To investigate the effect of advanced maternal age (AMA) separately in nulliparous and multiparous women on obstetric and perinatal outcomes in singleton gestations.
A historical cohort study on data from 6,619 singleton pregnancies between 2004 and May 2007 was performed. AMA was defined as 35 years and older. Obstetric and perinatal outcomes in AMA versus women younger than 35 years (non-AMA) were compared for both nulli- and multiparae with Student’s t-test and Chi-square test in univariate analysis. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the independent effect of AMA.
Out of 6,619 singleton pregnancies, the frequency of nulliparity was 42.7 and 33.4% of the parturients were of AMA. Among nulliparous women, AMA was significantly associated with a higher frequency of caesarean section both before labour (OR 2.26 with 95% CI 1.74–2.94), in labour (OR 1.44 with 95% CI 1.07–1.93), and more instrumental vaginal deliveries (ORs 1.49 with 95% CI 1.13–1.96). Among multiparous women, AMA was only significantly associated with a higher caesarean section rate before labour (ORs 1.42, 95% CI 1.19–1.69). There were no significant differences between the two age groups in the prevalence of other adverse obstetric outcomes and adverse perinatal outcomes.
Operative delivery is increased in AMA, including caesarean sections, as well as instrumental vaginal deliveries in nulliparous women. In multiparous women, however, only the rate of caesarean section before labour was increased. AMA had no significant effect on other adverse obstetric and perinatal outcomes irrespective of parity.
Advanced maternal age (AMA); Parity; Obstetric outcome; Perinatal outcome
Many women stop smoking during pregnancy. Factors associated with relapse are known, but no intervention prevents the return to smoking among pregnant women. The objective of this study was to determine why women return to smoking after prolonged abstinence during pregnancy by examining mothers’ intention to smoke at the time of delivery and the perceptions that shape their intention.
We conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews during their postpartum hospital stay with 24 women who stopped smoking while pregnant. We asked participants whether they intended to resume smoking after pregnancy and why. Transcripts were analyzed using grounded theory-based qualitative methods to identify themes.
Participants ranged in age from 18 to 36 years, and 63 percent were white. Three themes emerged from the interviews with the mothers: 1) they did not intend to return to smoking but doubted whether they would be able to maintain abstinence; 2) they believed that it would be possible to protect their newborns from the harms of cigarette smoke; and 3) they felt that they had control over their smoking and did not need help to maintain abstinence after pregnancy.
Although most participants did not intend to resume smoking, their intentions may be stymied by their perceptions about second-hand smoke and by their overestimation of their control over smoking. Further study should quantify these barriers and determine their evolution over the first year after pregnancy with the goal of informing more successful, targeted interventions. (BIRTH 39:1 March 2012)
postpartum period; smoking; maternal behavior; qualitative research; behavior and behavior mechanisms
Maternal race/ethnicity, age, and socioeconomic status (SES) are important factors determining birth outcome. Previous studies have demonstrated that, teenagers, and mothers with advanced maternal age (AMA), and Black/Non-Hispanic race/ethnicity can independently increase the risk for a poor pregnancy outcome. Similarly, public insurance has been associated with suboptimal health outcomes. The interaction and impact on the risk of a pregnancy resulting in a NICU admission has not been studied. Our aim was, to analyze the simultaneous interactions of teen/advanced maternal age (AMA), race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status on the odds of NICU admission.
The Consortium of Safe Labor Database (subset of n = 167,160 live births) was used to determine NICU admission and maternal factors: age, race/ethnicity, insurance, previous c-section, and gestational age.
AMA mothers were more likely than teenaged mothers to have a pregnancy result in a NICU admission. Black/Non-Hispanic mothers with private insurance had increased odds for NICU admission. This is in contrast to the lower odds of NICU admission seen with Hispanic and White/Non-Hispanic pregnancies with private insurance.
Private insurance is protective against a pregnancy resulting in a NICU admission for Hispanic and White/Non-Hispanic mothers, but not for Black/Non-Hispanic mothers. The health disparity seen between Black and White/Non-Hispanics for the risk of NICU admission is most evident among pregnancies covered by private insurance. These study findings demonstrate that adverse pregnancy outcomes are mitigated differently across race, maternal age, and insurance status.
To evaluate the association of maternal age with occurrence of fetal chromosomal abnormalities in Korean pregnant women of advanced maternal age (AMA).
