This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Sigma Anti-bonding Molecule Calcium Carbonate (SAC) as therapy for ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats. Three weeks after surgery, fifteen ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into 3 groups: sham-operated group (sham), ovariectomized group (OVX) and SAC-treatment group (OVX+SAC). The OVX+SAC group was given drinking water containing 0.0012% SAC for 12 weeks. Bone breaking force and mineralization as well as blood parameters related to the bone metabolism were analyzed. In OVX animals, blood concentration of 17β-estradiol decreased significantly, while osteocalcin and type I collagen C-terminal telopeptides (CTx) increased. Breaking force, bone mineral density (BMD), calcium and phosphorus in femurs, as well as uterine and vaginal weights, decreased significantly following OVX. However, SAC treatment (0.0012% in drinking water) not only remarkably restored the decreased 17β-estradiol and increased osteocalcin and CTx concentrations, but also recovered decreased femoral breaking force, BMD, calcium and phosphorus, although it did not reversed reproductive organ weights. It is suggested that SAC effectively improve bone density by preventing bone turnover mediated osteocalcin, CTx and minerals, and that it could be a potential candidate for therapy or prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis.
Osteoporosis; bone mineral density; Sigma Anti-bonding Molecule Calcium Carbonate; 17β-estradiol; osteocalcin; type I collagen C-terminal telopeptides
Osteoporosis, a reduction in bone mineral density, represents the most common metabolic bone disease. Postmenopausal women are particularly susceptible to osteoporosis when their production of estrogen declines. For these women, fracture is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effects of olive oil supplementation against osteoporosis in ovariectomized (OVX) rats.
We studied adult female Wistar rats aged 12-14 months, divided into three groups: sham-operated control (SHAM), ovariectomized (OVX), and ovariectomized rats supplemented with extravirgin olive oil (Olive-OVX) orally for 12 weeks; 4 weeks before ovariectomy and 8 weeks after. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were collected. Plasma levels of calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), malondialdehyde (MDA), and nitrates were assayed. Specimens from both the tibia and the liver were processed for light microscopic examination. Histomorphometric analysis of the tibia was also performed.
The OVX-rats showed a significant decrease in plasma calcium levels, and a significant increase in plasma ALP, MDA, and nitrates levels. These changes were attenuated by olive oil supplementation in the Olive-OVX rats. Light microscopic examination of the tibia of the OVX rats revealed a significant decrease in the cortical bone thickness (CBT) and the trabecular bone thickness (TBT). In addition, there was a significant increase in the osteoclast number denoting bone resorption. In the Olive-OVX rats these parameters were markedly improved as compared to the OVX group. Examination of the liver specimens revealed mononuclear cellular infiltration in the portal areas in the OVX-rats which was not detected in the Olive-OVX rats.
Olive oil effectively mitigated ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats, and is a promising candidate for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.
Many postmenopausal women have vitamin D and calcium deficiency. Therefore, vitamin D and calcium supplementation is recommended for all patients with osteopenia and osteoporosis. We used an experimental rat model to test the hypothesis that induction of osteoporosis is more efficiently achieved in peripheral bone through combining ovariectomy with a unique multi-deficiencies diet (vitamin D depletion and deficient calcium, vitamin K and phosphorus). 14-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats served as controls to examine the initial bone status. 11 rats were bilaterally ovariectomized (OVX) and fed with multi-deficiencies diet. Three months later the treated group and the Sham group (n = 8) were euthanized. Bone biomechanical competence of the diaphyseal bone was examined on both, tibia and femur. Image analysis was performed on tibia via µCT, and on femur via histological analysis. Lower torsional stiffness indicated inferior mechanical competence of the tibia in 3 month OVX+Diet. Proximal metaphyseal region of the tibia showed a diminished bone tissue portion to total tissue in the µCT despite the increased total area as evaluated in both µCT and histology. Cortical bone showed higher porosity and smaller cross sectional thickness of the tibial diaphysis in the OVX+Diet rats. A lower ALP positive area and elevated serum level of RANKL exhibited the unbalanced cellular interaction in bone remodeling in the OVX+Diet rat after 3 month of treatment. Interestingly, more adipose tissue area in bone marrow indicated an effect of bone loss similar to that observed in osteoporotic patients. Nonetheless, the presence of osteoid and elevated serum level of PTH, BGP and Opn suggest the development of osteomalacia rather than an osteoporosis. As the treatment and fracture management of both osteoporotic and osteomalacia patients are clinically overlapping, this study provides a preclinical animal model to be utilized in local supplementation of minerals, drugs and growth factors in future fracture healing studies.
