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1.  Abnormal Savda Munziq, an Herbal Preparation of Traditional Uighur Medicine, May Prevent 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-Induced Rat Colon Carcinogenesis 
The study tried to assess the chemoprotective effect of abnormal Savda Munziq (ASMq) on 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced rat colon carcinogenesis. Male F344 rats were randomized into eight groups: Group 1 was served as control, no DMH injection was given and treated daily with normal saline. Rats in Groups 2–8 were given a single intraperitoneal injection of DMH (20 mg/kg body weight) at the beginning of the study. Group 2 was served as negative control, administered with normal saline until the end of the experiment after the single DMH injection. Groups 3–5 were served as pretreatment group, administered with ASMq ethanol extract at 400, 800 and 1600 mg/kg body weight, respectively, until the 45th day, continued by normal saline administration for another 45 days. Groups 6–8 were served as the treatment group, administered with normal saline for the first 45 days from the day of DMH injection, ASMq ethanol extract at three different doses to be administered until the end of the second 45th day. All rats were sacrificed at 91st day and the colons were analyzed for aberrant crypt foci (ACF) formation and crypt multiplicity. Results showed that ASMq ethanol extract reduced the number of ACF, AC and crypt multiplicity significantly (P < .05). It suggested that ASMq ethanol extract had chemoprotective effects on DMH-induced colon carcinogenesis, by suppressing the development of preneoplastic lesions, and probably exerted protection against the initiation and promotion steps of colon carcinogenesis.
doi:10.1093/ecam/nep059
PMCID: PMC3136791  PMID: 19561161
2.  Anti-carcinogenic effects of the phenolic-rich extract from abnormal Savda Munziq in association with its cytotoxicity, apoptosis-inducing properties and telomerase activity in human cervical cancer cells (SiHa) 
Background
Abnormal Savda Munziq (ASMq) is a herbal preparation used in Traditional Uighur Medicine for the treatment cancer. The polyphenol is main compounds contained in ASMq preparation responsible for anticancer effect of ASMq.
Methods
In this study,Real-time quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) assay, MTT assay and flow cytometry were used to investigate the effect of polyphenol of ASMq on cell viability and the potential of the phenolic rich extracts of ASMq to induce apoptosis in human cervical cancer cells SiHa and its effects on telomerase activity were investigated. Cellular morphological change was observed by phase contrast microscopy. The MTT cell viability data revealed that treatment with phenolic rich extracts at 75 ~ 175 μg/ml significantly inhibited the viability and proliferation of cells, and these effects occurred in a concentration-dependent manner and time dependent manner (P < 0.01).
Results
The phenolic rich extracts can induce apoptosis of SiHa cells, can increase the apoptosis rate in a concentration-dependent manner and time dependent manner (P < 0.01). Growth inhibition and apoptosis induction by phenolic rich extracts treatment on SiHa cells was associated with down-regulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 expression and telomerase (P < 0.05) and Survivin expression. In addition, phenolic rich extracts exerted a dose-dependent induction of FHIT expression.
Conclusion
These results suggest that phenolic rich extracts may have anti-tumor effects in human cervical cancer through cytotoxicity, apoptosis-inducing properties and telomerase activity.
doi:10.1186/s12906-015-0530-x
PMCID: PMC4331379
Phenolic rich extracts of ASMq; Human cervical cancer; SiHa cells; Apoptosis; Telomerase
3.  Ethanol Extract of Abnormal Savda Munziq, a Herbal Preparation of Traditional Uighur Medicine, Inhibits Caco-2 Cells Proliferation via Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis 
Aims. Study the effect of Abnormal Savda Munziq (ASMq) ethanol extract on the proliferation, apoptosis, and correlative gene, expression in colon cancer cells (Caco-2) to elucidate the molecular mechanisms responsible for the anticancer property of Abnormal Savda Munziq. Materials and Methods. ASMq ethanol extract was prepared by a professional pharmacist. Caco-2 cells were treated with different concentration of ASMq ethanol extract (0.5–7.5 mg/mL) for different time intervals (48 and 72 h). Antiproliferative effect of ASMq ethanol extract was determined by MTT assay; DNA fragmentation was determined by gel electrophoresis assay; cell cycle analysis was detected by flow cytometer; apoptosis-related gene expression was detected by RT-PCR assay. Results. ASMq ethanol extract possesses an inhibition effect on Caco-2 cells proliferation, induction of cell apoptosis, cell cycle arrest in sub-G1 phase, and downregulation of bcl-2 and upregulation of Bax gene expression. Conclusion. The anticancer mechanism of ASMq ethanol extract may be involved in antiproliferation, induction of apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and regulation of apoptosis-related gene expression such as bcl-2 and Bax activity pathway.
doi:10.1155/2012/926329
PMCID: PMC3138059  PMID: 21785650
4.  The impact of the Uighur medicine abnormal savda munziq on antitumor and antioxidant activity in a S180 and Ehrlich ascites carcinoma mouse tumor model 
Pharmacognosy Magazine  2012;8(30):141-148.
Aim:
This study was designed to study the antitumor and antioxidant activity of Uighur medicine abnormal savda munziq (ASMq) in the S180 and Ehrlich ascites carcinoma mice tumor model.
Materials and Methods:
The serum levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), malonaldehyde (MDA), and glutathione-catalase (GSH-PX) were analyzed, and the mice were also subjected to a hypoxia tolerance test. Their climbing ability was also analyzed.
Results:
The findings of the study revealed that ASMq-treatment leads to an increase in blood serum SOD and GSH-PX levels but a decrease in blood serum MDA levels. Moreover, ASMq-treatment enhanced the survival time of mice maintained under hypoxic conditions and improved their mice climbing ability.
