Human MIEF1 recruits Drp1 to mitochondrial outer membranes and promotes mitochondrial fusion rather than fission
Mitochondrial morphology depends on the balance between fission and fusion events. This study identifies a receptor for the fission factor Drp1 within the mitochondrial outer membrane, which inhibits Drp1-mediated fission and activates fusion.
Mitochondrial morphology is controlled by two opposing processes: fusion and fission. Drp1 (dynamin-related protein 1) and hFis1 are two key players of mitochondrial fission, but how Drp1 is recruited to mitochondria and how Drp1-mediated mitochondrial fission is regulated in mammals is poorly understood. Here, we identify the vertebrate-specific protein MIEF1 (mitochondrial elongation factor 1; independently identified as MiD51), which is anchored to the outer mitochondrial membrane. Elevated MIEF1 levels induce extensive mitochondrial fusion, whereas depletion of MIEF1 causes mitochondrial fragmentation. MIEF1 interacts with and recruits Drp1 to mitochondria in a manner independent of hFis1, Mff (mitochondrial fission factor) and Mfn2 (mitofusin 2), but inhibits Drp1 activity, thus executing a negative effect on mitochondrial fission. MIEF1 also interacts with hFis1 and elevated hFis1 levels partially reverse the MIEF1-induced fusion phenotype. In addition to inhibiting Drp1, MIEF1 also actively promotes fusion, but in a manner distinct from mitofusins. In conclusion, our findings uncover a novel mechanism which controls the mitochondrial fusion–fission machinery in vertebrates. As MIEF1 is vertebrate-specific, these data also reveal important differences between yeast and vertebrates in the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics.
Drp1; hFis1; mitochondrial fusion and fission; SMCR7L; MIEF1/MiD51
Localization of the dynamin-related GTPase Drp1 to mitochondria relies on the mitochondrial fission factor Mff.
The cytoplasmic dynamin-related guanosine triphosphatase Drp1 is recruited to mitochondria and mediates mitochondrial fission. Although the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) protein Fis1 is thought to be a Drp1 receptor, this has not been confirmed. To analyze the mechanism of Drp1 recruitment, we manipulated the expression of mitochondrial fission and fusion proteins and demonstrated that (a) mitochondrial fission factor (Mff) knockdown released the Drp1 foci from the MOM accompanied by network extension, whereas Mff overexpression stimulated mitochondrial recruitment of Drp1 accompanied by mitochondrial fission; (b) Mff-dependent mitochondrial fission proceeded independent of Fis1; (c) a Mff mutant with the plasma membrane–targeted CAAX motif directed Drp1 to the target membrane; (d) Mff and Drp1 physically interacted in vitro and in vivo; (e) exogenous stimuli–induced mitochondrial fission and apoptosis were compromised by knockdown of Drp1 and Mff but not Fis1; and (f) conditional knockout of Fis1 in colon carcinoma cells revealed that it is dispensable for mitochondrial fission. Thus, Mff functions as an essential factor in mitochondrial recruitment of Drp1.
Mitochondria frequently change their morphology by fusion and fission, and these dynamic morphologic changes are essential for maintaining both mitochondrial and cellular functions. The cytoplasmic dynamin-related guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) Drp1 (Dnm1 in yeast) is recruited to mitochondrial fission sites and severs mitochondria. Although the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) protein Fis1 functions as a membrane receptor for Dnm1 in yeast, it is not yet known whether the human homolog of yeast Fis1 (hFis1) is a membrane receptor for Drp1 in mammals. We recently identified the C-tail anchored MOM protein Mff as the bona fide receptor essential for recruiting Drp1 to mitochondrial fission sites. Here, we focus on this key molecule for mitochondrial fission after a brief description of the proteins involved in mitochondrial fission and fusion reactions. Finally, we discuss the expected role of hFis1 for regulating the mitochondrial dynamics in mammals.
GTPase; Drp1; Mff; Fis1; mitochondrial fission
Mitochondria continuously undergo two opposing processes, fission and fusion. The disruption of this dynamic equilibrium may herald cell injury or death and may contribute to developmental and neurodegenerative disorders. Nitric oxide functions as a signaling molecule, but in excess it mediates neuronal injury, in part via mitochondrial fission or fragmentation. However, the underlying mechanism for nitric oxide–induced pathological fission remains unclear. We found that nitric oxide produced in response to β-amyloid protein, thought to be a key mediator of Alzheimer’s disease, triggered mitochondrial fission, synaptic loss, and neuronal damage, in part via S-nitrosylation of dynamin-related protein 1 (forming SNO-Drp1). Preventing nitrosylation of Drp1 by cysteine mutation abrogated these neurotoxic events. SNO-Drp1 is increased in brains of human Alzheimer’s disease patients and may thus contribute to the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration.
Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that change in response to extracellular stimuli. These changes are essential for normal mitochondrial/cellular function and are controlled by a tight balance between two antagonistic pathways that promote fusion and fission. Although some molecules have been identified to mediate the mitochondrial fusion and fission process, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated protein 1 (TRAP1) is a mitochondrial molecule that regulates a variety of mitochondrial functions. Here, we examined the role of TRAP1 in the regulation of morphology. Stable TRAP1 knockdown cells showed abnormal mitochondrial morphology, and we observed significant decreases in dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) and mitochondrial fission factor (Mff), mitochondrial fission proteins. Similar results were obtained by transient knockdown of TRAP1 in two different cell lines, SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells and KNS-42 glioma cells. However, TRAP1 knockdown did not affect expression levels of fusion proteins. The reduction in Drp1 and Mff protein levels was rescued following treatment with the proteasome inhibitor MG132. These results suggest that TRAP1 regulates the expression of fission proteins and controls mitochondrial fusion/fission, which affects mitochondrial/cellular function.
Mitochondrial fission requires recruitment of the GTPase Drp1 to mitochondria, but the molecules that mediate this recruitment have been disputed. Fis1, Mff, MiD49, and MiD51 can all recruit Drp1 to mitochondria and promote fission. MiD49 and MiD51 can promote mitochondrial fission, but their activity depends on cellular context.
Several mitochondrial outer membrane proteins—mitochondrial fission protein 1 (Fis1), mitochondrial fission factor (Mff), mitochondrial dynamics proteins of 49 and 51 kDa (MiD49 and MiD51, respectively)—have been proposed to promote mitochondrial fission by recruiting the GTPase dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), but fundamental issues remain concerning their function. A recent study supported such a role for Mff but not for Fis1. In addition, it is unclear whether MiD49 and MiD51 activate or inhibit fission, because their overexpression causes extensive mitochondrial elongation. It is also unknown whether these proteins can act in the absence of one another to mediate fission. Using Fis1-null, Mff-null, and Fis1/Mff-null cells, we show that both Fis1 and Mff have roles in mitochondrial fission. Moreover, immunofluorescence analysis of Drp1 suggests that Fis1 and Mff are important for the number and size of Drp1 puncta on mitochondria. Finally, we find that either MiD49 or MiD51 can mediate Drp1 recruitment and mitochondrial fission in the absence of Fis1 and Mff. These results demonstrate that multiple receptors can recruit Drp1 to mediate mitochondrial fission.
Mitochondria form an interconnected network that undergoes dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1)-dependent fission during mitosis. We demonstrate that changes in mitochondrial dynamics as cells exit mitosis are driven through ubiquitylation of Drp1 by the (anaphase- promoting complex/cyclosome and its coactivator Cdh1) APC/CCdh1 complex. Inhibition Drp1 degradation prevents the normal regrowth of mitochondrial networks during G1 phase.
Homeostatic maintenance of cellular mitochondria requires a dynamic balance between fission and fusion, and controlled changes in morphology are important for processes such as apoptosis and cellular division. Interphase mitochondria have been described as an interconnected network that fragments as cells enter mitosis, and this mitotic mitochondrial fragmentation is known to be regulated by the dynamin-related GTPase Drp1 (dynamin-related protein 1), a key component of the mitochondrial division machinery. Loss of Drp1 function and the subsequent failure of mitochondrial division during mitosis lead to incomplete cytokinesis and the unequal distribution of mitochondria into daughter cells. During mitotic exit and interphase, the mitochondrial network reforms. Here we demonstrate that changes in mitochondrial dynamics as cells exit mitosis are driven in part through ubiquitylation of Drp1, catalyzed by the APC/CCdh1 (anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome and its coactivator Cdh1) E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. Importantly, inhibition of Cdh1-mediated Drp1 ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation during interphase prevents the normal G1 phase regrowth of mitochondrial networks following cell division.