Osteoporosis poses a significant public health issue. It is a skeletal disorder characterized by compromised bone strength that predisposes to increased risk of fracture. There is a direct relationship between the lack of estrogen after menopause and the development of osteoporosis. About 33% of women over 50 will experience bone fractures as a result of osteoporosis. Nigella Sativa (NS) has been shown to have beneficial effects on bone and joint diseases. The present study was conducted to elucidate the protective effect of Nigella Sativa on osteoporosis produced by ovariectomy in rats.
Female Wistar rats aged 12–14 months were divided into three groups: sham-operated control (SHAM), ovariectomized (OVX), and ovariectomized supplemented with nigella sativa (OVX-NS) orally for 12 weeks; 4 weeks before ovariectomy and 8 weeks after. After 12 weeks, plasma levels of calcium (Ca+2), phosphorous (Pi), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), amino terminal collagen type 1 telopeptide, malondialdehyde (MDA), nitrates, nitric oxide surrogate, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured. Histological examination of the liver and the tibia was conducted. Histomorphometric analysis of the tibia was also performed.
OVX rats showed significant decrease in plasma Ca+2, accompanied by a significant increase in plasma ALP, amino terminal collagen type 1 telopeptide, MDA, nitrates, TNF-α and IL-6. These changes were reversed by NS supplementation in OVX-NS group to be near SHAM levels. Histological examination of the tibias revealed discontinuous eroded bone trabeculae with widened bone marrow spaces in OVX rats accompanied by a significant decrease in both cortical and trabecular bone thickness compared to Sham rats. These parameters were markedly reversed in OVX-NS rats. Histological examination of the liver showed mononuclear cellular infiltration and congestion of blood vessels at the portal area in OVX rats which were not found in OVX-NS rats.
Nigella sativa reverses osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats, which could be attributed to its high content of unsaturated fatty acids as well as its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.
Osteoporosis; Nigella sativa; Ovariectomy; Rats
Prebiotics and phytoestrogens have sparked great interest because evidence indicates that consumption of these dietary constituents leads to lower cholesterol levels and inhibition of postmenopausal bone loss. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of both a prebiotic (Synergy®) and phytoestrogen (genistein) on bone and blood lipid levels in an animal model of postmenopausal women.
A four week feeding study was conducted in 5 mo old ovariectomized (OVX) Sprague Dawley rats to examine the effect of genistein, Synergy® (prebiotic) and genistein + Synergy® on bone density and strength, calcium metabolism and lipid biomarkers. There were six treatment groups: SHAM Control, OVX Control, OVX rats receiving daily estradiol injections, and OVX rats receiving an AIN 93M diet supplement with either 200 ppm genistein, 5% Synergy®, or 200 ppm genistein + 5% Synergy®.
Rats receiving genistein had significantly lower total serum cholesterol concentration than OVX Control (17%), OVX rats receiving daily estradiol injections (14%), and OVX rats on the 5% Synergy® diet (19%). Synergy® improved calcium absorption efficiency (41%) compared to OVX Control. SHAM Control rats had significantly higher femoral bone density, as determined by underwater weighing, than all OVX groups. Genistein consumption restored total and trabecular BMD at the distal femur similar to levels of SHAM rats.
Genistein supplementation imparts modest heart health benefits and improves bone geometry at the distal femur, and prebiotic consumption (Synergy®) results in improved calcium utilization strength in ovariectomized rats but the combination produced no synergistic effects.
genistein; prebiotics; cholesterol; bone rodents
Although curcumin has a protective effect on bone remodeling, appropriate therapeutic concentrations of curcumin are not well known as therapeutic drugs for osteoporosis. The purpose of this study was to compare the bone sparing effect of treatment of low-dose and high-dose curcumin after ovariectomy in rats.
Forty female Sprague-Dawley rats underwent either a sham operation (the sham group) or bilateral ovariectomy (OVX). The ovariectomized animals were randomly distributed among three groups; untreated OVX group, low-dose (10 mg/kg) curcumin administered group, and high-dose (50 mg/kg) curcumin group. At 4 and 8 weeks after surgery, serum biochemical markers of bone turnover were analyzed. Bone histomorphometric parameters of the 4th lumbar vertebrae were determined by micro-computed tomography (CT). In addition, mechanical strength was determined by a three-point bending test.
High-dose curcumin group showed significantly lower osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase, and the telopeptide fragment of type I collagen C-terminus concentration at 4 and 8 weeks compared with the untreated OVX group as well as low-dose curcumin group. In the analyses of micro-CT scans of 4th lumbar vertebrae, the high-dose curcumin treated group showed a significant increase in bone mineral densities (p=0.028) and cortical bone mineral densities (p=0.036) compared with the low-dose curcumin treated group. Only high-dose curcumin treated group had a significant increase of mechanical strength compared with the untreated OVX group (p=0.015).
The present study results demonstrat that a high-dose curcumin has therapeutic advantages over a low-dose curcumin of an antiresorptive effect on bone remodeling and improving bone mechanical strength.
