The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the outcome of gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) and/or whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) for the treatment of small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) metastasis to the brain.
From 2000 to 2010, 50 patients underwent GKRS for metastatic brain lesions originating from SCLC. Among these patients, 11 received prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) before the development of metastatic lesions (PCI group), and GKRS was performed as an initial treatment for newly diagnosed lesions in 12 patients who had not received PCI (primary GKRS group). In addition, GKRS was performed as a salvage treatment for progressive lesions after WBRT in 27 patients (salvage GKRS group). The medical records and imaging data of all patients were retrospectively analyzed.
The overall survival of the 50 patients was 20.8 months (range 1-53) after the diagnosis of primary tumor and 12.0 months (range 1-47) after the development of cerebral metastasis. Median survival after GKRS was 4.8 months (range 1-15) in the PCI group, 4.6 months (range 0-18) in the primary GKRS group, and 7.6 months (range 0-33) in the salvage GKRS group. Further treatment for progressive lesions after GKRS was necessary in 15 patients, after a mean interval of 3.8 months. Causes of death were systemic organ failure in 15 patients, deterioration of neurological state in 13 patients, and unknown or combined causes in 16 patients. The local control rate of the lesions treated with GKRS was 76.4% (decreased in 13 patients and stable in 16 patients at the final imaging follow-up (mean 5.60 months).
GKRS is an effective local treatment for brain metastasis from SCLC both as an initial treatment for newly diagnosed lesions after PCI and as a salvage treatment for recurrent or progressive lesions. However, the survival benefit is not significant because most patients die of systemic multi-organ failure with a short life expectancy.
Small cell lung carcinoma; Radiosurgery; Gamma knife; Metastasis
We investigated the effectiveness of stereotactic gamma knife Radiosurgery (GKR) for radioresistant brain metastases with the impact upon histology.
Between April 2004 and May 2011, a total of 23 patients underwent GKR for 67 metastatic brain tumors from 12 renal cell cancers, 5 sarcomas and 6 melanomas. The mean age was 56 years (range, 18 to 79 years). Most of the patients were classified as the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group recursive partitioning analysis class II (91.3%). The synchronous metastasis was found in 6 patients (26.1%) and metachronous metastasis in 17 patients (73.9%). We analyzed the local control rate, intracranial progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS).
The mean tumor volume for GKR was 2.24 cc and the mean prescription dose was 19.4 Gy (range, 10 to 24) to the tumor margin. Out of metachronous metastases, the median duration to intracranial metastasis was 3.3 years in renal cell cancer (RCC), 2.4 years in melanoma and 1.1 years in sarcoma (p=0.012). The total local control rate was 89.6% during the mean 12.4 months follow-up. The six-month and one-year local control rate was 90.2% and 83% respectively. Depending on the pathology, the control rate of RCC was 95.7%, sarcoma 91.3% and melanoma 80.5% during the follow-up. The common cause of local failure was the tumor bleeding in melanoma. The median PFS and OS were 5.2 and 8.4 months in RCC patients, 6.5 and 9.8 months in sarcoma, and 3.8 and 5.1 months in melanoma.
The GKR can be one of the effective management options for the intracranial metastatic tumors from the radioresistant tumors. The melanoma showed a poor local control rate compared to other pathologies because of the hemorrhage.
Intracranial; Metastasis; Radioresistant; Renal cell cancer; Sarcoma; Melanoma
We investigate the variance in patterns of failure after Gamma Knife™ radiosurgery (GKRS) for patients with brain metastases based on the subtype of the primary breast cancer. Between 2000 and 2010, 154 breast cancer patients were treated with GKRS for brain metastases. Tumor subtypes were approximated based on hormone receptor (HR) and HER2 status of the primary cancer: Luminal A/B (HR+/HER2(−)); HER2 (HER2+/ HR(−)); Luminal HER2 (HR+/HER2+), Basal (HR(−)/ HER2(−)), and then based on HER2 status alone. The median follow-up period was 54 months. Kaplan–Meier method was used to estimate survival times. Multivariable analysis was performed using Cox regression models. Median number of lesions treated was two (range 1–15) with a median dose of 20 Gy (range 9–24 Gy). Median overall survival (OS) was 7, 9, 11 and 22 months for Basal, Luminal A/B, HER2, and Luminal HER2, respectively (p = 0.001), and was 17 and 8 months for HER2+ and HER(−) patients, respectively (p <0.001). Breast cancer subtype did not predict time to local failure (p = 0.554), but did predict distant brain failure rate (76, 47, 47, 36 % at 1 year for Basal, Luminal A/B, HER2, and Luminal HER2 respectively, p <0.001). An increased proportion of HER2+ patients experienced neurologic death (46 vs 31 %, p = 0.066). Multivariate analysis revealed that HER2+ patients (p = 0.007) independently predicted for improved survival. Women with basal subtype have high rates of distant brain failure and worsened survival. Our data suggest that differences in biologic behavior of brain metastasis occur across breast cancer subtypes.
