The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is rising in Australia. Sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are an emerging treatment for T2DM. SGLT2 inhibitors offer a novel approach to lowering hyperglycaemia by suppressing renal glucose reabsorption and increasing urinary glucose excretion. The increased urinary glucose excretion has also been associated with caloric loss and osmotic diuresis. Dapagliflozin and canagliflozin are the SGLT2 inhibitors that are approved for clinical use in the US, the European Union (EU), and Australia. Their use results in reductions in HbA1c and body weight across a broad range of patient populations ranging from drug-naive patients to those who require additional therapy due to inadequate glycaemic control on their existing treatment. In addition, reductions in blood pressure (BP), particularly systolic BP, have also been noted. SGLT2 inhibitors are generally well tolerated with low rates of adverse events. Episodes of hypoglycaemia were mostly classified as minor, with low and balanced rates of severe hypoglycaemia across studies. The proportions of patients with genital infections and urinary tract infections were higher with dapagliflozin and canagliflozin versus their comparators. However, these infections were generally mild-to-moderate in intensity, treated with standard antimicrobial therapies, and rarely led to discontinuation. No dosage adjustments for dapagliflozin and canagliflozin are recommended for normal-to-mild renal impairment. Dapagliflozin and canagliflozin are not recommended for use in patients with eGFR<60 and <45mL/min/1.73m2, respectively. Overall, SGLT2 inhibitors have shown the potential to become an important addition to the treatment armamentarium for effective management of patients with T2DM.
Type 2 diabetes; SGLT2 inhibitors; management; renal
Inhibitors of sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 (SGLT2), such as canagliflozin and dapagliflozin, are recently approved for treatment of type 2 diabetes. These agents lower blood glucose mainly by increasing urinary glucose excretion. Compared with placebo, SGLT2 inhibitors reduce hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels by an average of 0.5%-0.8% when used as monotherapy or add-on therapy. Advantages of this drug class include modest weight loss of approximately 2 kg, low risk of hypoglycemia, and decrease blood pressure of approximately 4 mmHg systolic and 2 mmHg diastolic. These characteristics make these agents potential add-on therapy in patients with HbA1c levels close to 7%-8.0%, particularly if these patients are obese, hypertensive, and/or prone for hypoglycemia. Meanwhile, these drugs are limited by high frequency of genital mycotic infections. Less common adverse effects include urinary tract infections, hypotension, dizziness, and worsening renal function. SGLT2 inhibitors should be used with caution in the elderly because of increased adverse effects, and should not be used in chronic kidney disease due to decreased or lack of efficacy and nephrotoxicity. Overall, SGLT2 inhibitors are useful addition for treatment of select groups of patients with type 2 diabetes, but their efficacy and safety need to be established in long-term clinical trials.
Type 2 diabetes; Canagliflozin dapagliflozin; Weight loss; Hypoglycemia; Chronic kidney disease; Genital infection
Diabetes remains a burgeoning global problem, necessitating ongoing efforts on the part of pharmaceutical and device manufacturers, patients, and society to curb the frightening trends in morbidity and mortality attributable to the malady. Since 1835 when phlorizin was discovered, sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors have rested tantalizingly on the horizon, promising a more physiological approach to glucose control. These agents lower glucose by enhancing its excretion by blocking reabsorption in the renal tubules, thus eliminating glucose from the body along with the molecules’ attendant effects on caloric balance, plasma osmolality, and lipids. Consequently, SGLT-2 inhibitors improve glucose control to an extent comparable to other hypoglycemic agents while simultaneously reducing body weight, blood pressure, and cholesterol – an admirable portfolio. One agent, canagliflozin, has recently been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and two other agents have progressed through Phase III trials, including dapagliflozin and empagliflozin. Collectively, when used as monotherapy, these agents have demonstrated reductions in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), body weight, and blood pressure of −0.34% to −1.03%, −2.0 to −3.4 kg, and −1.7 to −6.4 mmHg/−0.3 to −2.6 mmHg (systolic blood pressure/diastolic blood pressure), respectively. SGLT-2 inhibitors have been well tolerated, with hypoglycemia (0.9% to 4.3%) occurring infrequently in clinical trials. Safety signals related to breast and bladder cancer have arisen with dapagliflozin, though these are unsubstantiated and likely ascribed to the presence of preexisting cancer. As these agents emerge, clinicians should embrace the addition to the formulary for treating type 2 diabetes, but must also weight the risk–benefit of this new class in deciding which patient types are most likely to benefit from their novel mechanism of action.
diabetes; sodium–glucose transporter 2; canagliflozin; dapagliflozin; empagliflozin
Aims Sodium–glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) reabsorbs glucose and sodium in the renal proximal tubule. Dapagliflozin, an SGLT2 inhibitor, targets hyperglycaemia in type 2 diabetes by increasing renal glucose excretion. To investigate whether the parallel occurring sodium loss would have diuretic-like physiologic effects, we compared dapagliflozin and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) effects on 24-h blood pressure (BP), body weight, plasma volume and glomerular filtration rate (GFR).