Evasion of apoptosis is implicated in almost all aspects of cancer progression, as well as treatment resistance. In this study, resistance to apoptosis was identified in tumorigenic lung epithelial (A549) cells as a consequence of defects in mitochondrial and autophagic function. Mitochondrial function is determined in part by mitochondrial morphology, a process regulated by mitochondrial dynamics whereby the joining of two mitochondria, fusion, inhibits apoptosis while fission, the division of a mitochondrion, initiates apoptosis. Mitochondrial morphology of A549 cells displayed an elongated phenotype–mimicking cells deficient in mitochondrial fission protein, Dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1). A549 cells had impaired Drp1 mitochondrial recruitment and decreased Drp1-dependent fission. Cytochrome c release and caspase-3 and PARP cleavage were impaired both basally and with apoptotic stimuli in A549 cells. Increased mitochondrial mass was observed in A549 cells, suggesting defects in mitophagy (mitochondrial selective autophagy). A549 cells had decreased LC3-II lipidation and lysosomal inhibition suggesting defects in autophagy occur upstream of lysosomal degradation. Immunostaining indicated mitochondrial localized LC3 punctae in A549 cells increased after mitochondrial uncoupling or with a combination of mitochondrial depolarization and ectopic Drp1 expression. Increased inhibition of apoptosis in A549 cells is correlated with impeded mitochondrial fission and mitophagy. We suggest mitochondrial fission defects contribute to apoptotic resistance in A549 cells.
The purpose of this article is to review the recent developments of abnormal mitochondrial dynamics, mitochondrial fragmentation, and neuronal damage in neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, Huntington’s, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The GTPase family of proteins, including fission proteins, dynamin related protein 1 (Drp1), mitochondrial fission 1 (Fis1), and fusion proteins (Mfn1, Mfn2 and Opa1) are essential to maintain mitochondrial fission and fusion balance, and to provide necessary adenosine triphosphate to neurons. Among these, Drp1 is involved in several important aspects of mitochondria, including shape, size, distribution, remodeling, and maintenance of X in mammalian cells. In addition, recent advancements in molecular, cellular, electron microscopy, and confocal imaging studies revealed that Drp1 is associated with several cellular functions, including mitochondrial and peroxisomal fragmentation, phosphorylation, SUMOylation, ubiquitination, and cell death. In the last two decades, tremendous progress has been made in researching mitochondrial dynamics, in yeast, worms, and mammalian cells; and this research has provided evidence linking Drp1 to neurodegenerative diseases. Researchers in the neurodegenerative disease field are beginning to recognize the possible involvement of Drp1 in causing mitochondrial fragmentation and abnormal mitochondrial dynamics in neurodegenerative diseases. This article summarizes research findings relating Drp1 to mitochondrial fission and fusion, in yeast, worms, and mammals. Based on findings from the Reddy laboratory and others’, we propose that mutant proteins of neurodegenerative diseases, including AD, PD, HD, and ALS, interact with Drp1, activate mitochondrial fission machinery, fragment mitochondria excessively, and impair mitochondrial transport and mitochondrial dynamics, ultimately causing mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal damage.
Mitochondrial structure and distribution are regulated by division and fusion events. Mitochondrial division is regulated by Dnm1/Drp1, a dynamin-related protein that forms helices around mitochondria to mediate fission. Little is known about what determines sites of mitochondrial fission within the mitochondrial network. The ER and mitochondria exhibit tightly coupled dynamics and have extensive contacts. We tested whether ER plays a role in mitochondrial division. We found that mitochondrial division occurred at positions where ER tubules contacted mitochondria and mediated constriction prior to Drp1 recruitment. Thus, ER tubules may play an active role in defining the position of mitochondrial division sites.