Curcumin; Micro-computed tomography; Osteoporosis; Ovariectomy; Rat
Taurine supplementation has been shown to have a beneficial effect on femur bone mineral content in ovariectomized rats. It therefore seemed desirable to find out whether the beneficial effect of taurine on ovariectomized rats fed calcium deficient diet could also be reproduced. Forty female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups. One group was OVX and the other group received sham operation (SHAM), and received either control diet or a taurine supplemented diet for 6 weeks. All rats were fed on calcium deficient diet (AIN-93: 50% level of calcium) and deionized water. Bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) were measured in spine and femur. The serum and urine concentrations of calcium and phosphorus were determined. Bone formation was measured by serum osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) concentrations. Bone resorption rate was measured by deoxypyridinoline (DPD) crosslinks immunoassay and corrected for creatinine. Urinary calcium and phosphorus excretion, osteocalcin in blood and cross link value were not significantly different among the groups. Within the OVX group, the taurine supplemented group had not higher femur bone mineral content than the control group. This study established the need for a study on the taurine effect on bone with different calcium levels.
Taurine; OVX; BMD; calcium deficient diet
We conducted the present study to investigate the therapeutic effects of a combination treatment of alfacalcidol (ALF) and risedronate (RIS) on the bone mechanical properties of bone and calcium (Ca) metabolism using an ovariectomized (OVX) rat model of osteoporosis.
Female Wistar rats were OVX- or sham-operated at 40 weeks of age. Twelve weeks post-surgery, rats were randomized into seven groups: 1) sham + vehicle, 2) OVX + vehicle, 3) OVX + ALF 0.025 μg/kg/day, 4) OVX + ALF 0.05 μg, 5) OVX + RIS 0.3 mg, 6) OVX + RIS 3.0 mg, 7) OVX + ALF 0.025 μg + RIS 0.3 mg. Each drug was administered orally five times a week for 12 weeks. After treatment, we evaluated the mechanical properties of the lumbar vertebra and femoral midshaft. In the lumbar vertebra, structural and material analyses were performed using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and microbeam X-ray diffraction (micro-XRD), respectively. Biochemical markers in serum and urine were also determined.
(1) With respect to improvement in the mechanical strength of the lumbar spine and the femoral midshaft, the combination treatment of ALF and RIS at their sub-therapeutic doses was more effective than each administered as a monotherapy; (2) In the suppression of bone resorption and the amelioration of microstructural parameters, the effects of ALF and RIS were considered to be independent and additive; (3) The improvement of material properties, such as microstructural parameters and the biological apatite (Bap) c-axis orientation, contributed to the reinforcement of spinal strength; and (4) The combination treatment of ALF and RIS normalized urinary Ca excretion, suggesting that this treatment ameliorated the changes in Ca metabolism.
These results demonstrate that the combination treatment of ALF and RIS at their sub-therapeutic doses can improve the mechanical properties of the spine as well as the femur and ameliorate changes in Ca metabolism in an animal model of osteoporosis, suggesting that the combination treatment of ALF and RIS has a therapeutic advantage over each monotherapy for the treatment of osteoporosis.
It has been generally accepted that calcium intake prevents bone loss, and frequent fracture resulted from osteoporosis. However, it is still elusive as to how effective sole calcium intake is in preventing or attenuating the severity of osteoporosis. Here, we demonstrate the effects of eggshell-casein phosphopeptide (ES-CPP), and compared these effects those of calcium supplement, for restoring ovariectomy-mediated bone loss. CPP, synthesized from the hydrolysis of casein (0.5%) using trypsin, was added to the grinded ES and was then administered to the ovariectomized (OVX) rat at 100 mg/kg for 4 weeks. Urine and feces from each group were collected each day, and were used to calculate the apparent calcium absorption rate in a day. After 4 weeks incubation, blood and femoral bones were isolated for the analysis of parameters representing osteoporosis. The apparent calcium absorption rate was significantly increased in the ES-CPP treated groups, in comparison to both the OVX and the commercial calcium supplement (CCS) treated group. Notably, treatment with ES-CPP markedly enhanced the calcium content in femoral bone and the relative weight of femoral bone to body weight, though calcium content in serum was barely changed by treatment with ES-CPP. Parameters of osteoporosis, such as osteocalcin in serum and bone mineral density, were rescued by treatment with ES-CPP, compared to treatment with commercial calcium supplement. This finding strongly suggests the possible use of ES-CPP in preventing or attenuating the severity of postmenopausal osteoporosis.
Osteoporosis; casein phosphopeptide; calcium; inorganic phosphorous; bone mineral density
Calcitonin is used as a treatment to reduce the blood calcium concentration in hypercalcemia and to improve bone mass in osteoporosis. An analgesic effect of calcitonin has been observed and reported in clinical situations. Ovariectomaized (OVX) rats exhibit the same hormonal changes as observed in humans with osteoporosis and are an animal model of postmenopousal osteoporosis. The aim of this study to investigate antinociceptive effect of calcitonin in OVX rats using the immunohistochemical study.
