Swallowed foreign bodies can be a source of morbidity or rarely mortality since they can impact in the pharynx and the oesophagus and cause discomfort or even perforate to cause mediastinitis. Most (80% to 90%)1 foreign bodies including swallowed bone pass into the stomach, proceed through the intestines and are passed in stool without problems. Swallowed bone has been documented to cause intestinal perforation2, enterovesical fistula3 and perianal abscesses4. Two cases of swallowed bones, which passed through the alimentary tract to finally cause anal pain and anal fistula, are presented. Doctors should be aware of the possibility of sharp objects being the cause of anal pain and must therefore be careful when performing digital rectal examinations to prevent injuries from these foreign objects.
Swallowed bone; fistula-in-ano; foreign objects
Most foreign bodies pass through the gastrointestinal tract uneventfully. The majority of the reported literature describes the management of ingested blunt objects. However, ingestion of sharp objects can still occur with a higher rate of perforation corresponding to treatment dilemmas.
We report the conservative management of an inadvertently ingested sharp foreign body during a routine dental procedure and describe a management strategy for the treatment of both blunt and sharp foreign bodies.
Urgent endoscopic assessment and retrieval is indicated when there is a history of a recently ingested sharp foreign body or if clinical suspicion suggests that the object is located within the oesophagus. Conservative management is advocated if the object has passed through the pylorus with serial clinical assessments including daily radiographs. Surgical intervention is warranted in the presence of obstruction, perforation or peritonitis.
Foreign bodies are rare causes of appendicitis and, in most cases, ingested foreign bodies pass through the alimentary tract asymptomatically. However, ingested foreign bodies may sometimes remain silent within the appendix for many years without an inflammatory response. Despite the fact that cases of foreign-body-induced appendicitis have been documented, sharp and pointed objects are more likely to cause perforations and abscesses, and present more rapidly after ingestion. Various materials, such as needles and drill bits, as well as organic matter, such as seeds, have been implicated as causes of acute appendicitis. Clinical presentation can vary from hours to years. Blunt foreign bodies are more likely to remain dormant for longer periods and cause appendicitis through obstruction of the appendiceal lumen. We herein describe a patient presenting with a foreign body in his appendix which had been swallowed 15 years previously. The contrast between the large size of the foreign body, the long clinical history without symptoms and the total absence of any histological inflammation was notable. We suggest that an elective laparoscopic appendectomy should be offered to such patients as a possible management option.
Foreign body; Appendectomy; Laparoscopy; Acute appendicitis; Calcified fecaloma; Abdominal pain
Deliberate single foreign body ingestion is a scenario that many gastroenterologists commonly see in psychiatric units and prisons. However, multiple foreign body ingestions, especially located in the duodenum, provide the endoscopist with unique challenges for management and treatment. Although most foreign objects pass spontaneously, one should have a low threshold of intervention for multiple objects, especially those that are wide, sharp and at risk of perforation. Diagnosis is typically made when there is a history of ingestion coupled with corresponding radiographic verification. The symptoms tend to be non-specific although some patients are able to delineate where the discomfort level is, correlating with the site of impaction. Most foreign bodies pass spontaneously; however when multiple sharp objects are ingested, the gastroenterologist should perform endoscopic procedures to minimize the risks of bowel perforation. We describe here a successful case of multiple ingested foreign bodies retrieved across the C-loop of the duodenum and the pharynges-esophageal curve via endoscopy and review the literature of multiple foreign body ingestion.
Foreign bodies; Multiple; Duodenum; Management; Foreign body ingestions
Foreign bodies inside the pancreas are rare and usually occur after the ingestion of sharp objects like fish bone, sewing needle and toothpick. Most of the ingested foreign bodies pass spontaneously through the anus without being noticed but about 1% of them can perforate through the wall of stomach or duodenum to reach solid organs like pancreas or liver. Once inside the pancreas they can produce complications like abscess, pseudoaneurysm or pancreatits. Foreign bodies of pancreas should be removed by endoscopic or surgical methods. We hereby report our experience of successful removal one a sewing needle from pancreas.
Foreign body; laparoscopy; pancreas; sewing needle
Surgical treatment of posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) aneurysms is challenging due to limited surgical accessibility. Endovascular approach has a benefit of avoiding direct injury to the brainstem or lower cranial nerves. Therefore, it has recently been considered an alternative or primary modality for PICA aneurysms. We retrospectively assessed outcomes following detachable coil embolization of saccular PICA aneurysms.
