Patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) are at increased risk for both early seizures and later epilepsy. There is a common, but unproven, practice of prescribing a prophylactic antiepileptic drug (PAED) to prevent seizures, but the safety and efficacy of this practice is unclear, as is the optimal drug for this purpose. The objective of the study is to evaluate whether patients presenting with acute, spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) benefit from prescription of prophylactic antiepileptic drug (PAED).
All patients with a discharge diagnosis of acute, spontaneous ICH admitted to our institution in the calendar years 2004 and 2007 were included. We retrospectively reviewed the records for baseline characteristics, hospital course, PAED use, early seizures, length of stay, discharge disposition, and death.
157 patients met our criteria for review. 46 (29%) patients were placed on a PAED. 12 (7.6%) had early seizures. 11% of patients placed on a PAED had an early seizure versus 6.3% who not placed on a PAED. Death or hospice discharge was less common in patients prescribed a PAED, while length of stay was longer, however neither of these differences were significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons.
Our study confirms previous reports that patients with acute, spontaneous ICH are at an increased risk for early seizures. PAED use in our series was not significantly associated with the risk of early seizures, long-term epilepsy, disability, or death.
Intracerebral hemorrhage; Antiepileptic drugs; Epilepsy
Serum concentrations of adhesion molecules may be connected to the pathogenesis of secondary brain injury after spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). This study posits the hypothesis that levels of adhesion molecules substantially increase after ICH and are decreased thereafter, and that they can predict treatment outcomes.
Two hundred and thirty-nine blood samples were collected from 60 consecutive patients admitted within 24 hours after onset of spontaneous ICH and 60 blood samples were collected from 60 volunteers. Additional samples were obtained on Days 4, 7, 10, and 14 after onset of ICH regardless of clinical deterioration.
Upon discharge, the therapeutic outcomes of the 60 spontaneous ICH cases based on the modified Rankin Disability Scale (mMRS) showed that 17 had no disability while 8.3% developed delayed cerebral infarction (DCI). Statistical analysis of adhesion molecules between patient groups with good outcome (mMRS = 0 or 1) and poor outcome (mMRS ≥2) revealed significant differences in diabetes mellitus (P=0.049), hyperlipidemia (P=0.012), mentality change (P=0.043), ICH volume and intraventricular hemorrhage on admission (P=0.036 and 0.006, respectively), Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) on admission (P≤0.001), neuro-surgical intervention (P=0.003), and sE-selectin and soluble intercellular cell adhesion-molecule-1 (sICAM-1) levels on admission (P=0.036 and 0.019, respectively). Multiple logistic regression analysis of these significant variables showed that GCS on admission, hyperlipidemia, and sICAM-1 (P=0.039, 0.042, and 0.022, respectively) were independently associated with outcome of acute spontaneous ICH.
Increased sICAM-1 and sE-selectin levels may imply poor therapeutic outcomes for the treatment of spontaneous ICH during hospitalization. These early inflammatory responses may cause whole-brain injury immediately after spontaneous ICH and offer a potential therapeutic target for such patients. The importance of these findings is that they offer a potential therapeutic target for patients with spontaneous ICH.
To examine whether antiplatelet medication use at onset of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is associated with hemorrhage growth and outcome after spontaneous ICH using a large, prospectively collected database from a recent clinical trial.
The Cerebral Hemorrhage and NXY-059 Treatment trial was a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of NXY-059 after spontaneous ICH. We analyzed patients in the placebo arm, and correlated antiplatelet medication use at the time of ICH with initial ICH volumes, ICH growth in the first 72 hours, and modified Rankin Score at 90 days. Patients on oral anticoagulation were excluded.
There were 282 patients included in this analysis, including 70 (24.8%) who were taking antiplatelet medications at ICH onset. Use of antiplatelet medications at ICH onset had no association with the volume of ICH at presentation, growth of ICH at 72 hours, initial edema volume, or edema growth. In multivariable analysis, there was no association of use of antiplatelet medications with any hemorrhage expansion (relative risk [RR] 0.85 [upper limit of confidence interval (UCI) 1.03], p = 0.16), hemorrhage expansion greater than 33% (RR 0.77 [UCI 1.18], p = 0.32), or clinical outcome at 90 days (odds ratio 0.67, 95% confidence interval 0.39–1.14, p = 0.14).
Use of antiplatelet medications at intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) onset is not associated with increased hemorrhage volumes, hemorrhage expansion, or clinical outcome at 90 days. These findings suggest that attempts to reverse antiplatelet medications after ICH may not be warranted.
= Cerebral Hemorrhage and NXY-059 Treatment;
= confidence interval;
= intracerebral hemorrhage;
= interquartile range;
= modified Rankin Scale;
= relative risk;
= upper limit of confidence interval.
Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) accounts for a high mortality and morbidity. Early prediction of outcome is crucial for optimized care and treatment decision. Copeptin, the C-terminal part of provasopressin, has emerged as a new prognostic marker in a variety of diseases, but its prognostic value in ICH is unknown.
In 40 consecutive patients who were admitted to the hospital within 72 hours after a spontaneous ICH, the plasma copeptin level was measured with a sandwich immunoassay upon admission. The prognostic value of copeptin to predict 30 day mortality and functional outcome after 90 days was assessed. A favorable outcome was defined as a Barthel score above 85 and a score below 3 on the Modified Rankin Scale.
Copeptin correlated positively with hematoma volume (r = 0.32, p < 0.05) and negatively with the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) on admission (r = -0.35, p < 0.05). Copeptin levels were higher in patients who died within 30 days than in 30-day survivors (179.0 pmol/l (IQR 33.7- 566.0) vs. 12.9 pmol/l (IQR 5.2 - 42.8), p = 0.003). Copeptin levels were also higher in patients with an unfavorable functional outcome at 90 days compared to patients with a favorable outcome (32.4 pmol/l (IQR 9.5-97.8) vs. 11.9 pmol/l (IQR 3.2-19.8), p = 0.04). For the prediction of death, receiver-operating-characteristics analysis revealed an area under the curve (AUC) for copeptin of 0.88 (95%CI 0.75-1.00). The predictive value of the copeptin concentration was thus similar to that of GCS (AUC 0.82 (95%CI 0.59-1.00) p = 0.53), of the ICH Score (AUC 0.89, (95%CI 0.76-1.00), p = 0.94) and the ICH Grading Scale (AUC 0.86 (95%CI 0.69-1.00), p = 0.81).
Copeptin is a new prognostic marker in patients with an ICH. If this finding can be confirmed in larger studies, copeptin might be an additional valuable tool for risk stratification and decision-making in the acute phase of ICH.
(Clinical Trial Registration: ISCTRN00390962)
To quantify the accuracy of commonly used intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) predictive models in ICH patients with and without early do-not-resuscitate orders (DNR).
Spontaneous ICH cases (n = 487) from the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi study (2000–2003) and the University of California, San Francisco (June 2001–May 2004) were included. Three models (the ICH Score, the Cincinnati model, and the ICH grading scale [ICH-GS]) were compared to observed 30-day mortality with a χ2 goodness-of-fit test first overall and then stratified by early DNR orders.
Median age was 71 years, 49% were female, median Glasgow Coma Scale score was 12, median ICH volume was 13 cm3, and 35% had early DNR orders. Overall observed 30-day mortality was 42.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 38.3–47.1), with the average model-predicted 30-day mortality for the ICH Score, Cincinnati model, and ICH-GS at 39.9% (p = 0.005), 40.4% (p = 0.007), and 53.9% (p < 0.001). However, for patients with early DNR orders, the observed 30-day mortality was 83.5% (95% CI 78.0–89.1), with the models predicting mortality of 64.8% (p < 0.001), 57.2% (p < 0.001), and 77.8% (p = 0.02). For patients without early DNR orders, the observed 30-day mortality was 20.8% (95% CI 16.5–25.7), with the models predicting mortality of 26.6% (p = 0.05), 31.4% (p < 0.001), and 41.1% (p < 0.001).
ICH prognostic model performance is substantially impacted when stratifying by early DNR status, possibly giving a false sense of model accuracy when DNR status is not considered. Clinicians should be cautious when applying these predictive models to individual patients.
= Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi;
= confidence interval;
= do not resuscitate;
= Glasgow Coma Scale;
= intracerebral hemorrhage;
= intracerebral hemorrhage grading scale;
= receiver operating characteristic;
= San Francisco General Hospital;
= University of California San Francisco.
The ICH Score is a commonly used clinical grading scale for outcome after acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and has been validated for 30-day mortality, but not long-term functional outcome. The goals of this study were to assess whether the ICH Score accurately stratifies patients with regard to 12-month functional outcome and to further delineate the pace of recovery of patients during the first year post-ICH.
We performed a prospective observational cohort study of all patients with acute ICH admitted to the emergency departments of San Francisco General Hospital and UCSF Medical Center from June 1, 2001, through May 31, 2004. Components of the ICH Score (admission Glasgow Coma Scale score, initial hematoma volume, presence of intraventricular hemorrhage, infratentorial ICH origin, and age) were recorded along with other clinical characteristics. Patients were then assessed with the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at hospital discharge, 30 days, and 3, 6, and 12 months post-ICH.
Of 243 patients, 95 (39%) died during initial acute hospitalization. The ICH Score accurately stratified patients with regard to 12-month functional outcome for various dichotomous cutpoints along the mRS (p < 0.05). Many patients continued to improve across the first year, with a small number of patients becoming disabled or dying due to late events unrelated to the initial ICH.