Radiosurgery; Brain metastases; Breast cancer; Failure
The aim of this study is to evaluate the therapeutic effects of gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) in patients with multiple brain metastases and to investigate prognostic factors related to treatment outcome.
We retrospectively reviewed clinico-radiological and dosimetric data of 36 patients with 4-14 brain metastases who underwent GKRS for 264 lesions between August 2008 and April 2011. The most common primary tumor site was the lung (n=22), followed by breast (n=7). At GKRS, the median Karnofsky performance scale score was 90 and the mean tumor volume was 1.2 cc (0.002-12.6). The mean prescription dose of 17.8 Gy was delivered to the mean 61.1% isodose line. Among 264 metastases, 175 lesions were assessed for treatment response by at least one imaging follow-up.
The overall median survival after GKRS was 9.1±1.7 months. Among various factors, primary tumor control was a significant prognostic factor (11.1±1.3 months vs. 3.3±2.4 months, p=0.031). The calculated local tumor control rate at 6 and 9 months after GKRS were 87.9% and 84.2%, respectively. Paddick's conformity index (>0.75) was significantly related to local tumor control. The actuarial peritumoral edema reduction rate was 22.4% at 6 months.
According to our results, GKRS can provide beneficial effect for the patients with multiple (4 or more) brain metastases, when systemic cancer is controlled. And, careful dosimetry is essential for local tumor control. Therefore, GKRS can be considered as one of the treatment modalities for multiple brain metastase.
Gamma knife radiosurgery; Metastases; Cerebral edema
Since its introduction by Leksell, Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) has become increasingly popular as a management approach for patients diagnosed with trigeminal neuralgia (TN). For this reason, we performed a modern review of the literature analyzing the efficacy of GKRS in the treatment of patients who suffer from TN. For patients with medically refractory forms of the condition, GKRS has proven to be an effective initial and repeat treatment option. Cumulative research suggests that patients treated a single time with GKRS exhibit similar levels of facial pain control when compared to patients treated multiple times with GKRS. However, patients treated on multiple occasions with GKRS are more likely to experience facial numbness and other facial sensory changes when compared to patients treated once with GKRS. Although numerous articles have reported MVD to be superior to GKRS in achieving facial pain relief, the findings of these comparison studies are weakened by the vast differences in patient age and comorbidities between the two studied groups and cannot be considered conclusive. Questions remain regarding optimal GKRS dosing and targeting strategies, which warrants further investigation into this controversial matter.
Brain metastases in primary breast cancer patients are considerable sources of morbidity and mortality. Gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) has gained popularity as an up-front therapy in treating such metastases over traditional radiation therapy due to better neurocognitive function preservation. The aim of this study was to clarify the prognostic factors for local tumor control and survival in radiosurgery for brain metastases from primary breast cancer.
From March 2001 to May 2011, 124 women with metastatic brain lesions originating from a primary breast cancer underwent GKRS at a tertiary medical center in Seoul, Korea. All patients had radiosurgery as a primary treatment or salvage therapy. We retrospectively reviewed their clinical outcomes and radiological responses. The end point of this study was the date of patient's death or the last follow-up examination.
In total, 106 patients (268 lesions) were available for follow-up imaging. The median follow-up time was 7.5 months. The mean treated tumor volume at the time of GKRS was 6273 mm3 (range, 4.5-27745 mm3) and the median dose delivered to the tumor margin was 22 Gy (range, 20-25 Gy). Local recurrence was assessed in 86 patients (216 lesions) and found to have occurred in 36 patients (83 lesions, 38.6%) with a median time of 6 months (range, 4-16 months). A treated tumor volume >5000 mm3 was significantly correlated with poor local tumor control through a multivariate analysis (hazard risk=7.091, p=0.01). Overall survival was 79.9%, 48.3%, and 15.3% at 6, 12, and 24 months, respectively. The median overall survival was 11 months after GKRS (range, 6 days-113 months). Multivariate analysis showed that the pre-GKRS Karnofsky performance status, leptomeningeal seeding prior to initial GKRS, and multiple metastatic lesions were significant prognostic factors for reduced overall survival (hazard risk=1.94, p=0.001, hazard risk=7.13, p<0.001, and hazard risk=1.46, p=0.046, respectively).