We assessed the antinociceptive effects of calcitonin in an ovariectomized (OVX) rat model, which exhibit osteoporosis and hyperalgesia, using the immunohistochemical method. Fifteen rats were ovariectomized bilaterally, and ten rats were received the same surgery expected for ovariectomy as a sham model. We used five groups: the OVX-CT (n = 5), the sham-CT (n = 5), and the OVX-CT-pcpa (n = 5) groups recieved calcitonin (CT: 4 U/kg/day), while OVX-vehi (n = 5) and the sham-vehi (n = 5) groups received vehicle subcutaneously 5 times a week for 4 weeks. The OVX-CT-pcpa-group was given traperitoneal injection of p-chlorophenylalanine (pcpa; an inhibitor of serotonin biosynthesis) (100 mg/kg/day) in the last 3 days of calcitonon injection. Two hours after 5% formalin (0.05 ml) subcutaneously into the hind paw, the L5 spinal cord were removed and the number of Fos-immunoreactive (ir) neurons were evaluated using the Mann-Whitney-U test.
The numbers of Fos-ir neurons in the OVX-CT and sham-CT groups were significantly less than in the OVX-vehi and sham-vehi groups, respectively (p = 0.0090, p = 0.0090). The number of Fos-ir neurons in the OVX-CT-pcpa-group was significantly more than that of the OVX-CT-group (p = 0.0283), which means pcpa inhibits calcitonin induced reduction of c-Fos production.
The results in this study demonstrated that 1) the increase of c-Fos might be related to hyperalgesia in OVX-rats. 2) Calcitonin has an antinociceptive effect in both OVX and sham rats. 3) The central serotonergic system is involved in the antinociceptive properties of calcitonin.
The purpose of this study was to verify the appropriateness of ovariectomized rats as the osteoporosis animal model.
Twelve female Sprague-Dawley rats underwent a sham operation (the sham group) or bilateral ovariectomy [the ovariectomy (OVX) group]. Eight weeks after operations, serum biochemical markers of bone turnover were analyzed; osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase, which are sensitive biochemical markers of bone formation, and C-terminal telopeptide fragment of type I collagen C-terminus (CTX), which is a sensitive biochemical marker of bone resorption. Bone histomorphometric parameters and microarchitectural properties of 4th lumbar vertebrae were determined by micro-computed tomographic (CT) scan.
The OVX group showed on average 75.4% higher osteocalcin and 72.5% higher CTX levels than the sham group, indicating increased bone turnover. Micro-CT analysis showed significantly lower bone mineral density (BMD) (p=0.005) and cortical BMD (p=0.021) in the OVX group. Furthermore, the OVX group was found to have a significantly lower trabecular bone volume fraction (p=0.002).
Our results showed that bone turnover was significantly increased and bone mass was significantly decreased 8 weeks after ovariectomy in rats. Thus, we propose that the ovariectomized rat model be considered a reproducible and reliable model of osteoporosis.
Bone loss; Bone turnover; Osteoporosis; Ovariectomy; Rat
Loss of bone quality and deterioration of articular cartilage are commonly seen after menopause. While exercise may protect against tissue degeneration, a clear link has yet to be established. The aim of the present study is to investigate the influence of long-term treadmill exercise on changes in bone mass and articular cartilage in ovariectomized rats.
Sixty female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups: ovariectomized (OVX), ovariectomized plus treadmill exercise (OVX-RUN), treadmill exercise alone (RUN), and control (CON) groups. After 36 weeks, the following variables were compared among the 4 groups. Bone mass was evaluated by trabecular bone volume and bone mineral density (BMD). Articular cartilage in the knee joints was evaluated by histology analysis and a modified Mankin score.
Rats in the ovariectomized groups (OVX and OVX-RUN) had significantly lower BMD and bone mass than the non-ovariectomized rats (CON and RUN), indicating that exercise did little to preserve bone mass. However, the sedentary OVX group had a significantly worse modified Mankin score (7.7 ± 1.4) than the OVX-RUN group (4.8 ± 1.0), whose scores did not differ significantly from the other 2 non-operated groups. The articular cartilage in the sedentary OVX rats was relatively thinner, hypocellular, and had more clefts than in the other 3 groups.
This study suggests that long-term exercise protects articular cartilage in OVX rats but does not retard the loss of bone mass seen in after menopause.
Growing evidence shows that herb medicines have some anti-osteoporotic effects, the mechanism underlying is unknown. This study aims to investigate the therapeutic effect of Chinese herb supplements on rats that had osteoporosis-like symptom induced by ovariectomy (OVX).