From February 1997 to December 2007, we performed endovascular procedures to treat 15 patients with 15 PICA aneurysms. Fourteen patients with 14 PICA aneurysms morphology of which was saccular were reviewed retrospectively. Twelve patients had ruptured aneurysms. The aneurysms arose from the PICA origin site (n = 12), the PICA lateral medullary segment (n = 1), or the PICA tonsilomedullary segment (n = 1).
Complete aneurysm occlusion was achieved in 10 patients, residual neck in 3, and residual sac in one. Radiological follow-up was performed in 7 patients with mean duration of 34.7 months (range, 1-97 months) and showed stable or complete occlusion in 6 patients. There were no rebleeding or retreatment after endovascular treatment. Thromboembolism was the only procedure-related complication (n = 4 ; 28.6%). Asymptomatic PICA infarction occurred in two patients and symptomatic PICA infarction in two elderly patients with poor clinical grade. Of these procedural PICA infarction cases, 1 symptomatic PICA infarction patient developed ventriculitis and septic shock leading to death. The clinical outcome was good in 10 patients (71.4%).
In the present study, detachable coil embolization has shown as an efficient modality for PICA saccular aneurysms challenging indications of microsurgery. However, thromboembolic complications should be considered, especially in poor clinical elderly patients with ruptured aneurysms.
Posterior inferior cerebellar artery; Endovascular; Microsurgery; Thromboembolism
Pica is an eating disorder that is manifested by a craving for oral ingestion of a given substance that is unusual in kind and or quantity. It is a long-standing practice that has far reaching implications for prevention and treatment--implications for public health as well as clinical personnel who work in settings where they have the potential for influencing health knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of their patients. Pica practices also challenge researchers and social scientists whose work encompass development and refinement of models related to nutritional deficiencies. The body of literature on pica is so fragmented that it is difficult to find a precise summary of the knowns and unknowns about the condition. There is little consistency in defining pica, classifying substances ingested, identifying key characteristics of practicers, recommending treatment, or in projecting outcomes. This review presents a framework for understanding pica as a general practice, summarizes divergent reported hypotheses and conclusions, and illustrates that there is a need for more comprehensive studies of prevalence and incidence and use of deductive as well as inductive research processes.
Although most ingested foreign bodies usually pass through the gastrointestinal tract asymptomatically, toothpick injury to the gastrointestinal tract is often associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Toothpick perforation of the gastrointestinal tract is frequently reported but, to the best of our knowledge, bacteremia caused by an impacted toothpick within the gastric mucosa has not yet been described. Here, we report the case of bacteremia caused by an accidentally swallowed toothpick. The toothpick was impacted deeply in the gastric mucosa and was first seen and localized on contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT). CT scan is a very useful imaging technique in such situations since we lack typical and relevant physical findings or laboratory studies that go with accidentally swallowed objects, in this case a toothpick. Flexible endoscopy was successful in extracting the whole toothpick. In cases without free perforation, flexible endoscopy is the treatment of choice in toothpick removal from the upper gastrointestinal tract.
Bacteremia; Gastric mucosa; Toothpick; Computed tomography; Flexible endoscopy
Pica is an interesting psychiatric entity that merits special clinical attention. This report describes three cases of pica and calls for its separate nosological placement in clinical psychiatry. In the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders fourth edition (DSM-IV), pica is described as persistent eating of nonutritive substances for a period of at least 1 month which is inappropriate to the developmental level and not part of a culturally sanctioned practice (American Psychiatric Association, 1994). On the other hand, impulse-control disorders not elsewhere classified is defined as failure to resist an impulse, drive or temptation to perform an act that is harmful to the person or to others, feeling of an increasing sense of tension or arousal before committing the act and pleasure, gratification or relief at the time of committing the act or shortly thereafter (American Psychiatric Association, 1994). Regarding the aetiologies of Pica most contemporary literatures have cited various causative factors, e.g. normal exploratory orality of children, pregnancy, stress and conflicts, cultural beliefs, mental retardation, psychotic disorders and even nutritional deficiencies (Chatoor, 2000; Popper & West, 2001). Here, we report 3 atypical cases of Pica, attending outpatient department of the Institute of Psychiatry, Calcutta. These reported cases are unique in their time of onset, phenomenological progression and therapeutic responsiveness.