Conclusions:
The results of this study indicate that ASMq has obvious antitumor and antioxidative effects.
doi:10.4103/0973-1296.96568
PMCID: PMC3371436  PMID: 22701288
Abnormal savda munziq; antioxidant; antitumor
5.  Inhibition of Cell Growth and Cellular Protein, DNA and RNA Synthesis in Human Hepatoma (HepG2) Cells by Ethanol Extract of Abnormal Savda Munziq of Traditional Uighur Medicine 
Abnormal Savda Munziq (ASMq) is a traditional Uighur medicinal herbal preparation, commonly used for the treatment and prevention of cancer. We tested the effects of ethanol extract of ASMq on cultured human hepatoma cells (HepG2) to explore the mechanism of its putative anticancer properties, using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) bromide, neutral red and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage assays, testing the incorporation of 3[H]-leucine and 3[H]-nucleosides into protein, DNA and RNA, and quantifying the formation of malondialdehyde-thiobarbituric acid (MDA) adducts. ASMq ethanol extract significantly inhibited the growth of HepG2 and cell viability, increased the leakage of LDH after 48 hours or 72 hours treatment, in a concentration- and time-dependent manner (P < .05). Cellular protein, DNA and RNA synthesis were inhibited in a concentration- and time-dependent manner (P < .05). No significant MDA release in culture medium and no lipid peroxidation in cells were observed. The results suggest that the cytotoxic effects of ASMq ethanol extract might be related to inhibition of cancer cell growth, alteration of cell membrane integrity and inhibition of cellular protein, DNA and RNA synthesis.
doi:10.1093/ecam/nen062
PMCID: PMC3136333  PMID: 18955370
6.  Towards Modernization of the Formulation of the Traditional Uighur Medicine Herbal Preparation Abnormal Savda Munziq 
Abnormal Savda Munziq (ASMq) is a herbal preparation used in Traditional Uighur Medicine for the treatment and prevention of diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, chronic asthma and cancer. The recommended dose of this decoction for cancer patients is 500 mL administered orally three times a day. Our approach aimed at reducing the high amount of fluid intake required by fractionation of ASMq guided by the antiproliferative activity on HL-60 cells. The fractionation of ASMq resulted in the preparation of an active extract, Extr-4. Using solid phase extraction, Extr-4 was further fractionated into five fractions (SPE-0, SPE-20, SPE-40, SPE-60 and SPE-80), with SPE-40 showing the strongest antiproliferative activity. Caffeic acid, rutin, isoquercitrin, isorhamnetin 3-O-rutinoside, apigenin 7-O-glucoside, rosmarinic acid, luteolin and formononetin were identified in Extr-4 and fractions thereof by means of TLC, HPLC-DAD and LC-MS. SPE-40 contained the main compounds responsible for the antiproliferative activity on HL-60 cells. Thus, a phenolic fraction with high antiproliferative activity on HL-60 cells was obtained from ASMq through the bioassay-guided fractionation process. This could provide a better pharmaceutical formulation that minimizes the administration inconveniencies of a high volume (1.5 L per day) of ASMq decoction for cancer patients.
doi:10.1155/2012/863101
PMCID: PMC3152965  PMID: 21837249
7.  Behavioral, Neurochemical and Neuroendocrine Effects of Abnormal Savda Munziq in the Chronic Stress Mice 
Oral administration of Abnormal Savda Munsiq (ASMq), a herbal preparation used in Traditional Uighur Medicine, was found to exert a memory-enhancing effect in the chronic stressed mice, induced by electric foot-shock. The memory improvement of the stressed mice was shown by an increase of the latency time in the step-through test and the decrease of the latency time in the Y-maze test. Treatment with ASMq was found to significantly decrease the serum levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), corticosterone (CORT) and β-endorphin (β-EP) as well as the brain and serum level of norepinephrine (NE). Furthermore, ASMq was able to significantly reverse the chronic stress by decreasing the brain and serum levels of the monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine (DA), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPAC). The results obtained from this study suggested that the memory-enhancing effect of ASMq was mediated through regulations of neurochemical and neuroendocrine systems.
doi:10.1155/2012/426757
PMCID: PMC3419564  PMID: 22919413
8.  Development and testing of the Asthma Self-Management Questionnaire 
Background
Assessing self-management knowledge can guide physicians in teaching patients necessary skills.
Objective
To develop and test the Asthma Self-Management Questionnaire (ASMQ).
Methods
The ASMQ was developed from patient interviews. Validity was evaluated by comparison with the established Knowledge, Attitude, and Self-Efficacy Asthma Questionnaire, and test-retest reliability was evaluated with repeated administration (mean, 5 days apart) in 25 patients (mean age, 41 years; 96% women). The ASMQ was further described in additional patients by comparison with cross-sectional self-management practices and longitudinal change in Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire scores.
Results
The 16-item, multiple-choice ASMQ measures knowledge of preventive strategies, inhaler use, and medications and generates a score of 0 to 100, with higher scores indicating more correct responses. The ASMQ was correlated with the Knowledge, Attitude, and Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (r = 0.58) and had a Cronbach α of 0.71. The correlation between administrations was 0.78, and the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.58. When given to another 231 patients (mean age, 41 years; 74% women), the mean (SD) ASMQ score was 60 (20). Patients with better ASMQ scores were more likely to own peak flow meters (P = .04) and to have received flu vaccines (P = .03). For 12 months, these patients received self-management information through workbooks and telephone reinforcement. Patients with higher ASMQ scores after 12 months were more likely to have clinically important improvements in quality of life compared with patients with lower ASMQ scores (65% vs 46%; P = .01).
