Purpose of review
Despite that statin treatment substantially reduces cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, many treated patients still experience a high residual risk. Statins lower LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), with limited effects on other lipid parameters. Fibrates improve atherogenic dyslipidemia characterized by high triglyceride and/or low HDL-C levels and elevated concentrations of small dense LDL particles, with or without high LDL-C levels. Fibrates decrease cardiovascular morbidity especially in patients with the metabolic syndrome. The purpose of this review is to provide a rationale for the combined use of statins and fibrates in the management of patients with high residual cardiovascular risk related to atherogenic dyslipidemia and persisting after single therapy.
A meta-analysis from 14 randomised trials conducted in high-risk patients reported that statin therapy is effective in reducing the proportional risk for major vascular events by 21% for each mmol/L lowering of LDL-C. However, on average 14% of patients still experienced an event despite being allocated to statin. Beyond LDL-C, other factors, including triglycerides, non-HDL-C, HDL-C and apolipoprotein B, have been identified as factors determining residual risk, and normalization of these parameters may further decrease cardiovascular disease in patients treated with statins. Data from fibrate trials indicate that these drugs are particularly effective in reducing cardiovascular morbidity in patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia.
Reducing the residual cardiovascular risk in patients treated with statins requires addressing multiple lipid goals. In this context, future therapeutic interventions based on combination therapy, such as statins and fibrates, appears particularly promising.
Antilipemic Agents; therapeutic use; Cardiovascular Diseases; blood; drug therapy; Cholesterol, LDL; blood; Clofibric Acid; therapeutic use; Drug Therapy, Combination; Humans; Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors; therapeutic use; Meta-Analysis as Topic; Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic; Treatment Outcome; Cardiovascular risk factors; Residual risk; Statins; Fibrates; Dyslipoproteinemia
Even using intensive statin monotherapy, many patients fail to achieve all the desired lipid goals and remain at high residual risk of cardiovascular events. In view of the still unproven decisively intensive "statin as monotherapy" strategy and "residual risk" concept, it is logical to ask whether other strategies, particularly fibrate/statin combination therapy, could be more beneficial and safer. A clear benefit of fibrate monotherapy did emerge previously among patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia (particularly high triglycerides and low high density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C]) typically present in the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. In contrast, in patients without atherogenic dyslipidemia this favorable effect was not demonstrated.
The Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) study investigated whether combination therapy with a statin plus a fibrate, as compared with statin monotherapy, would reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, relevant patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia represented less than 17 percent of the ACCORD Lipid population (941 out of 5518 patients). In this prespecified subgroup, the patients benefited from fenofibrate therapy in addition to simvastatin similar to the previous "fibrate's as monotherapy" trials: the primary outcome rate was 12.4% in the fenofibrate group, versus 17.3% in the placebo group (28% crude HR reduction, CI less than1, e.g. statistically significant findings). Among all other 4548 patients without atherogenic dyslipidemia such rates were 10.1% in both fenofibrate and placebo study groups. Authors concluded that in the overall cohort of patients the combination of fenofibrate and simvastatin did not reduce the rate of the cardiovascular events as compared with simvastatin alone. Thus, their results do not support the routine use of combination therapy with fenofibrate and simvastatin to reduce cardiovascular risk in the general patients with type 2 diabetes. A recent large meta-analysis regarding effects of fibrates on cardiovascular outcomes noted greater effect sizes in trials that recorded a higher mean baseline triglyceride concentration (p = 0.030). As expected, in a so called "general population", reflecting a blend of effects in patients with and without atherogenic dyslipidemia, a mean "diluted" effect of fibrate therapy was reduced, but still producing a significant 10% relative risk (RR) decrease in major cardiovascular events (p = 0.048) and a 13% RR reduction for coronary events (p < 0.0001).
It should be pinpointed that the epidemiological characteristics of the ACCORD Lipid study depart from those seen in real clinical practice: among people with type 2 diabetes, there is a high prevalence of atherogenic dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome. For example, an analysis of NHANES III data in adults aged ≥50 years showed that approximately 86% of patients with type 2 diabetes also had the metabolic syndrome. Therefore, an importand finding of ACCORD Lipid study was the observation that fibrates may lead to cardiovascular risk reduction in patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia not only as monotherapy but in combination with statins as well.