OVX or sham operations were performed on virgin Wistar rats at three-month old, which were randomly divided into eight groups: sham (sham); OVX control group (OVX); OVX rats with treatments [either diethylstilbestrol (DES) or Semen Astragali Complanati decoction (SACD) or Rhizoma Cibotii decoction (RCD) or Herba Cistanches decoction (HCD) or Semen Allii Tuberosi decoction (SATD)]. Non-surgical rats were served as a normal control (NC). The treatments began 4 weeks after surgery, and lasted for 12 weeks. Bone mass and its turnover were analyzed by histomorphometry. Levels of protein and mRNA of osteoprotegerin (OPG) and receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) in osteoblasts (OB) and bone marrow stromal cells (bMSC) were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization.
Compared to OVX control, TBV% in both SACD and RCD groups was increased significantly, while TRS%, TFS%, MAR, and mAR were decreased remarkably in the SACD group, only TRS% decreased dramatically in the RCD group. No significant changes in bone formation were observed in either HCD or SATD groups. OPG levels in both protein and mRNA were reduced consistantly in OB and bMSC from OVX control rats, in contrast, RANKL levels in both protein and mRNA were increased significantly. These effects were substantially reversed by treatments with either DES or SACD or RCD. No significant changes in both OPG and RANKL expression were observed in OB and bMSC from OVX rats treated with SATD and HCD.
Our study showed that SACD and RCD increased bone formation by stimulating OPG expression and downregulating RANKL expression in OB and bMSC. This suggests that SACD and RCD may be developed as alternative anti-osteoporotic agents for therapy of postmenopausal osteoporosis.
Postmenopausal estrogen deficiency and alcohol abuse are known risk factors for osteoporosis. Previous studies of the combined effect of alcohol and ovariectomy on bone loss using chronic alcohol-feeding models have not demonstrated additional alcohol-induced bone loss in ovariectomized (OVX) animals. Binge alcohol treatment causes rapid bone loss in male rats. We hypothesized that binge alcohol would cause additional bone loss in OVX rats.
Ninety-six adult (400 g) female Sprague–Dawley rats (48 sham-operated and 48 OVX, pair fed) were randomly divided into 4 treatment groups: (a) saline-treated, (b) binge alcohol-treated (3 g/kg alcohol as a 20% weight to volume alcohol/saline solution, intraperitoneal (IP), 3 times per week), (c) parathyroid hormone (PTH)-treated (80 µg/kg, SC, 5 d/wk), and (d) binge alcohol plus PTH. Rats were treated for either 2 or 4 weeks. Following treatment periods, blood was collected for alcohol concentration (BAC) measurements; lumbar vertebrae were removed for bone mineral density (BMD) levels, trabecular microarchitecture assessment, and vertebral compressive strength analysis.
Peak binge BACs averaged 300 mg/dL. Alcohol and OVX decreased cancellous BMD: alcohol and OVX treatment in combination caused additional cancellous BMD loss and significant cortical BMD reductions. Compressive strength was also decreased by OVX and alcohol. Combination treatment resulted in further declines in bone strength. Micro-CT analysis revealed a significant effect of combined OVX and alcohol treatment resulting in decreased trabecular bone volume/total volume (BV/TV). Intermittent PTH administration compensated for losses of BMD, compressive strength, and restored BV/TV deficits caused by OVX, alcohol, or their combination.
Bone loss following OVX can be significantly increased by concurrent binge alcohol treatment. The effects of alcohol and OVX are compensated by concurrent intermittent treatment with PTH. These results suggest that postmenopausal women who abuse alcohol may place their skeleton at additional risk for osteoporotic fracture.
Binge Alcohol; Osteoporosis; Parathyroid Hormone; Rat
This study investigated the effects of nitrate on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone marrow perfusion in ovariectomized (OVX) female rats, and also the effects of nitrate on in vitro osteoblastic activity and osteoclastic differentiation of murine monocyte/macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. Female Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into OVX + nitrate group (isosorbide-5-mononitrate, ISM, 150 mg/kg/ day b.i.d), OVX + vehicle group, and control group. Lumbar spine CT bone densitometry and perfusion MRI were performed on the rats at baseline and week 8 post-OVX. The OVX rats’ BMD decreased by 22.5% ± 5.7% at week 8 (p < 0.001); while the OVX + ISM rats’ BMD decreased by 13.1% ± 2.7% (p < 0.001). The BMD loss difference between the two groups of rats was significant (p = 0.018). The OVX rats’ lumbar vertebral perfusion MRI maximum enhancement (Emax) decreased by 10.3% ± 5.0% at week 8 (p < 0.005), while in OVX + ISM rats, the Emax increased by 5.5% ± 6.9% (p > 0.05). The proliferation of osteoblast-like UMR-106 cells increased significantly with ISM treatment at 0.78 µM to 50 μM. Treatment of UMR-106 cells with ISM also stimulated the BrdU uptake. After the RAW 264.7 cells were co-treated with osteoclastogenesis inducer RANKL and 6.25 μM ~ 100 μM of ISM for 3 days, a trend of dose-dependent increase of osteoclast number was noted.