The ICH Score is a valid clinical grading scale for long-term functional outcome after acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Many ICH patients improve after hospital discharge and this improvement may continue even after 6 months post-ICH.
= Committee on Human Research;
= emergency department;
= Glasgow Coma Scale;
= intracerebral hemorrhage;
= intraventricular hemorrhage;
= modified Rankin Scale;
= San Francisco General Hospital.
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating and common admitting diagnosis to intensive care units in the USA. Despite advances in critical care, patients with ICH often experience early neurological deterioration (END) in the first 72 hours after admission due to a variety of factors, including hematoma and cerebral edema evolution. The purpose of this study was to determine factors associated with END after ICH. Using the Duke University Hospital Neuroscience Critical Care Unit Database, we retrospectively identified patients with an admitting diagnosis of supratentorial ICH from January to December 2010, verified by CT imaging. END was defined as a decrease in the Glasgow Coma Scale score of ≥ 3 or death within the first 72 hours after hemorrhage. The chi-squared or t-test analysis was used to compare the groups, as appropriate. Multiple logistical regression modeling was performed to test for associations between likely predictors of END. Of the 89 subjects admitted with supratentorial ICH, we included 83 in the analysis based on complete datasets. Of these, 31 experienced END within 72 hours after onset of symptoms. ICH score, presence of midline shift on imaging, and white blood cell (WBC) count were used in a regression model for predicting END. WBC count demonstrated the greatest association with END. Patients with ICH are prone to END within the first few days after hemorrhage. Elevated WBC count appears predictive of deterioration. These data demonstrate that heightened inflammatory state after ICH may be related to early deterioration after injury.
Early neurological deterioration; Intracerebral hemorrhage; Leukocytosis; Outcomes; Risk factors
No strongevidenceofefficacycurrently exists for different intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) scoring system in predicting the prognosis of ICH in the Chinese population. This study aimed to test the accuracyof the ICH score and the ICH grading scale (ICH-GS) score in predicting the favorable prognosis in a large cohort of ICH patients in China.
This study was a multicenter, prospective cohort study. Patients diagnosed with ICH between September 2007 and August 2008 from the nationwide China National Stroke Registry (CNSR) databasewere screened andenrolled in this study. Demographics of the patients, treatments, mortalityas well as the clinic and radiologic findings of ICH were collected.AnICH score and anICH-GS score were evaluated for all the patients atadmission. Follow-ups were conducted by phone at 3, 6 and 12 months after ICH onset. The modified Rankin scale (mRS) score was used to evaluate favorable functional outcome and was obtained at hospital dischargeand duringthe 3-, 6- and 12-month follow-up visits.
There were 410 (12.6%) in-hospitalmortalityout of a total of 3,255 ICH patients. Thevalues of the Area Under Curve (AUC)at discharge, 3-, 6- and 12-month follow-up for ICH score were 0.72, 0.76, 0.76 and 0.75, respectively; whilethe numbers for the ICH-GS score were 0.71, 0.77, 0.78 and 0.78, respectively. At 6-month and 12-month follow-up, the ICH-GS score presented a significant better value in predicting favorable prognosis than did the ICH score (P=0.0003 and <0.0001, respectively).
Both the ICH and ICH-GS scores were effective inaccurately predicting the favorable functional outcome of ICH in the Chinese population. For mid-term and long-term prediction, the ICH-GS score was superiorover the ICH score.
Background and Purpose
Prior studies of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) outcome prediction models have not systematically included adjustment for comorbid conditions. The purpose of this study was to assess whether the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), was associated with early mortality and long-term functional outcome in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage.
We performed a retrospective analysis on a prospective observational cohort of patients with ICH admitted to two UCSF hospitals from 6/1/2001-5/31/2004. Components of the ICH Score and use of early care limitations were recorded. Outcome was assessed using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) out to 12-months. The CCI was derived using hospital discharge ICD-9 CM codes and patient history obtained from standardized case report forms.
In this cohort of 243 ICH patients comorbid conditions were common, with CCI scores ranging from 0 to 12. Only 29% of patients with high CCI scores (≥3) achieved a 12-month mRS score of 3 or better compared with 48% of patients with CCI scores of 0 (p=0.02). CCI score was independently predictive of 12-month functional outcome, with higher CCI having a greater impact (CCI=2, OR=2.3, p=0.06; CCI ≥3, OR=3.5, p=0.001).
Comorbid medical conditions as measured by the CCI independently influence outcome after ICH. Future ICH outcome studies should account for the impact of comorbidities on patient outcome.
Intracerebral hemorrhage; Charlson Comorbidity Index; Stroke Outcome; Comorbidity
APOE alleles ε2/ε4 increase risk of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in the lobar regions, presumably through their influence on risk of cerebral amyloid angiopathy. We investigated whether these variants also associate with ICH severity, specifically larger ICH volume at presentation.