In conclusion, in patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia (high triglycerides and low HDL-C, fibrates -- either as monotherapy or combined with statins - were associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular events. In patients without dyslipidemia this favorable effect - as expected - was absent.
Atherogenic dyslipidemia comprises a triad of increased blood concentrations of small, dense low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles, decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles, and increased triglycerides. A typical feature of obesity, the metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, atherogenic dyslipidemia has emerged as an important risk factor for myocardial infarction and cardiovascular disease. A number of genes have now been linked to this pattern of lipoprotein changes. Low-carbohydrate diets appear to have beneficial lipoprotein effects in individuals with atherogenic dyslipidemia, compared to high-carbohydrate diets, whereas the content of total fat or saturated fat in the diet appears to have little effect. Achieving a better understanding of the genetic and dietary influences underlying atherogenic dyslipidemia may provide clues to improved interventions to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in high-risk individuals.
Lipids; Lipoproteins; Cardiovascular diseases; Genetics
Mixed dyslipidemia is a common lipid disorder characterized by the presence of an atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype due to abnormalities in various atherogenic and anti-atherogenic lipoproteins. Despite the link between the decrease of LDL-cholesterol by statin treatment and the prevention of cardiovascular disease, a high residual risk is observed in statin trials. This residual risk is partly explained by lipoprotein abnormalities other than LDL. Fenofibrate exerts a favorable effect on the atherogenic lipid profile of mixed dyslipidemia and can effectively reduce cardiovascular disease in patients with mixed dyslipidemia. Fenofibrate may offer important treatment alternatives as a second-line therapy in several circumstances: in combination with a statin for patients with mixed dyslipidemias not at goals on statin mono-therapy; in monotherapy for patients intolerant or with contraindication to statin therapy; and in combination with other drugs (ezetimibe, colesevelam) for patients with mixed dyslipidemias, known intolerance, or contraindication to statin and not at goals on fenofibrate monotherapy. However, the role of fenofibrate-statin therapy and of other therapies involving fenofibrate in cardiovascular risk reduction strategies remains to be established.
fenofibrate; mixed dyslipidemia; triglycerides; LDL-cholesterol; HDL-cholesterol
Statins effectively lower low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and reduce cardiovascular risk in people with dyslipidemia and cardiometabolic diseases such as Metabolic syndrome (MetS) or type 2 diabetes (T2D). In addition to elevated levels of LDL-C, people with these conditions often have other lipid-related risk factors, such as high levels of triglycerides, low levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), and a preponderance of highly atherogenic, small, dense low-density lipoprotein particles. The optimal management of dyslipidemia in people with MetS or T2D should therefore address each of these risk factors in addition to LDL-C. Although statins typically have similar effects on LDL-C levels, differences in chemical structure and pharmacokinetic profile can lead to variations in pleiotropic effects, adverse event profiles and drug-drug interactions. The choice of statin should therefore depend on the characteristics and needs of the individual patient. Compared with other statins, pitavastatin has distinct pharmacological features that translate into a broad range of actions on both apolipoprotein-B-containing and apolipoprotein-A-containing lipoproteins. Studies show that pitavastatin 1 to 4 mg is well tolerated and significantly improves LDL-C and triglyceride levels to a similar or greater degree than comparable doses of atorvastatin, simvastatin or pravastatin, irrespective of diabetic status. Moreover, whereas most statins show inconsistent effects on HDL-C levels, pitavastatin-treated patients routinely experience clinically significant elevations in HDL-C that are maintained and even increased over the long term. In addition to increasing high-density lipoprotein quantity, pitavastatin appears to improve high-density lipoprotein function and to slow the progression of atherosclerotic plaques by modifying high-density lipoprotein-related inflammation and oxidation, both of which are common in patients with MetS and T2D. When choosing a statin, it is important to note that patients with MetS have an increased risk of developing T2D and that some statins can exacerbate this risk via adverse effects on glucose regulation. Unlike many statins, pitavastatin appears to have a neutral and even beneficial effect on glucose regulation, making it a useful treatment option in this high-risk group of patients. Together with pitavastatin’s beneficial effects on the cardiometabolic lipid profile and its low potential for drug-drug interactions, this suggests that pitavastatin might be a useful lipid-lowering option for people with cardiometabolic disease.
To test the hypothesis that patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular (CV) disease optimally treated on a statin but with residual atherogenic dyslipidemia (low HDL-C and high triglycerides) will benefit from addition of niacin with fewer CV events compared with placebo.
