Cardiovascular disease accounts for almost half of all deaths in individuals with chronic kidney disease stage 5 despite advances in both dialysis treatment and cardiology. A combination of lipid-lowering and anti-inflammatory effects along with avoidance of hypercalcemia should be taken into account when choosing phosphorus binders for maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients.
We examined the association of sevelamer versus calcium-based phosphorus binders with lipid profile, inflammatory markers including C-reactive protein (CRP), and mineral metabolism in MHD patients who participated in the Nutritional and Inflammatory Evaluation of Dialysis Patients (NIED) study from October 2001 to July 2005.
Of the 787 MHD patients in the NIED study, 697 were on either sevelamer, a calcium-based binder, or both and eligible for this study. We compared the groups based on taking sevelamer monotherapy (n = 283) or calcium binder monotherapy (n = 266) for serum phosphate control. There were no differences between the groups on dialysis vintage. There were significant differences in age, serum calcium and phosphorus levels, as well as intact parathyroid hormone levels. Using a logistic regression models, the sevelamer group had a higher odds of serum CRP <10 mg/l [odds ratio (OR): 1.06, 95% CI: 1.02–1.11] and LDL cholesterol <70 mg/dl (OR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.19–1.47) when compared to the calcium binder group independent of age, vintage, body mass index, statin use or other variables.
The improvements in multiple surrogate markers of inflammation and lipids in the NIED study make sevelamer a promising therapy for treatment in MHD patients with high risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality.
End-stage renal disease; Cardiac computed tomography; Coronary calcium; Phosphate binders
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. We evaluated the role of serum catalytic iron (SCI) as a biomarker for coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients on MHD. SCI was measured in 59 stable MHD patients. All patients underwent coronary angiography. Significant CAD was defined as a > 70% narrowing in at least one epicardial coronary artery. Levels of SCI were compared with a group of healthy controls. Significant CAD was detected in 22 (37.3%) patients, with one vessel disease in 14 (63.63%) and multi-vessel disease in eight (36.36%) patients. The MHD patients had elevated levels of SCI (4.70 ± 1.79 μmol/L) compared with normal health survey participants (0.11 ± 0.01 μmol/L) (P < 0.0001). MHD patients who had no CAD had SCI levels of 1.36 ± 0.34 μmol/L compared with those having significant CAD (8.92 ± 4.12 μmol/L) (P < 0.0001). Patients on MHD and diabetes had stronger correlation between SCI and prevalence of CAD compared with non-diabetics. Patients having one vessel disease had SCI of 8.85 ± 4.67 μmol/L versus multi-vessel disease with SCI of 9.05 ± 8.34 μmol/L, P = 0.48. In multivariate analysis, SCI and diabetes mellitus were independently associated with significant CAD. We confirm the high prevalence of significant CAD in MHD patients. Elevated SCI levels are associated with presence of significant coronary disease in such patients. The association of SCI is higher in diabetic versus the non-diabetic subgroup. This is an important potentially modifiable biomarker of CAD in MHD patients.
Coronary artery disease; maintenance hemodialysis; oxidative stress; serum catalytic iron
Recently, acetate-free citrate containing dialysate (A(−)D) was developed. We have already reported about the significant effect of A(−)D on metabolic acidosis, anemia, and malnutrition in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. In this study, we compared the effect of A(−)D and acetate containing dialysate (A(+)D) on serum calcium and intact-parathyroid hormone (int-PTH) levels.
Single session study: Seventeen patients were treated with A(+)D in one session and also treated with A(−)D in another session. Serum levels of pH, HCO3-, total (t)-calcium, ionized (i)-calcium, and int-PTH were evaluated at the beginning and the end of each session. Cross over study: A total of 29 patients with MHD were treated with A(+)D for 4 months, switched to A(−)D for next 4 months, and returned to A(+)D for the final 4 months.
In single session study, serum i-calcium and t-calcium levels significantly increased, and int-PTH levels decreased after HD with A(+)D, whereas HD with A(−)D did not affect iCa and int-PTH. In cross over study, if all patients were analyzed, there was no significant difference in serum int-PTH or bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) levels during each study period. In contrast, in the patients with low int-PTH (<60 pg/mL), serum levels of int-PTH and BAP were significantly increased during the A(−)D, without significant changes in serum t-calcium or i-calcium levels.
A(−)D containing citrate could affect calcium and PTH levels, and, in 4 month period of crossover study, increased int-PTH levels pararelled with increasing BAP levels, exclusively in MHD patients with low int-PTH levels.
Acetate free citrate-containing dialysate; Low intact-parathyroid hormone; Bone alkaline phosphatase; Total calcium; Ionized calcium
Periodic assessment of dietary intake across a given dialysis population may help improve clinical outcomes related to such nutrients as dietary protein, phosphorus, or potassium. Whereas dietary recalls and food records are used to assess dietary intake at individual level and over shorter time periods, food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) are employed to rank subjects of a given population according to their nutrient intake over longer time periods.