A retrospective review of the amniocentesis or chorionic villous sampling (CVS) database at Gangnam and Bundang CHA Medical Centers, between January 2001 and February 2012, was conducted. This study analyzed the incidence of fetal chromosomal abnormalities according to maternal age and the correlation between maternal age and fetal chromosomal abnormalities in Korean pregnant women ≥35 years of age. In addition, we compared the prevalence of fetal chromosomal abnormalities between women of AMA only and the others as the indication for amniocentesis or CVS.
A total of 15,381 pregnant women were selected for this study. The incidence of aneuploidies increased exponentially with maternal age (P<0.0001). In particular, the risk of trisomy 21 (standard error [SE], 0.0378; odds ratio, 1.177; P<0.001) and trisomy 18 (SE, 0.0583; odds ratio, 1.182; P=0.0040) showed significant correlation with maternal age. Comparison between women of AMA only and the others as the indication for amniocentesis or CVS showed a significantly lower rate of fetal chromosomal abnormalities only in the AMA group, compared with the others (P<0.0001).
This study demonstrates that AMA is no longer used as a threshold for determination of who is offered prenatal diagnosis, but is a common risk factor for fetal chromosomal abnormalities.
Fetal chromosome aberrations; Maternal age; Prenatal diagnosis
Information is still scarce on the birthing experience of women who participate in antenatal systematic education programs. The objective of the study was to report the experience of labor as described by nulliparous women who participated and who did not in a systematic Birth Preparation Program (BPP).
A qualitative study was conducted with eleven women who participated in a BPP and ten women attending routine prenatal care selected through purposeful sampling. The BPP consisted of systematized antenatal group meetings structured to provide physical exercise and information on pain prevention during pregnancy, the role of the pelvic floor muscles, the physiology of labor, and pain relief techniques. A single, semi-structured interview was conducted with each participant. All interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and thematic analyses performed. The relevant themes were organized in the following categories of analysis: control of labor, positions adopted during labor, and satisfaction with labor.
Women who participated in the systematic educational activities of the BPP reported they maintained self-control during labor and used breathing exercises, exercises on the ball, massage, baths and vertical positions to control pain. Also they reported satisfaction with their birthing experience. Women who did not participate in systematic educational activities referred to difficulties in maintaining control during labor and almost half of them reported lack of control. Also they were more likely to report dissatisfaction with labor.
Women who participated in the BPP reported self-control during labor and used non-pharmacological techniques to control pain and facilitate labor and expressed satisfaction with the birthing experience.
There is uncertainty as to whether there is a safe threshold for drinking alcohol during pregnancy. We explored pregnant women's attitudes towards drinking alcohol in pregnancy and their attitudes towards sources of information about drinking in pregnancy following recent changes in UK government guidance.
A qualitative study involving individual, semi-structured interviews with 20 pregnant women recruited from community organisations in the UK. Interview transcripts were analysed qualitatively using thematic analysis.
Most women found information and advice about safe levels of drinking in pregnancy confusing and lacking in evidence and detail. Although most women considered that there were risks involved with drinking in pregnancy and these perceptions influenced their behaviour, only six women reported abstinence. Women reported being influenced by advice from family and friends and their experiences of previous pregnancies. Many had received no individual advice from general practitioners or midwives relating to drinking during pregnancy.
Pregnant women wished to take responsibility for their own health and make choices based on informed advice. In order to do so, they require clear and consistent advice about safe levels of drinking from policy makers and health professionals. This is an important issue as women might drink socially during their pregnancy.
Twenty percent of pregnant women in the UK are obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2), reflecting the growing public health challenge of obesity in the 21st century. Obesity increases the risk of adverse outcomes during pregnancy and birth and has significant cost implications for maternity services. Gestational weight management strategies are a high priority; however the evidence for effective, feasible and acceptable weight control interventions is limited and inconclusive. This qualitative study explored the experiences and perceptions of pregnant women and midwives regarding existing support for weight management in pregnancy and their ideas for service development.
A purposive sample of 6 women and 7 midwives from Doncaster, UK, participated in two separate focus groups. Transcripts were analysed thematically.
Two overarching themes were identified, 'Explanations for obesity and weight management' and 'Best care for pregnant women'. 'Explanations' included a lack of knowledge about weight, diet and exercise during pregnancy; self-talk messages which excused overeating; difficulties maintaining motivation for a healthy lifestyle; the importance of social support; stigmatisation; and sensitivity surrounding communication about obesity between midwives and their clients. 'Best care' suggested that weight management required care which was consistent and continuous, supportive and non-judgemental, and which created opportunities for interaction and mutual support between obese pregnant women.