GKRS has shown to be an effective and safe treatment modality for treating brain metastases of primary breast cancer. Most metastatic brain lesions initially respond to GKRS, though, many patients have further CNS progression in subsequent periods. Patients with poor Karnofsky performance status and multiple metastatic lesions are at risk of CNS progression and poor survival, and a more frequent and strict surveillance protocol is suggested in such high-risk groups.
Breast cancer; Metastases; Gamma knife radiosurgery; Prognosis
Several treatment options have proven effective for metastatic brain tumors, including surgery and stereotactic radiosurgery. Tumors with cystic components, however, are difficult to treat using a single method. We retrospectively assessed the outcome and efficacy of gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for cystic brain metastases after stereotactic aspiration of cystic components to decrease the tumor volume.
The study population consisted of 24 patients (13 males, 11 females; mean age, 58.3 years) with cystic metastatic brain tumors treated from January 2002 to August 2008. Non-small cell lung cancer was the most common primary origin. After Leksell stereotactic frame was positioned on each patient, magnetic resonance images (MRI)-guided stereotactic cyst aspiration and GKRS were performed (mean prescription dose : 20.2 Gy). After treatment, patients were evaluated by MRI every 3 or 4 months.
After treatment, 13 patients (54.2%) demonstrated tumor control, 5 patients (20.8%) showed local tumor progression, and 6 patients (25.0%) showed remote progression. Mean follow-up duration was 13.1 months. During this period, 10 patients (41.7%) died, but only 1 patient (4.2%) died from brain metastases. The overall median survival after these procedures was 17.8 months.
These results support the usefulness of GKRS after stereotactic cyst aspiration in patients with large cystic brain metastases. This method is especially effective for the patients whose general condition is very poor for general anesthesia and those with metastatic brain tumors located in eloquent areas.
Cystic brain metastases; Gamma knife radiosurgery; Stereotactic cyst aspiration
Brainstem metastases are rarely operable and generally unresponsive to conventional radiation therapy or chemotherapy. Recently, Gamma Knife Radiosurgery (GKRS) was used as feasible treatment option for brainstem metastasis. The present study evaluated our experience of brainstem metastasis which was treated with GKRS.
Between November 1992 and June 2010, 32 patients (23 men and 9 women, mean age 56.1 years, range 39-73) were treated with GKRS for brainstem metastases. There were metastatic lesions in pons in 23, the midbrain in 6, and the medulla oblongata in 3 patients, respectively. The primary tumor site was lung in 21, breast in 3, kidney in 2 and other locations in 6 patients. The mean tumor volume was 1,517 mm3 (range, 9-6,000), and the mean marginal dose was 15.9 Gy (range, 6-23). Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) was obtained every 2-3 months following GKRS. Follow-up MRI was possible in 24 patients at a mean follow-up duration of 12.0 months (range, 1-45). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to evaluate the prognostic factors.
Follow-up MRI showed tumor disappearance in 6, tumor shrinkage in 14, no change in tumor size in 1, and tumor growth in 3 patients, which translated into a local tumor control rate of 87.5% (21 of 24 tumors). The mean progression free survival was 12.2 months (range, 2-45) after GKRS. Nine patients were alive at the completion of the study, and the overall mean survival time after GKRS was 7.7 months (range, 1-22). One patient with metastatic melanoma experienced intratumoral hemorrhage during the follow-up period. Survival was found to be associated with score of more than 70 on Karnofsky performance status and low recursive partitioning analysis class (class 1 or 2), in terms of favorable prognostic factors.
GKRS was found to be safe and effective for management of brainstem metastasis. The integral clinical status of patient seems to be important in determining the overall survival time.
Brainstem tumor; Gamma knife radiosurgery; Metastasis; Stereotactic radiosurgery
Treatment options for trigeminal neuralgia (TN) must be customized for the individual patient, and physicians must be aware of the medical, surgical, and radiation treatment modalities to prescribe optimal treatment courses for specific patients. The following case illustrates the potential for gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) to be repeated multiple times for the purpose of achieving facial pain control in cases of TN that have been refractory to other medical and surgical options, as well as prior GKRS. The patient described failed to achieve pain control with initial GKRS, as well as medical and surgical treatments, but experienced significant pain relief for a period of time with a second GKRS procedure and later underwent a third procedure. Only a small subset of patients have reportedly undergone more than two GKRS for TN; thus, further research and long-term clinical followup will be valuable in determining its usefulness in specific clinical situations.
In this study, we present the previously unreported pain relief outcomes of 108 patients treated at Gamma Knife of Spokane for typical trigeminal neuralgia (TN) between 2002 and 2011.