Conclusions
The ASMQ is valid and reliable and is associated with clinical markers of effective self-management and better asthma outcomes.
PMCID: PMC2702201  PMID: 19441600
9.  Metabolomic changes in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with abnormal Savda syndrome 
The aim of this study was to determine the metabolic biomarkers for abnormal Savda syndrome in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Based on Traditional Uyghur Medicine (TUM) theory, a total of 103 patients with COPD were classified into abnormal Savda and non-abnormal Savda syndrome groups and 52 healthy volunteers acted as the control group. Blood samples from the three groups were analyzed using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy combined with orthogonal projection to latent structure-discriminant analysis. NMR tests showed that the regional distributions of the patients with COPD with abnormal Savda syndrome, those with non-abnormal Savda syndrome and the control group were completely separate (P>0.05). The patients with COPD with abnormal Savda syndrome exhibited relatively low levels of amino acids, glycoproteins and unsaturated lipids (P<0.05) but significantly higher levels of lactic acid, carnitine, acetone and acetoacetate (P<0.05) compared with the healthy controls. Abnormal Savda syndrome was one of the main types of syndrome among the patients with COPD; increased age, a longer duration of illness and a higher disease severity were characteristic of this type of syndrome. In addition, the present study provided biochemical evidence for the TUM theory-based classification of patients with COPD; these biomarkers can be used in the clinic for the diagnosis of COPD with abnormal Savda syndrome. The study also demonstrated that the plasma metabolic disorder in patients with COPD with abnormal Savda syndrome was more serious than that in the control and COPD with non-abnormal Savda syndrome groups. The plasma metabolic disorder was also associated with a low immune function of the body and endocrine and energy metabolism disorders.
doi:10.3892/etm.2014.2085
PMCID: PMC4280916  PMID: 25574210
biomarkers; Traditional Uyghur Medicine; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; abnormal Savda syndrome
10.  Establishment and Comparison of Combining Disease and Syndrome Model of Asthma with “Kidney Yang Deficiency” and “Abnormal Savda” 
The study was the first time to establish and compare two rat models of two common syndromes: Kidney Yang Deficiency syndrome (KYDS) in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and abnormal savda syndrome (ASS) in traditional Uighur medicine (TUM). Then, we also established and evaluated rat models of combining disease and syndrome models of asthma with KYDS or ASS. Results showed that usage of the high dose of corticosterone (CORT) injection or external factors could successfully establish the KYDS or ASS rat models, and the two models had similar changes in biological characterization, abnormal behaviors, dysfunction of hypothalamic-pituitary-target organ axes (HPTOA), and sympathetic/parasympathetic (S/P) nerve system but varied in different degrees. The rat models of combining disease and syndrome of asthma with KYDS or ASS had either pathological characteristics of asthma such as airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), airway inflammation, airway remodeling, which were more serious than allergy exposure alone, or the syndrome performance of Kidney Yang Deficiency in TCM and abnormal savda in TUM. These findings provide a biological rationale for further investigation of combining disease and syndrome model of asthma as an effective animal model for exploring asthma based on the theory of traditional medicine.
doi:10.1155/2013/658364
PMCID: PMC3639643  PMID: 23662148
11.  Identification of plasma protein markers common to patients with malignant tumour and Abnormal Savda in Uighur medicine: a prospective clinical study 
Background
Traditional Uighur medicine shares an origin with Greco-Arab medicine. It describes the health of a human body as the dynamic homeostasis of four normal Hilits (humours), known as Kan, Phlegm, Safra, and Savda. An abnormal change in one Hilit may cause imbalance among the Hilits, leading to the development of a syndrome. Abnormal Savda is a major syndrome of complex diseases that are associated with common biological changes during disease development. Here, we studied the protein expression profile common to tumour patients with Abnormal Savda to elucidate the biological basis of this syndrome and identify potential biomarkers associated with Abnormal Savda.
Methods
Patients with malignant tumours were classified by the diagnosis of Uighur medicine into two groups: Abnormal Savda type tumour (ASt) and non-Abnormal Savda type tumour (nASt), which includes other syndromes. The profile of proteins that were differentially expressed in ASt compared with nASt and normal controls (NC) was analysed by iTRAQ proteomics and evaluated by bioinformatics using MetaCore™ software and an online database. The expression of candidate proteins was verified in all plasma samples by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
Results
We identified 31 plasma proteins that were differentially expressed in ASt compared with nASt, of which only 10 showed quantitatively different expression between ASt and NC. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that most of these proteins are known biomarkers for neoplasms of the stomach, breast, and lung. ELISA detection showed significant upregulation of plasma SAA1 and SPP24 and downregulation of PIGR and FASN in ASt compared with nASt and NC (p < 0.05).
Conclusions
Abnormal Savda may be causally associated with changes in the whole regulation network of protein expression during carcinogenesis. The expression of potential biomarkers might be used to distinguish Abnormal Savda from other syndromes.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12906-015-0526-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s12906-015-0526-6
PMCID: PMC4321703  PMID: 25652121
Uighur medicine; Abnormal Savda; Malignant tumour; Plasma proteomics
12.  Effect of artesunate-mefloquine fixed-dose combination in malaria transmission in amazon basin communities 
Malaria Journal  2012;11:286.
Background
Studies in South-East Asia have suggested that early diagnosis and treatment with artesunate (AS) and mefloquine (MQ) combination therapy may reduce the transmission of Plasmodium falciparum malaria and the progression of MQ resistance.