Women need unambiguous advice regarding healthy lifestyles, diet and exercise in pregnancy to address a lack of knowledge and a tendency towards unhelpful self-talk messages. Midwives expressed difficulties in communicating with their clients about their weight, given awareness that obesity is a sensitive and potentially stigmatising issue. This indicates more could be done to educate and support them in their work with obese pregnant women. Motivation and social support were strong explanatory themes for obesity and weight management, suggesting that interventions should focus on motivational strategies and social support facilitation.
Although antenatal care coverage in Ghana is high, there exist gaps in the continued use of maternity care, especially utilization of skilled assistance during delivery. Many pregnant women seek care from different sources aside the formal health sector. This is due to negative perceptions resulting from poor service quality experiences in health facilities. Moreover, the socio-cultural environment plays a major role for this care-seeking behavior. This paper seeks to examine beliefs, knowledge and perceptions about pregnancy and delivery and care-seeking behavior among pregnant women in urban Accra, Ghana.
A qualitative study with 6 focus group discussions and 13 in-depth interviews were conducted at Taifa-Kwabenya and Madina sub-districts, Accra. Participants included mothers who had delivered within the past 12 months, pregnant women, community members, religious and community leaders, orthodox and non-orthodox healthcare providers. Interviews and discussions were audio-taped, transcribed and coded into larger themes and categories.
Evidence showed perceived threats, which are often given socio-cultural interpretations, increased women’s anxieties, driving them to seek multiple sources of care. Crucially, care-seeking behavior among pregnant women indicated sequential or concurrent use of biomedical care and other forms of care including herbalists, traditional birth attendants, and spiritual care. Use of multiple sources of care in some cases disrupted continued use of skilled provider care. Furthermore, use of multiple forms of care is encouraged by a perception that facility-based care is useful only for antenatal services and emergencies. It also highlights the belief among some participants that care from multiple sources are complementary to each other.
Socio-cultural interpretations of threats to pregnancy mediate pregnant women’s use of available healthcare services. Efforts to encourage continued use of maternity care, especially skilled birth assistance at delivery, should focus on addressing generally perceived dangers to pregnancy. Also, the attractiveness of facility-based care offers important opportunities for building collaborations between orthodox and alternative care providers with the aim of increasing use of skilled obstetric care. Conventional antenatal care should be packaged to provide psychosocial support that helps women deal with pregnancy-related fear.
Pregnancy; Perception; Beliefs; Socio-cultural; Healthcare; Ghana
Chiropractors regularly treat pregnant patients for low back pain during their pregnancy. An increasing amount of literature on this topic supports this form of treatment; however the experience of the pregnant patient with low back pain and their chiropractor has not yet been explored. The objective of this study is to explore the experience of chiropractic treatment for pregnant women with low back pain, and their chiropractors.
This qualitative study employed semi-structured interviews of pregnant patients in their second or third trimester, with low back pain during their pregnancy, and their treating chiropractors in separate interviews. Participants consisted of 11 patients and 12 chiropractors. The interviews consisted of 10 open-ended questions for patients, and eight open-ended questions for chiropractors, asking about their treatment experience or impressions of treating pregnant patients with LBP, respectively. All interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and reviewed independently by the investigators to develop codes, super-codes and themes. Thematic saturation was reached after the eleventh chiropractor and ninth patient interviews. All interviews were analyzed using the qualitative analysis software N-Vivo 9.
Five themes emerged out of the chiropractor and patient interviews. The themes consisted of Treatment and Effectiveness; Chiropractor-Patient Communication; Pregnant Patient Presentation and the Chiropractic Approach to Pregnancy Care; Safety Considerations; and Self-Care.
Chiropractors approach pregnant patients with low back pain from a patient-centered standpoint, and the pregnant patients interviewed in this study who sought chiropractic care appeared to find this approach helpful for managing their back pain symptoms.
Pregnancy; Chiropractic; Qualitative; Exercise; Spinal manipulative therapy; Nutrition; Adverse effects
Many women are unable to practice exclusive breastfeeding because they are separated from their infants while working. Expressing their breast milk helps them to continue breastfeeding. This study explores the perception and experiences related to the feasibility, acceptability and safety of breast milk expression among formally employed women in Kelantan, Malaysia.
A qualitative method using in-depth interviews was conducted from December 2008 to December 2009 among Malay women from urban and rural areas. A snowball sampling method was used to recruit the informants, and the interviews, which were facilitated by an interview guide, were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was conducted, with construction of codes and themes from each interview.