Pain relief outcomes were measured using the Barrow Neurological Institute (BNI) pain intensity scale. In addition, the effects gender, age at treatment, pain laterality, previous surgical treatment, repeat Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS), and maximum radiosurgery dose have on patient pain relief outcomes were retrospectively analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed using Andersen 95% confidence intervals, approximate confidence intervals for log hazard ratios, and multivariate Cox proportional hazard models.
All 108 patients included in this study were grouped into BNI class IV or V prior to GKRS. The median clinical follow-up time was determined to be 15 months. Following the first GKRS procedure, 71% of patients were grouped into BNI class I-IIIb (I = 31%; II = 3%; IIIa = 19%; IIIb = 18%) and the median duration of pain relief for those patients was determined to be 11.8 months. New facial numbness was reported in 19% of patients and new facial paresthesias were reported in 7% of patients after the first GKRS procedure. A total of 19 repeat procedures were performed on the 108 patients included in this study. Following the second GKRS procedure, 73% of patients were grouped into BNI class I-IIIb (I = 44%; II = 6%; IIIa = 17%, IIIb = 6%) and the median duration of pain relief for those patients was determined to be 4.9 months. For repeat procedures, new facial numbness was reported in 22% of patients and new facial paresthesias were reported in 6% of patients.
GKRS is a safe and effective management approach for patients diagnosed with typical TN. However, further studies and supporting research is needed on the effects previous surgical treatment, number of radiosurgery procedures, and maximum radiosurgery dose have on GKRS clinical outcomes.
Barrow Neurological Institute pain intensity scale; gamma knife radiosurgery; trigeminal neuralgia
Foramen magnum meningiomas represent a challenging clinical entity. Although resection is performed for those with a mass effect, complete resection is not always feasible. For some patients, stereotactic radiosurgery may be used as the primary treatment modality. We evaluatedthe long-term outcome of Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for the treatment of patientswith a foramen magnum meningioma.
Materials and Methods:
Between 1991 and 2005, 222 patients with a meningioma in the posterior fossa were treated with GKRS at the University of Virginia. Of these patients, 5 had meningiomas involving the foramen magnum. At the time of GKRS, the median age of the patients was 60 years (range, 51–78). Three patients were treated with radiosurgery following an initial resection and 2 were treated with upfront radiosurgery. The patients were assessed clinically and radiologically at routine intervals following GKRS.
The median tumor volume was 6.8 cc (range 1.9–17 cc). The GKRS tumor received a marginal dose of 12 Gy (range 10–15), and the median number of isocenters was 5 (range 3–19). The mean follow-up was 6 years (range 4–13). One lesion increased in size following GKRS requiring a second treatment, resulting in size stabilization. At the time of the last follow-up, all meningiomas had either demonstrated no growth (n = 4) or reduction in size (n = 1). No patients experienced post-radiotherapy complications.
GKRS affords a high rate of tumor control and preservation of neurologic function for patients with foramen magnum meningiomas. Further study of its role in the neurosurgical management of such patients seems warranted.
Foramen magnum; gamma knife; meningioma; microsurgery; outcome; radiosurgery; recurrence; skull base
Gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) is the least invasive surgical option for patients with trigeminal neuralgia (TN). However, the indications and long term outcomes of GKRS are still controversial. Additionally, a series with uniform long-term follow-up data for all patients has been lacking. In the present study, the authors analyzed long-term outcomes in a series of patients with TN who underwent a single GKRS treatment followed by a minimum follow-up of 60 months.
From 1994 to 2009, 40 consecutive patients with typical, intractable TN received GKRS. Among these, 22 patients were followed for >60 months. The mean maximum radiation dose was 77.1 Gy (65.2-83.6 Gy), and the 4 mm collimator was used to target the radiation to the root entry zone.
The mean age was 61.5 years (25-84 years). The mean follow-up period was 92.2 months (60-144 months). According to the pain intensity scale in the last follow-up, 6 cases were grades I-II (pain-free with or without medication; 27.3%) and 7 cases were grade IV-V (<50% pain relief with medication or no pain relief; 31.8%). There was 1 case (facial dysesthesia) with post-operative complications (4.54%).
The long-term results of GKRS for TN are not as satisfactory as those of microvascular decompression and other conventional modalities, but GKRS is a safe, effective and minimally invasive technique which might be considered a first-line therapy for a limited group of patients for whom a more invasive kind of treatment is unsuitable.
Trigeminal neuralgia; Gamma knife radiosurgery; Long-term follow-up
Whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT), surgical resection, stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), and combinations of the three modalities are used in the management of patients with metastatic brain tumors. We present the previously unreported survival outcomes of 275 patients treated for newly diagnosed brain metastases at Cancer Care Northwest and Gamma Knife of Spokane between 1998 and 2008.