Methods
The effectiveness of a fixed-dose combination of AS and MQ (ASMQ) in reducing malaria transmission was tested in isolated communities of the Juruá valley in the Amazon region.
Priority municipalities within the Brazilian Legal Amazon area were selected according to pre-specified criteria. Routine national malaria control programmatic procedures were followed. Existing health structures were reinforced and health care workers were trained to treat with ASMQ all confirmed falciparum malaria cases that match inclusion criteria. A local pharmacovigilance structure was implemented. Incidence of malaria and hospitalizations were recorded two years before, during, and after the fixed-dose ASMQ intervention. In total, between July 2006 and December 2008, 23,845 patients received ASMQ. Two statistical modelling approaches were applied to monthly time series of P. falciparum malaria incidence rates, P. falciparum/Plasmodium vivax infection ratio, and malaria hospital admissions rates. All the time series ranged from January 2004 to December 2008, whilst the intervention period span from July 2006 to December 2008.
Results
The ASMQ intervention had a highly significant impact on the mean level of each time series, adjusted for trend and season, of 0.34 (95%CI 0.20 – 0.58) for the P. falciparum malaria incidence rates, 0.67 (95%CI 0.50 – 0.89) for the P. falciparum/P. vivax infection ratio, and 0.53 (95%CI 0.41 – 0.69) for the hospital admission rates. There was also a significant change in the seasonal (or monthly) pattern of the time series before and after intervention, with the elimination of the malaria seasonal peak in the rainy months of the years following the introduction of ASMQ. No serious adverse events relating to the use of fixed-dose ASMQ were reported.
Conclusions
In the remote region of the Juruá valley, the early detection of malaria by health care workers and treatment with fixed-dose ASMQ was feasible and efficacious, and significantly reduced the incidence and morbidity of P. falciparum malaria.
doi:10.1186/1475-2875-11-286
PMCID: PMC3472241  PMID: 22905900
Malaria; ACT; artesunate; mefloquine; Fixed-dose combination; P. falciparum; Brazil; Amazon
13.  Therapeutic efficacy of fixed dose artesunate-mefloquine for the treatment of acute, uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Kampong Speu, Cambodia 
Malaria Journal  2013;12:343.
Background
Cambodia stopped using co-blistered, non-fixed, artesunate-mefloquine (ASMQ) in 2008 when treatment failure rates approximated 20%. Fixed dose combination (FDC) ASMQ is efficacious against acute uncomplicated, drug resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Southeast Asia but has not been tested in Cambodia.
Methods
A 42-day WHO therapeutic efficacy study (TES) was conducted in 2010 in Oral, Kampong Speu province, south-west Cambodia, in patients with acute uncomplicated P. falciparum. Daily administered FDC ASMQ for three days was dosed by age. Genotyping of isolates at day 0 and day of recrudescence by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) classified post-treatment recurrent falciparum parasitaemia. Ex vivo drug sensitivity testing ([3H] hypoxanthine method) was performed on baseline parasites and reported as the drug concentration inhibiting 50% parasite growth vs no drug (IC50).
Results
Recruited patients numbered 45; five aged <15 years. On day 3, five of 45 [11.1 (3.7-24.05)] % patients were still parasite-positive; one of whom later failed treatment on day 21. There were 5/45 (11.1%) late treatment failures on day 21, 28 and 35; all were PCR diagnosed recrudescent infections. The day 0 MQ IC50s ranged from 11.5-238.9 (median 58.6) nM.
Conclusions
This TES demonstrated reasonable efficacy in an area of possible reduced artemisinin sensitivity and high MQ IC50s. Efficacy testing of FDC ASMQ should continue in Cambodia and be considered for reintroduction if efficacy returns.
doi:10.1186/1475-2875-12-343
PMCID: PMC3852322  PMID: 24060207
Malaria; Plasmodium falciparum; Cambodia; Artesunate; Mefloquine; Drug resistance
15.  Reduced blood flow and oxygenation in SA-1 tumours after electrochemotherapy with cisplatin 
British Journal of Cancer  2002;87(9):1047-1054.
Electrochemotherapy is an antitumour treatment that utilises locally delivered electric pulses to increase cytotoxicity of chemotherapeutic drugs. Besides increased drug delivery, application of electric pulses affects tumour blood flow. The aim of this study was to determine tumour blood flow modifying effects of electrochemotherapy with cisplatin, its effects on tumour oxygenation and to determine their relation to antitumour effectiveness. Electrochemotherapy of SA-1 subcutaneous tumours was performed by application of electric pulses to the tumours, following administration of cisplatin. Tumour blood flow modifying effects of electrochemotherapy were determined by measurement of tumour perfusion using the Patent blue staining technique, determination of tumour blood volume, and microvascular permeability using contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, and tumour oxygenation using electron paramagnetic resonance oximetry. Antitumour effectiveness was determined by tumour growth delay and the extent of tumour necrosis and apoptosis. Tumour treatment by electrochemotherapy induced 9.4 days tumour growth delay. Tumour blood flow was reduced instantaneously and persisted for several days. This reduction in tumour blood flow was reflected in reduced tumour oxygenation. The maximal reduction in partial oxygen pressure (pO2) levels was observed at 2 h after the treatment, with steady recovery to the pretreatment level within 48 h. The reduced tumour blood flow and oxygenation correlated well with the extent of tumour necrosis and tumour cells apoptosis induced by electrochemotherapy with cisplatin. Therefore, the data indicate that antitumour effectiveness of electrochemotherapy is not only due to increased cytotoxicity of cisplatin due to electroporation of tumour cells, but also due to anti-vascular effect of electrochemotherapy, which resulted in reduced tumour blood flow and oxygenation.