To modify and refine the conventional Block’s FFQ in order to develop a dialysis patients specific FFQ.
Eight DaVita outpatient dialysis clinics in Los Angeles area, which participated in the “Nutrition and Inflammation in Dialysis Patients” (NIED) Study.
154 maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE
Dietary intake of participating MHD patients using a 3-day food record, supplemented by a person-to-person dietary interview, to capture food intake over the last hemodialysis treatment day of the week and the 2 subsequent non-dialysis days.
Analyses of the food records identified the key contributors to the daily nutrient intake in the 154 participating MHD patients. A “Dialysis-FFQ” was developed to include approximately 100 food items representing 90% of the patients’ total food intake of the NIED Study population. Distinctions were made in several food items based on key nutritional issues in dialysis patients such as protein, phosphorus and potassium.
We have developed a “Dialysis FFQ” to compare and rank dialysis patients according to their diverse nutrient intake. Whereas, the Dialysis-FFQ may be a valuable tool to compare dialysis patients and to identify those who ingest higher or lower amounts of a given nutrient, studies are needed to examine the utility of the Dialysis-FFQ for nutritional assessment of dialysis patients.
Dietary assessment; chronic kidney disease (CKD); dialysis; dietary recalls; food records; dialysis food frequency questionnaire (FFQ); nutritional epidemiology
Previous observational studies using differing methodologies have yielded inconsistent results regarding the association between glycemic control and outcomes in diabetic patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis (MHD). We examined mortality predictability of A1C and random serum glucose over time in a contemporary cohort of 54,757 diabetic MHD patients (age 63 ± 13 years, 51% men, 30% African Americans, 19% Hispanics). Adjusted all-cause death hazard ratio (HR) for baseline A1C increments of 8.0–8.9, 9.0–9.9, and ≥10%, compared with 7.0–7.9% (reference), was 1.06 (95% CI 1.01–1.12), 1.05 (0.99–1.12), and 1.19 (1.12–1.28), respectively, and for time-averaged A1C was 1.11 (1.05–1.16), 1.36 (1.27–1.45), and 1.59 (1.46–1.72). A symmetric increase in mortality also occurred with time-averaged A1C levels in the low range (6.0–6.9%, HR 1.05 [95% CI 1.01–1.08]; 5.0–5.9%, 1.08 [1.04–1.11], and ≤5%, 1.35 [1.29–1.42]) compared with 7.0–7.9% in fully adjusted models. Adjusted all-cause death HR for time-averaged blood glucose 175–199, 200–249, 250–299, and ≥300 mg/dL, compared with 150–175 mg/dL (reference), was 1.03 (95% CI 0.99–1.07), 1.14 (1.10–1.19), 1.30 (1.23–1.37), and 1.66 (1.56–1.76), respectively. Hence, poor glycemic control (A1C ≥8% or serum glucose ≥200 mg/dL) appears to be associated with high all-cause and cardiovascular death in MHD patients. Very low glycemic levels are also associated with high mortality risk.
Inverse associations between risk factors and mortality have been reported in epidemiological studies of patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD).
The aim of this prospective study was to estimate the effect of the dual variable pulse pressure (PP) – body mass index (BMI) on cardiovascular (CV) events and death in type 2 diabetic (T2D) subjects on MHD in a Caribbean population.
Eighty Afro-Caribbean T2D patients on MHD were studied prospectively from 2003 to 2006. Proportional-hazard modeling was used.
Of all, 23.8% had a high PP (PP ≥ 75th percentile), 76.3% had BMI < 30 Kg/m2, 21.3% had the dual factor high PP – absence of obesity. During the study period, 23 patients died and 13 CV events occurred. In the presence of the dual variable and after adjustment for age, gender, duration of MHD, and pre-existing CV complications, the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) (95% CI) of CV events and death were respectively 2.7 (0.8–8.3); P = 0.09 and 2.4 (1.1–5.9); P = 0.04.
The dual factor, high PP – absence of obesity, is a prognosis factor of outcome. In type 2 diabetics on MHD, a specific management strategy should be proposed in nonobese subjects with wide pulse pressure in order to decrease or prevent the incidence of fatal and nonfatal events.