Analysis of the interviews with 20 informants identified three themes related to breast milk expression. The themes were as follows: (i) lack of feasibility of expressing breast milk, (ii) negative feelings about expressing breast milk, and (iii) doubts about the safety and hygiene of expressed breast milk. The informants who did not practice exclusive breastfeeding believed that expressing their breast milk was not feasible, commonly because they felt there were not enough facilities for them. They also had negative feelings such as embarrassment. The safety and hygiene of the expressed breast milk was also their main concern.
More practical and focused education, as well as provision of facilities, is needed for women to effectively and safely express and store their breast milk. The issue of inadequate milk production should be emphasized, especially by encouraging them to express their breast milk as a way to improve milk production.
Breast milk expression; Pumping; Exclusive breastfeeding; Employed; In-depth interview
As many as half of all pregnancies are unintended, and unintended pregnancy has been linked to a variety of adverse pregnancy and infant health outcomes. Our aim was to determine if urban women who experience high levels of neighborhood and/or individual-level violence are at an increased risk of reporting an unintended pregnancy. One thousand five hundred thirty-six pregnant women seeking care in an emergency department in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania were recruited in their first or second trimester and completed in-person interviews. Information on demographic characteristics, social support, substance abuse, current experience and history of interpersonal violence, perceptions of current neighborhood-level violence, and the intendedness of their current pregnancy were gathered. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between violence indicators and pregnancy intendedness. Six hundred twenty-seven women (41%) reported an unintended pregnancy. Not feeling safe in one's neighborhood was significantly associated with reporting an unintended pregnancy (odds ratio (OR), 1.28; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.02–1.61) when demographic, other neighborhood, and individual-level violence indicators were accounted for. Furthermore, history of sexual abuse (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.11–2.04), violence in previous pregnancy (OR = 1.7, 95% CI, 1.15–2.51), and a high index of spousal abuse score (OR = 1.6; 95% CI, 1.32–2.04) were also associated with unintended pregnancy in multiple logistic regression models. These findings indicate that neighborhood-level violence and other individual-level violence indicators may be important when examining factors related to unintended pregnancy among young, urban women.
Pregnancy intendedness; Neighborhood violence; Individual violence
Several transitions that a woman experiences prenatally may influence her desire or ability to discontinue smoking. This study explores the role of smoking for young, Appalachian, nulliparous pregnant women and their plans for smoking during their pregnancies.
The reports of women and their male partners were taken from baseline interviews conducted during the first trimester of pregnancy. Cigarette smoking appeared to be more than an isolated addictive activity; rather, smoking was interwoven in women's social and personal realms, often changing as their perceptions of self changed. Women and their partners who continued to smoke appeared to be depressed, reject authority, and perceived little control over issues related to being pregnant.
These findings support the argument that standard substance use treatments and polices based on stages-of-change theories may not be effective for all individuals particularly those experiencing significant developmental changes in their lives. Greater success might be obtained from treatment programs designed to recognize the impact of these transitions as it relates to the substance use. The changing experiences of pregnant women in terms of their identity development, views of others, and their relationships have not been adequately addressed in existing cessation programs. Empirically-based interventions targeting these lifestyle characteristics may lead to increased cessation success among pregnant women.
When women from families with a known BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation test negative for the family mutation, it is assumed that they will transition their personal cancer risk perception from high to average risk. However, there are scant data regarding the experience of mutation-negative women after genetic testing disclosure, particularly related to the shift of risk perception from assumed mutation-positive to actual mutation-negative. This study was designed to explore cancer risk perception and the experience of being a mutation-negative woman within a known BRCA1 / 2 mutation-positive family.
We employed a qualitative descriptive design and convened a sample of 13 women who contributed in-depth, semi-structured telephone interviews (audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim) and performed qualitative content analysis with NVivo 2.0 software.
Six major content areas emerged from interview data: (i) rationale for initial involvement in the breast imaging study, (ii) rationale for continued participation, (iii) experience of living in a multiple-case family, (iv) risk perception: the personal meaning of mutation-negative status, (v) opinions regarding cancer aetiology and (vi) communication patterns between mutation-negative and mutation-positive family members.