Statin monotherapy trials have found 25–40% CV risk reduction relative to placebo, leaving significant residual risk. Patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia have substantially increased CV risk.
Participants were men and women with established CV disease and atherogenic dyslipidemia. Lipid entry criteria varied by gender and statin dose at screening. All participants received simvastatin (or simvastatin plus ezetimibe) at a dose sufficient to maintain LDL-C 40 - 80 mg/dL (1.03 – 2.07 mmol/L). Participants were randomized to extended-release niacin or matching placebo. The primary end-point was time to occurrence of the first of: coronary heart disease death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, hospitalization for acute coronary syndrome, or symptom-driven coronary or cerebral revascularization. This event-driven trial will have 85% power to show a 25% reduction in primary event frequency after 850 patients have experienced a primary outcome event.
AIM-HIGH completed enrollment in April 2010. Follow-up is expected to continue through 2012.
AIM-HIGH was designed to determine whether treating residual dyslipidemia with niacin further reduces cardiovascular events in patients with CVD on a statin at target levels of LDL-C.
Strategies aimed at primary prevention provide an outstanding opportunity for reducing the onset and burden of cardiovascular (CV) disease. Lipid abnormalities, including high levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), elevated triglycerides and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), are associated with an increased risk of CV events, thereby serving as contributors to this process. By consensus, lowering LDL-C, generally with statin therapy, is the primary target of lipid-lowering therapy. However, statin therapy may be insufficient for patients with mixed dyslipidemia, especially those with insulin resistance syndromes. While the addition of niacin, fibrate or omega-3 fatty acids may be useful in this setting, outcomes data are lacking. Therefore, data from ongoing prospective studies will hopefully resolve this issue and facilitate identification of optimal strategies to augment CV risk reduction.
Fibrates lower triglycerides and raise HDL cholesterol in dyslipidemic patients, but show heterogeneous treatment response. We used k-means clustering to identify three representative NMR lipoprotein profiles for 775 subjects from the GOLDN population, and study the response to fenofibrate in corresponding subgroups. The subjects in each subgroup showed differences in conventional lipid characteristics and in presence/absence of cardiovascular risk factors at baseline; there were subgroups with a low, medium and high degree of dyslipidemia. Modeling analysis suggests that the difference between the subgroups with low and medium dyslipidemia is influenced mainly by hepatic uptake dysfunction, while the difference between subgroups with medium and high dyslipidemia is influenced mainly by extrahepatic lipolysis disfunction. The medium and high dyslipidemia subgroups showed a positive, yet distinct lipid response to fenofibrate treatment. When comparing our subgroups to known subgrouping methods, we identified an additional 33% of the population with favorable lipid response to fenofibrate compared to a standard baseline triglyceride cutoff method. Compared to a standard HDL cholesterol cutoff method, the addition was 18%. In conclusion, by using constructing subgroups based on representative lipoprotein profiles, we have identified two subgroups of subjects with positive lipid response to fenofibrate therapy and with different underlying disturbances in lipoprotein metabolism. The total subgroup with positive lipid response to fenofibrate is larger than subgroups identified with baseline triglyceride and HDL cholesterol cutoffs.
Reducing the risk of vascular events in patients with dyslipidaemia requires cardiovascular disease risk stratification and lifestyle/pharmacological intervention on modifiable risk factors. Reduction of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) with statins is highly effective in reducing cardiovascular disease in patients with and without diabetes, but leaves unaddressed a sizeable residual vascular risk (RvR), which is rarely quantified in routine clinical practice. Such RvR may relate to lack of strict target attainment for all atherogenic variables [LDL-C, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and/or apolipoprotein B100]. Another substantial lipid-related and modifiable RvR component is related to atherogenic dyslipidaemia, especially as global rates of obesity, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome are increasing. Atherogenic dyslipidaemia is associated with insulin-stimulated very-low-density lipoprotein overproduction and reduced reverse cholesterol transport. The hallmark of atherogenic dyslipidaemia is the coexistence of low HDL-C and elevated triglycerides. Therapeutic lifestyle changes and combination lipid-lowering therapy with drugs targeting atherogenic dyslipidaemia (such as fibrates or innovative drugs targeting atherogenic dyslipidaemia and/or apolipoprotein B100 metabolism) on top of background statins, have a potential to reduce RvR in high-risk groups, as shown in the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) trial, in which combination therapy with simvastatin plus fenofibrate decreased macrovascular risk in patients with diabetes and atherogenic dyslipidaemia, and retinopathy risk irrespective of baseline lipids.