dual factor; pulse pressure; body mass index; type 2 diabetes; outcome
End-stage kidney disease (ESKD) patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) have a lot of anxiety. Anxiety and coping are associated with the locus of control; the present investigation aimed to study the state and trait anxiety, locus of control, and active and passive coping among patients on MHD. Thirty MHD patients and 30 controls were administered State–Trait Anxiety Inventory, Rotter's Locus of Control Scale, and Coping Responses Inventory. There were significantly higher scores on state and trait anxiety, respectively (67.53 ± 10.89 vs. 59.40 ± 6.97, P < 0.01, and 62.97 ± 8.45 vs. 58.07 ± 7.06, P < 0.05), and locus of control (11.27 ± 3.55 vs. 9.04 ± 1.86, P < 0.01) in patients as compared to controls. On coping responses, patients and controls differed on positive reappraisal (54.33 ± 4.67 vs. 51.17 ± 3.12, P < 0.01), seeking guidance and support (58.07 ± 5.51 vs. 53.27 ± 4.22, P < 0.01), problem solving (51.03 ± 4.70 vs. 47.57 ± 4.73, P < 0.01), cognitive avoidance (60.27 ± 6.76 vs. 56.80 ± 4.08, P < 0.05), acceptance or resignation (61.67 ± 6.30 vs. 58.83 ± 4.23, P < 0.01), emotional discharge (68.07 ± 6.78 vs. 64.30 ± 4.50, P < 0.05), approach coping (205.57 ± 10.55 vs. 189.70 ± 11.37, P < 0.01), and avoidance coping (255.30 ± 16.45 vs. 241.10 ± 10.50, P < 0.01). A higher prevalence of anxiety trait could be the cause of anxiety in MHD patients besides the medical problems. The locus of control among patients though a mixed one was significantly more toward externalism. Thus, there is a need to identify this group well in advance and prepared not only medically but also psychologically for MHD.
Coping responses; end-stage kidney disease; hemodialysis; locus of control; psyhchonephrology; state anxiety; trait anxiety
The aim of this study was to examine the correlation between the microinflammatory state and structural and functional changes of the left ventricle in maintenance haemodialysis patients (MHD). In total, 48 MHD patients and 30 healthy volunteers participated in this study. The microinflammatory state was detected from high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels determined by ELISA. The structure and function of the left ventricle was measured according to ultrasound cardiogram examination. The serum levels of hs-CRP, IL-6 and TNF-α in the MHD patients were higher compared with those in the controls (P<0.05). Furthermore, the measurements of the left atrial diameter (LAD), left venticular diameter (LVD), interventricular septal thickness (IVST), left ventricular posterior wall thickness (LVPWT) and the left ventricular mass index (LVMI) increased significantly and the left ventricular function (LVEF) was reduced. Correlation analysis demonstrated that the concentrations of hs-CRP, TNF-α and IL-6 correlated with the LVMI (P<0.05), but only hs-CRP correlated with the loss of function of the heart in the haemodialysis patients (P<0.05). The microinflammatory state may be closely associated with the structural and functional impairment of the heart in MHD patients.
haemodialysis; microinflammatory; left ventricle; structural and functional changes
Data generated with the body composition monitor (BCM, Fresenius) show, based on bioimpedance technology, that chronic fluid overload in hemodialysis patients is associated with poor survival. However, removing excess fluid by lowering dry weight can be accompanied by intradialytic and postdialytic complications. Here, we aim at testing the hypothesis that, in comparison to conventional hemodialysis, blood volume-monitored regulation of ultrafiltration and dialysate conductivity (UCR) and/or regulation of ultrafiltration and temperature (UTR) will decrease complications when ultrafiltration volumes are systematically increased in fluid-overloaded hemodialysis patients.
BCM measurements yield results on fluid overload (in liters), relative to extracellular water (ECW). In this prospective, multicenter, triple-arm, parallel-group, crossover, randomized, controlled clinical trial, we use BCM measurements, routinely introduced in our three maintenance hemodialysis centers shortly prior to the start of the study, to recruit sixty hemodialysis patients with fluid overload (defined as ≥15% ECW). Patients are randomized 1:1:1 into UCR, UTR and conventional hemodialysis groups. BCM-determined, ‘final’ dry weight is set to normohydration weight −7% of ECW postdialysis, and reached by reducing the previous dry weight, in steps of 0.1 kg per 10 kg body weight, during 12 hemodialysis sessions (one study phase). In case of intradialytic complications, dry weight reduction is decreased, according to a prespecified algorithm. A comparison of intra- and post-dialytic complications among study groups constitutes the primary endpoint. In addition, we will assess relative weight reduction, changes in residual renal function, quality of life measures, and predialysis levels of various laboratory parameters including C-reactive protein, troponin T, and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, before and after the first study phase (secondary outcome parameters).
Patients are not requested to revert to their initial degree of fluid overload after each study phase. Therefore, the crossover design of the present study merely serves the purpose of secondary endpoint evaluation, for example to determine patient choice of treatment modality. Previous studies on blood volume monitoring have yielded inconsistent results. Since we include only patients with BCM-determined fluid overload, we expect a benefit for all study participants, due to strict fluid management, which decreases the mortality risk of hemodialysis patients.
Dialysis; Ultrafiltration; Renal dialysis; Fluid shifts; Blood volume; Multicenter study; Randomized controlled trials.
Maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients with polycystic kidney disease (PKD) have better survival than non-PKD patients. Mineral and bone disorders (MBD) are associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and cardiovascular death in MHD patients. It is unknown whether the different MBD mortality association between MHD populations with and without PKD can explain the survival differential.
Survival models were examined to assess the association between different laboratory markers of MBD [such as serum phosphorous, parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium and alkaline phosphatase] and mortality in a 6-year cohort of 60 089 non-PKD and 1501 PKD MHD patients.
PKD and non-PKD patients were 57 ± 13 and 62 ± 15 years old and included 46 and 45% women and 14 and 32% Blacks, respectively. Whereas PKD individuals with PTH 150 to <300 pg/mL (reference) had the lowest risk for mortality, the death risk was higher in patients with PTH <150 [hazard ratio (HR): 2.16 (95% confidence interval 1.53–3.06)], 300 to <600 [HR: 1.30 (0.97–1.74)] and ≥600 pg/mL [HR: 1.46 (1.02–2.08)], respectively. Similar patterns were found in non-PKD patients. Fully adjusted death HRs of time-averaged serum phosphorous increments <3.5, 5.5 to <7.5 and ≥7.5 mg/dL (reference: 3.5 to <5.5 mg/dL) for PKD patients were 2.82 (1.50–5.29), 1.40 (1.12–1.75) and 2.25 (1.57–3.22). The associations of alkaline phosphatase and calcium with mortality were similar in PKD and non-PKD patients.
Bone–mineral disorder markers exhibit similar mortality trends between PKD and non-PKD MHD patients, although some differences are observed in particular in low PTH and phosphorus ranges.
hemodialysis; mineral and bone disorders; mortality; parathyroid hormone; polycystic kidney disease
Kt/Vurea ratio is commonly used to assess the delivered dose of dialysis in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. This parameter only reflects the efficacy of dialytic treatments in removing small toxins, but not middle and protein-bound toxins. Erythrocyte glutathione transferase (e-GST), an enzyme devoted to cell depuration against a lot of large and small toxins, is overexpressed in uremic patients. Aim of the present study is to verify whether e-GST may represent a novel biomarker to assess the adequacy of different dialytic techniques complementary to Kt/Vurea parameter. Furthermore, it will be investigated whether e-GST could reflect the ‘average' adequacy of multiple dialytic sessions and not of a single one treatment as it occurs for Kt/Vurea. One hundred and three MHD patients and 82 healthy subjects were tested. Fourty four patients were treated with standard bicarbonate hemodialysis (HD) and 59 patients were on online hemodiafiltration (HDF). In all MHD patients e-GST activity was 60% higher than in healthy controls. In HDF, e-GST activity was lower than in HD subgroup (8.2±0.4 versus 10.0±0.4 U/gHb, respectively). Single-pool Kt/Vurea and total weekly Kt/Vurea were higher in HDF than in HD, but no correlation was found between e-GST activity and Kt/Vurea data. e-GST, whose level is stable during the erythrocyte life-span, provides information on the long-term depurative efficacy of dialysis treatments.
chronic kidney disease; erythrocyte glutathione S-transferase; hemodialysis adequacy; Kt/Vurea; oxidative stress; uremic toxins
Subclinical inflammation is a common phenomenon in patients on either continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) or maintenance hemodialysis (MHD). We hypothesized that vitamin C had anti-inflammation effect because of its electron offering ability. The current study was designed to test the relationship of plasma vitamin C level and some inflammatory markers.
In this cross-sectional study, 284 dialysis patients were recruited, including 117 MHD and 167 CAPD patients. The demographics were recorded. Plasma vitamin C was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. And we also measured body mass index (BMI, calculated as weight/height2), Kt/V, serum albumin, serum prealbumin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), ferritin, hemoglobin. The relationships between vitamin C and albumin, pre-albumin and hsCRP levels were tested by Spearman correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis.
Patients were classified into three subgroups by vitamin C level according to previous recommendation [1,2] in MHD and CAPD patients respectively: group A: < 2 ug/ml (< 11.4 umol/l, deficiency), group B: 2-4 ug/ml (11.4-22.8 umol/l, insufficiency) and group C: > 4 ug/ml (> 22.8 umol/l, normal and above).
Patients showed a widely distribution of plasma vitamin C levels in the total 284 dialysis patients. Vitamin C deficiency (< 2 ug/ml) was present in 95(33.45%) and insufficiency (2-4 ug/ml) in 88(30.99%). 73(25.70%) patients had plasma vitamin C levels within normal range (4-14 ug/ml) and 28(9.86%) at higher than normal levels (> 14 ug/ml). The similar proportion of different vitamin C levels was found in both MHD and CAPD groups.