British Journal of Cancer (2002) 87, 1047–1054. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6600606 www.bjcancer.com
© 2002 Cancer Research UK
doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6600606
PMCID: PMC2364314  PMID: 12434299
fibrosarcoma; electroporation; cisplatin; electrochemotherapy; oxygen pressure; blood flow
16.  Orthogonal polarisation spectral imaging as a new tool for the assessment of antivascular tumour treatment in vivo: a validation study 
British Journal of Cancer  2002;86(10):1622-1627.
Tumour angiogenesis plays a key role in tumour growth, formation of metastasis, detection and treatment of malignant tumours. Recent investigations provided increasing evidence that quantitative analysis of tumour angiogenesis is an indispensable prerequisite for developing novel treatment strategies such as anti-angiogenic and antivascular treatment options. Therefore, it was our aim to establish and validate a new and versatile imaging technique, that is orthogonal polarisation spectral™ imaging, allowing for non-invasive quantitative imaging of tumour angiogenesis in vivo. Experiments were performed in amelanotic melanoma A-MEL 3 implanted in a transparent dorsal skinfold chamber of the hamster. Starting at day 0 after tumour cell implantation, animals were treated daily with the anti-angiogenic compound SU5416 (25 mg kg bw−1) or vehicle (control) only. Functional vessel density, diameter of microvessels and red blood cell velocity were visualised by both orthogonal polarisation spectral™ imaging and fluorescence microscopy and analysed using a digital image system. The morphological and functional properties of the tumour microvasculature could be clearly identified by orthogonal polarisation spectral™ imaging. Data for functional vessel density correlated excellently with data obtained by fluroescence microscopy (y=0.99x+0.48, r2=0.97, RS=0.98, precision: 8.22 cm−1 and bias: −0.32 cm−1). Correlation parameters for diameter of microvessels and red blood cell velocity were similar (r2=0.97, RS=0.99 and r2=0.93, RS=0.94 for diameter of microvessels and red blood cell velocity, respectively). Treatment with SU5416 reduced tumour angiogenesis. At day 3 and 6 after tumour cell implantation, respectively, functional vessel density was 4.8±2.1 and 87.2±10.2 cm−1 compared to values of control animals of 66.6±10.1 and 147.4±13.2 cm−1, respectively. In addition to the inhibition of tumour angiogenesis, tumour growth and the development of metastasis was strongly reduced in SU5416 treated animals. This new approach enables non-invasive, repeated and quantitative assessment of tumour vascular network and the effects of antiangiogenic treatment on tumour vasculature in vivo. Thus, quantification of tumour angiogenesis can be used to more accurately classify and monitor tumour biologic characteristics, and to explore aggressiveness of tumours.
British Journal of Cancer (2002) 86, 1622–1627. DOI: 10.1038/sj/bjc/6600318 www.bjcancer.com
© 2002 Cancer Research UK
doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6600318
PMCID: PMC2746600  PMID: 12085213
tumour microcirculation; OPS; angiogenesis
17.  Effects of interleukin-2 and interferon-alpha A/D treatment on lymphocytes from tumour-bearing mice. 
British Journal of Cancer  1989;59(6):883-888.
The in vivo antitumour activities of recombinant human interleukin-2 (rHIL-2) and recombinant human hybrid interferon alpha A/D (rIFN-alpha A/D) were tested in relation to adenocarcinoma 755. The tumour growth, following s.c. inoculation of tumour cells, was inhibited to a greater extent in mice treated with the combination of cytokines than in mice treated with either one alone. Pretreatment with these cytokines did not affect the tumour growth. Injection of tumour-bearing mice with a combination of these cytokines resulted in a marked increase in the total number of lymphocytes in the peritoneal cavity. Among them, Lyt-2+/L3T4- and asialo GM1+ cells were markedly enhanced by the combination of cytokines, and the frequencies of these marker cells were closely correlated with the antitumour activity. In tumour-bearing mice, the size of the thymus was decreased while that of the spleen was increased compared to non-tumour-bearing (normal) mice. Treatment with rHIL-2 caused the thymus, spleen and liver to be larger compared to untreated tumour-bearing mice, but when treated with a combination of rHIL-2 and rIFN-alpha A/D these organs were smaller than when rHIL-2 was administered alone. Thymocytes were drastically changed when mice were bearing a tumour or were treated with a cytokine. Especially immature T-cells, Lyt-2+/L3T4+, were drastically decreased in tumour-bearing mice, but were maintained following administration of rHIL-2 or rIFN-alpha A/D. When treated with rHIL-2 plus rIFN-alpha A/D, Lyt-2+/L3T4+ T-cells were decreased while Lyt-2+/L3T4- T-cells were increased. Frequency of immature T-cells, Lyt-2-/L3T4-, was not changed. On the other hand, T-cell subsets of splenocytes were markedly decreased in tumour-bearing mice compared to normal mice, but all the subsets of splenocytes were almost unchanged even when tumour-bearing mice were treated with rHIL-2 plus rIFN-alpha A/D. Thus, injection of rHIL-2 and rIFN-alpha A/D to tumour-bearing mice resulted in induction of Lyt-2+/L3T4- and asialo GM1+ cells in the peritoneal cavity, and the frequencies correlated with the observed antitumour activity in vivo in this murine model. The increase in Lyt-2+/L3T4- T-cells in the peritoneal cavity may be related to changes in the T-cells in thymus.
PMCID: PMC2246732  PMID: 2786729
18.  Interaction between three subpopulations of Ehrlich carcinoma in mixed solid tumours in nude mice: evidence of contact domination. 