cardiovascular risk; low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; apolipoprotein B; atherogenic dyslipidaemia; metabolic syndrome; diabetes
Obesity has become a major worldwide health problem. In every single country in the world, the incidence of obesity is rising continuously and therefore, the associated morbidity, mortality and both medical and economical costs are expected to increase as well. The majority of these complications are related to co-morbid conditions that include coronary artery disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, respiratory disorders and dyslipidemia. Obesity increases cardiovascular risk through risk factors such as increased fasting plasma triglycerides, high LDL cholesterol, low HDL cholesterol, elevated blood glucose and insulin levels and high blood pressure. Novel lipid dependent, metabolic risk factors associated to obesity are the presence of the small dense LDL phenotype, postprandial hyperlipidemia with accumulation of atherogenic remnants and hepatic overproduction of apoB containing lipoproteins. All these lipid abnormalities are typical features of the metabolic syndrome and may be associated to a pro-inflammatory gradient which in part may originate in the adipose tissue itself and directly affect the endothelium. An important link between obesity, the metabolic syndrome and dyslipidemia, seems to be the development of insulin resistance in peripheral tissues leading to an enhanced hepatic flux of fatty acids from dietary sources, intravascular lipolysis and from adipose tissue resistant to the antilipolytic effects of insulin. The current review will focus on these aspects of lipid metabolism in obesity and potential interventions to treat the obesity related dyslipidemia.
free fatty acid; postprandial lipemia; apolipoprotein B; non-HDL-C; small dense LDL; acylation-stimulation protein; statin; fibrate
The study aims to report the baseline characteristics of the fully randomized AIM-HIGH study population.
Residual risk persists despite aggressive low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) reduction in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular (CV) disease, many of whom have atherogenic dyslipidemia (low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), elevated triglycerides, and small dense LDL particles).
All study participants had established CV disease and atherogenic dyslipidemia. Participants received simvastatin (or simvastatin plus ezetimibe) at a dose sufficient to maintain LDL-C at 40 - 80 mg/dL (1.03-2.07 mmol/L) and were randomized to receive extended-release niacin or matching placebo. The primary end point is time to the first occurrence of coronary heart disease death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, hospitalization for acute coronary syndrome or symptom-driven coronary or cerebral revascularization with average follow-up of 4.1 years.
Between 2006 and 2010, 8,162 individuals signed consent to be screened, 4,275 began study drug run-in, and 3,414 were randomized to treatment. Mean age at entry was 64 ± 9 years, 85% were men, and 92% were white. As expected, risk factors were prevalent with 34% having diabetes; 71%, hypertension; and 81%, metabolic syndrome. Most participants had coronary artery disease (92%), whereas 11% had peripheral arterial disease; and 12%, cerebrovascular disease. Previous coronary revascularization occurred in 82%, and 54% reported a prior myocardial infarction. Among participants on a statin at entry (94%), mean baseline LDL-C was 71 mg/dL (1.84 mmol/L); mean HDL-C, 34.9 mg/dL (0.90 mmol/L); and median triglycerides, 161 mg/dL (1.82 mmol/L).
AIM-HIGH enrolled a high-risk group of patients with established atherosclerotic CV disease and atherogenic dyslipidemia. This study should determine whether there is incremental clinical benefit of niacin in reducing cardiovascular events in patients who have attained optimal on-treatment levels of LDL-C with a statin.
Combined hyperlipidemia results from overproduction of hepatically synthesized apolipoprotein B in very low-density lipoproteins in association with reduced lipoprotein lipase activity. Thus, this condition is typically characterized by concurrent elevations in total cholesterol and triglycerides with decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. High levels of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins, most prominently carried by low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles, are an important risk factor for coronary heart disease. Statin therapy is highly effective at lowering LDL cholesterol. Despite the benefits of statin treatment for lowering total and LDL cholesterol, many statin-treated patients still have initial or recurrent coronary heart disease events. In this regard, combined therapy with statins and fibrates is more effective in controlling atherogenic dyslipidemia in patients with combined hyperlipidemia than either drug alone. Furthermore, statins and fibrates activate PPARα in a synergistic manner providing a molecular rationale for combination treatment in coronary heart disease. Endothelial dysfunction associated with cardiovascular diseases may contribute to insulin resistance so that there may also be additional beneficial metabolic effects of combined statin/fibrates therapy. However, there has been little published evidence that combined therapy is synergistic or even better than monotherapy alone in clinical studies. Therefore, there is a great need to study the effects of combination therapy in patients. When statins are combined with gemfibrozil therapy, this is more likely to be accompanied by myopathy. However, this limitation is not observed when fenofibrate, bezafibrate, or ciprofibrate are used in combination therapy.