Plasma vitamin C level was inversely associated with hsCRP concentration (Spearman r = -0.201, P = 0.001) and positively associated with prealbumin (Spearman r = 0.268, P < 0.001), albumin levels (Spearman r = 0.161, P = 0.007). In multiple linear regression analysis, plasma vitamin C level was inversely associated with log10hsCRP (P = 0.048) and positively with prealbumin levels (P = 0.002) adjusted for gender, age, diabetes, modality of dialysis and some other confounding effects.
The investigation indicates that vitamin C deficiency is common in both MHD patients and CAPD patients. Plasma vitamin C level is positively associated with serum prealbumin level and negatively associated with hsCRP level in both groups. Vitamin C deficiency may play an important role in the increased inflammatory status in dialysis patients. Further studies are needed to determine whether inflammatory status in dialysis patients can be improved by using vitamin C supplements.
This aim of this study was to observe the effects of the application of low calcium dialysate (LCD) combined with oral administration of CaCO3 in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia, as well as blood Ca2+, calcium-phosphate product (CPP), parathyroid hormone (PTH) and blood pressure in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Thirty-one maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients with hyperphosphatemia, but normal blood Ca2+, underwent dialysis with an initial dialy-sate Ca2+ concentration (DCa) of 1.50 mmol/l for six months and then with 1.25 mmol/l for six months. The patients who underwent dialysis with a DCa of 1.25 mmol/l were treated orally with 0.3 g CaCO3 tablets three times a day. In the third and sixth months [observation end point (OEP)] of the dialysis, the concentrations of Ca2+, phosphorus and intact PTH (iPTH) were measured; blood pressure and side-effects prior to and following dialysis were also observed. The Ca2+, CPP and iPTH levels increased (P<0.05) in the sixth month of treatment with a DCa of 1.50 mmol/l. However, the Ca2+ concentration declined to a certain degree, CPPs decreased significantly (P<0.05) and the iPTH concentration increased following treatment with a DCa of 1.25 mmol/l for six months. The incidence rate of adverse effects of LCD was 12.9% (4/31); the effects were mainly muscle spasms, hypotension and elevated PTH. The periodic application of LCD combined with the oral administration of CaCO3 effectively reduced serum phosphorus and CPPs among MHD patients with hyperphosphatemia, indicating that the treatment may be used clinically.
low calcium dialysis; hyperphosphatemia; calcium-phosphate product; parathyroid hormone
Aim and Methods
We investigated the association between polymorphisms of the angiotensin converting enzyme-1 (ACE-1) and angiotensin II type one receptor (AT1RA1166C) genes and the causation of renal disease in 76 advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) pediatric patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) or conservative treatment (CT). Serum ACE activity and creatine kinase-MB fraction (CK-MB) were measured in all groups. Left ventricular mass index (LVMI) was calculated according to echocardiographic measurements. Seventy healthy controls were also genotyped.
The differences of D allele and DI genotype of ACE were found significant between MHD group and the controls (p = 0.0001). ACE-activity and LVMI were higher in MHD, while CK-MB was higher in CT patients than in all other groups. The combined genotype DD v/s ID+II comparison validated that DD genotype was a high risk genotype for hypertension .~89% of the DD CKD patients were found hypertensive in comparison to ~ 61% of patients of non DD genotype(p = 0.02). The MHD group showed an increased frequency of the C allele and CC genotype of the AT1RA1166C polymorphism (P = 0.0001). On multiple linear regression analysis, C-allele was independently associated with hypertension (P = 0.04).
ACE DD and AT1R A/C genotypes implicated possible roles in the hypertensive state and in renal damage among children with ESRD. This result might be useful in planning therapeutic strategies for individual patients.
angiotensin-converting enzyme; angiotensin II type one receptor; DNA polymorphisms; end-stage renal disease, Children
Low serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) has been implicated as a primary biochemical marker of adynamic bone disease in individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD) who undergo maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) treatment. We hypothesized that the malnutrition-inflammation complex is associated with low PTH levels in these patients and confounds the PTH-survival association.
We examined 748 stable MHD outpatients in Southern California and followed them for up to 5 years (10/2001-12/2006).
In 748 MHD patients, serum PTH <150 pg/ml was more prevalent among non-Blacks and diabetics. There was no association between serum PTH and coronary artery calcification score, bone mineral density or dietary protein or calorie intake. Low serum PTH was associated with markers of protein-energy wasting and inflammation, and this association confounded the relationship between serum PTH and alkaline phosphatase. Although 5-year crude mortality rates were similar across PTH increments, after adjustment for the case-mix and surrogates of malnutrition and inflammation, a moderately low serum PTH in 100 to 150 pg/ml range was associated with the greatest survival compared to other serum PTH levels, i.e., a death hazard ratio of 0.52 (95% confidence interval: 0.29-0.92, p<0.001) compared to PTH of 300 to 600 pg/ml (reference).