Living in a hereditary breast and ovarian cancer family is a complex experience that affects cognitive, emotional and social functioning. Our findings indicate that mutation-negative women may have unmet psychosocial needs that must be addressed by health-care professionals, particularly in the primary-care setting following genetic disclosure of a potentially reassuring result regarding their lack of the very high cancer risks associated with BRCA1 / 2 mutations.
cancer; genetics; hereditary breast/ovarian cancer; mutation-negative; psychosocial aspects
Pregnancy and the transition to parenthood are major adjustment periods within a family. Existing studies have asked parents, retrospectively, about their experience of antenatal education, mainly focusing on women. We sought to address this gap by asking first-time mothers and their partners about how they could be better supported during the antenatal period, particularly in relation to the transition to parenthood and parenting skills.
Purposive sampling was used to recruit 24 nulliparous women with a range of ages from two healthcare organisations in South-West England, 20 of whom had partners. Recruitment took place antenatally at around 28 weeks gestation. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken at home in the last trimester of pregnancy and between 3–4 months postpartum. Content analysis of the interview data was undertaken.
Several common themes emerged from both the ante- and postnatal data, including support mechanisms, information and antenatal education, breastfeeding, practical baby-care and relationship changes. Knowledge about the transition to parenthood was poor. Women generally felt well supported, especially by female relatives and, for those who attended them, postnatal groups. This was in contrast to the men who often only had health professionals and work colleagues to turn to. The men felt very involved with their partners' pregnancy but excluded from antenatal appointments, antenatal classes and by the literature that was available. Parents had been unaware of, and surprised at, the changes in the relationship with their partners. They would have liked more information on elements of parenting and baby care, relationship changes and partners' perspectives prior to becoming parents.
Many studies and policy documents have highlighted the paucity of parents' preparation for parenthood. This study has indicated the need for an improvement in parents' preparation for parenthood, the importance of including fathers in antenatal education and that inadequate preparation remains a concern to both women and their partners.
This paper identifies several avenues for action and further research to improve both new parents' experience of antenatal education and their preparation for parenthood.
Depression in pregnancy has adverse health outcomes for mothers and children. The magnitude and risk factors of maternal depression during pregnancy is less known in developing countries. This study examines the association between pregnancy intention, social support and depressive symptoms in pregnancy in Ethiopia.
Data for this study comes from a baseline survey conducted as part of a community- based cohort study that involved 627 pregnant women from a Demographic Surveillance Site (DSS) in Southwestern Ethiopia. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was used to measure depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Data on depressive symptoms, pregnancy intention, social support and other explanatory variables were gathered using an interviewer-administered structured questionnaire. The association between independent variables and depressive symptom during pregnancy was assessed using multivariable logistic regression.
The prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy was 19.9% (95% CI, 16.8-23.1), using EPDS cut off point of 13 and above. The mean score on the EPDS was 8, ranging from 0 to 25 (SD ±5.4). Women reporting that the pregnancy was unwanted were almost twice as likely to experience depressive symptoms compared with women with a wanted pregnancy. (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 1.96, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.04-3.69) Women who reported moderate (AOR = 0.27; 95% CI 0.14-0.53) and high (AOR = 0.23, 95% CI 0.11-0.47) social support during pregnancy were significantly less likely to report depressive symptoms. Women who experienced household food insecurity and intimate partner physical violence during pregnancy were also more likely to report depressive symptoms.
About one in five pregnant women in the study area reported symptoms of depression. While unwanted pregnancy increases women’s risk of depression, increased social support plays a buffering role from depression. Thus, identifying women’s pregnancy intention and the extent of social support they receive during antenatal care visits is needed to provide appropriate counseling and improve women’s mental health during pregnancy.
Depressive symptoms; Social support; Pregnancy; Violence; Food insecurity; Ethiopia
As highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART) restores health, fertility and sexual activity among HIV-infected adults, understanding how ART influences reproductive desires and decisions could inform interventions to reduce sexual and vertical HIV transmission risk.
We performed a qualitative sub-study among a Ugandan cohort of 1,000 adults on ART with four purposively selected categories of participants: pregnant, not pregnant, delivered, and aborted. In-depth interviews examined relationships between HIV, ART and pregnancy, desire for children, perceived risks and benefits of pregnancy, decision-making regarding reproduction and family planning (FP) among 29 women and 16 male partners. Analysis focused on dominant explanations for emerging themes across and within participant groups.
Among those who had conceived, most couples stated that their pregnancy was unintentional, and often occurred because they believed that they were infertile due to HIV. Perceived reasons for women not getting pregnant included: ill health (included HIV infection and ART), having enough children, financial constraints, fear of mother-to-child HIV transmission or transmission to partner, death of a child, and health education. Most women reported FP experiences with condoms and hormonal injections only. Men had limited FP information apart from condoms.