Statins; Fibrates; Endothelial function; Insulin resistance; Combined hyperlipidemia; Safety
Atherogenic dyslipidemia, including low HDL levels, is the major contributor of residual risk of cardiovascular disease that remains even after aggressive statin therapy to reduce LDL-cholesterol. Currently, distinction is not made between HDL-cholesterol and HDL, which is a lipoprotein consisting of several proteins and a core containing cholesteryl esters (CEs). The importance of assessing HDL functionality, specifically its role in facilitating cholesterol efflux from foam cells, is relevant to atherogenesis. Since HDLs can only remove unesterified cholesterol from macrophages while cholesterol is stored as CEs within foam cells, intracellular CE hydrolysis by CE hydrolase is vital. Reduction in macrophage lipid burden not only attenuates atherosclerosis but also reduces inflammation and linked pathologies such as Type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease. Targeting reduction in macrophage CE levels and focusing on enhancing cholesterol flux from peripheral tissues to liver for final elimination is proposed.
atherosclerosis; cholesterol homeostasis; cholesteryl ester hydrolase; HDL; inflammation; macrophage
Dyslipidemia is a common finding in patients with thyroid disease, explained by the adverse effects of thyroid hormones in almost all steps of lipid metabolism. Not only overt but also subclinical hypo- and hyperthyroidism, through different mechanisms, are associated with lipid alterations, mainly concerning total and LDL cholesterol and less often HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, lipoprotein (a), apolipoprotein A1, and apolipoprotein B. In addition to quantitative, qualitative alterations of lipids have been also reported, including atherogenic and oxidized LDL and HDL particles. In thyroid disease, dyslipidemia coexists with various metabolic abnormalities and induce insulin resistance and oxidative stress via a vice-vicious cycle. The above associations in combination with the thyroid hormone induced hemodynamic alterations, might explain the increased risk of coronary artery disease, cerebral ischemia risk, and angina pectoris in older, and possibly ischemic stroke in younger patients with overt or subclinical hyperthyroidism.
Given evidence of increasing prevalence in developed and developing countries, as a result of obesity trends and sedentary lifestyles, the metabolic syndrome represents an increasing burden on healthcare systems. Management guidelines for dyslipidaemia have primarily focused on LDL-C reduction; however, this approach fails to sufficiently address other lipid abnormalities associated with the metabolic syndrome. Atherogenic dyslipidaemia (characterized by elevated triglycerides and low HDL-C) is strongly associated with insulin-resistant states, such as type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome, and is also a common finding among patients receiving treatment for dyslipidaemia. Intervening against atherogenic dyslipidaemia may address a substantial modifiable fraction of residual cardiovascular risk that remains after treatment with a statin. Recent findings from the Fenofibrate Intervention and Event Lowering in Diabetes (FIELD) study support this view. Fenofibrate treatment was shown to be especially effective in treating marked atherogenic dyslipidaemia, with a significant 27% relative risk reduction for cardiovascular events (P=0.0005, vs. 11%, P=0.035 for all patients) relative to placebo. These data, together with the earlier demonstration of significant microvascular benefits associated with this treatment, suggest a role for fenofibrate, in addition to statin therapy and lifestyle intervention, for reducing global vascular risk in type 2 diabetes patients and for impacting atherogenic dyslipidaemia associated with the metabolic syndrome.
Metabolic syndrome; cardiovascular risk; PPARα agonists; fenofibrate; type 2 diabetes.