Low serum PTH may be another facet of the malnutrition-inflammation complex in CKD, and after controlling for this confounder, a moderately low PTH in 100 to 150 pg/ml range appears associated with the greatest survival. Limitations of observational studies should be considered.
Parathyroid hormone (PTH); adynamic bone disease; malnutrition-inflammation complex; alkaline phosphatase; paricalcitol; cytokines
To explore the association between high molecular weight apo(a) isoforms and lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and the effect of maintenance hemodialysis (MHD), plasma Lp(a) and apo(a) isoforms were determined in age and sex-matched CKD stage 4 and stage 5 patients (repeated after 4 weeks of MHD) and healthy controls (n = 18). Median Lp(a) increased with severity of CKD. Upon HMW apo(a) isoform stratification, Lp(a) in S2 isoform group was 37.6 mg/dl in CKD stage 4 and 64.0 mg/dl in stage 5 (P < 0.024 and P < 0.001 vs. controls), whereas in S3 + S4 group there was no significant increase. Following MHD, Lp(a) also decreased significantly only in the S2 group. Increase in Lp(a) in CKD patients with HMW apo(a) isoforms is mainly restricted to S2 isoform group, furthermore, decrease in Lp(a) levels in response to MHD is also seen in this group only.
Apo(a) isoforms; chronic kidney disease; lipoprotein(a); maintenance hemodialysis
The assessment of hydration status remains a challenging task in hemodialysis (HD) management. There are only limited data available on the relevance of clinical decisions in the estimation of dialysis overhydration (OH). The objective of this study was to examine the significance of clinical judgment in the assessment of pre-dialysis OH.
We compared the performance of three methods of OH assessment: (1) clinical judgment guided by a single clinical examination with (2) multifrequency bioimpedance analysis (BIA) and (3) complex systematic clinical approach. We additionally studied the associations of these methods with selected laboratory and imaging parameters.
Any of the single parameters alone reached a sufficient level of accuracy for reliable prediction of OH. Clinical judgment was the single most important factor in OH estimation, and also had the highest contribution when in combination with other parameters. BIA reliably measured extracellular fluid, but the automatically calculated OHBIA exhibited a substantial degree of inaccuracy that precludes the use of BIA as a standard at present. The combination of clinical judgment with additional clinical parameters had the highest prediction accuracy for OH. Among the parameters studied, vena cava collapsibility index and calf circumference showed the strongest association with OH. Echocardiography, cardiothoracic index, atrial natriuretic peptide levels and spirometry did not have acceptable sensitivity.
The systematic clinical approach combining physician and patient inputs, laboratory and imaging data enables an individualized decision and a superior accuracy in OH assessment.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10157-012-0745-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Hemodialysis; Overhydration; Clinical judgment; Bioimpedance
OBJECTIVES: To assess American newspaper coverage regarding racial and ethnic minority health disparities (MHDs). METHODS: LexisNexis was queried with specific word combinations to elicit all MHD articles printed in 257 newspapers from 2000-2004. The full texts were read and articles categorized by racial/ethnic group and specific MHD topics mentioned. RESULTS: In the five years from 2000-2004, 1188 MHD articles were published, representing 0.09% of all articles about health. Newspapers gave much attention to MHD when discussed in conferences and meetings and speeches by senior health officials and politicians. Cancer, cardiovascular disease and HIV/AIDS were most frequent among disease-specific mentions. Articles about African Americans comprised 60.4% of all race/ethnicity-mentioning articles. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the release of major organizational reports and the publication of many studies confirming the prevalence of MHD, few newspaper articles have been published explaining MHD to the public. Because of the general public's low rate of health literacy, the health world should collaborate with the media to present a consistent, simple message concerning gaps in care experienced by all racial/ethnic minority groups. In a time of consumer-directed healthcare, if Americans understand that MHDs exist, they may galvanize to advocate for disparity elimination and quality improvement.
Serum transferrin, estimated by total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), may be a marker of protein-energy wasting (PEW) in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. We hypothesized that low TIBC or its fall over time is associated with poor clinical outcomes. In 807 MHD patients in a prospective 5-year cohort, associations of TIBC and its changes over time with outcomes were examined after adjustment for case-mix and markers of iron stores and malnutrition-inflammation including serum interleukin-6, iron and ferritin. Patients with serum TIBC ≥250 mg/dl had higher body mass index, triceps and biceps skinfolds and mid-arm muscle circumference and higher serum levels of iron but lower ferritin and inflammatory markers. Some SF-36 quality of life (QoL) components were worse in the lowest and/or highest TIBC groups. Mortality was incrementally higher in lower TIBC levels (p-trend <0.001). Adjusted death hazard ratio was 1.75 (95% CI: 1.00–3.05, p = 0.05) for TIBC <150 compared to TIBC of 200–250 mg/dl. A fall in TIBC >20 mg/dl over 6 months was associated with a death hazard ratio of 1.57 (95% CI: 1.04–2.36, p = 0.03) compared to the stable TIBC group. Hence, low baseline serum TIBC is associated with iron deficiency, PEW, inflammation, poor QoL and mortality, and its decline over time is independently associated with increased death risk.