The effects treatment regimen, age, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group-Performance Status (ECOG-PS), primary tumor histology, number of brain metastases, and total volume of brain metastases have on patient overall survival were analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed using Kaplan-Meier survival curves, Andersen 95% confidence intervals, approximate confidence intervals for log hazard-ratios, and multivariate Cox proportional hazard models.
The median clinical follow up time was 7.2 months. On multivariate analysis, survival statistically favored patients treated with SRS alone when compared to patients treated with WBRT alone (p < 0.001), patients treated with resection with SRS when compared to patients treated with SRS alone (p = 0.020), patients in ECOG-PS class 0 when compared to patients in ECOG-PS classes 2 (p = 0.04), 3 (p < 0.001), and 4 (p < 0.001), patients in the non-small-cell lung cancer group when compared to patients in the combined melanoma and renal-cell carcinoma group (p < 0.001), and patients with breast cancer when compared to patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (p < 0.001).
In our analysis, patients benefited from a combined modality treatment approach and physicians must consider patient age, performance status, and primary tumor histology when recommending specific treatments regimens.
Brain metastases; Survival; Treatment regimen; Age; Performance status; Primary tumor histology; Tumor number; Tumor volume
The clinical outcome and prognostic factors of patients with synchronous brain metastases from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who were treated with gamma knife radiosurgery (GKS) were analyzed. A total of 35 patients with NSCLC underwent GKS as an initial treatment for metastatic brain lesions of synchronous onset. The period of survival and various prognostic factors such as age, gender, performance status, multiplicity of the brain lesions, intracranial tumor volume, and extent of the primary tumor were analyzed. The overall median survival time for this series was 12 months (range 0.75 to 43 months) from the diagnosis. Of the 21 patients who were no longer alive at the conclusion of this study, only 7 (33.3%) died of neurological causes. Multivariate analysis of these data revealed that N stage, whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT), and chemotherapy were significant predictors for survival (p<0.05). Survival of patients with NSCLC and synchronous brain metastases is mainly dependent upon the progression of the systemic disease, provided that the cerebral lesions are treated adequately with local treatment modalities including radiosurgery. Application of radiosurgery as an initial treatment option and aggressive local and systemic modalities to control extracranial disease may improve survival.
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung; Neoplasm Metastasis; Radiosurgery
To study the clinical significance and relevant factors of radiation-induced intratumoral necrosis (RIN) and peritumoral edema (PTE) after Gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for intracranial meningiomas.
We retrospectively analyzed the data of 64 patients who underwent GKRS for intracranial meningioma. The mean lesion volume was 4.9 cc (range, 0.3-20), and the mean prescription dose of 13.4 Gy (range, 11-18) was delivered to the mean 49.9% (range, 45-50) isodose line. RIN was defined as newly developed or enlarged intratumoral necrosis after GKRS.
RIN and new development or aggravation of PTE were observed in 21 (32.8%) and 18 (28.1%) cases of meningioma, respectively during the median follow-up duration of 19.9±1.0 months. Among various factors, maximum dose (>25 Gy) and target volume (>4.5 cc) were significantly related to RIN, and RIN and maximum dose (>24 Gy) were significantly related to the development or aggravation of PTE. In 21 meningiomas with development of RIN after GKRS, there was no significant change of the tumor volume itself between the times of GKRS and RIN. However, the PTE volume increased significantly compared to that at the time of GKRS (p=0.013). The median interval to RIN after GKRS was 6.5±0.4 months and the median interval to new or aggravated PTE was 7.0±0.7 months.
A close observation is required for meningiomas treated with a maximum dose >24 Gy and showing RIN after GKRS, since following or accompanying PTE may deteriorate neurological conditions especially when the location involves adjacent critical structures.
Gamma knife radiosurgery; Intracranial meningioma; Peritumoral edema; Radiation necrosis
Secretory pituitary adenomas are very common brain tumors. Historically, the treatment armamentarium for secretory pituitary adenomas included neurosurgery, medical management, and fractionated radiotherapy. In recent years, MASEP gamma knife radiosurgery (MASEP GKRS) has emerged as an important treatment modality in the management of secretory pituitary adenomas. The goal of this research is to define accurately the efficacy, safety, complications, and role of MASEP GKRS for treatment of secretory pituitary adenomas.
Between 1997 and 2007 a total of 347 patients with secretory pituitary adenomas treated with MASEP GKRS and with at least 60 months of follow-up data were identified. In 47 of these patients some form of prior treatment such as transsphenoidal resection, or craniotomy and resection had been conducted. The others were deemed ineligible for microsurgery because of body health or private choice, and MASEP GKRS served as the primary treatment modality. Endocrinological, ophthalmological, and neuroradiological responses were evaluated.