Pica; Impulse-control disorder; Atypical obsession
Pica, where the patient eats non-food items such as mud, clay, varnish etc., is a common behavioural problem seen in children, pregnant women and the mentally retarded. However sponge pica is a very rare variation. We report a case of a 5-year-old Omani girl, who presented with sponge pica since the age of two years, with recent abdominal pain. Investigations showed anaemia, elevated liver enzymes and normal intelligence. There was no evidence of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Both clinical and laboratory findings showed complete recovery after a few weeks of oral iron therapy. Her appetite improved, and she started to gain weight. No recurrence was observed when followed up after two years. Awareness is necessary to detect and treat pica as early as possible to prevent its complications.
pica; anemia; sponge pica; abdominal pain; Oman
Impacted sharp foreign bodies in the oesophagus can be very difficult to manage. When attempts are made to remove such objects inappropriately, life-threatening complications such as oesophageal perforation can occur. We hare reported a rare case of impacted denture in the oesophagus where endoscopic removal was not possible due to the perforation already caused by the denture, sinee this would have caused an oesophageal laceration, which could have proved fatal. Hence surgical removal had to be performed with repair of the oesophageal perforation.
Foreign Body; Oesophagus; Impacted
The majority of ingested foreign bodies will pass safely through the gastrointestinal tract, but long and rigid foreign bodies are associated with an increased risk of gastrointestinal impaction, perforation and bleeding. However, large foreign bodies which have been swallowed can remain trapped in the stomach over a longer period of time without any significant symptoms. This case report describes the case of a 36-year-old man addicted to heroin who purposefully swallowed a lighter (double wrapped in cellophane) and presented with hematemesis and melena 17 months after the ingestion of the foreign body. The lighter was successfully removed via flexible endoscopy using a polypectomy snare. Swallowed long and rigid foreign bodies trapped in the stomach over a long period of time always represent a special clinical and endoscopic challenge. In cases where endoscopic removal fails, a laparoscopic surgical approach may be an alternative.
Lighter; Flexible endoscopy; Polypectomy snare
Ingestion of foreign bodies is a common occurrence. Majority would pass spontaneously without any complications. Occasionally large and sharp foreign bodies may get stuck and give rise to complications. Removal of large sharp foreign bodies is recommended due to their potential of danger. Foreign bodies can be removed by endoscopy or by laparotomy. We present the two cases of laparoscopic removal of large sharp foreign bodies from the stomach. Laparoscopic removal of large sharp foreign bodies from the stomach is safe.
An anorectal foreign body can cause serious complications such as incontinence, rectal perforation, peritonitis, or pelvic abscess, so it should be managed immediately. We experienced two cases of operative treatment for a self-inserted anorectal foreign body. In one, the foreign body could not be removed as it was completely impacted in the anal canal. We failed to remove it through the anus. A laparotomy and removal of the foreign body was performed by using an incision on the rectum. Primary colsure and a sigmoid loop colostomy were done. A colostomy take-down was done after three months. The other was a rectal perforation from anal masturbation with a plastic device. We performed primary repair of the perforated rectosigmoid colon, and we didea sigmoid loop colostom. A colostomy take-down was done three months later. Immediate and proper treatment for a self-inserted anorectal foreign body is important to prevent severe complications, and we report successful surgical treatments for problems caused by anorectal foreign bodies.
Anal canal; Foreign bodies; Laparotomy
Iron deficiency is the most common cause of anaemia worldwide. Pica, the ingestion of substances that are inappropriate for consumption, is associated with iron deficiency and may be under-diagnosed.
A 34-year-old woman presented with iron deficiency anaemia refractory to treatment for more than a decade. The clinical presentation, endoscopic findings and laboratory investigations were consistent with pica. Subsequent geophysical analysis confirmed that the ingested material was kaolin, a negatively charged silicate.
Prolonged unexplained iron deficiency anaemia should prompt clinicians to remember and inquire about pica. In our patient, this would have averted numerous unnecessary investigations and prevented a decade-long suffering.
A unique case is described of an ingested fish bone migrating into the common hepatic duct, without perforation. Most foreign bodies are known to pass through the gastrointestinal tract uneventfully. Sharper objects such as fish bones have been known to cause perforation. This is more common, in countries where fish consumption is considerably higher, such as, south east Asia. However, even in these regions there have been no reports of such a proximal migration.
common hepatic duct; fish bone; perforation
Foreign bodies in the colon are encountered with increasing frequency, but only sporadic reports concerning their management have appeared in the literature. While most ingested foreign bodies usually pass through the gastrointestinal tract uneventfully, sharp foreign bodies such as toothpicks infrequently cause intestinal perforation and may even result in death. We report our experience with a patient with a sigmoid colon pseudodiverticulum formation, a complication of accidental ingestion of a toothpick that was diagnosed and successfully managed colonoscopically.