Peroxisomes are eukaryotic organelles highly versatile and dynamic in content and abundance. Plant peroxisomes mediate various metabolic pathways, a number of which are completed sequentially in peroxisomes and other subcellular organelles, including mitochondria and chloroplasts. To understand how peroxisomal dynamics contribute to changes in plant physiology and adaptation, the multiplication pathways of peroxisomes are being dissected. Research in Arabidopsis thaliana has identified several evolutionarily conserved families of proteins in peroxisome division. These include five PEROXIN11 proteins (PEX11a to -e) that induce peroxisome elongation and the fission machinery, which is composed of three dynamin-related proteins (DRP3A, -3B and -5B) and DRP's membrane receptor, FISSION1 (FIS1A and -1B). While the function of PEX11 is restricted to peroxisomes, the fission factors are more promiscuous. DRP3 and FIS1 proteins are shared between peroxisomes and mitochondria, and DRP5B plays a dual role in the division of chloroplasts and peroxisomes. Analysis of the Arabidopsis genome suggests that higher plants may also contain functional homologs of the yeast Mdv1/Caf4 proteins, adaptor proteins that link DRPs to FIS1 on the membrane of both peroxisomes and mitochondria. Sharing a conserved fission machine between these metabolically linked subcellular compartments throughout evolution may have some biological significance.
Arabidopsis; peroxisomal and mitochondrial division; dynamin-related protein (DRP); FISSION1 (FIS1); mitochondrial division 1 (Mdv1); CCR4p-associated factor 4 (Caf4)
Previous studies have reported that β-cell mitochondria exist as discrete organelles that exhibit heterogeneous bioenergetic capacity. To date, networking activity, and its role in mediating β-cell mitochondrial morphology and function, remains unclear. In this article, we investigate β-cell mitochondrial fusion and fission in detail and report alterations in response to various combinations of nutrients.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Using matrix-targeted photoactivatable green fluorescent protein, mitochondria were tagged and tracked in β-cells within intact islets, as isolated cells and as cell lines, revealing frequent fusion and fission events. Manipulations of key mitochondrial dynamics proteins OPA1, DRP1, and Fis1 were tested for their role in β-cell mitochondrial morphology. The combined effects of free fatty acid and glucose on β-cell survival, function, and mitochondrial morphology were explored with relation to alterations in fusion and fission capacity.
β-Cell mitochondria are constantly involved in fusion and fission activity that underlies the overall morphology of the organelle. We find that networking activity among mitochondria is capable of distributing a localized green fluorescent protein signal throughout an isolated β-cell, a β-cell within an islet, and an INS1 cell. Under noxious conditions, we find that β-cell mitochondria become fragmented and lose their ability to undergo fusion. Interestingly, manipulations that shift the dynamic balance to favor fusion are able to prevent mitochondrial fragmentation, maintain mitochondrial dynamics, and prevent apoptosis.
These data suggest that alterations in mitochondrial fusion and fission play a critical role in nutrient-induced β-cell apoptosis and may be involved in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes.
Mitochondrial homeostasis reflects a dynamic balance between membrane fission and fusion events thought essential for mitochondrial function. We report here that altered expression of the C. elegans BCL2 homolog CED-9 affects both mitochondrial fission and fusion. Although striated muscle cells lacking CED-9 have no alteration in mitochondrial size or ultrastructure, these cells appear more sensitive to mitochondrial fragmentation. By contrast, increased CED-9 expression in these cells produces highly interconnected mitochondria. This mitochondrial phenotype is partially suppressed by increased expression of the dynamin-related GTPase DRP-1, with suppression dependent on the BH3 binding pocket of CED-9. This suppression suggests that CED-9 directly regulates DRP-1, a model supported by our finding that CED-9 activates the GTPase activity of human DRP1. Thus, CED-9 is capable of regulating the mitochondrial fission-fusion cycle but is not essential for either fission or fusion.
Bcl-2; BCL2; CED-9; DRP-1; Mitochondria; Morphology; Dynamics; Homeostasis; C. elegans; Transmembrane domain
Mitochondria in mammals are organized into tubular networks that undergo frequent shape change. Mitochondrial fission and fusion are the main components mediating the mitochondrial shape change. Perturbation of the fission/fusion balance is associated with many disease conditions. However, underlying mechanisms of the fission/fusion balance are not well understood. Mitochondrial fission in mammals requires the dynamin-like protein DLP1/Drp1 that is recruited to the mitochondrial surface, possibly through the membrane-anchored protein Fis1 or Mff. Additional dynamin-related GTPases, mitofusin (Mfn) and OPA1, are associated with the outer and inner mitochondrial membranes, respectively, and mediate fusion of the respective membranes. In this study, we found that two heptad-repeat regions (HR1 and HR2) of Mfn2 interact with each other, and that Mfn2 also interacts with the fission protein DLP1. The association of the two heptad-repeats of Mfn2 is fusion inhibitory whereas a positive role of the Mfn2/DLP1 interaction in mitochondrial fusion is suggested. Our results imply that the differential binding of Mfn2-HR1 to HR2 and DLP1 regulates mitochondrial fusion and that DLP1 may act as a regulatory factor for efficient execution of both fusion and fission of mitochondria.