We initially investigated the association of ε2/ε4 with ICH volume and outcome in a Discovery sample of 865 individuals of European ancestry. Replication was completed in two samples, comprising 946 Europeans (Replication I) and 214 African-Americans (Replication II) respectively. Admission ICH volume was quantified on CT scan. Poor functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale: 3 – 6) and mortality were assessed at 90 days.
Among patients with lobar ICH, APOE ε2 was associated with larger ICH volume: each allele copy increased hematoma size by 5·3 cc (95% CI 4·1 – 6·2 cc, p = 0.004), with replication in Europeans (p = 0·008) and African Americans (p = 0·016). Consistent with this, ε2 was associated with both mortality (OR = 1·50, 1·23 – 1·82, p = 2·45 × 10−5) and poor functional outcome (OR = 1·52, 1·25 – 1·85, p = 1·74 × 10−5). We were not able to replicate published associations between ε4 and overall ICH mortality in a meta-analysis of all available data (n = 2202 ICH cases, OR = 1·08, 95% CI: 0·86 – 1·36, p = 0·52).
In lobar ICH, APOE ε2 is associated with larger ICH volume at presentation, and hence increased mortality and disability. These findings suggest a role for the vasculopathic changes associated with the ε2 allele in influencing the severity and clinical course of lobar ICH.
This study was funded by NIH-NINDS, the American Heart Association, government agencies in Spain, Poland and Austria, academic institutions in Sweden and Austria, and philanthropic organizations.
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating disease that carries a 30 day mortality of approximately 45%. Only 20% of survivors return to independent function at 6 months. The role of inflammation in the pathophysiology of ICH is increasingly recognized. Several clinical studies have demonstrated an association between inflammatory markers and outcomes after ICH; however the relationship between serum biomarkers and functional outcomes amongst survivors has not been previously evaluated. Activation of the inflammatory response as measured by change in peripheral leukocyte count was examined and assessment of mortality and functional outcomes after ICH was determined.
Patients with spontaneous ICH admitted to a tertiary care center between January 2005 and April 2010 were included. The change in leukocyte count was measured as the difference between the maximum leukocyte count in the first 72 hours and the leukocyte count on admission. Mortality was the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes were mortality at 1 year, discharge disposition and the modified Barthel index (MBI) at 3 months compared to pre-admission MBI. 423 cases were included. The in-hospital mortality was 30.4%. The change in leukocyte count predicted worse discharge disposition (OR = 1.258, p = 0.009). The change in leukocyte count was also significantly correlated with a decline in the MBI at 3 months. These relationships remained even after removal of all patients with evidence of infection.
Greater changes in leukocyte count over the first 72 hours after admission predicted both worse short term and long term functional outcomes after ICH.
Intracerebral Hemorrhage; Outcomes; Inflammation; Leukocyte Count
Early deterioration is common in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Treatment at tertiary care centers has been associated with lower ICH mortality. Guidelines recommend aggressive care for 24 hours irrespective of the initial outlook. We examined the frequency of and factors associated with transfer to tertiary centers in ICH patients who initially presented at non-tertiary emergency departments (ED). We also compared observed to expected mortality in transferred and non-transferred patients using published short-term mortality predictors for ICH.
Adult patients who resided in a 5-county region and presented to non-tertiary EDs with nontraumatic ICH in 2005 were identified. ICH Score and ICH Grading Scale (ICH-GS) were determined. Of 16 local hospitals, 2 were designated tertiary care centers. Logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with transfer.
Of 205 ICH patients who presented to non-tertiary EDs, 80 (39.0%) were transferred to a tertiary center. In multivariate regression, better baseline function (modified Rankin scale 0-2 vs. 3-5) (OR=0.42, 95%CI 0.21-0.85, p=0.016) and black race (OR=2.28, 95%CI 1.01-5.12, p=0.046) were associated with transfer. A trend toward higher 30-day mortality was observed in non-transferred patients (32.5% vs. 45.6%, p=0.06). The ICH-GS overestimated mortality for all patients, while the ICH Score adequately predicted mortality.
We found no significant difference in mortality between transferred and non-transferred patients, but the trend toward higher mortality in non-transferred patients suggests that further evaluation of ED disposition decisions for ICH patients is warranted. Expected ICH mortality may be overestimated by published tools.
emergency medicine; intracerebral hemorrhage; stroke; tertiary care center
Examine the relationship between anemia and outcomes from intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH).