nitrates; osteoporosis; DCE MRI; bone mineral density; osteoblast; osteoclast
The objective of the present study was to systematically explore the effects of 32K Da protein (32KP) on postmenopausal osteoporosis. Eighty 3-mo-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were employed and randomly divided into one sham-operated group (SHAM) and five ovariectomy (OVX) subgroups as OVX (control), OVX with 17-ethinylestradiol (E2, 25 g/kg/day), OVX with 32KP of graded doses (50, 50, or 150 mg/kg/day). 32KP or E2 diet was fed on week 4 after operation, for 16 weeks. Bone mass, bone turnover and strength were evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), biochemical markers and three-point bending test, respectively. Femur marrow cavity was observed by light microscopy via hematoxylin-eosin staining. It is observed that different dosage treatment of 32KP increased the body weight and prevented the loss of bone mass induced by OVX. The prevention effect against bone loss was presumably due to the altering of the rate of bone remodeling. The bone mineral density and bone calcium content in OVX rats were lower than that in the control group, suggesting that 32KP was able to prevent significant bone loss. In addition, the data from three point bending test and femur sections showed that 32KP treatment enhanced bone strength and reduced the marrow cavity of the femur in OVX rats. In the serum and urine assay, 32KP decreased urinary deoxypyridinoline and calcium concentrations; however, serum alkaline phosphatase activities were not inhibited. It suggested that amelioration of bone loss was changed via inhibition of bone reabsorption. Our findings indicated that 32KP might be a potential alternative drug for the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.
32k Da Protein; DEXA; biochemical markers; mechanical test; bone turnover
This study describes a method for inducing osteopenia using bilateral ovariectomy (OVX), which causes significant changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in rats.
Twenty-five 10-week-old female Sprague Dawley rats were used. Five rats were euthanized after two weeks, and BMD was measured in their femora. The other 20 rats were assigned to one of two groups : a sham group (n = 10), which underwent a sham operation, and an OVX group (n = 10), which underwent bilateral OVX at 12 weeks of age. After six weeks, five rats from each group were euthanized, and BMD was measured in their femora. The same procedures were performed in the remaining rats form each group eight weeks later.
The femur BMD was significantly lower in the six-week OVX group than in the six-week sham group, and in the eight-week OVX group than in the eight-week sham group.
Bilateral OVX is a safe method for creating an osteopenic rat model. The significant decrease in BMD appears six weeks after bilateral OVX.
Animal model; Osteoporosis; Rat; Ovariectomy
Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) has been used to prevent osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. However, HRT is not for everyone, due to concerns of side effects as well as increased risk of breast and possibly uterine cancer. Therefore, Dietary alternatives are considered, which include Trans-3,5,4’-Trihydroxystilbene (trans-resveratrol), a phytoestrogen naturally found in grapes, peanuts and wine with beneficial effects in both cardioprotective and chemopreventive. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of trans-resveratrol on the bone metabolism in ovariectomized rats. 48 Rats were assigned to the following groups: sham surgery + normal diet; ovariectomy (Ovx) + normal diet; Ovx + diethylstilbestrol 0.03 mg × kgbw-1 × d-1;Ovx +Trans-Resveratrol 5 mg × kgbw-1 × d-1; Ovx + Trans-Resveratrol 15 mg × kgbw-1 × d-1; Trans-Resveratrol 45 mg × kgbw-1 × d-1. The rats were fed for 90 days. In the 90th day, OVX + Trans-Resveratrol 45 mg/(kgbw-1·d) group had a greater bone mineral density (BMD) than other groups. In the OVX + Trans-Resveratrol 45 mg/(kgbw-1·d), indices of endocortical bone formation (ALP 37.90 ± 2.96U/100ml, BGP 1.27 ± 0.10 ng/ml) were greater than those of the other groups, while the index of endocortical bone absorption (TRAP 10.35 ± 1.72 U/L) were lower than those of the other groups. Histopathological examination showed that resveratrol had no endometrial hyperplasia adverse effect. All of these support that resveratroal may have positive effect on postmenopausal osteoporosis prevention.