• Background and Aims Recent reports have described dramatic alterations in mitochondrial morphology during metazoan apoptosis. A dynamin-related protein (DRP) associated with mitochondrial outer membrane fission is known to be involved in the regulation of apoptosis. This study analysed the relationship between mitochondrial fission and regulation of plant cell death.
• Methods Transgenic plants were generated possessing Arabidopsis DRP3B (K56A), the dominant-negative form of Arabidopsis DRP, mitochondrial-targeted green fluorescent protein and mouse Bax.
• Key Results Arabidopsis plants over-expressing DRP3B (K56A) exhibited long tubular mitochondria. In these plants, mitochondria appeared as a string-of-beads during cell death. This indicates that DRP3B (K56A) prevented mitochondrial fission during plant cell death. However, in contrast to results for mammalian cells and yeast, Bax-induced cell death was not inhibited in DRP3B (K56A)-expressing plant cells. Similarly, hydrogen peroxide-, menadione-, darkness- and salicylic acid-induced cell death was not inhibited by DRP3B (K56A) expression.
• Conclusions These results indicate that the systems controlling cell death in animals and plants are not common in terms of mitochondrial fission.
Arabidopsis; Bax; cell death; DRP3B; fission; mitochondria
The crystallization and initial diffraction analysis of human Drp1 GTPase-GED fusion protein are reported.
The mechano-enzyme dynamin-related protein 1 plays an important role in mitochondrial fission and is implicated in cell physiology. Dysregulation of Drp1 is associated with abnormal mitochondrial dynamics and neuronal damage. Drp1 shares structural and functional similarities with dynamin 1 with respect to domain organization, ability to self-assemble into spiral-like oligomers and GTP-cycle-dependent membrane scission. Structural studies of human dynamin-1 have greatly improved the understanding of this prototypical member of the dynamin superfamily. However, high-resolution structural information for full-length human Drp1 covering the GTPase domain, the middle domain and the GTPase effector domain (GED) is still lacking. In order to obtain mechanistic insights into the catalytic activity, a nucleotide-free GTPase-GED fusion protein of human Drp1 was expressed, purified and crystallized. Initial X-ray diffraction experiments yielded data to 2.67 Å resolution. The hexagonal-shaped crystals belonged to space group P21212, with unit-cell parameters a = 53.59, b = 151.65, c = 43.53 Å, one molecule per asymmetric unit and a solvent content of 42%. Expression of selenomethionine-labelled protein is currently in progress. Here, the expression, purification, crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of the Drp1 GTPase-GED fusion protein are presented, which form a basis for more detailed structural and biophysical analysis.
dynamin-related protein 1; GTPase domain; GTPase effector domain
Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that frequently move, divide, and fuse with one another to maintain their architecture and functions. However, the signaling mechanisms involved in these processes are still not well characterized. In this study, we analyze mitochondrial dynamics and morphology in neurons. Using time-lapse imaging, we find that Ca2+ influx through voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (VDCCs) causes a rapid halt in mitochondrial movement and induces mitochondrial fission. VDCC-associated Ca2+ signaling stimulates phosphorylation of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) at serine 600 via activation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase Iα (CaMKIα). In neurons and HeLa cells, phosphorylation of Drp1 at serine 600 is associated with an increase in Drp1 translocation to mitochondria, whereas in vitro, phosphorylation of Drp1 results in an increase in its affinity for Fis1. CaMKIα is a widely expressed protein kinase, suggesting that Ca2+ is likely to be functionally important in the control of mitochondrial dynamics through regulation of Drp1 phosphorylation in neurons and other cell types.
Mitochondria form a highly dynamic tubular network, the morphology of which is regulated by frequent fission and fusion events. However, the role of mitochondrial fission in homeostasis of the organelle is still unknown. Here we report that preventing mitochondrial fission, by down-regulating expression of Drp1 in mammalian cells leads to a loss of mitochondrial DNA and a decrease of mitochondrial respiration coupled to an increase in the levels of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). At the cellular level, mitochondrial dysfunction resulting from the lack of fission leads to a drop in the levels of cellular ATP, an inhibition of cell proliferation and an increase in autophagy. In conclusion, we propose that mitochondrial fission is required for preservation of mitochondrial function and thereby for maintenance of cellular homeostasis.