British Journal of Cancer  1994;70(1):91-96.
Clonal interaction between three subpopulations of Ehrlich carcinoma were studied during growth as mixed solid tumours and as ascites tumours in immune-incompetent nude NMRI mice. The tumour cell lines differed in DNA content as determined by DNA flow cytometry (FCM). Tumour growth was evaluated by tumour growth curves including calculation of tumour volume doubling times, tumour weight on day 14, cell cycle times (per cent labelled mitoses) and cell cycle distributions (FCM). Two subpopulations (E1.15 and E1.95) showed nearly identical growth characteristics during both solid and ascites tumour growth. The third subpopulation (E1.80) grew more slowly. FCM on fine-needle tumour aspirates was used to determine the relative proportions of the cell populations in mixed solid tumours in which E1.95 showed a growth-dominating effect on E1.15. No such effect was demonstrated during single-cell tumour growth in ascitic fluid in which the cells had no intimate contact. Ascitic fluid from E1.95-bearing animals or radiation-killed E1.95 cells had no effect on the growth of E1.15, and no remote effect was seen when the two cell lines were growing in opposite flanks. This indicates that only viable E1.95 cells in close in vivo contact were able to induce growth inhibition of the E1.15 subpopulation. Both the E1.95 and the E1.15 cells dominated the E1.80 cells, but in these cases cell kinetic differences may have played a role as the E1.95 and the E1.15 lines grew faster than the E1.80. The E1.80 cell line had no dominating effect on the E1.15 or E1.95. It is concluded that non-immunologically mediated cellular dominance in heterogeneous tumours may contribute to the evolution of these tumours and may be involved in fundamental tumour biological phenomena.
PMCID: PMC2033309  PMID: 8018547
19.  Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) produced in tumour tissue after chemotherapy acts as a lymphokine-activated killer attractant. 
British Journal of Cancer  1996;74(2):274-279.
Using an under agarose migration (UAM) assay, we studied lymphokine-activated killer (LAK)-attractant activity in cultured conditioned medium of tumour tissues after chemotherapy as a possible mechanism of enhanced LAK cell accumulation into tumour tissues after chemotherapy. BMT-11 is a fibrosarcoma developed in C57BL/6 mice. The conditioned medium of BMT-11 tumour tissues obtained from mice treated with various anti-cancer drugs had chemotactic activity for LAK cells (LAK-attractant activity). mRNA expression of interleukin (IL)-1 alpha, IL-6, IL-8, interferon (IFN)-gamma, and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha was observed in untreated tumour tissues, which were not enhanced by cyclophosphamide treatment. mRNA expression of TGF-beta 1 was not detected in untreated tumour tissues by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), but was detected in tumour tissues treated with cyclophosphamide. Recombinant human TGF-beta 1 showed LAK-attractant activity at a concentration of 0.1 ng ml-1 and 1 ng ml-1, whereas fresh splenocytes were not attracted by TGF-beta 1. Anti-TGF-beta 1 antibody inhibited LAK-attractant activity in the conditioned medium of tumour tissues treated with cyclophosphamide to approximately 35% that of control at 100 micrograms ml-1. These findings indicate that TGF-beta 1 produced in the tumour tissues of mice treated with anti-cancer drugs could be a LAK attractant. By a 4 h 51Cr release assay of natural killer cell-resistant BMT-11 tumour cells, we observed that TGF-beta 1 at a concentration from 0.01 ng ml-1 to 10 ng ml-1 did not inhibit LAK activity in an effector phase. Taken together, we suggest that TGF-beta 1 produced in tumour tissues after chemotherapy participates in gathering transferred LAK cells and contributes to the therapeutic effects of transferred LAK cells.
Images
PMCID: PMC2074585  PMID: 8688335
20.  Anti-inflammatory properties of desipramine and fluoxetine 
Respiratory Research  2007;8(1):35.
Background
Antidepressants are heavily prescribed drugs and have been shown to affect inflammatory signals. We examined whether these have anti-inflammatory properties in animal models of septic shock and allergic asthma. We also analysed whether antidepressants act directly on peripheral cell types that participate in the inflammatory response in these diseases.
Methods
The antidepressants desipramine and fluoxetine were compared in vivo to the glucocorticoid prednisolone, an anti-inflammatory drug of reference. In a murine model of lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced septic shock, animals received the drugs either before or after injection of LPS. Circulating levels of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and mortality rate were measured. In ovalbumin-sensitized rats, the effect of drug treatment on lung inflammation was assessed by counting leukocytes in bronchoalveolar lavages. Bronchial hyperreactivity was measured using barometric plethysmography. In vitro production of TNF-α and Regulated upon Activation, Normal T cell Expressed and presumably Secreted (RANTES) from activated monocytes and lung epithelial cells, respectively, was analysed by immunoassays. Reporter gene assays were used to measure the effect of antidepressants on the activity of nuclear factor-κB and activator protein-1 which are involved in the control of TNF-α and RANTES expression.
Results
In the septic shock model, all three drugs given preventively markedly decreased circulating levels of TNF-α and mortality (50% mortality in fluoxetine treated group, 30% in desipramine and prednisolone treated groups versus 90% in controls). In the curative trial, antidepressants had no statistically significant effect, while prednisolone still decreased mortality (60% mortality versus 95% in controls). In ovalbumin-sensitized rats, the three drugs decreased lung inflammation, albeit to different degrees. Prednisolone and fluoxetine reduced the number of macrophages, lymphocytes, neutrophils and eosinophils, while desipramine diminished only the number of macrophages and lymphocytes. However, antidepressants as opposed to prednisolone did not attenuate bronchial hyperreactivity. In vitro, desipramine and fluoxetine dose-dependently inhibited the release of TNF-α from LPS-treated monocytes. In lung epithelial cells, these compounds decreased TNF-α-induced RANTES expression as well as the activity of nuclear factor-κB and activator protein-1.