MASEP GKRS was tolerated well in these patients under the follow-up period ranged from 60 to 90 months; acute radioreaction was rare and 17 patients had transient headaches with no clinical significance. Late radioreaction was noted in 1 patient and consisted of consistent headache. Of the 68 patients with adrenocorticotropic hormone-secreting(ACTH) adenomas, 89.7% showed tumor volume decrease or remain unchanged and 27.9% experienced normalization of hormone level. Of the 176 patients with prolactinomas, 23.3% had normalization of hormone level and 90.3% showed tumor volume decrease or remain unchanged. Of the 103 patients with growth hormone-secreting(GH) adenomas, 95.1% experienced tumor volume decrease or remain unchanged and 36.9% showed normalization of hormone level.
MASEP GKRS is safe and effective in treating secretory pituitary adenomas. None of the patients in our study experienced injury to the optic apparatus or had other neuropathies related with gamma knife. MASEP GKRS may serve as a primary treatment method in some or as a salvage treatment in the others. However, treatment must be tailored to meet the patient's symptoms, tumor location, tumor morphometry, and overall health. Longer follow-up is required for a more complete assessment of late radioreaction and treatment efficacy.
Objective and Importance. Brainstem metastases (BSMs) are uncommon but serious complications of some cancers. They cause significant neurological deficit, and options for treatment are limited. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has been shown to be a safe and effective treatment for BSMs that prolongs survival and can preserve or in some cases improve neurological function. This case illustrates the use of repeated SRS, specifically Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for management of a unique brainstem metastasis.
Clinical Presentation. This patient presented 5 years after the removal of a lentigo maligna melanoma from her left cheek with left sided facial numbness and paresthesias with no reported facial weakness. Initial MRI revealed a mass on the left trigeminal nerve that appeared to be a trigeminal schwannoma. Intervention. After only limited response to the first GKRS treatment, a biopsy of the tumor revealed it to be metastatic melanoma, not schwannoma. Over the next two years, the patient would receive 3 more GKRS treatments. These procedures were effective in controlling growth in the treated areas, and the patient has maintained a good quality of life. Conclusion. GKRS has proven in this case to be effective in limiting the growth of this metastatic melanoma without acute adverse effects.
We report a rare case of cavernous hemangioma (CH) which developed in adjacent location to a preexisting CH after gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS). A 36-year-old woman underwent GKRS for a CH in the left lentiform nucleus. Three-and-half years after radiosurgery, MRI revealed a new CH in the left caudate nucleus. Surgical excision of the new lesion was performed. The pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of CH. In radiosurgery for CH, it should be noted that a new CH may develop, which is likely to result from the interaction between radiation and predisposing factors of the patient.
Cavernous hemangioma; Cavernous angioma; Gamma knife; Radiosurgery; Radiation-induced tumor
This study was designed to compare the efficacy of micro-vascular decompression (MVD) and Gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for elderly idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia patients by analyzing the clinical outcome.
In the past 10 years, 27 elderly patients were treated with MVD while 18 patients were treated with GKRS (>65-years-old). We reviewed their clinical characteristics and clinical courses after treatment as well as the treatment outcomes. For patients who were treated with MVD, additional treatment methods such as rhizotomy were combined in some areas. In GKRS, we radiated the root entry zone (REZ) with the mean maximum dose of 77.8 (70-84.3) Gy and one 4 mm collimator.
The mean age was 68.1 years for MVD, and 71.1 years for GKS group. The average time interval between first presenting symptom and surgery was 84.1 (1-361) months, and 51.4 (1-120) months, respectively. The mean follow-up period after the surgery was 35.9 months for MVD, and 33.1 months for GKRS. According to Pain Intensity Scale, MVD group showed better prognosis with 17 (63%) cases in grade I-II versus 10 (55.6%) cases in GKRS group after the treatment. The pain recurrence rate during follow up did not show much difference with 3 (11.1%) in MVD, and 2 (11.1%) in GKRS. After the treatment, 2 cases of facial numbness, and 1 case each of herpes zoster, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage, hearing disturbance, and subdural hematoma occurred in MVD Group. In GKRS, there was 1 (5.6%) case of dysesthesia but was not permanent. Three cases were retreated by GKRS but the prognosis was not as good as when the surgery was used as primary treatment, with 1 case of grade I-II, and 1 case of recurrence. The maximal relieve of pain was seen just after surgery in MVD group, and 1 year after treatment in GKRS group.
For trigeminal neuralgia patients with advanced age, MVD showed advantages in immediately relieving the pain. However, in overall, GKRS was preferable, despite the delayed pain relief, due to the lower rate of surgical complications that arise owing to the old age.