Toothpick; Colon; Colonoscopy; Pseudo-diverticulum
We report 10 cases of cerebellar infarction in the territory of the medial branch of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (mPICA). Axial sections on MRI through the middle of the medulla and the cerebellum showed the infarction as a triangular area with a dorsal base and a ventral apex directed towards the fourth ventricle. The infarct also involved the lateral and dorsal medulla when the mPICA supplied all or part of these regions. Three clinical patterns were observed: 1) pseudolabyrinthine signs with or without dysmetria and ataxia when the medulla was spared; marked axial lateropulsion was present in most cases; 2) complete or incomplete Wallenberg's syndrome, when the medulla was involved; 3) silent infarction. These syndromes are precisely those previously attributed to PICA occlusion without distinction of the branch involved. No alteration of consciousness was recorded and spontaneous recovery was the rule. Cerebellar infarction in the distribution of the mPICA can be regarded as a benign condition with a good prognosis.
We investigated the significance and risk factors of bowel obstruction caused by the consumption of wild bananas (BOWB) in Laos. Of six patients with BOWB in Luang Namtha, North Laos, five required enterotomy for phytobezoars. All had eaten wild banana (WB) seeds.
Of 227 other patients/relatives: 91.2% had eaten WB; 46.3% had also eaten the seeds and 45.4% knew of complications resulting from eating WB; 42.3% were aware of the complications of ingesting the seeds (constipation [37.9%], appendicitis/abdominal pain/vomiting [2.6% each] and bloated stomach/death [1.3% each]). Middle/highland Lao ethnicity was associated with WB and seed consumption (odds ratio [OR] 9.91 and 2.33), male sex with WB consumption and unawareness (OR 4.31 and 1.78).
At all surgically-equipped hospitals in Laos, 33/44 doctors knew of BOWB, describing patients as young adults (16/30), male (24/30) and from middleland Lao (18/30). Countrywide, 46/48 patients with BOWB required laparotomy in 2009 (incidence 0.8/100,000). All consumed WB seeds. BOWB is widespread in Laos, especially among young middleland Lao men consuming WB seeds on an empty stomach.
Acute gastric dilatation is a rare complication of anorexia nervosa binge/purge subtype that results from gastrointestinal abnormalities, including decreased gastric motility and delayed gastric emptying. Early diagnosis and intervention is critical since delay may result in gastric necrosis, perforation, shock, and death. We report a 26-year-old female with anorexia nervosa binge/purge subtype, who presented with abdominal pain and nausea after a binge episode. Abdominal radiography and computed tomography showed a grossly dilated stomach measuring 32 cm × 17.9 cm consistent with acute gastric dilatation. She underwent exploratory laparotomy with gastrotomy and gastric decompression, and recovered uneventfully. Initially, the patient denied the binge episode, as many patients with eating disorders do, but later revealed an extensive history of anorexia nervosa binge/purge subtype. This case stresses the importance of obtaining a thorough history of eating disorders and maintaining a high index of suspicion for acute gastric dilatation in young women who present with abdominal pain and distention.
Acute gastric dilatation; anorexia; binge/purge; denial; eating disorder; gastric dysmotility
Most ingested foreign bodies will pass uneventfully through the gastrointestinal tract. Nevertheless, long and rigid foreign bodies are associated with an increased risk of gastrointestinal impaction, perforation and bleeding. Moreover, there has been no case of spontaneous passage of a toothbrush reported. Therefore, the prompt removal of such ingested foreign objects is recommended before complications develop. This case report describes a case of an 18-year-old woman who accidentally swallowed her toothbrush. The toothbrush was successfully removed via flexible endoscopy using a polypectomy snare. A swallowed toothbrush is a special clinical challenge. Early endoscopic retrieval of the toothbrush is critical for reducing morbidity and mortality. In cases when endoscopic removal fails, a laparoscopic surgical approach may be an alternative.
Toothbrush; Flexible endoscopy; Polypectomy snare
This study of 25 brains at the pontomedullary junction defined the different possible origins of the perforating arteries and lateral spinal arteries in relation to the posterior inferior cerebellar arteries (PICAs).