Methods In this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial, 75 subjects with type 2 diabetes were assigned placebo, dapagliflozin 10 mg/day, or HCTZ 25 mg/day. Changes from baseline BP, body weight, plasma volume and GFR were assessed after 12 weeks of treatment.
Results Subjects’ mean age was 56 years, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) duration 6.3 years, and haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) 7.5%. Treatment with placebo, dapagliflozin or HCTZ resulted in changes from baseline in 24-h ambulatory mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) of −0.9 (95%CI −4.2, +2.4), −3.3 (95%CI −6.8, +0.2), and −6.6 (95%CI −9.9, −3.2) mmHg, respectively at week 12, adjusted for baseline SBP. Body weight decreased with dapagliflozin and HCTZ. In a sub-study plasma volume appeared to decrease with dapagliflozin but did not change with placebo or HCTZ treatment. Dapagliflozin induced a greater reduction in GFR (−10.8%; 95%CI −14.6, −6.7) relative to placebo (−2.9%; 95% CI −6.9, +1.2) or HCTZ (−3.4%; 95%CI −7.3, +0.6).
Conclusions Dapagliflozin-induced SGLT2 inhibition for 12 weeks is associated with reductions in 24-h BP, body weight, GFR and possibly plasma volume. Cumulatively, these effects suggest that dapagliflozin may have a diuretic-like capacity to lower BP in addition to beneficial effects on glycaemic control.
blood pressure; dapagliflozin; HbA1c; renal function; type 2 diabetes
Although initially effective, sulfonylureas are associated with poor glycemic durability, weight gain, and hypoglycemia. Dapagliflozin, a selective inhibitor of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2), reduces hyperglycemia by increasing urinary glucose excretion independent of insulin and may cause fewer of these adverse effects. We compared the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of dapagliflozin with the sulfonylurea glipizide in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with metformin monotherapy.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
This 52-week, double-blind, multicenter, active-controlled, noninferiority trial randomized patients with type 2 diabetes (baseline mean HbA1c, 7.7%), who were receiving metformin monotherapy, to add-on dapagliflozin (n = 406) or glipizide (n = 408) up-titrated over 18 weeks, based on glycemic response and tolerability, to ≤10 or ≤20 mg/day, respectively.
The primary end point, adjusted mean HbA1c reduction with dapagliflozin (−0.52%) compared with glipizide (−0.52%), was statistically noninferior at 52 weeks. Key secondary end points: dapagliflozin produced significant adjusted mean weight loss (−3.2 kg) versus weight gain (1.2 kg; P < 0.0001) with glipizide, significantly increased the proportion of patients achieving ≥5% body weight reduction (33.3%) versus glipizide (2.5%; P < 0.0001), and significantly decreased the proportion experiencing hypoglycemia (3.5%) versus glipizide (40.8%; P < 0.0001). Events suggestive of genital infections and lower urinary tract infections were reported more frequently with dapagliflozin compared with glipizide but responded to standard treatment and rarely led to study discontinuation.
Despite similar 52-week glycemic efficacy, dapagliflozin reduced weight and produced less hypoglycemia than glipizide in type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with metformin. Long-term studies are required to further evaluate genital and urinary tract infections with SGLT2 inhibitors.
Dapagliflozin is a first-in-class oral sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor. It is often used in combination with conventional anti-diabetic drugs such as metformin, glimepiride, and insulin in treating type 2 diabetes (T2D). It not only reduces glucose reabsorption in the kidney but also increases renal glucose excretion. Some studies found the actions of dapagliflozin independent of insulin and free from risk of weight gain. This meta-analysis aims to evaluate whether dapagliflozin is synergistic with other anti-diabetic drugs without risk of weight gain.