Transferrin; Total iron-binding capacity; Chronic kidney disease; Hemodialysis; Protein-energy wasting
Many traditional and nontraditional risk factors contribute to vascular calcification among maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. It is not clear whether coronary artery calcification (CAC) delineates a higher mortality risk independent of known risk factors. We examined 6-year (10/2001–9/2007) survival of 166 MHD patients, aged 53 ± 13 years, with baseline CAC scores. Patients were grouped into four CAC groups: 0, 1–100, 101–400, and 400+. The 101–400 and 400+ groups were associated with a significantly higher adjusted risk of death than CAC 0 with hazard ratios (HR) 8.5 (95% CI: 1.1–48.1, p = 0.02) and 13.3 (95% CI: 1.3–65.1, p = 0.01), respectively, independent of demographics, comorbidity, lipids and other cardiovascular risks, surrogates of bone disease, nutritional and inflammatory markers and dialysis dose. Total CAC [HR 6.7 (1.1–21.5, p = 0.03)] followed by the presence of CAC in the left main [4.6 (2.2–9.8, p = 0.001)] and left anterior descending artery [4.3 (2.1–14.2, p = 0.001)] were strong independent predictors of mortality even after adjusting for above covariates. Total and vessel-specific CAC predict mortality in MHD patients independent of traditional and nontraditional risk factors.
Chronic kidney disease; Coronary artery calcium; Dialysis; Inflammation; Phosphorus binder; Sevelamer; Death risk
The prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and inflammation is high in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Adiponectin (ADPN) is an adipocytokine that may have significant anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic effects. Low adiponectin levels have previously been found in patients with high risk for CVD.
On seventy eight advanced CKD (stages 4 and 5) pediatric patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis( MHD) or conservative treatment (CT) the following parameters were studied: body mass index, left ventricular mass index(LVMI), serum adiponectin , cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs CRP),interleukin 6(IL6) and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ADIPOQ gene at positions 45, and 276. Seventy age-and gender-matched healthy subjects served as control subjects.
Markedly (P = 0.01) elevated plasma adiponectin levels were observed in CKD patients, especially CT patients, compared to control subjects. The wild type of ADIPOQ 45T > G (T) allele is the main gene for patients and controls. MHD and CT patients had significantly higher frequency of the TT genotypes of +276G > T gene (P = 0.04) compared with control subjects. A significant positive correlation was observed between plasma adiponectin and IL6 level, whereas negative correlations were found between adiponectin level, cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and hs CRP. In a stepwise backward multiple regression model only IL6 (P = 0.001) was independently associated with plasma adiponectin levels. The adiponectin gene the 276 GT+TT genotypes were associated with a higher level of adiponectin .
The present study demonstrated that ADPN is related to several metabolic and inflammatory CV risk factors in a manner consistent with the hypothesis that this protein might have a protective role against these factors. We observed an association between the +276G>T SNP in the adiponectin gene and CKD in children. Genetic variation of +276 gene seemed to have a positive impact on circulating adiponectin levels in CKD patients.
Adiponectin; Single nucleotide polymorphisms; CKD; Children; Inflammation
Transferrin (Tf) is a glycoprotein responsible for iron transport in the human body. Physiologically in reaction with Concanavalin A, Tf occurs in four distinct variants Tf1, Tf2, Tf3 (apo-Tf) and Tf4. It was reported recently that Tf is changing, particularly during acute phase response, taking place among others in end-stage renal disease. In this study, we wanted to find the answer to three main questions: firstly, how Tf is changing in patients treated with maintenance haemodialysis (mHD), secondly, whether there are any Tf changes in the course of mHD treatment, and thirdly, what factors can affect Tf microheterogeneity in these patients. Studies were performed on 80 haemodialysed patients and 21 healthy volunteers. The Tf concentration was determined by the rocket immunoelectrophoresis, and its microheterogeneity was assessed by the ConA crossed immunoaffinity electrophoresis. During the annual observation of the distribution of the Tf variants, we have found both changes of the percentage contents of all Tf variants in the whole Tf concentration and a significant decrease in Tf2, Tf3 and Tf4 serum concentrations. Moreover, we found that decrease in the renal function, duration of mHD, and inflammation may contribute to these above-mentioned changes, which are probably the factors that should be taken into account when explaining the mechanisms of persistence of anaemia in haemodialysed patients.