Impaired regulation of mitochondrial dynamics, which shifts the balance towards fission, is associated with neuronal death in age-related neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease or Parkinson's disease. A role for mitochondrial dynamics in acute brain injury, however, has not been elucidated to date. Here, we investigated the role of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), one of the key regulators of mitochondrial fission, in neuronal cell death induced by glutamate toxicity or oxygen–glucose deprivation (OGD) in vitro, and after ischemic brain damage in vivo. Drp1 siRNA and small molecule inhibitors of Drp1 prevented mitochondrial fission, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and cell death induced by glutamate or tBid overexpression in immortalized hippocampal HT-22 neuronal cells. Further, Drp1 inhibitors protected primary neurons against glutamate excitotoxicity and OGD, and reduced the infarct volume in a mouse model of transient focal ischemia. Our data indicate that Drp1 translocation and associated mitochondrial fission are key features preceding the loss of MMP and neuronal cell death. Thus, inhibition of Drp1 is proposed as an efficient strategy of neuroprotection against glutamate toxicity and OGD in vitro and ischemic brain damage in vivo.
neuronal cell death; oxidative stress; Drp1; mitochondrial fusion and fission; cerebral ischemia
Mitochondrial shape is determined by fission and fusion reactions, perturbation of which can contribute to neuronal injury and disease. Mitochondrial fission is catalyzed by dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), a large GTPase of the dynamin family that is highly expressed in neurons and regulated by various posttranslational modifications, including phosphorylation. We report here that reversible phosphorylation of Drp1 at a conserved Ser residue by an outer mitochondrial kinase (PKA/AKAP1) and phosphatase (PP2A/Bβ2) impacts dendrite and synapse development in cultured rat hippocampal neurons. PKA/AKAP1-mediated phosphorylation of Drp1 at Ser656 increased mitochondrial length and dendrite occupancy, enhancing dendritic outgrowth but paradoxically decreasing synapse number and density. Opposing PKA/AKAP1, PP2A/Bβ2-mediated dephosphorylation of Drp1 at Ser656 fragmented and depolarized mitochondria and depleted them from dendrites, stunting dendritic outgrowth but augmenting synapse formation. Raising and lowering intracellular calcium reproduced the effects of dephospho-Drp1 and phospho-Drp1on dendrite and synapse development, respectively, while boosting mitochondrial membrane potential with l-carnitine-fostered dendrite at the expense of synapse formation without altering mitochondrial size or distribution. Thus, outer mitochondrial PKA and PP2A regulate neuronal development by inhibiting and promoting mitochondrial division, respectively. We propose that the bioenergetic state of mitochondria, rather than their localization or shape per se, is the key effector of Drp1, altering calcium homeostasis to modulate neuronal morphology and connectivity.
Mitochondria exist as a dynamic tubular network with projections that move, break, and reseal in response to local environmental changes. We present evidence that a human dynamin-related protein (Drp1) is specifically required to establish this morphology. Drp1 is a GTPase with a domain structure similar to that of other dynamin family members. To identify the function of Drp1, we transiently transfected cells with mutant Drp1. A mutation in the GTPase domain caused profound alterations in mitochondrial morphology. The tubular projections normally present in wild-type cells were retracted into large perinuclear aggregates in cells expressing mutant Drp1. The morphology of other organelles was unaffected by mutant Drp1. There was also no effect of mutant Drp1 on the transport functions of the secretory and endocytic pathways. By EM, the mitochondrial aggregates found in cells that were transfected with mutant Drp1 appear as clusters of tubules rather than a large mass of coalescing membrane. We propose that Drp1 is important for distributing mitochondrial tubules throughout the cell. The function of this new dynamin-related protein in organelle morphology represents a novel role for a member of the dynamin family of proteins.