- If the PICA emerges from the common trunk of the AICA-PICA coming from the basilar artery, it never gives perforating arteries or a lateral spinal artery on the lateral surface of the brain stem but supplies blood to a part of the ipsilateral cerebellar hemisphere.
- If the PICA arises extradurally at C1, it never gives perforating arteries for the lateral surface of the brain stem, but it gives pial branches for the posterior surface of the medulla oblongata and is always the origin of the lateral spinal artery.
- If the PICA emerges in the intradural vertebral artery, it is the source of the perforating arteries for the lateral surface of the brain stem and of the blood supply of the ipsilateral cerebellum.
medulla oblongata, posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA), perforating arteries, lateral spinal artery
Inadvertent enterotomy (IE) in laparoscopic abdominal surgery is underreported. Patients with a prior history of laparotomy are at significantly increased risk of enterotomy if another operation is needed. The incidence of enterotomy in laparoscopic surgery may even be greater than that during an open procedure and may go unrecognized due to the limited field of vision. The purpose of this study was to report the incidence of inadvertent enterotomy in a variety of laparoscopic abdominal procedures at our institution and discuss ways to minimize the risk of this complication.
Using the data from morbidity and mortality conferences, we retrospectively reviewed all complications from 3,613 consecutive patients who had laparoscopic abdominal surgery from November 1998 through November 2004. Patients with inadvertent enterotomy were divided into 4 groups according to the type of laparoscopic procedure. Inadvertent enterotomy was defined as any transmural penetration of any part of the intestine. All inadvertent enterotomies that occurred during laparoscopic abdominal surgery were analyzed for mechanism of injury and method of repair, whether diagnosis was made intraoperatively or postoperatively, clinical presentation, conversion rate, and whether a second procedure was necessary.
Laparoscopic operations were performed in 3,613 persons. Patients diagnosed with IE were divided into 4 groups: Group #1: cholecystectomy; Group #2: all patients requiring intestinal resection with or without primary anastomosis; Group #3: patients with any type of hernia repair; Group #4: all patients that had adhesiolysis as a primary indication for the operation. The incidence of IE according to each group was 0.39% (8/2,016), 0.8% (3/375), 1.9% (6/312), 100% (4/4), respectively. Twenty patients had 21 inadvertent enterotomies (4 men, 16 women; mean age, 60.9 years). One patient had 2 operations and had an enterotomy both times. Four patients (4/21, 19%) with unrecognized IE were diagnosed postoperatively. The overall incidence of IE was 0.58%. No deaths occurred.
Inadvertent enterotomy in laparoscopic abdominal surgery is especially dangerous if unrecognized during the primary operation. The incidence of IE can be significantly reduced with careful individualized risk assessment. Only surgeons who are trained in advanced laparoscopy should attempt complicated cases and must always be wary of possible bowel injury. Any patient with signs of peritonitis, sepsis, or increased abdominal pain after laparoscopic surgery must promptly be investigated. The department culture of intraoperative cooperation helped improve outcomes.
Inadvertent enterotomy; Unrecognized enterotomy; Laparoscopic injury; Complication analysis; Trocar injury
Individualized treatment packages were developed for 3 children with high-rate severe pica using a discrimination training paradigm and a behavioral assessment-based procedure known as empirically derived consequences. Children received empirically derived reinforcers for eating under appropriate stimulus conditions (i.e., eating food only from a plate and placemat that served as a discriminative stimulus) and empirically derived punishers for attempts to engage in pica. This treatment package resulted in marked reductions in pica and an increase in appropriate eating for all 3 children in a "baited" analogue condition. In addition, low rates of pica were maintained for 9 months for all 3 children. These results suggest that treatment effectiveness may be enhanced when behavioral assessment data are used to identify potent consequences.
Heterotopic ossification (HO) is the ectopic development of normal bone within soft tissue that can occur after traumatic injury. It is uncommon and may be missed or misdiagnosed, which can lead to complications. We report the case of an 84-year-old male with a previous history of a laparotomy who underwent resection of an intra-abdominal tumor through a midline incision. On postoperative day six, the patient was taken to the operating room, as succus was draining from the incision. Upon re-exploration, sharp bone-like material was found in the wound directly adjacent to an enterotomy. Pathology confirmed mature lamellar bone and the diagnosis of HO. This is the first report of postoperative intestinal perforation secondary to HO in a midline wound. We report this case to encourage accurate reporting of HO and its morbidity and complications for the benefit of appropriate surgical planning and epidemiologic tracking of outcomes.