Dyslipidemia is an important risk factor for cardiovascular complications in persons with diabetes. Low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) is the ‘cornerstone’ for assessment of lipoprotein-associated risk. However, LDL-C levels do not reflect the classic ‘diabetic dyslipidemia’ of hypertriglyceridemia and low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). Measurements of plasma apolipoprotein B100 concentrations and non-HDL-C may improve the definition of dyslipidemia. Statins, nicotinic acid and fibrates have roles in treating dyslipidemia in diabetes. Residual risk (i.e. risk that persists after correction of ‘conventional’ plasma lipoprotein abnormalities) is a new concept in the role of dyslipidemia in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular complications. For example, regardless of plasma levels, lipoprotein extravasation through a leaking retinal blood barrier and subsequent modification may be crucial in the development of diabetic retinopathy. The current approach to the management of dyslipidemia in diabetes is briefly summarized, followed by a discussion of new concepts of residual risk and emerging lipoprotein-related mechanisms for vascular disease in diabetes.
Effective treatments must correct adverse quantitative plasma lipoprotein levels and a spectrum of qualitative abnormalities in plasma and tissue, as well as the processes by which lipoproteins and cells interact at the sites of disease.
Diabetes; Dyslipidemia; Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy; Residual risk
The objective of present study was to provide the pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of Morinda citrifolia Linn in dyslipidemia using the aqueous-ethanolic extracts of its fruits (Mc.Cr.F), leaves (Mc.Cr.L) and roots (Mc.Cr.R).
Mc.Cr.F, Mc.Cr.L and Mc.Cr.R showed antidyslipidemic effects in both triton (WR-1339) and high fat diet-induced dyslipidemic rat models to variable extents. All three extracts caused reduction in total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in triton-induced dyslipidemia. In high fat diet-induced dyslipidemia all these extracts caused significant reduction in total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), atherogenic index and TC/HDL ratio. Mc.Cr.R extract also caused increase in high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). The Mc.Cr.L and Mc.Cr.R reduced gain in body weight with a reduction in daily diet consumption but Mc.Cr.F had no effect on body weight and daily diet consumption.
These data indicate that the antidyslipidemic effect of the plant extracts was meditated through the inhibition of biosynthesis, absorption and secretion of lipids. This may be possibly due partly to the presence of antioxidant constituents in this plant. Therefore, this study rationalizes the medicinal use of Morinda citrifolia in dyslipidemia.
The elderly population with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is at greater risk for cardiovascular disease than from an independent risk of CKD, as well as from added dyslipidemia of aging and renal dysfunction. Changes in lipid metabolism with more isodense and high-dense, triglyceride-rich particles, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and increased triglyceride levels occur with CKD and aging, which are noted to have significant atherogenic potential. In addition, lipid abnormalities may lead to the progression of CKD. Cardiovascular mortality in the end-stage renal disease population is more than 10 times higher than the general population. Treatment of dyslipidemia in the general population suggests important benefits both in reducing cardiovascular risk and in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Secondary analyses of elderly subgroups of various large prospective studies with statins suggest treatment benefit with statin use in the elderly. Similarly limited data from secondary analyses of CKD subgroups of larger prospective trials using statins also suggest a possible benefit in cardiovascular outcomes and the progression of kidney disease. However, randomized trials have yet to confirm similar benefits and targets of treatment for dyslipidemia in the elderly with CKD and end-stage renal disease. Treatment in the elderly with CKD should be individualized and outweigh risks of side effects and drug–drug interactions. There is a need for further specific investigation of dyslipidemia of CKD in the aging population in relation to renal disease progression and cardiovascular outcome.
Lipid disorder; elderly; chronic kidney disease; end-stage renal disease; dyslipidemia
Small, dense low density lipoprotein (sdLDL) represents an emerging cardiovascular risk factor, since these particles can be associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) independently of established risk factors, including plasma lipids. Obese subjects frequently have atherogenic dyslipidaemia, including elevated sdLDL levels, in addition to elevated triglycerides (TG), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and apolipoprotein-B, as well as decreased high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Obesity-related co-morbidities, such as metabolic syndrome (MetS) are also characterized by dyslipidaemia. Therefore, agents that favourably modulate LDL subclasses may be of clinical value in these subjects. Statins are the lipid-lowering drug of choice. Also, anti-obesity and lipid lowering drugs other than statins could be useful in these patients. However, the effects of anti-obesity drugs on CVD risk factors remain unclear. We review the clinical significance of sdLDL in being overweight and obesity, as well as the efficacy of anti-obesity drugs on LDL subfractions in these individuals; a short comment on HDL subclasses is also included. Our literature search was based on PubMed and Scopus listings. Further research is required to fully explore both the significance of sdLDL and the efficacy of anti-obesity drugs on LDL subfractions in being overweight, obesity and MetS. Improving the lipoprotein profile in these patients may represent an efficient approach for reducing cardiovascular risk.