This meta-analysis will include the randomized controlled trials (RCT) evaluating the efficacy of dapagliflozin as an add-on drug in treating T2D for >8 weeks with the outcome measures glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and body weight. Information of relevant RCTs will be retrieved from major databases including PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, ClinicalTrials.gov, and Google Scholar according to a pre-specified search strategy. Google and manual search will find other unpublished reports and supplementary data. Eligible RCTs will be selected according to pre-specified inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data will be extracted and input into a pre-formatted spreadsheet. The Cochrane risk of bias tool will be used to assess the quality of the eligible RCTs. Meta-analysis based on the random-effects model will be conducted to compare the changes of HbA1c (%), FPG (mmol/L), and body weight (kg) between dapagliflozin arm and placebo arm. Publication bias will be evaluated with a funnel plot and the Egger’s test. Heterogeneity will be assessed with the I2 statistics. Sensitivity analysis will be conducted on follow-up periods. The evidential quality of the findings will be assessed with the GRADE profiler.
The findings of this meta-analysis will be important to clinicians, patients, and health policy-makers regarding the use of dapagliflozin in T2D treatment.
PROSPERO registration number: CRD42013005034
Systematic review; Dapagliflozin; Type 2 diabetes; Meta-analysis
Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a novel class of antihyperglycaemic agents with an insulin-independent mode of action. Dapagliflozin is a member of the SGLT2 inhibitors class that has received marketing authorization in Europe and the US for use in patients with type 2 diabetes. This review summarizes current evidence from clinical trials assessing the clinical efficacy and safety of dapagliflozin, and presents data regarding its cost-effectiveness. Treatment with dapagliflozin results in similar reduction in haemoglobin A1c with other oral antihyperglycaemic drugs, which is preserved over 4 years of treatment. However, compared with most antidiabetic agents, dapagliflozin provides additional clinical benefits including body weight loss and blood pressure reduction. Moreover, treatment with dapagliflozin does not increase risk for hypoglycaemia, but is associated with increased incidence of mild to moderate urinary and genital tract infections. A pivotal outcomes trial of dapagliflozin is expected to clarify its effect on cardiovascular endpoints, whilst a causative relationship between dapagliflozin and select malignancies is unlikely. Finally, based on recent economic evaluations dapagliflozin seems to be a cost-effective option for type 2 diabetes in some settings.
BMS512148; cost-effectiveness; dapagliflozin; Farxiga®; Forxiga®; sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2); type 2 diabetes mellitus; Xigduo®
Risk of increasing breast and bladder cancer remains a safety issue of SGLT2 (sodium glucose cotransporter type 2) inhibitors, a novel class of antidiabetic agent. We reviewed related papers published before January 29, 2014, through Pubmed search. Dapagliflozin and canagliflozin are the first two approved SGLT2 inhibitors for diabetes therapy. Although preclinical animal toxicology did not suggest a cancer risk of dapagliflozin and overall tumor did not increase, excess numbers of female breast cancer and male bladder cancer were noted in preclinical trials (without statistical significance). This concern of cancer risk hindered its approval by the US FDA in January, 2012. New clinical data suggested that the imbalance of bladder and breast cancer might be due to early diagnosis rather than a real increase of cancer incidence. No increased risk of overall bladder or breast cancer was noted for canagliflozin. Therefore, the imbalance observed with dapagliflozin treatment should not be considered as a class effect of SGLT2 inhibitors and the relationship with cancer for each specific SGLT2 inhibitor should be examined individually. Relationship between SGLT2 inhibition and cancer formation is still inconclusive and studies with larger sample size, longer exposure duration, and different ethnicities are warranted.
The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of canagliflozin vs placebo and sitagliptin in patients with type 2 diabetes who were being treated with background metformin.
This randomised, double-blind, four-arm, parallel-group, Phase 3 study was conducted at 169 centres in 22 countries between April 2010 and August 2012. Participants (N = 1,284) with type 2 diabetes aged ≥18 and ≤80 years who had inadequate glycaemic control (HbA1c ≥7.0% [53 mmol/mol] and ≤10.5% [91 mmol/mol]) on metformin therapy received canagliflozin 100 mg or 300 mg, sitagliptin 100 mg, or placebo (n = 368, 367, 366, 183, respectively) for a 26 week, placebo- and active-controlled period followed by a 26 week, active-controlled period (placebo group switched to sitagliptin [placebo/sitagliptin]) and were included in the modified intent-to-treat analysis set. Randomisation was performed using a computer-generated schedule; participants, study centres and the sponsor were blinded to group assignment. The primary endpoint was change from baseline in HbA1c at week 26; secondary endpoints included changes in HbA1c (week 52) and fasting plasma glucose (FPG), body weight, and systolic blood pressure (BP; weeks 26 and 52). Adverse events (AEs) were recorded throughout the study.