Elderly patient; Idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia; Micro-vascular decompression; Gamma knife radiosurgery
Repeat gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKRS) for recurrent or persistent trigeminal neuralgia induces an additional response but at the expense of an increased incidence of facial numbness. The present series summarized the results of a repeat treatment series at Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center, including a multivariate analysis of the data to identify the prognostic factors for treatment success and toxicity.
Methods and Materials
Between January 1999 and December 2007, 37 patients underwent a second GKRS application because of treatment failure after a first GKRS treatment. The mean initial dose in the series was 87.3 Gy (range, 80–90). The mean retreatment dose was 84.4 Gy (range, 60–90). The dosimetric variables recorded included the dorsal root entry zone dose, pons surface dose, and dose to the distal nerve.
Of the 37 patients, 81% achieved a >50% pain relief response to repeat GKRS, and 57% experienced some form of trigeminal dysfunction after repeat GKRS. Two patients (5%) experienced clinically significant toxicity: one with bothersome numbness and one with corneal dryness requiring tarsorraphy. A dorsal root entry zone dose at repeat treatment of >26.6 Gy predicted for treatment success (61% vs. 32%, p = .0716). A cumulative dorsal root entry zone dose of >84.3 Gy (72% vs. 44%, p = .091) and a cumulative pons surface dose of >108.5 Gy (78% vs. 44%, p = .018) predicted for post-GKRS numbness. The presence of any post-GKRS numbness predicted for a >50% decrease in pain intensity (100% vs. 60%, p = .0015).
Repeat GKRS is a viable treatment option for recurrent trigeminal neuralgia, although the patient assumes a greater risk of nerve dysfunction to achieve maximal pain relief.
Gamma knife; Radiosurgery; Trigeminal neuralgia; Toxicity; Repeat
Background and aim
Long-term survival of lung cancer patients with brain metastases (BM) is very rare. Our aim is to report the characteristics of patients who survived for at least three years after a BM diagnosis.
Materials and methods
Nineteen lung cancer patients who had survived ≥3 years after a BM diagnosis were identified in our database. Seven (37%) had undergone whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) only, five (26%) BM surgery + WBRT, three (16%) BM surgery + WBRT + BM radiosurgery, and four (21%) no WBRT (one, surgery; one, radiosurgery; two, BM surgery + radiosurgery). Their characteristics were compared with historical data for 322 lung cancer patients with BM (control group, CG), who had received WBRT between 1986 and 1997.
Median survival from BM in long survivors group was 73 months (in CG – 4 months). Characteristics comparison: median age 55 vs. 58 (CG), p = 0.16; female sex 68% vs. 28% (CG), p = 0.003; RTOG/RPA class 1 – 75% vs. 13% (CG), p = 0.00001; adenocarcinoma histology 84% vs. 24% (CG), p < 0.00001; control of primary tumor 95% vs. 27% (CG), p < 0.00001; extracranial metastases 0 vs. 26% (CG), p = 0.01; single BM 63% vs. 9% (CG), p = 0.00001; surgery of BM 53% vs. 14% (CG), p = 0.00001.
Beside prognostic factors already recognized as favorable in patients with BM, the adenocarcinoma histology and female sex were prevalent in long-term survivors of BM from lung cancer.
Brain metastases; Lung cancer; Adenocarcinoma; Female; Long-term survival
Radiosurgery may be contraindicated for lesions adjacent to the optic pathways because of the substantial risk of visual complication. Multisession radiosurgery has been tried as a compromise between single session radiosurgery and fractionated radiotherapy. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the outcomes of multisession gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) in 22 patients with perioptic lesions of benign pathology.
In all 22 cases, the lesions were within 1 mm of the optic apparatus and were therefore not considered suitable for single session radiosurgery. Radiation was delivered in 3 to 4 fractions with a median cumulated marginal dose of 20 Gy (range, 15-20 Gy).
During a mean follow-up of 29 months (range, 14-44 months), tumor control was achieved in 21 patients. Visual function improved in 7 patients, remained unchanged in 14 patients, and deteriorated in 1 patient with tumor progression. No other complication was observed.
This preliminary result supports the idea that multisession GKRS may be an effective and safe alternative for treatment in perioptic lesions that are unsuitable for single session radiosurgery.