Conclusion
Desipramine and fluoxetine reduce the inflammatory reaction in two animal models of human diseases. These antidepressants act directly on relevant peripheral cell types to decrease expression of inflammatory mediators probably by affecting their gene transcription. Clinical implications of these observations are discussed.
doi:10.1186/1465-9921-8-35
PMCID: PMC1876225  PMID: 17477857
21.  Cyclophosphamide decreases O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase activity in peripheral lymphocytes of patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation. 
British Journal of Cancer  1992;66(2):331-336.
O6-alkylguanine-DNA-alkyltransferase (ATase) levels were measured in extracts of peripheral blood lymphocytes taken at various times during chemotherapy from 19 patients with various haematological malignancies. Seven patients with advanced Hodgkin's disease received preparative treatment consisting of cyclophosphamide (1.5 g m-2, daily) administered on days 1 to 4 and BCNU (600 mg m-2) on day 5 prior to autologous bone marrow rescue (ABMR) delivered on day 7. Treatment in the remaining 12 patients consisted of cyclophosphamide (1.8 g m-2, daily) given on days 1 and 2 followed at day 4 with total body irradiation (TBI) administered in six fractions over the subsequent 3 days to a total dose of 1200 cGy prior to bone marrow transplantation. In the Hodgkin's group, significant decreases in ATase activity were seen during the cyclophosphamide treatment, and the median ATase nadir was 32% (range 0% to 57%) of pretreatment levels following 4 days of cyclophosphamide. In one patient, no ATase activity was detectable following the 4th cyclophosphamide treatment. ATase activities decreased further after BCNU administration to a median of 19% (range 0% to 32%) of pretreatment levels. Extensive cyclophosphamide-induced reduction of lymphocyte ATase levels was also seen in the other group of 12 patients treated with cyclophosphamide/TBI: postcyclophosphamide median ATase nadir was 35% (range 12% to 78%) of the pretreatment levels. No ATase depletion was seen when cyclophosphamide (up to 10 mM) was incubated for 2 h with pure recombinant human ATase in vitro whereas ATase activity was reduced by 90% on preincubation with 100 microns acrolein or with greater than 1 mM phosphoramide mustard. This suggests that a cyclophosphamide-induced decrease in ATase levels in human peripheral lymphocytes in vivo may be due to depletion mediated by the production of intracellular acrolein. Since ATase appears to be a principal mechanism in cellular resistance to the cytotoxic effects of BCNU and related alkylating agents, these observations suggest that a cyclophosphamide-induced reduction in ATase activity may be an additional factor in the effectiveness of the combined sequential therapy.
PMCID: PMC1977821  PMID: 1387001
22.  Optimised electroporation mediated DNA vaccination for treatment of prostate cancer 
Background
Immunological therapies enhance the ability of the immune system to recognise and destroy cancer cells via selective killing mechanisms. DNA vaccines have potential to activate the immune system against specific antigens, with accompanying potent immunological adjuvant effects from unmethylated CpG motifs as on prokaryotic DNA. We investigated an electroporation driven plasmid DNA vaccination strategy in animal models for treatment of prostate cancer.
Methods
Plasmid expressing human PSA gene (phPSA) was delivered in vivo by intra-muscular electroporation, to induce effective anti-tumour immune responses against prostate antigen expressing tumours. Groups of male C57 BL/6 mice received intra-muscular injections of phPSA plasmid. For phPSA delivery, quadriceps muscle was injected with 50 μg plasmid. After 80 seconds, square-wave pulses were administered in sequence using a custom designed pulse generator and acustom-designed applicator with 2 needles placed through the skin central to the muscle. To determine an optimum treatment regimen, three different vaccination schedules were investigated. In a separate experiment, the immune potential of the phPSA vaccine was further enhanced with co- administration of synthetic CpG rich oligonucleotides. One week after last vaccination, the mice were challenged subcutaneously with TRAMPC1/hPSA (prostate cancer cell line stably expressing human PSA) and tumour growth was monitored. Serum from animals was examined by ELISA for anti-hPSA antibodies and for IFNγ. Histological assessment of the tumours was also carried out. In vivo and in vitro cytotoxicity assays were performed with splenocytes from treated mice.
Results
The phPSA vaccine therapy significantly delayed the appearance of tumours and resulted in prolonged survival of the animals. Four-dose vaccination regimen provided optimal immunological effects. Co - administration of the synthetic CpG with phPSA increased anti-tumour responses, preventing tumour occurrence in 54% of treated animals. Vaccination with phPSA resulted in anti-hPSA Abs production and a significant production of IFNγ was observed in immunised animals (p < 0.05). Immune responses were tumour specific and were transferable in adoptive T cell transfer experiments.
Conclusions
This phPSA plasmid electroporation vaccination strategy can effectively activate tumour specific immune responses. Optimisation of the approach indicated that a four-dose regimen provided highest tumour protection. In vivo electroporation mediated vaccination is a safe and effective modality for the treatment of prostate cancer and has a potential to be used as a neo-adjuvant or adjuvant therapy.
doi:10.1186/1479-0556-8-1
PMCID: PMC2829554  PMID: 20181099
23.  Effect of combined irradiation and EGFR/Erb-B inhibition with BIBW 2992 on proliferation and tumour cure in cell lines and xenografts 
Background and purpose
In previous experiments an enhanced anti-proliterative effect of the EGFR/ErbB tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) BIBW 2992 with single dose irradiation was observed in FaDu tumour xenografts. Aim of the present experiment was to determine if this effect can also be seen in combination with a fractionated radiotherapy. Secondly we investigate the efficacy of BIBW 2992 on local tumour control for UT-SCC-15.