Counselling at ART initiation may not be sufficient to enable women who do not desire children to adopt relevant family planning practices. On-going reproductive health education and FP services, with emphasis on the restoration of fertility after ART initiation, should be integrated into ART programs for men and women.
HIV; ART; Uganda; HIV-infected persons; Africa; reproductive intentions
Despite high levels of psychosocial risks, black women of Caribbean origin rarely consult health professionals regarding symptoms of perinatal depression. Reasons for this are unclear as there has been little perinatal mental health research among this ethnic group.
To examine stakeholder perspectives on what might account for low levels of consultation for perinatal depression among a group of women who are, theoretically, vulnerable.
Design of study
A qualitative study using focus group interviews.
Community settings in the northwest of England.
A purposive sample of black Caribbean women (n = 42) was split into focus groups and interviewed. This sample was drawn from a larger study. Interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. Framework analysis was used to generate themes.
Perceptions of practitioners' lack of compassion in delivering physical care and women's inability to develop confiding relationships with professionals during pregnancy and childbirth were significant barriers to consulting for depressive symptoms in particular, and health needs more generally. Advocating a ‘stepped-care’ approach, black Caribbean women suggested that new care pathways are required to address the full spectrum of perinatal mental health need. Apparently eschewing mono-ethnic, ‘culturally sensitive’ models, women suggested there was much to be gained from receiving care and support in mixed ethnic groups.
Black Caribbean women's suggestions for more collaborative, community-based models of care are in line with policy, practice, and the views of members of other ethnic groups. Adopting such approaches might provide more sustainable mechanisms for improving access and engagement both among so-called hard-to-reach groups and more generally, thereby potentially improving maternal and child outcomes.
ethnic minority women; ethnicity; perinatal depression; primary care
The study is aimed to explore the perceptions and experiences of hypertensive patients toward medication use and adherence. The study was qualitative in nature conducted at Sandamen Provisional Hospital of Quetta city, Pakistan; a public hospital catering to the health needs of about 40% of the population. A qualitative approach was used to gain an in-depth knowledge of the issues. Sixteen patients were interviewed, and the saturation point was achieved after the 14th interview. All interviews were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim, and were then analyzed for thematic contents by the standard content analysis framework. Thematic content analysis yielded five major themes. (1) Perceived benefits and risks of medications, (2) physician's interaction with patients, (3) perception toward traditional remedies, (4) layman concept toward medications, and (5) beliefs toward hypertension and its control. The majority of the patients carried specific unrealistic beliefs regarding the long-term use of medication; yet these beliefs were heavily accepted and practiced by the society. The study indicated a number of key themes that can be used in changing the beliefs and experiences of hypertensive patients. Physician's attitude, patient's past experiences, and knowledge related to hypertension were noted as major contributing factors thus resulting in nonadherence to therapy prescribed.
Adherence; experiences; hypertension; perception; qualitative
Pregnant women in Canada have traditionally received prenatal care individually from their physicians, with some women attending prenatal education classes. Group prenatal care is a departure from these practices providing a forum for women to experience medical care and child birth education simultaneously and in a group setting. Although other qualitative studies have described the experience of group prenatal care, this is the first which sought to understand the central meaning or core of the experience. The purpose of this study was to understand the central meaning of the experience of group prenatal care for women who participated in CenteringPregnancy through a maternity clinic in Calgary, Canada.
The study used a phenomenological approach. Twelve women participated postpartum in a one-on-one interview and/or a group validation session between June 2009 and July 2010.
Six themes emerged: (1) "getting more in one place at one time"; (2) "feeling supported"; (3) "learning and gaining meaningful information"; (4) "not feeling alone in the experience"; (5) "connecting"; and (6) "actively participating and taking on ownership of care". These themes contributed to the core phenomenon of women "getting more than they realized they needed". The active sharing among those in the group allowed women to have both their known and subconscious needs met.
Women's experience of group prenatal care reflected strong elements of social support in that women had different types of needs met and felt supported. The findings also broadened the understanding of some aspects of social support beyond current theories. In a contemporary North American society, the results of this study indicate that women gain from group prenatal care in terms of empowerment, efficiency, social support and education in ways not routinely available through individual care. This model of care could play a key role in addressing women's needs and improving health outcomes.