trans-resveratrol; post menopausal osteoporosis; ovarectomized rats; bone mineral density
In order to examine the effectiveness of applying a static magnetic field (SMF) for increasing bone mineral density (BMD), we assessed the degree of osteopenia by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), the metabolism measuring system, and histological examination of bone tissue in an ovariectomized (OVX) rat model. Thirty-six female Wistar rats (8 weeks old, 160–180 g) were divided into three groups. The rats in the OVX-M group were exposed to SMF for 12 weeks after ovariectomy. The ovariectomized rats in the OVX-D group were not exposed to SMF as a control. The rats in the normal group received neither ovariectomy nor exposure to SMF. Twelve-week exposure to SMF in the OVX-M group inhibited the reduction in BMD that was observed in the OVX-D group. Moreover, in the OVX rats, before exposure to SMF, there was no clear difference in the level of locomotor activity between the active and resting phases, and the pattern of locomotor activity was irregular. After exposure of OVX rats to SMF, the pattern of locomotor activity became diphasic with clear active and resting phases, as was observed in the normal group. In the OVX-M group, the continuity of the trabecular bone was maintained more favorably and bone mass was higher than the respective parameters in the OVX-D group. These results demonstrate that exposure to SMF increased the level of locomotor activity in OVX rats, thereby increasing BMD.
locomotor activity; ovariectomized (OVX) rat; static magnetic fields (SMF); thermography
Background and purpose Stress shielding from rigid internal fixation may lead to refracture after removal of the osteosynthesis material. We investigated the effect of a low-rigidity (Ti-24Nb-4Zr-7.9Sn) intramedullary nail regarding stress shielding and bone healing of osteoporotic fractures in the rat.
Methods 40 female Sprague-Dawley rats, aged 3 months, were divided into the following groups: sham-operation (SHAM) (n = 10), ovariectomized (OVX) (n = 10) and OVX-fracture (n = 20). 10 SHAM rats and 10 OVX rats were killed after 12 weeks to provide biomechanical data. Ovariectomy was performed 12 weeks before fracturing both femurs in 20 rats. The left fracture was stabilized with a high-rigidity titanium alloy pin (Ti-6Al-4V; elastic modulus 110 GPa) and the right with a low-rigidity (Ti-24Nb-4Zr-7.9Sn; elastic modulus 33 GPa). The bony calluses were examined by micro-CT at 6 and 12 weeks after fracture, bone volume (BV) and total volume (TV) were determined at the callus region (ROI1) and the total femur (ROI2). Subsequently, the bones were tested mechanically by a three-point bending test.
Results In the low-rigidity group, TV (ROI1) increased at 6 weeks, but BV (ROI1), BV (ROI2) were similar but maximum load increased. At 12 weeks, the maximum load and also BV (ROI1, ROI2) were increased in the low-rigidity group.
Interpretation The low-rigidity nail manufactured from Ti-24Nb-4Zr-7.9Sn showed better external callus formation, seemed to reduce effects of stress shielding, and reduced bone resorption better than the stiffer nail. The low-rigidity nail was strong enough to maintain alignment of the fracture in the osteoporotic rat model without delayed union.
This study evaluated the effect of parathyroid hormone (PTH) infusion alone or in combination with salmon calcitonin (sCT) in ovariectomized (OVX) rats and compared it with daily PTH injections alone or in combination with sCT infusion. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into 6 groups and were either bilaterally ovariectomized or underwent a sham operation; they were then treated for 4 weeks, beginning the day after surgery. Each group of OVX rats received either PTH infusion (group 1), PTH+sCT infusion (group 2), sCT infusion+daily PTH injection (group 3), or daily PTH injection (group 4). One group each of OVX (group 5) and sham-operated rats (group 6) received daily injections of vehicle alone. PTH was injected at 80 μg/kg/day and infused at 40 μg/kg/day, whereas sCT was infused at 10 μg/kg/day. The animals were sacrificed 28 days after treatment, and cancellous bone volume was measured in the tibial metaphysis. Similar to daily PTH injections, continuous infusion of PTH alone increased cancellous bone volume significantly over that seen in vehicle-treated OVX and sham-operated rats. Although cancellous bone volume after continuous infusion of PTH+sCT was also significantly higher than that seen in vehicle-treated OVX and sham-operated rats, the increase was significantly lower than with the other 3 nonvehicle treatments. The increase in cancellous bone volume after administration of sCT infusion along with daily PTH injections was not different from that with daily PTH injections alone. Thus, at the doses tested, the beneficial effects of PTH injection were not apparently improved by PTH infusion or by combination with sCT.
Salmon calcitonin; human parathyroid hormone (1–34); infusion; ovariectomized rats; cancellous bone volume
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the different patterns of bone loss between the lumbar spine and the femur after ovariectomy in rats.
Twenty-four female Sprague-Dawley rats underwent a sham operation (the sham group) or bilateral ovariectomy (the ovariectomized group). Four and eight weeks after operation, six rats from each of the two groups were euthanized. Serum biochemical markers of bone turnover including osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), which are sensitive biochemical markers of bone formation, and the telopeptide fragment of type I collagen C-terminus (CTX), which is a sensitive biochemical marker of bone resorption, were analyzed. Bone histomorphometric parameters of the 4th lumbar vertebrae and femur were determined by micro-computed tomography.