Patients admitted with spontaneous ICH between July 2008 and December 2010 were identified from our prospective stroke registry. Patients were divided into two groups based on admission hemoglobin (low vs. normal based on laboratory reference range for gender). Baseline characteristics were compared between groups using Chi-square, t-tests and Wilcoxon Rank Sum tests. Primary outcome was functional status at discharge, with modified Rankin Scale (mRS) 5–6 considered a poor outcome. Cumulative logit and logistic regression models were used to assess the relationships between baseline hemoglobin, nadir hemoglobin, and transfusion with outcomes.
Of the 109 patients, 28% (n = 30) were anemic on admission. Baseline anemia did not predict the primary outcome. Nadir hemoglobin was associated with poor functional outcome at discharge (OR = 1.58, 95% CI 1.31-1.90, p < 0.0001) and remained significant after adjusting for age, baseline NIHSS, transfusion, and length of stay (OR = 1.43, 95% CI 1.06-1.94, p = 0.02). Patients who received a transfusion had 9 times greater odds of having a discharge mRS 5–6 (OR 9.37, 95% CI 2.84-30.88, p = 0.0002) compared with patients who did not receive transfusion. This was no longer statistically significant after adjusting for other factors impacting outcome (OR 4.01, 95% CI 0.64-25.32, p = 0.1392). Neither nadir hemoglobin nor transfusion was found to be independent predictors of in-hospital mortality.
This study suggests that nadir hemoglobin, not admission hemoglobin, can be used to predict poor functional outcome. Transfusion was not an independent predictor of poor outcome from ICH.
Intracerebral hemorrhage; Anemia; Hemoglobin; Transfusion; Outcome
Objective. To study whether gender influences outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Methods. Cohort study of 245 consecutive adults presenting to the emergency department with spontaneous ICH from January 2006 to December 2008. Patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage, extradural hemorrhage, and recurrence of hemorrhage were excluded. Results. There were no differences noted between genders in stroke severity (NIHSS) at presentation, ICH volume, or intraventricular extension (IVE) of hemorrhage. Despite this, females had 1.94 times higher odds of having a bad outcome (modified Rankin score (mRs) ≥3) as compared to males (95% CI 1.12 to 3.3) and 1.84 times higher odds of early mortality (95% CI 1.02–3.33). analyzing known variables influencing mortality in ICH, the authors found that females did have higher serum glucose levels on arrival (P = 0.0096) and 4.2 times higher odds for a cerebellar involvement than males (95% CI 1.63–10.75). After adjusting for age, NIHSS, glucose levels, hemorrhage volume, and IVE, female gender remained an independent predictor of early mortality (P = 0.0127). Conclusions. Female gender may be an independent predictor of early mortality in ICH patients, even after adjustment for stroke severity, hemorrhage volume, IVE, serum glucose levels, and age.
This study analyzed the relationship between prognosis and multiple clinical factors of ruptured middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysm with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), to aid in predicting the results of surgical treatment.
Enrolled subjects were 41 patients with ruptured MCA aneurysm with ICH who were treated with surgical clipping. Clinical factors such as gender, age, and initial Glasgow coma scale were assessed while radiological factors such as the volume and location of hematoma, the degree of a midline shift, and aneurysm size were considered retrospectively. Prognosis was evaluated postoperatively by Glasgow outcome scale.
Age and prognosis were correlated only in the groups with ICH over 31 mL or ICH at the frontal lobe or sylvian fissure. When initial mental status was good, only patients with ICH on the temporal lobe had a better prognosis. If the midline shift was less than 4.5 mm, the probability of better prognosis was 95.5% (21 of 22). If the midline shift was more than 4.5 mm, the probability of poor prognosis was 42.1% (8 of 19). Patients with ICH less than 31 mL had higher survival rates, whereas if the ICH was more than 31 mL, 41.2% (7 of 17) had a poor clinical pathway.
Even if the initial clinical condition of the patient was not promising, by carefully examining and taking into account all factors, neurosurgeons can confidently recommend surgical treatment for these patients.
Ruptured middle cerebral artery aneurysm; Intracerebral hemorrhage; Prognostic outcome
The serum S100 protein has been known to reflect the severity of neuronal damage. The purpose of this study was to assess the prognostic value of the serum S100 protein by Elecsys S100 immunoassay in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and to establish reference value for this new method.
Serum S100 protein value was measured at admission, day 3 and 7 after bleeding in 42 consecutive patients (SAH : 20, ICH : 22) and 74 healthy controls, prospectively. Admission Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score, Hunt & Hess grade and Fisher grade for SAH, presence of intraventricular hemorrhage, ICH volume, and outcome at discharge were evaluated. Degrees of serum S100 elevation and their effect on outcomes were compared between two groups.