Canada; Prenatal care; Pregnant women; Women's health; Social support
Uterine rupture (UR) in early pregnancy in nulliparous women is a rare and unpredictable occurrence with high maternal morbidity and fatal fetal outcomes. Intrauterine anomalies could be the primum movens of this dangerous condition and underestimated in the literature.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
An uncommon case of uterine rupture at the 23rd week of gestation in a nulliparous woman, who became pregnant before the resection of an uterine septum. To provide more insight into the possible risk factors, a literature review was performed.
Loss of pregnancy is common, despite prompt uterine repair. In all cases reviewed abdominal pain characterized by indistinct vague symptoms constitutes the initial symptom of this obstetrical life threatening condition.
The current case highlights the association of curettage and septate uterus as a risk factor for UR in the second trimester of pregnancy. It's reasonable that obstetricians must take into account that common gastrointestinal tract problems might be an indicator of the initial weakness of uterine wall leading to the rupture, which is unpredictable all of cases reviewed.
Uterine rupture; Uterine septum; Nulliparous; Curettage; Abdominal pain
Women with type 1 diabetes face several challenges during pregnancy, childbirth and in relation to breastfeeding. It is therefore of utmost importance to consider their need for specific support, early postpartum as well as in daily life after discharge from maternity care. Few studies have investigated these aspects of healthcare. The aim of this study was to explore experiences after childbirth regarding breastfeeding, glycemic control, support and well-being in women with type 1 diabetes.
A hermeneutic reflective life world research approach was used in this qualitative study. Data was gathered through audio-recorded focus group discussions and individual interviews with 23 women with type 1 diabetes, 6-24 months after childbirth. After verbatim transcription, the text was analyzed in order to identify themes of meaning and a conclusive interpretation of the explored phenomenon.
Experiences of extraordinary exposure challenged the women with type 1 diabetes in their transition to early motherhood. The exposure included a struggle with breastfeeding, although with a driving force to succeed. Everyday life was filled with uncertainty and unpredictability related to one's own unstable glycemic control and the women down-prioritized their own needs in favor of the child. A feeling of being disconnected from professional care further contributed to the experiences of extraordinary exposure.
In early motherhood women with type 1 diabetes have a great need for support in managing daily life postpartum, which requires contemporary approaches to overlap insufficient linkage between health care professionals in maternity and child health care, and diabetes care.
Contraceptive use is low in developing countries which are still largely driven by male dominated culture and patriarchal values. This study explored family planning (FP) decisions, perceptions and gender dynamics among couples in Mwanza region of Tanzania.
Twelve focus group discussions and six in-depth interviews were used to collect information from married or cohabiting males and females aged 18–49. The participants were purposively selected. Qualitative methods were used to explore family planning decisions, perceptions and gender dynamics among couples. A guide with questions related to family planning perceptions, decisions and gender dynamics was used. The discussions and interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed manually and subjected to content analysis.
Four themes emerged during the study. First, “risks and costs” which refer to the side effects of FP methods and the treatment of side -effects as well as the costs inherit in being labeled as an unfaithful spouse. Second, “male involvement” as men showed little interest in participating in family planning issues. However, the same men were mentioned as key decision-makers even on the number of children a couple should have and the child spacing of these children. Third, “gender relations and communication” as participants indicated that few women participated in decision-making on family planning and the number of children to have. Fourth, “urban–rural differences”, life in rural favoring having more children than urban areas therefore, the value of children depended on the place of residence.
Family Planning programs should adapt the promotion of communication as well as joint decision-making on FP among couples as a strategy aimed at enhancing FP use.
Family planning; Decisions making; Perceptions; Gender dynamics
Pregnant women remain are at an increased risk of malaria with primigravidae being at the highest risk. Genetic polymorphism of the Fc receptor IIa for immunologlobulin (Ig) G (FcγRIIa) determines IgG subclass binding. Protection against pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) is associated with the production of IgG specific for apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1). The present study was undertaken to examine the relationship between specific IgG/IgG subclasses and malaria infection. The second aim of the study is to examine the association between FcγRIIa R/H131 polymorphism in correlation with specific anti-malarial IgG antibodies of AMA-1 distribution and asymptomatic malaria infection among Saudi women living in the southern part of Saudi Arabia.
One hundred and twenty pregnant women living in an area of meso-endemic Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection were consecutively enrolled onto the study. These pregnant women were asymptomatic and attending routine antenatal clinics. The levels of plasma antibodies (IgG and subclasses AMA-1) were measured using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Genotyping of FcγRIIa-R/H131 dimorphism was performed using gene-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with allele-specific restriction enzyme digestion (BstU1) of the PCR product.