GTPase; mitochondrial morphology; dnm1
Mitochondria are highly motile organelles that constantly undergo fission and fusion. Impairment of mitochondrial dynamics is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and is frequently linked to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. We have previously shown that biallelic inactivation of the suppressor of cytokine signaling 6 (SOCS6) gene is a frequent event in human gastric cancer. In this study, we recapitulated the event of SOCS6 loss using a Lentivirus-based knockdown approach, and demonstrated the linkage between SOCS6 depletion and the suppression of programmed cell death. SOCS6 promotes intrinsic apoptosis, with increased Bax conformational change, mitochondrial targeting, and oligomerization. Most importantly, SOCS6 is targeted to mitochondria and induces mitochondrial fragmentation mediated through an increase in DRP1 fission activity. Here, we show that SOCS6 forms complex with DRP1 and the mitochondrial phosphatase PGAM5, attenuates DRP1 phosphorylation, and promotes DRP1 mitochondrial translocation. Based on mutation analyses, SOCS6-mediated apoptosis is tightly coupled to its ability to induce mitochondrial fission. This study demonstrates an important role for SOCS6 in modulating mitochondrial dynamics and apoptosis.
apoptosis; DRP1; mitochondrial dynamic; PGAM5; SOCS6
Dynamin-related proteins (DRPs) are GTPases that reversibly assemble on cellular membranes. Individual DRPs (for simplicity, we use “DRP” to include authentic dynamins) function in fission or tubulation of the plasma membrane, trans-Golgi network, mitochondria, peroxisomes, chloroplasts, and endosomes , and in mitochondrial fusion. Many of these functions are widespread, present in animals, plants, trypanosomes, Giardia, ciliates, alga, and slime molds[3–8]. Lineage-specific expansions of the gene family created specialized DRPs including MxB in animals, reported to regulate nuclear pore transport. While many unicellular organisms possess a small number of DRPs, expansions occurred in some protist lineages. The 8 DRPs in the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila may contribute to aspects of ciliate complexity. Each ciliate cell contains distinct germ line and somatic nuclei, which must require distinct machinery for their differentiation and maintenance. Here we show that Drp6p, previously shown to be targeted to the nuclear envelope, is required for macronuclear (mac) development. Drp6p activity, which is distinct from that of the only other known nuclear DRP, is modulated by a combination of stage-specific subcellular targeting and assembly dynamics. This work demonstrates a novel activity for a DRP, and presents a system in which key aspects of regulation can be easily manipulated by environmental and developmental cues.
Neurons are known to use large amounts of energy for their normal function and activity. In order to meet this demand, mitochondrial fission, fusion, and movement events (mitochondrial dynamics) control mitochondrial morphology, facilitating biogenesis and proper distribution of mitochondria within neurons. In contrast, dysfunction in mitochondrial dynamics results in reduced cell bioenergetics and thus contributes to neuronal injury and death in many neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease, and Huntington’s disease. We recently reported that amyloid-β peptide, thought to be a key mediator of AD pathogenesis, engenders S-nitrosylation and thus hyperactivation of the mitochondrial fission protein Drp1. This activation leads to excessive mitochondrial fragmentation, bioenergetic compromise, and synaptic damage in models of AD. Here, we provide an extended commentary on our findings of nitric oxide-mediated abnormal mitochondrial dynamics.
S-Nitrosylation; Dynamin-related protein 1; Alzheimers’s disease; Mitochondrial fission
The yeast protein Fis1p has been shown to participate in mitochondrial fission mediated by the dynamin-related protein Dnm1p. In mammalian cells, the dynamin-like protein DLP1/Drp1 functions as a mitochondrial fission protein, but the mechanisms by which DLP1/Drp1 and the mitochondrial membrane interact during the fission process are undefined. In this study, we have tested the role of a mammalian homologue of Fis1p, hFis1, and provided new and mechanistic information about the control of mitochondrial fission in mammalian cells. Through differential tagging and deletion experiments, we demonstrate that the intact C-terminal structure of hFis1 is essential for mitochondrial localization, whereas the N-terminal region of hFis1 is necessary for mitochondrial fission. Remarkably, an increased level of cellular hFis1 strongly promotes mitochondrial fission, resulting in an accumulation of fragmented mitochondria. Conversely, cell microinjection of hFis1 antibodies or treatment with hFis1 antisense oligonucleotides induces an elongated and collapsed mitochondrial morphology. Further, fluorescence resonance energy transfer and coimmunoprecipitation studies demonstrate that hFis1 interacts with DLP1. These results suggest that hFis1 participates in mitochondrial fission through an interaction that recruits DLP1 from the cytosol. We propose that hFis1 is a limiting factor in mitochondrial fission and that the number of hFis1 molecules on the mitochondrial surface determines fission frequency.