Median S100 levels in SAH and ICH groups were elevated at admission (0.092 versus 0.283 µg/L) and at day 3 (0.110 versus 0.099 µg/L) compared to healthy controls (0.05 µg/L; p<0001). At day 7, however, these levels were normalized in both groups. Time course of S100 level in SAH patient was relatively steady at least during the first 3 days, whereas in ICH patient it showed abrupt S100 surge on admission and then decreased rapidly during the next 7 days, suggesting severe brain damage at the time of bleeding. In ICH patient, S100 level on admission correlated well with GCS score (r=-0.859; p=0.0001) and ICH volume (r=0.663; p=0.001). A baseline S100 level more than 0.199 µg/L predicted poor outcome with 92% sensitivity and 90% specificity. Logistic regression analyses showed Ln (S100) on admission as the only independent predictor of poor outcome (odd ratio 36.1; 95% CI, 1.98 to 656.3).
Brain damage in ICH patient seems to develop immediately after bleeding, whereas in SAH patients it seems to be sustained for few days. Degree of brain damage is more severe in ICH compared to SAH group based on the S100 level. S100 level is considered an independent predictor of poor outcome in patient with spontaneous ICH, but not in SAH. Further study with large population is required to confirm this result.
S100 protein; Prognosis; Subarachnoid hemorrhage; Elecsys S100 immunoassay; Intracerebral hemorrhage
There have been many reports about the prognosis and risk factors of stroke recurrence following brain infarction (BI). However, little is known about the stroke recurrence after primary intracerebral hemorrhage (PICH). Therefore, we explored the recurrent stroke patients after initial PICH retrospectively, to reveal the critical factors of stroke recurrence. Acute BI (n=4013) and acute PICH patients (n=1067) admitted to the hospital between April 2000 and March 2009 were consecutively screened. PICH patients with a history of ICH and BI patients with a history of ICH were then classified into the ICH-ICH group (n=64, age 70.8±9.5 years) and ICH-BI group (n=52, age 72.8±9.7years), respectively. ICH lesions were categorized into ganglionic and lober types according to the brain magnetic resonance imaging. Subtypes of BI were classified into cardioembolism, large-artery atherosclerosis, small-artery occlusion and others. There was no difference in incidence of risk factors between ICH-ICH and ICH-BI groups. Distribution of initial PICH lesions was significantly abundant in the lobar type in the ICH-ICH group (P<0.01) and in ganglionic type in the ICH-BI group (P<0.02). Age of onset was significantly older in recurrent lobar ICH compared with recurrent ganglionic ICH (P<0.01: 73.6±10.0 and 59.1±9.0 years, respectively). In conclusion, ganglionic ICH patients may have a chance of recurrent stroke in both brain infarction and ganglionic ICH, suggesting the participation of atherosclerosis in intracranial arteries. Lobar ICH patients were older and prone to recurrent lobar ICH, suggesting the participation of cerebral amyloid angiopathy as a risk of stroke recurrence.
stroke; brain infarction; intracerebral hemorrhage; stroke prevention.
The optimal diagnostic evaluation for spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) remains controversial. In this retrospective study, we assessed the utility of early magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in ICH diagnosis and management.
Eighty-nine (72%) of 123 patients with spontaneous ICH underwent a brain CT and MRI within 30 days of ICH onset. Seventy patients with a mean age of 62 ± 15 years were included. A stroke neurologist and a general neurologist, each blinded to the final diagnosis, independently reviewed the admission data and the initial head CT and then assigned a presumed ICH cause under 1 of 9 categories. ICH cause was potentially modified after subsequent MRI review. The final ‘gold standard’ ICH etiology was determined after review of the complete medical record by an independent investigator. Change in diagnostic category and confidence and the potential impact on patient management were systematically recorded.
Mean time to MRI was 3 ± 5 days. Final ICH diagnosis was hypertension or cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) in 50% of patients. After MRI review the stroke neurologist changed diagnostic category in 14%, diagnostic confidence in an additional 23% and management in 20%, and the general neurologist did so in 19, 21 and 21% of patients, respectively. MRI yield was highest in ICH secondary to ischemic stroke, CAA, vascular malformations and neoplasms, and did not differ by age, history of hypertension, hematoma location or the presence of intraventricular hemorrhage.
The results of this study suggest potential additive clinical benefit of early MRI in patients with spontaneous ICH.
Cerebral hemorrhage; Magnetic resonance imaging; Diagnostic imaging
Patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) presenting within 24 hours of symptom onset are known to be increased risk of hematoma expansion which is closely correlated with morbidity and mortality. We investigated whether tiny enhancing foci ('Spot sign') on axial view of 3-dimensional computed tomography angiography (3D-CTA) source images can predict subsequent hematoma expansion in spontaneous ICH.
During a 2-year period (March 2007-March 2009), we prospectively evaluated 3D-CTA of 110 patients with spontaneous ICH. Based on source images of 3D-CTA, patients were classified according to presence or absence of 'Spot sign'; 'Spot sign' (+) group, 'Spot sign' (-) group. Radiological factors and clinical outcomes were compared between two groups.