lipoproteins; small dense low density lipoprotein; obesity; metabolic syndrome; obesity treatment; anti-obesity drugs; lipid-lowering drugs
Mixed dyslipidemia, characterized by a lipid triad of elevated triglycerides (TG), elevated low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and reduced high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), is a common and frequently difficult to manage condition. The use of combination medications is often needed to effectively treat the lipid triad. The co-administration of statins and fibrates may provide the desired endpoints but safety issues such as toxicity to the muscles, liver and kidneys are a concern. Given the potency of rosuvastatin to lower LDL-C and fenofibrate’s effectiveness in lowering TG, the use of this specific combination may be desirable in treating mixed dyslipidemia. Pharmacokinetic studies revealed no significant interactions with the concomitant use of rosuvastatin and fenofibrate or its active metabolite fenofibric acid. Clinical studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of this combination therapy demonstrate significant reductions in TG and LDL-C levels, and elevations in HDL-C. Safety data from clinical trials reveal no major adverse reactions. However, case reports of adverse events have been published and monitoring for potential adverse reactions of the individual agents is advised. Overall, current data suggest the combination of rosuvastatin and fenofibrate or fenofibric acid is a safe combination to utilize when managing difficult to treat mixed dyslipidemia patients.
dyslipidemia; rosuvastatin; fenofibrate; fenofibric acid
When compared with the general population, the diabetic population is at higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), as predicted by the Framingham Risk Score calculations (10-year risk 20%). For this reason diabetes is considered a “coronary disease equivalent” condition, as classified by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP-ATP) III. Furthermore, patients with diabetes who experience a myocardial infarction have a poorer prognosis than nondiabetic patients, which contributes to their overall higher mortality. Dyslipidemia is a major underlying risk factor contributing to the excess CVD risk, and is usually more atherogenic in the presence of diabetes. It is uniquely manifested by raised levels of triglycerides, low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and smaller, denser, and more atherogenic low-density lipoprotein particles. Recent trials have suggested the need for more aggressive treatment of dyslipidemia in this subpopulation than the current recommendations by the NCEP-ATP III. This review addresses the newer developments in the diabetes arena in terms of our current understanding of atherogenic dyslipidemia in diabetes and data from the latest randomized trials addressing its management.
atherogenic dyslipidemia; diabetes mellitus
Dyslipidemia is characterized by increased triglyceride
and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels, and decreased high-density
lipoprotein (HDL) levels. Such an atherogenic lipid profile often
predisposes an at risk individual to coronary artery disease with
incompletely understood mechanisms. Apolipoprotein D (apoD) is an atypical
apolipoprotein. Unlike canonical apolipoproteins that are produced mainly
in liver and intestine, apoD is expressed widely in mammalian tissues. ApoD
does not share significant degrees of homology in amino acid sequence with
other apolipoproteins. Instead, apoD is structurally similar to lipocalins,
a diverse family of lipid-binding proteins that are responsible for
transporting lipids and other small hydrophobic molecules for metabolism.
Plasma ApoD is present mainly in HDL and to a lesser extent in low density
lipoproteins (LDL) and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL). Genetic
variants of apoD are associated with abnormal lipid metabolism and
increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome. Increased apoD deposition
is detectable in atherosclerotic lesions of humans with established
cardiovascular disease as well as mice with premature atherosclerosis.
