-dimensional framework for improving chronic illness care. We used the linked Assessment of Chronic Illness Care to derive standards for each component.
We established a purposeful panel of experts to form the Delphi group. This was multidisciplinary and included national and international experts in the field, as well as local health professionals involved in the delivery of respiratory services. Consensus was defined in terms of medians and means. Participants were able to propose new components in round one.
Results
Twenty-one experts were invited to participate, and 18 agreed to take part (85.7% response). Sixteen responded to the first round (88.9%), 14 to the second round (77.8%) and 13 to the third round (72.2%). The panel rated twelve of the original fifteen components of the CCM to be a high priority for community-based respiratory care model, with varying levels of consensus. Where consensus was achieved, there was agreement that the component should be delivered to an advanced standard. Four additional components were identified, all of which would be categorised as part of delivery system design.
Conclusions
This consensus development process confirmed the validity of the CCM as a basis for a community-based respiratory care service and identified a small number of additional components. Our approach has the potential to be applied to service redesign for other chronic conditions.
doi:10.1186/1472-6963-12-193
PMCID: PMC3474150  PMID: 22776670
Chronic care; Respiratory diseases; Delphi consensus
23.  Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in 2020: Summary of Year 2 Recommendations of the National Marrow Donor Program’s System Capacity Initiative 
The National Marrow Donor Program, in partnership with the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation, sponsored and organized a series of symposia to identify complex issues affecting the delivery of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) and to collaboratively develop options for solutions. “Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in 2020: A System Capacity Initiative” used a deliberative process model to engage professional organizations, experts, transplant centers, and stakeholders in a national collaborative effort. Year 2 efforts emphasized data analysis and identification of innovative ideas to increase HCT system efficiency, address future capacity requirements, and ensure adequate reimbursement for HCT programs to meet the projected need for HCT. This report highlights the deliberations and recommendations of Year 2 and the associated symposium held in September 2011.
doi:10.1016/j.bbmt.2012.10.005
PMCID: PMC3617925  PMID: 23078785
Allogeneic transplant; Care delivery model; Reimbursement; Healthcare disparities; Workforce
24.  Scenario Analysis and Path Selection of Low-Carbon Transformation in China Based on a Modified IPAT Model 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(10):e77699.
This paper presents a forecast and analysis of population, economic development, energy consumption and CO2 emissions variation in China in the short- and long-term steps before 2020 with 2007 as the base year. The widely applied IPAT model, which is the basis for calculations, projections, and scenarios of greenhouse gases (GHGs) reformulated as the Kaya equation, is extended to analyze and predict the relations between human activities and the environment. Four scenarios of CO2 emissions are used including business as usual (BAU), energy efficiency improvement scenario (EEI), low carbon scenario (LC) and enhanced low carbon scenario (ELC). The results show that carbon intensity will be reduced by 40–45% as scheduled and economic growth rate will be 6% in China under LC scenario by 2020. The LC scenario, as the most appropriate and the most feasible scheme for China’s low-carbon development in the future, can maximize the harmonious development of economy, society, energy and environmental systems. Assuming China's development follows the LC scenario, the paper further gives four paths of low-carbon transformation in China: technological innovation, industrial structure optimization, energy structure optimization and policy guidance.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0077699
PMCID: PMC3812234  PMID: 24204922
25.  An exploratory study of treated-bed nets in Timor-Leste: patterns of intended and alternative usage 
Malaria Journal  2011;10:199.
Background
The Timor-Leste Ministry of Health has recently finalized the National Malaria Control Strategy for 2010-2020. A key component of this roadmap is to provide universal national coverage with long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) in support of achieving the primary goal of reducing both morbidity and mortality from malaria by 30% in the first three years, followed by a further reduction of 20% by end of the programme cycle in 2020 [1]. The strategic plan calls for this target to be supported by a comprehensive information, education and communication (IEC) programme; however, there is limited prior research into household and personal usage patterns to assist in the creation of targeted, effective, and socio-culturally specific behaviour change materials.
Methods
Nine separate focus group discussions (FGDs) were carried out in Dili, Manatuto, and Covalima districts, Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste, in July 2010.
These focus groups primarily explored themes of perceived malaria risk, causes of malaria, net usage patterns within families, barriers to correct and consistent usage, and the daily experience of users (both male and female) in households with at least one net. Comprehensive qualitative analysis utilized open source analysis software.
Results
The primary determinants of net usage were a widespread perception that nets could or should only be used by pregnant women and young children, and the availability of sufficient sleeping space under a limited number of nets within households. Both nuisance biting and disease prevention were commonly cited as primary motivations for usage, while seasonality was not a significant factor. Long-term net durability and ease of hanging were seen as key attributes in net design preference. Very frequent washing cycles were common, potentially degrading net effectiveness. Finally, extensive re-purposing of nets (fishing, protecting crops) was both reported and observed, and may significantly decrease availability of nighttime sleeping space for all family members if distributed nets do not remain within the household.
Conclusions
Emphasizing that net usage is acceptable and important for all family members regardless of age or gender, and addressing the complex behavioural economics of alternative net usages could have significant impacts on malaria control efforts in Timor-Leste, as the country's programmes make progress towards universal net coverage.
doi:10.1186/1475-2875-10-199
PMCID: PMC3155971  PMID: 21777415

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