Hematoma expansion occurred in 16 patients (15%). Mean Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of patients with hematoma expansion was significantly different compared to score of patients without hematoma expansion (5 vs. 9, p < 0.001). Nineteen patients (16%) of 110 ICH patients demonstrated 'spot sign' on 3D-CTA. Among the 'spot sign' (+) group, 53% of patients developed hematoma expansion. Conversely 7% of patients without 'spot sign' demonstrated the hematoma expansion (p < 0.001). Initial volume and location of hematoma were significantly not associated with hematoma expansion except shape of hematoma.
Our study showed that patients with hematoma expansion of spontaneous ICH had significant clinical deterioration. And the fact that 'spot sign' (+) group have higher risk of hematoma expansion suggests the presence of 'spot sign' on source images of 3D-CTA can give a clue to predict hematoma expansion in spontaneous ICH.
Intracerebral hemorrhage; Computed tomography angiography; Hematoma expansion; Prognosis
Background and Purpose
Hematoma volume is the most potent predictor of outcome in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), and hematoma expansion after hospital presentation occurs in up to 40% of individuals. Among patients with lobar ICH, the APOE ε2 allele predicts larger hematoma volumes at presentation. We investigated whether the ε2 allele also identifies individuals at increased risk of hematoma expansion.
We analyzed 510 patients with primary ICH and genetic data available from an ongoing prospective cohort study. Baseline and follow-up CT scans were assessed for ICH location and volume using computer-assisted volumetric methods.
Individuals with lobar ICH who possessed APOE ε2 were at increased risk for hematoma expansion (OR = 2.72 [95% CI 1.19 – 6.23]; p = 0.009). The highest odds of expansion were in patients who qualified for the diagnosis of cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related ICH and carried the APOE ε2 allele (OR = 6.02 [95% CI 1.60 – 22.58]; p = 0.008). There was no effect of ε2 on hematoma expansion in deep ICH and APOE ε4 had no effect on hematoma expansion in lobar or deep ICH.
Possession of APOE ε2 predisposes individuals with lobar ICH to hematoma expansion. This effect is even more pronounced in patients with amyloid angiopathy-related ICH, consistent with the ε2 allele’s role in vascular amyloid deposition and vessel fragility.
Intracerebral hemorrhage; Genetics; APOE; Hematoma expansion; Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy
Decreased diffusion (DD) consistent with acute ischemia may be detected on MRI after acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), but its risk factors and impact on functional outcomes are not well defined. We tested the hypotheses that DD after ICH is related to acute blood pressure (BP) reduction and lower hemoglobin (HGB) and presages worse functional outcomes.
Patients who underwent MRI were prospectively evaluated for DD by certified neuroradiologists blinded to outcomes. HGB and BP data were obtained via electronic queries. Outcomes were obtained at 14 days and 3 months with the modified Rankin Scale (mRS), a functional scale scored from 0 (no symptoms) to 6 (dead). We used logistic regression for dependence or death (mRS 4 to 6).
DD distinct from the hematoma was found on MRI in 36 of 95 patients (38%). DD was associated with greater BP reductions from baseline, and a higher risk of dependence or death at 3 months (OR 4.8, 95% CI 1.7 – 13.9, P=0.004) after correction for ICH Score (1.8 per point, 95%CI 1.2–3.1, P=0.01). Lower HGB was associated with worse ICH score, larger hematoma volume and worse outcomes, but not DD.
DD is common after ICH, associated with greater acute BP reductions, and associated with disability and death at 3 months in multivariate analysis. The potential benefits of acute BP reduction to reduce hematoma growth may be limited by DD. The prevention and treatment of cerebral ischemia manifested as DD is a potential method to improve outcomes.
Stroke is a major cause of dysphagia, but little is known about when and how dysphagic patients should be fed and treated after an acute stroke. The purpose of this study is to establish the feasibility, risks and clinical outcomes of early intensive oral care and a new speech and language therapist/nurse led structured policy for oral feeding in patients with an acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH).
A total of 219 patients with spontaneous ICH who were admitted to our institution from 2004 to 2007 were retrospectively analyzed. An early intervention program for oral feeding, which consisted of intensive oral care and early behavioral interventions, was introduced from April 2005 and fully operational by January 2006. Outcomes were compared between an early intervention group of 129 patients recruited after January 2006 and a historical control group of 90 patients recruited between January 2004 and March 2005. A logistic regression technique was used to adjust for baseline differences between the groups. To analyze time to attain oral feeding, the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazard model were used.