Material and methods
Tumour pieces of FaDu, UT-SCC-14, A431, UT-SCC-15 (squamous cell carcinomas) and A7 (glioma) tumour models were transplanted onto the right hind leg of NMRI (nu/nu) nude mice. For evaluation of tumour growth mice were either treated daily orally with BIBW 2992 (30 mg/kg body weight), or carrier up to a final tumour size of 15 mm or with a fractionated radiotherapy (15f/15d, 30 Gy) with simultaneous application of BIBW 2992 or carrier. For local tumour control UT-SCC-15 tumours were treated with a fractionated radiotherapy (30f/6weeks) or received 30f/6 weeks in combination with daily orally BIBW 2992 (22.5 mg/kg b.w.) during RT.
Results
A significant effect on tumour growth time was observed in all tumour models for BIBW 2992 application alone. However, substantial intertumoural heterogeneity could be seen. In the UT-SCC-14, UT-SCC-15 and A431 tumour models a total regression of the tumours and no recurrence during treatment time (73 days) were determined where as for the A7 tumour only a slight effect was noticeable. For the combined treatment of fractionated radiotherapy (15f/15d) and BIBW 2992 administration a significant effect on tumour growth time was seen compared to irradiation alone for A7, UT-SCC-15 and A431 (ER 1.2 – 3.7), this advantage could not be demonstrated for FaDu and UT-SCC-14. However, the local tumour control was not altered for the UT-SCC-15 tumour model when adding BIBW 2992 to fractionated irradiation (30f/6weeks).
Conclusion
A heterogeneous effect on tumour growth time of BIBW 2992 alone as well as in combination with fractionated irradiation could be demonstrated for all tumour models. However, the significant effect on tumour growth time did not translate into an improvement of local tumour control for the UT-SCC-15 tumour model.
doi:10.1186/s13014-014-0261-z
PMCID: PMC4271482  PMID: 25444177
Combined treatment; Molecular targeting; EGFR/ErbB-inhibition; Fractionated irradiation; Local tumour control; BIBW 2992
24.  A Study on Anti-Tumour Effect of Solanum Lyratum Thunb. Extract in S180 Tumour-Bearing Mice 
The objective of the study was to investigate the anti-tumour effect of ethanol extract of Solanum lyratum Thunb. in S180 tumour-bearing mice, and to preliminarily explore its mechanism of action. Methods: Mice were made into S180 solid tumour model, grouped and administered. Tumour inhibition rate was measured by harvesting the tumours. Serum IL-2, TNF-a contents were measured by taking blood samples, and thymus index and spleen index were measured by harvesting the thymus and spleen. The results showed that the Solanum lyratum Thunb. extract had certain tumour inhibitory effect, which can elevate the serum IL-2, TNF-a contents, and increase the thymus and spleen indices to a certain extent. The study concluded that Solanum lyratum Thunb. extract has certain in vivo anti-tumour effect which may be exerted through enhancing the body immunity.
PMCID: PMC3847428  PMID: 24311848
Solanum lyratum Thunb.; S180 sarcoma; tumour inhibition rate
25.  Synergistic effects of TNF-alpha and melphalan in an isolated limb perfusion model of rat sarcoma: a histopathological, immunohistochemical and electron microscopical study. 
British Journal of Cancer  1996;74(12):1908-1915.
Isolated limb perfusion (ILP) with tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and melphalan has shown impressive results in patients with irresectable soft tissue sarcomas and stage III melanoma of the extremities. The mechanisms of the reported in vivo synergistic anti-tumour effects of TNF-alpha and melphalan are not precisely understood. We have developed an ILP model in the rat using a non-immunogenic sarcoma in which similar in vivo synergy is observed. The aim of this present study was to analyse the morphological substrate for this synergistic response of TNF-alpha in combination with melphalan to shed more light on the pathomechanisms involved. Histology of the tumours from saline- (n = 14) and melphalan-treated (n = 11) rats revealed apparently vital tumour cells in over 80% of the cross-sections. Interstitial oedema and coagulation necrosis were observed in the remaining part of the tumour. Haemorrhage was virtually absent. TNF-alpha (n = 22) induced marked oedema, hyperaemia, vascular congestion, extravasation of erythrocytes and haemorrhagic necrosis (20-60% of the cross-sections). Oedema and haemorrhage suggested drastic alterations of permeability and integrity of the microvasculature. Using light and electron-microscopy, we observed that haemorrhage preceded generalised platelet aggregation. Therefore, we suggest that the observed platelet aggregation was the result of the microvascular damage rather than its initiator. Remarkably, these events hardly influenced tumour growth. However, perfusion with the combination of TNF-alpha and melphalan (n = 24) showed more extensive haemorrhagic necrosis (80-90% of the cross-sections) and revealed a prolonged remission (mean 11 days) in comparison with the other groups of rats. Electron microscopical analysis revealed similar findings as described after TNF-alpha alone, although the effects were more prominent at all time points after perfusion. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the enhanced anti-tumour effect after the combination of TNF-alpha with melphalan results from potentiation of the TNF-alpha-induced vascular changes accompanied by increased vascular permeability and platelet aggregation. This may result in additive cytotoxicity or inhibition of growth of residual tumour cells.
Images
PMCID: PMC2074822  PMID: 8980389

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