Ovariectomized rats were found to have higher osteocalcin, ALP and CTX levels than sham controls. Additionally, 8 weeks after ovariectomy in the OVX group, serum levels of osteocalcin, ALP and CTX were significantly higher than those of 4 weeks after ovariectomy. Bone loss after ovariectomy was more extensive in the 4th lumbar spine compared to the femur. Bone loss in the 4th lumbar spine was mainly caused by trabecular thinning, but in the femur, it was mainly caused by trabecular elimination.
The present study demonstrates different patterns of bone loss between the 4th lumbar spine and the femur in ovariectomized rats. Therefore, when considering animal models of osteoporosis, it is important that bone sites should be taken into account.
Bone loss; Micro-CT; Osteoporosis; Ovariectomy; Rat
Taurine supplementation has been shown to have an effect on lowering blood lipids in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. It therefore seemed desirable to find out whether the beneficial effect of taurine on OVX rats fed calcium-deficient diet could also be reproduced. Forty female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups. One group was OVX and the other group received a sham operation (Sham). Each rat group was further divided into the control diet and the taurine supplemented (2.0 g/100 g diet) diet group. All rats were fed on calcium-deficient diet and deionized water ad libitum for 6 weeks. Plasma and liver lipids were determined by using commercial kits. LDL-cholesterol concentrations were estimated with the equation of Friedewald et al. (1972). There were no significant differences in body weight gain and food intake between the control and taurine group within Sham and OVX groups, but body weight gain, food intake, and food efficiency ratio was higher in the OVX group. Concentrations of plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol were significantly lower in the taurine fed group of OVX rats fed Ca deficient diet, while HDL-cholesterol concentration was increased in the taurine fed group. Therefore, in this study, we examined whether taurine also prevented hypercholesterolemia induced by ovarian hormone deficiency in ovariectomized rats when they were fed a calcium-deficient diet. These results indicate that taurine may have some beneficial effects on hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia in OVX rats fed calcium-deficient diet.
Taurine; lipids; Ca deficient; OVX
The present study examined the dose-dependent effect of vitamin E in reversing bone loss in ovariectomized (Ovx) rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were either Sham-operated (Sham) or Ovx and fed control diet for 120 days to lose bone. Subsequently, rats were divided into 5 groups (n = 12/group): Sham, Ovx-control, low dose (Ovx + 300 mg/kg diet; LD), medium dose (Ovx + 525 mg/kg diet; MD), and high dose (Ovx + 750 mg/kg diet; HD) of vitamin E and sacrificed after 100 days. Animals receiving MD and HD of vitamin E had increased serum alkaline phosphatase compared to the Ovx-control group. Bone histomorphometry analysis indicated a decrease in bone resorption as well as increased bone formation and mineralization in the Ovx groups supplemented with MD and HD of vitamin E. Microcomputed tomography findings indicated no effects of vitamin E on trabecular bone of fifth lumbar vertebrae. Animals receiving HD of vitamin E had enhanced fourth lumbar vertebra quality as evidenced by improved ultimate and yield load and stress when compared to Ovx-control group. These findings demonstrate that vitamin E improves bone quality, attenuates bone resorption, and enhances the rate of bone formation while being unable to restore bone density and trabecular bone structure.
In previous studies, we found that the consumption of legumes decreased bone turnover in ovariectomized rats. The purpose of the present study is to determine whether the protective effects on bone mineral density (BMD) and the microarchitecture of a diet containing legumes are comparable. In addition, we aim to determine their protective actions in bones by studying bone specific gene expression. Forty-two Sprague-Dawley rats are being divided into six groups during the 12 week study: 1) rats that underwent sham operations (Sham), 2) ovariectomized rats fed an AIN-93M diet (OVX), 3) ovariectomized rats fed an AIN-93M diet with soybeans (OVX-S), 4) ovariectomized rats fed an AIN-93M diet with mung beans (OVX-M), 5) ovariectomized rats fed an AIN-93M diet with cowpeas (OVX-C), and 6) ovariectomized rats fed an AIN-93M diet with azuki beans (OVX-A). Consumption of legumes significantly increased BMD of the spine and femur and bone volume of the femur compared to the OVX. Serum calcium and phosphate ratio, osteocalcin, expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG), and the receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) ratio increased significantly, while urinary excretion of calcium and deoxypyridinoline and expression of TNF-α and IL-6 were significantly reduced in OVX rats fed legumes, compared to OVX rats that were not fed legumes. This study demonstrates that consumption of legumes has a beneficial effect on bone through modulation of OPG and RANKL expression in ovariectomized rats and that legume consumption can help compensate for an estrogen-deficiency by preventing bone loss induced by ovarian hormone deficiency.
Bone mass density; bone-specific gene expression; cytokines; legumes; ovariectomized rats