The proportion of patients who could tolerate oral feeding was significantly higher in the early intervention group compared with the control group (112/129 (86.8%) vs. 61/90 (67.8%); odds ratio 3.13, 95% CI, 1.59-6.15; P < 0.001). After adjusting for baseline imbalances, the odds ratio was 4.42 (95% CI, 1.81-10.8; P = 0.001). The incidence of chest infection was lower in the early intervention group compared with the control group (27/129 (20.9%) vs. 32/90 (35.6%); odds ratio 0.48, 95% CI, 0.26-0.88; P = 0.016). A log-rank test found a significant difference in nutritional supplementation-free survival between the two groups (hazard ratio 1.94, 95% CI, 1.46-2.71; P < 0.001).
Our data suggest that the techniques can be used safely and possibly with enough benefit to justify a randomized controlled trial. Further investigation is needed to solve the eating problems that are associated with patients recovering from a severe stroke.
Among 1402 patients with intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH), seizures occurred in 64 (4.6%) and epilepsy in 35 (2.5%). Seizure was the first manifestation of ICH in 19 patients (30%). Status epilepticus occurred in 11 patients (17%) and it was the initial presentation of ICH in six (9%). The majority had simple partial seizures that were predominantly focal and motor. There were 38 patients with early seizure and 26 patients with late seizure. Ninety per cent of seizures occurred within one year after ICH. Eleven patients (29%) with early seizure developed epilepsy, whereas 24 patients (93%) with late seizure developed recurrent seizures. The incidence of seizure was 32% for lobar haematoma, 2% respectively for putaminal, thalamic and pontine haemorrhages and 1% for cerebellar haemorrhage. Twenty-six (62%) out of 42 patients with lobar haematomas developed epilepsy. Thirteen patients (34%) with early seizure died within three months after the onset of seizures whereas three patients (12%) with late seizure died within the same period. The majority of patients who died had deep-seated haematomas.
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating stroke subtype characterized by a prominent neuroinflammatory response. Antagonism of pro-inflammatory cytokines by specific antibodies represents a compelling therapeutic strategy to improve neurological outcome in patients after ICH. To test this hypothesis, the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) antibody CNTO5048 was administered to mice after ICH induction, and histological and functional endpoints were assessed.
Using 10 to 12-week-old C57BL/6J male mice, ICH was induced by collagenase injection into the left basal ganglia. Brain TNF-α concentration, microglia activation/macrophage recruitment, hematoma volume, cerebral edema, and rotorod latency were assessed in mice treated with the TNF-α antibody, CNTO5048, or vehicle.
After ICH induction, mice treated with CNTO5048 demonstrated reduction in microglial activation/macrophage recruitment compared to vehicle-treated animals, as assessed by unbiased stereology (P = 0.049). This reduction in F4/80-positive cells was associated with a reduction in cleaved caspase-3 (P = 0.046) and cerebral edema (P = 0.026) despite similar hematoma volumes, when compared to mice treated with vehicle control. Treatment with CNTO5048 after ICH induction was associated with a reduction in functional deficit when compared to mice treated with vehicle control, as assessed by rotorod latencies (P = 0.024).
Post-injury treatment with the TNF-α antibody CNTO5048 results in less neuroinflammation and improved functional outcomes in a murine model of ICH.
Intracerebral hemorrhage; Microglia; Tumor necrosis factor alpha antagonism; Murine model; Cytokine; Remicade
To explore ethnic differences in do-not-resuscitate (DNR) orders after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH).
Corpus Christi, Texas.
All cases of ICH in the community of Corpus Christi, Texas were ascertained as part of the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi (BASIC) Project.
Medical records were reviewed for DNR orders. Unadjusted and multivariable logistic regression were used to test for associations between ethnicity and DNR orders, both overall (“any DNR”) and within 24 hours of presentation (“early DNR”), adjusted for age, gender, Glasgow coma scale, ICH volume, intraventricular hemorrhage, infratentorial hemorrhage, modified Charlson index, and admission from a nursing home.
A total of 270 cases of ICH from 2000–2003 were analyzed. Mexican Americans (MAs) were younger and had a higher Glasgow coma scale than non-Hispanic whites (NHWs). MAs were half as likely as NHWs to have early DNR orders in unadjusted analysis (odds ratio (OR) 0.45, 95% CI 0.27, 0.75), though this association was not significant when adjusted for age (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.35, 1.06) and in the fully adjusted model (OR 0.75 95%CI 0.39, 1.46). MAs were less likely than NHWs to have DNR orders written at any time point (OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.23, 0.61). Adjustment for age alone attenuated this relationship, though it retained significance (OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.29, 0.82). In the fully adjusted model, MAs were less likely than NHW to use DNR orders at any time point, though the 95% confidence interval included one (OR 0.52, 95% CI 0.27, 1.00).
MAs were less likely than NHWs to have DNR orders after ICH, though the association was attenuated after adjustment for age and other confounders. The persistent trend toward less frequent use of DNR orders in MAs suggests that further study is warranted.
Cerebral hemorrhage; Mexican Americans; Resuscitation Orders