A total of sixty-two (52%) pregnant women was diagnosed with asymptomatic malarial infection (ASM) compared with 58 (48%) malaria free controls (MFC). In the ASM group, there were high levels of anti-malarial IgG1 and IgG3, when compared to MFC (P value <0.001, respectively). The FcγRIIa-R/R131 genotype and R131 were found to be statistically significantly more prevalent in the ASM group when compared to the MFC group [55% for ASM versus 12% for MFC, odds ratio (OR) 5.62, 95% confidence interval (CI)= (2.03- 15.58), P value= 0.001]. However, the H/H131 genotype showed statistically significant association with MFC [14% for ASM versus 50% for MFC, OR(0.36), 95% CI= (0.14- 0.95), P value= 0.03].
The study revealed that the ASM patients had higher anti-malarial IgG and IgG subclasses antibody levels when compared to the MFC. The FcγRIIa-R/R131 genotype and R131 allele were found to be statistically prevalent in the ASM when compared to the MFC group. The individuals carrying H/H131 were consistently associated with higher levels of anti-malarial IgG subclasses.
Pregnant; Asymptomatic; Malaria; IgG; Subclasses; FcγRIIa; Polymorphism; Saudi Arabia
Excessive weight gain during pregnancy is a major risk factor for macrosomia (high birth weight delivery). This study aimed to explore views about weight gain and lifestyle practices during pregnancy among women with a history of macrosomia.
A qualitative descriptive study was conducted. Twenty-one second-time mothers whose first infant was macrosomic (>4 kg) were recruited from a randomised trial in a large maternity hospital in the Republic of Ireland. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants at both 6 and 12 months after their second pregnancy. Inductive thematic analysis was used to identify distinct themes.
The mothers believed in following their prenatal food cravings to meet their baby’s needs, but this led some to eat excessively. Many of the women cut back heavily on physical activity during pregnancy due to perceived risks to the baby. Physical conditions and discomforts during pregnancy often limited maternal control over weight and lifestyle practices. The women were not particularly concerned about weight gain during pregnancy and most did not favour the notion of introducing weight gain guidelines into routine antenatal care. Common differences perceived by the women between their first and second pregnancy included: increased concern about weight gain in their second pregnancy due to prior difficulties with postpartum weight loss and increased time demands in their second pregnancy impeded healthy lifestyle practices. Most women did not alter their perspectives on weight gain and lifestyle practices in their second pregnancy in response to having a macrosomic infant in their first pregnancy.
This analysis exposed numerous barriers to healthy pregnancy weight gain. The findings suggest that women may need to be advised to follow their prenatal food cravings in moderation. Pregnant women with children already may benefit from education on time-efficient methods of integrating healthy eating practices and physical activity into their lifestyles. Women with a history of macrosomia may need information about the importance of avoiding high weight gain in subsequent pregnancies.
Weight gain during pregnancy; Macrosomia; Qualitative research; Lifestyle practices
Maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) may affect the risk of preterm birth. However, it is unclear how changes in BMI between pregnancies modify the risk of preterm birth in the following pregnancy. We studied this effect in the Collaborative Perinatal Project, when obesity was uncommon and the prevalence of labor induction was low. This analysis included 1,892 nulliparous women whose first enrolled (index) pregnancy was a singleton live birth and the second enrolled (outcome) pregnancy was a consecutive singleton pregnancy (both pregnancy within 20-51 weeks of gestation). We used Cox regression model to calculate the hazard ratio (HR) of preterm birth at the outcome pregnancy as a function of reduced BMI (<25th percentile of change) and increased BMI (>75th percentile), compared to stable BMI (25th-75th percentile), adjusted for prepregnancy BMI at the index pregnancy and other covariates. BMI reduction was associated with a non-significant increased risk of preterm birth, adjusted HR 1.17 (95% confidence interval 0.90-1.53); BMI increase had effects close to null (adjusted HR 1.08 [0.83-1.41]). In the model with linear BMI change, each 1 kg/m2 increase was associated with an HR of 0.96 (0.89-1.03). The estimates associated with a BMI reduction were higher in women whose index pregnancy ended preterm (HR 1.49 [0.90-2.44]) and in those with BMI <25 kg/m2 at the index pregnancy (HR 1.30 [0.98-1.71]). This study involved mainly low-to-normal weight women with spontaneous deliveries, and might suffer from type II error due to small sample size. The effect of BMI change in overweight and obese women needs to be studied using contemporary data.