Anaemia; Haemodialysis; Microheterogeneity; Transferrin variants; Iron
Internet psychological interventions are efficacious and may reduce traditional access barriers. No studies have evaluated whether any sampling bias exists in these trials that may limit the translation of the results of these trials into real-world application. We identified 7999 potentially eligible trial participants from a community-based health cohort study and invited them to participate in a randomized controlled trial of an online cognitive behavioural therapy programme for people with depression. We compared those who consented to being assessed for trial inclusion with nonconsenters on demographic, clinical and behavioural indicators captured in the health study. Any potentially biasing factors were then assessed for their association with depression outcome among trial participants to evaluate the existence of sampling bias. Of the 35 health survey variables explored, only 4 were independently associated with higher likelihood of consenting—female sex (odds ratio (OR) 1.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05–1.19), speaking English at home (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.15–1.90) higher education (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.46–1.92) and a prior diagnosis of depression (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.22–1.55). The multivariate model accounted for limited variance (C-statistic 0.6) in explaining participation. These four factors were not significantly associated with either the primary trial outcome measure or any differential impact by intervention arm. This demonstrates that, among eligible trial participants, few factors were associated with the consent to participate. There was no indication that such self-selection biased the trial results or would limit the generalizability and translation into a public or clinical setting.
depression; etherapy; generalizability; online interventions; sampling bias; selection bias
Ca2+-dependent activator protein 2 (CAPS2/CADPS2) is a secretory vesicle-associated protein involved in the release of neurotrophin. We recently reported that an aberrant, alternatively spliced CAPS2 mRNA that lacks exon 3 (CAPS2Δexon3) is detected in some patients with autism. Splicing variations in mouse CAPS2 and their expression and functions remain unclear.
In this study, we defined 31 exons in the mouse CAPS2 gene and identified six alternative splicing variants, CAPS2a-f. CAPS2a is an isoform lacking exons 22 and 25, which encode part of the Munc13-1-homologous domain (MHD). CAPS2b lacks exon 25. CAPS2c lacks exons 11 and 22. CAPS2d, 2e, and 2f have C-terminal deletions from exon 14, exon 12, and exon 5, respectively. On the other hand, a mouse counterpart of CAPS2Δexon3 was not detected in the mouse tissues tested. CAPS2b was expressed exclusively in the brain, and the other isoforms were highly expressed in the brain, but also in some non-neural tissues. In the brain, all isoforms showed predominant expression patterns in the cerebellum. In the developing cerebellum, CAPS2b showed an up-regulated expression pattern, whereas the other isoforms exhibited transiently peaked expression patterns. CAPS2 proteins were mostly recovered in soluble fractions, but some were present in membrane fractions, except for CAPS2c and 2f, both of which lack the PH domain, suggesting that the PH domain is important for membrane association. In contrast to CAPS2a and 2b, CAPS2c showed slightly decreased BDNF-releasing activity, which is likely due to the C-terminal truncation of the PH domain in CAPS2c.
This study indicates that, in mouse, there are six splicing variants of CAPS2 (CAPS2a-f), and that these are subdivided into two groups: a long form containing the C-terminal MHD and a short form lacking the C-terminal MHD. These results demonstrate that the splicing variations correlate with their expression patterns and intracellular distribution, and affect BDNF release; however, whether or not the short forms possess activities other than BDNF release, for example as natural dominant-negative isoforms, remains to be determined.
Background. Achieving normohydration remains a non-trivial issue in haemodialysis therapy. Guiding the haemodialysis patient on the path between fluid overload and dehydration should be the clinical target, although it can be difficult to achieve this target in practice. Objective and clinically applicable methods for the determination of the normohydration status on an individual basis are needed to help in the identification of an appropriate target weight.
Methods. The aim of this prospective trial was to guide the patient population of a complete dialysis centre towards normohydration over the course of approximately 1 year. Fluid status was assessed frequently (at least monthly) in haemodialysis patients (n = 52) with the body composition monitor (BCM), which is based on whole body bioimpedance spectroscopy. The BCM provides the clinician with an objective target for normohydration. The patient population was divided into three groups: the hyperhydrated group (relative fluid overload >15% of extracellular water (ECW); n = 13; Group A), the adverse event group (patients with more than two adverse events in the last 4 weeks; n = 12; Group B) and the remaining patients (n = 27; Group C).
Results. In the hyperhydrated group (Group A), fluid overload was reduced by 2.0 L (P < 0.001) without increasing the occurrence of intradialytic adverse events. This resulted in a reduction in systolic blood pressure of 25 mmHg (P = 0.012). Additionally, a 35% reduction in antihypertensive medication (P = 0.031) was achieved. In the adverse event group (Group B), the fluid status was increased by 1.3 L (P = 0.004) resulting in a 73% reduction in intradialytic adverse events (P < 0.001) without significantly increasing the blood pressure.
Conclusion. The BCM provides an objective assessment of normohydration that is clinically applicable. Guiding the patients towards this target of normohydration leads to better control of hypertension in hyperhydrated patients, less intradialytic adverse events and improved cardiac function.
adverse event; bioimpedance spectroscopy; fluid overload; hypertension; normohydration