At week 26, canagliflozin 100 mg and 300 mg reduced HbA1c vs placebo (−0.79%, –0.94%, –0.17%, respectively; p < 0.001). At week 52, canagliflozin 100 mg and 300 mg demonstrated non-inferiority, and canagliflozin 300 mg demonstrated statistical superiority, to sitagliptin in lowering HbA1c (−0.73%, –0.88%,–0.73%, respectively); differences (95% CI) vs sitagliptin were 0% (−0.12, 0.12) and −0.15% (−0.27, –0.03), respectively. Canagliflozin 100 mg and 300 mg reduced body weight vs placebo (week 26: –3.7%, –4.2%, –1.2%, respectively; p < 0.001) and sitagliptin (week 52: –3.8%, –4.2%, –1.3%, respectively; p < 0.001). Both canagliflozin doses reduced FPG and systolic BP vs placebo (week 26) and sitagliptin (week 52) (p < 0.001). Overall AE and AE-related discontinuation rates were generally similar across groups, but higher with canagliflozin 100 mg. Genital mycotic infection and osmotic diuresis-related AE rates were higher with canagliflozin; few led to discontinuations. Hypoglycaemia incidence was higher with canagliflozin.
Canagliflozin improved glycaemia and reduced body weight vs placebo (week 26) and sitagliptin (week 52) and was generally well tolerated in patients with type 2 diabetes on metformin.
Clinical trial registry
This study was supported by Janssen Research & Development, LLC.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00125-013-3039-1) contains peer-reviewed but unedited supplementary material, which is available to authorised users.
Canagliflozin; Metformin; Sitagliptin; Sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor; Type 2 diabetes mellitus
The Renal sodium-dependent glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) is one of the most promising targets for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Two SGLT2 inhibitors, dapagliflozin, and canagliflozin, have already been approved for use in USA and Europe; several additional compounds are also being developed for this purpose. Based on the in vitro IC50 values and plasma concentration of dapagliflozin measured in clinical trials, the marketed dosage of the drug was expected to almost completely inhibit SGLT2 function and reduce glucose reabsorption by 90%. However, the administration of dapagliflozin resulted in only 30–50% inhibition of reabsorption. This study was aimed at investigating the mechanism underlying the discrepancy between the expected and observed levels of glucose reabsorption. To this end, systems pharmacology models were developed to analyze the time profile of dapagliflozin, canagliflozin, ipragliflozin, empagliflozin, and tofogliflozin in the plasma and urine; their filtration and active secretion from the blood to the renal proximal tubules; reverse reabsorption; urinary excretion; and their inhibitory effect on SGLT2. The model shows that concentration levels of tofogliflozin, ipragliflozin, and empagliflozin are higher than levels of other inhibitors following administration of marketed SGLT2 inhibitors at labeled doses and non-marketed SGLT2 inhibitors at maximal doses (approved for phase 2/3 studies). All the compounds exhibited almost 100% inhibition of SGLT2. Based on the results of our model, two explanations for the observed low efficacy of SGLT2 inhibitors were supported: (1) the site of action of SGLT2 inhibitors is not in the lumen of the kidney's proximal tubules, but elsewhere (e.g., the kidneys proximal tubule cells); and (2) there are other transporters that could facilitate glucose reabsorption under the conditions of SGLT2 inhibition (e.g., other transporters of SGLT family).
SGLT-2; systems pharmacology modeling; Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); dapagliflozin
In rodent models of diabetes, treatment with sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors improves beta cell function. This analysis assessed the effects of the SGLT2 inhibitor, canagliflozin, on model-based measures of beta cell function in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Data from three Phase 3 studies were analysed, in which: (Study 1) canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg were compared with placebo as monotherapy for 26 weeks; (Study 2) canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg were compared with placebo as add-on to metformin + sulfonylurea for 26 weeks; or (Study 3) canagliflozin 300 mg was compared with sitagliptin 100 mg as add-on to metformin + sulfonylurea for 52 weeks. In each study, a subset of patients was given mixed-meal tolerance tests at baseline and study endpoint, and model-based beta cell function parameters were calculated from plasma glucose and C-peptide.