Multisession radiosurgery; Gamma knife; Visual complication
Atypical meningiomas have poor local control with emerging literature indicating the use of radiosurgery in treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinical outcomes including local control and failure pattern after Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) and factors that may affect these outcomes. Between 1999 and 2008, 24 patients were treated with GKRS as either primary or salvage treatment for pathologically proven atypical meningiomas. Treatment failures were determined by serial magnetic resonance imaging. A median marginal dose of 14 Gy was used (range 10.5–18 Gy). Overall local control rates at 1, 2, and 5 years were 75, 51, and 44%, respectively. With median follow-up time of 42.5 months, 14 of 24 patients experienced a treatment failure at time of last follow-up. Eight recurrences were in-field, four were marginal failures, and two were distant failures. Wilcoxon analysis revealed that the conformality index (CI) was a significant predictor of local recurrence (P = 0.04). CI did not predict for distant recurrences (P = 0.16). On multivariate analysis evaluating factors predicting progression free survival, dose >14 Gy was found to be statistically significant (P = 0.01). There appears to be a dose response using GKRS beyond 14 Gy but given the suboptimal local control rates in this study, higher doses may still be needed to obtain better local control.
Atypical meningioma; Conformality index; Gamma Knife radiosurgery
OBJECTIVES—A series of
three recurrent central neurocytomas treated by gamma knife
radiosurgery (GKRS), which were initially totally resected, are
described. Up to now, no reports exist on this treatment modality for
this rare tumour entity.
patients, aged between 20 and 25 years, presented with large
intraventricular tumours. Total tumour removal was achieved by a single
surgical procedure (one patient) or two operations (two patients).
Neuropathological investigation showed a central neurocytoma,
immunohistochemically all three tumours expressed a neuronal
antigenetic profile typical for neurocytomas, and the MIB-1
proliferation index ranged from 2.4% to 8.7%. Each patient experienced a tumour recurrence after 5 to 6 years. The recurrence was
multifocal in two and a singular tumour mass in one patient. Gamma
knife radiosurgery was performed. The tumours were enclosed within the
30% to 60% isodoseline, and delivered a tumour marginal dose of 9.6 to 16 Gy. During the follow up period, the patients were tested
clinically and the volume of the tumours was measured on MRI.
up periods of 1 to 5 years, control MRI showed a significant decrease
of the tumour mass in all cases. None of the patients developed new
neurological symptoms after GKRS. Two patients returned to work in
their previous employment, whereas one patient remained permanently
disabled due to a pre-existing visual impairment and abducens palsy.
to be a useful tool in the treatment of recurrent
central neurocytomas. Tumour control and even
tumour shrinkage can be achieved with a single procedure and a low risk
Should whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) be used as the sole therapy in patients with newly-diagnosed, surgically accessible, single brain metastases, compared with WBRT plus surgical resection, and in what clinical settings?
This recommendation applies to adults with newly diagnosed single brain metastases amenable to surgical resection; however, the recommendation does not apply to relatively radiosensitive tumors histologies (i.e., small cell lung cancer, leukemia, lymphoma, germ cell tumors and multiple myeloma).
Surgical resection plus WBRT versus WBRT alone
Level 1 Class I evidence supports the use of surgical resection plus post-operative WBRT, as compared to WBRT alone, in patients with good performance status (functionally independent and spending less than 50% of time in bed) and limited extra-cranial disease. There is insufficient evidence to make a recommendation for patients with poor performance scores, advanced systemic disease, or multiple brain metastases.
If WBRT is used, is there an optimal dosing/fractionation schedule?
This recommendation applies to adults with newly diagnosed brain metastases.
Level 1 Class I evidence suggests that altered dose/fractionation schedules of WBRT do not result in significant differences in median survival, local control or neurocognitive outcomes when compared with “standard” WBRT dose/fractionation. (i.e., 30 Gy in 10 fractions or a biologically effective dose (BED) of 39 Gy10).
If WBRT is used, what impact does tumor histopathology have on treatment outcomes?
This recommendation applies to adults with newly diagnosed brain metastases.
Given the extremely limited data available, there is insufficient evidence to support the choice of any particular dose/fractionation regimen based on histopathology.
The following question is fully addressed in the surgery guideline paper within this series by Kalkanis et al. Given that the recommendation resulting from the systematic review of the literature on this topic is also highly relevant to the discussion of the role of WBRT in the management of brain metastases, this recommendation has been included below.
Does the addition of WBRT after surgical resection improve outcomes when compared with surgical resection alone?
This recommendation applies to adults with newly diagnosed single brain metastases amenable to surgical resection.
Surgical resection plus WBRT versus surgical resection alone
Level 1 Surgical resection followed by WBRT represents a superior treatment modality, in terms of improving tumor control at the original site of the metastasis and in the brain overall, when compared to surgical resection alone.
Brain metastases; Whole brain radiation therapy; Radiotherapy; Surgical resection; Fractionation; Histopathology; Systematic review; Practice guideline