Moreover, apoD is associated with anti-oxidation and anti-stress
activities, contributing to lifespan expansion in fruit flies. Elderly
subjects and patients with Alzheimer exhibit markedly elevated apoD
production in the brain. Thus, apoD is emerged as a significant player in
lipid metabolism and aging. Here we focus our review on recent advances
toward our understanding of apoD in lipid metabolism and address whether
apoD dysregulation contributes to the pathogenesis of dyslipidemia and
atherosclerosis. We will also discuss the functional implication of apoD in
ApoD; HDL; LDL; VLDL; Dyslipidemia; Obesity; Diabetes; Atherosclerosis; Aging
Dyslipidemia is characterized by increased triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels, and decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. Such an atherogenic lipid profile often predisposes an at risk individual to coronary artery disease with incompletely understood mechanisms. Apolipoprotein D (apoD) is an atypical apolipoprotein. Unlike canonical apolipoproteins that are produced mainly in liver and intestine, apoD is expressed widely in mammalian tissues. ApoD does not share significant degrees of homology in amino acid sequence with other apolipoproteins. Instead, apoD is structurally similar to lipocalins, a diverse family of lipid-binding proteins that are responsible for transporting lipids and other small hydrophobic molecules for metabolism. Plasma ApoD is present mainly in HDL and to a lesser extent in low density lipoproteins (LDL) and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL). Genetic variants of apoD are associated with abnormal lipid metabolism and increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome. Increased apoD deposition is detectable in atherosclerotic lesions of humans with established cardiovascular disease as well as mice with premature atherosclerosis. Moreover, apoD is associated with anti-oxidation and anti-stress activities, contributing to lifespan expansion in fruit flies. Elderly subjects and patients with Alzheimer exhibit markedly elevated apoD production in the brain. Thus, apoD is emerged as a significant player in lipid metabolism and aging. Here we focus our review on recent advances toward our understanding of apoD in lipid metabolism and address whether apoD dysregulation contributes to the pathogenesis of dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis. We will also discuss the functional implication of apoD in aging.
ApoD; HDL; LDL; VLDL; Dyslipidemia; Obesity; Diabetes; Atherosclerosis; Aging
To determine the prevalence of single and mixed dyslipidemias among patients treated with statins in clinical practice in France.
This is a prospective, observational, cross-sectional, pharmacoepidemiologic study with a total of 2544 consecutive patients treated with a statin for at least 6 months.
Main outcome measures
Prevalence of isolated and mixed dyslipidemias of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides among all patients and among patients at high cardiovascular risk; clinical variables associated with attainment of lipid targets/normal levels in French national guidelines.
At least one dyslipidemia was present in 50.8% of all patients and in 71.1% of high-risk patients. Dyslipidemias of LDL-C, HDL-C, and triglycerides were present in 27.7%, 12.4%, and 28.7% of all patients, respectively, and in 51.0%, 18.2%, and 32.5% of high-risk patients, respectively. Among all subjects with any dyslipidemia, 30.9% had mixed dyslipidemias and 69.4% had low HDL-C and/or elevated triglycerides, while 30.6% had isolated elevated LDL-C; corresponding values for high-risk patients were 36.8%, 58.9%, and 41.1%. Age, gender, body mass index and Framingham Risk Score >20% were the factors significantly associated with attainment of normal levels for ≥2 lipid levels.
At least one dyslipidemia persisted in half of all patients and two-thirds of high cardiovascular risk patients treated with a statin. Dyslipidemias of HDL-C and/or triglycerides were as prevalent as elevated LDL-C among high cardiovascular risk patients.
cholesterol; triglycerides; dyslipidemias; prevalence; treatment outcome; France
Although less clinical intervention studies have been performed with fibrates than with statins, there are evidences indicating that fibrates may reduce risk of cardiovascular events. The potential clinical benefit of the fenofibrate will be specified by the ongoing Fenofibrate Intervention and Event Lowering in Diabetes (FIELD) study, which rationale, methods and aims have been just published.
Controlled clinical trials show similar or even greater cardiovascular benefits from statins-based therapy in patient subgroups with diabetes compared with overall study populations. Therefore, statins are the drug of first choice for aggressive lipid lowering actions and reducing risk of coronary artery disease in these patients. However, current therapeutic use of statins as monotherapy is still leaving many patients with mixed atherogenic dyslipidemia at high risk for coronary events. A combination statin/fibrate therapy may be often necessary to control all lipid abnormalities in patients with metabolic syndrome and diabetes adequately, since fibrates provide additional important benefits, particularly on triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol levels. Thus, this combined therapy concentrates on all the components of the mixed dyslipidemia that often occurs in persons with diabetes or metabolic syndrome, and may be expected to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
Safety concerns about some fibrates such as gemfibrozil may lead to exaggerate precautions regarding fibrate administration and therefore diminish the use of the seagents. However, other fibrates, such as bezafibrate and fenofibrate appear to be safer and better tolerated. We believe that a proper co-administration of statins and fibrates, selected on basis of their safety, could be more effective in achieving a comprehensive lipid control as compared with monotherapy.
Diabetes mellitus; Dyslipidemia; Fibrates; Metabolic syndrome; Statins