In Studies 1 and 2, both canagliflozin doses increased beta cell glucose sensitivity compared with placebo. Placebo-subtracted least squares mean (LSM) (SEM) changes were 23 (9) and 18 (9) pmol min−1 m−2 (mmol/l)−1 with canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg, respectively (p < 0.002, Study 1), and 16 (8) and 10 (9) pmol min−1 m−2 (mmol/l)−1 (p < 0.02, Study 2). In Study 3, beta cell glucose sensitivity was minimally affected, but the insulin secretion rate at 9 mmol/l glucose increased to similar degrees from baseline with canagliflozin and sitagliptin [LSM (SEM) changes 38 (8) and 28 (9) pmol min−1 m−2, respectively; p < 0.05 for both].
Treatment with canagliflozin for 6 to 12 months improved model-based measures of beta cell function in three separate Phase 3 studies.
Trial registration: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01081834 (Study 1); NCT01106625 (Study 2); NCT01137812 (Study 3)
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00125-014-3196-x) contains peer-reviewed but unedited supplementary material, which is available to authorised users.
Beta cell function; Canagliflozin; Insulin secretion; SGLT2; Sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor; Type 2 diabetes
To compare the first-in-class sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, dapagliflozin, with existing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treatment options available within the European Union (EU) for add-on therapy to sulfonylureas (SUs).
A systematic review was conducted to identify randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in T2DM patients inadequately controlled by SU monotherapy. Direct meta-analysis, Bucher indirect comparisons and Bayesian network meta-analysis (NMA) were conducted on studies meeting predefined inclusion criteria. Sufficient data were available to assess three clinical endpoints at 24 (+/- 6) weeks follow-up: mean change in HbA1c from baseline, mean change in weight from baseline, and the proportion of patients experiencing at least one episode of hypoglycaemia. The effect of confounding baseline factors was explored through covariate analyses.
The search identified 1,901 unique citations, with 1,870 excluded based on title/abstract. From reviewing full-texts of the remaining 31 articles, 5 studies were considered eligible for analysis. All studies were comparable in terms of baseline characteristics, including: HbA1c, age and body mass index (BMI). In addition to dapagliflozin, sufficient data for meta-analysis was available for three dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors and one glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue. Based on fixed-effect NMA, all treatment classes resulted in statistically significant decreases in HbA1c at follow-up compared to placebo. Dapagliflozin treatment resulted in significantly decreased weight at follow-up compared to placebo (-1.54 kg; 95% CrI -2.16, -0.92), in contrast to treatment with GLP-1 analogues (-0.65 kg; 95% CrI -1.37, 0.07) and DPP-4 inhibitors (0.57 kg; 95% CrI 0.09, 1.06). The odds of hypoglycaemia were similar to placebo for dapagliflozin and DPP-4 inhibitor add-on treatment, but significantly greater than placebo for GLP-1 analogue add-on treatment (10.89; 95% CrI 4.24, 38.28). Assessment of NMA model heterogeneity was hindered by the small size of the network.
Dapagliflozin, DPP-4 inhibitors and GLP-1 analogues, in combination with SU, all provided better short-term glycaemic control compared to SU monotherapy. Dapagliflozin was the only add-on therapy that had both a favourable weight and hypoglycaemia profile compared to the other classes of treatment evaluated.
Diabetes; Dapagliflozin; Mixed treatment comparison; Systematic review; Network meta-analysis
Canagliflozin–metformin is one of the newest combination therapies available for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Canagliflozin is an inhibitor of the sodium–glucose co-transporter 2 which causes an increase in the urinary excretion of glucose. In the present article, we review the safety and efficacy of canagliflozin and metformin from data obtained from Phase III metformin add-on therapy clinical trials as there are no studies to date that specifically evaluate the combination of metformin and canagliflozin. Trials included in this review were dual-therapy trials of subjects who were already taking background metformin and were assigned to receive canagliflozin, glimepiride, or sitagliptin. The addition of canagliflozin to metformin resulted in a decrease in HbA1c of 0.73%–0.93%. Canagliflozin 100 mg was considered to be non-inferior to glimepiride and sitagliptin 100 mg with the canagliflozin 300 mg dose being statistically superior to sitagliptin and glimepiride. Other advantages of the use of canagliflozin are reduction in weight (3.3–4.0 kg) and systolic blood pressure (3.3–4.7 mmHg). The primary disadvantages are potential genital mycotic infections, hypotension, and gastrointestinal side effects from metformin. All things considered, this combination appears to be safe and effective in clinical trials and represents a promising option for the treatment of T2DM.
type 2 diabetes; fixed-dose combination (FDC); canagliflozin metformin
Dapagliflozin is a selective sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor approved as a treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the United States, the European Union and other countries. Dapagliflozin increases renal glucose excretion in an insulin-independent manner, and its mechanism of action is complementary to those of other antidiabetes medications. When used as monotherapy or in combination with other oral antidiabetes medications or insulin, dapagliflozin improves glycemic measures in patients with T2DM. Dapagliflozin treatment is also associated with weight reduction and a decrease in blood pressure, both of which may be beneficial in patients with T2DM. Because of its mechanism of action, dapagliflozin has a low intrinsic propensity to cause hypoglycemia. Overall, dapagliflozin is well tolerated, with the frequency of most adverse events similar to that seen with placebo. Cases of genital infections and, in some studies, urinary tract infections have been more frequent in dapagliflozin-treated groups compared with placebo groups. In the clinical development program, more cases of newly diagnosed bladder cancer were reported for patients treated with dapagliflozin (0.17%) compared with placebo or comparator (0.03%). Although there were not enough cases to determine causality, dapagliflozin should not be used in patients with bladder cancer and should be used with caution in patients with a history of bladder cancer. Dapagliflozin may decrease glomerular filtration rate (GFR), especially in elderly patients and patients with impaired renal function. Renal function should be monitored before initiation of dapagliflozin. Dapagliflozin should not be used in patients with an estimated GFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2. No cardiovascular safety signals have been detected for dapagliflozin, and a long-term cardiovascular outcomes study is ongoing. Evidence from clinical trials suggests that dapagliflozin is a promising new treatment option for T2DM.
dapagliflozin; diabetes; glucose; kidney; SGLT2 inhibitors
Dapagliflozin is a selective sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor that improves glycemic control and reduces body weight and systolic blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Dapagliflozin is effective and well tolerated over 12–24 weeks in Japanese patients with T2DM. In this study, the safety and efficacy of dapagliflozin administered as monotherapy and combination therapy were assessed over 52 weeks in Japanese patients with T2DM.
This was a 52-week open-label Phase 3 study consisting of a single treatment arm with no comparator. Dapagliflozin was administered as monotherapy (n = 249) or combination therapy (n = 479) with existing antihyperglycemic agents (sulfonylurea, glinides, metformin, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, thiazolidinediones, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, or glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists) to Japanese patients with T2DM and inadequate glycemic control for 52 weeks. Treatment with dapagliflozin was initiated at 5 mg/day and titrated to 10 mg/day as required.
Dapagliflozin administered as monotherapy or combination therapy was well tolerated. The frequency of adverse events (AEs) over 52 weeks was similar between monotherapy (79.1%) and combination therapy (72.4%) groups, and AEs were mostly mild or moderate. The incidence of hypoglycemia at 52 weeks was 2.4% in the monotherapy group and 4.0% in the combination therapy group. In patients receiving dapagliflozin as monotherapy or combination therapy, reductions from baseline to week 52 were observed in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) (−0.7% in both groups), weight (−2.6 and −2.1 kg, respectively), and systolic blood pressure (−5.2 mmHg and −3.9 mmHg). In patients with insufficient response to 5 mg/day, dapagliflozin was increased to 10 mg/day, and a further decrease in HbA1c from the pre-titration value was observed in both groups.
Dapagliflozin was well tolerated and effective as monotherapy or combination therapy in Japanese patients with T2DM over 52 weeks.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s13300-014-0086-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Dapagliflozin; Diabetes; Japanese patients; Selective sodium glucose co-transporter 2, SGLT2; Type 2 diabetes
Dapagliflozin is an orally administered selective sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor under development for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Dapagliflozin lowers blood glucose through a reduction in renal glucose reabsorption. This study was performed to assess the effect of the oral antidiabetic agent voglibose [0.2 mg thrice daily (t.i.d.)] at steady-state, on the pharmacokinetics, safety and tolerability of dapagliflozin administered as a single oral dose (10 mg) to Japanese patients with T2DM.
This was an open-label, multi-center, drug–drug interaction study. A single oral dose of dapagliflozin (10 mg) was administered to 22 Japanese patients with T2DM in the presence and absence of voglibose (0.2 mg t.i.d.). Serial blood samples were collected before and at regular prespecified intervals after each dapagliflozin dose to determine dapagliflozin plasma concentrations and to evaluate pharmacokinetic parameters. Based on a mixed effect analysis of variance model, including the dosing condition as a fixed effect and patients as a random effect, the ratios of geometric means of area under curve from time 0 to infinity (AUC0-inf) and maximum observed plasma concentration (Cmax) with and without voglibose were estimated along with two-sided 90% confidence intervals (CIs).
In Japanese patients with T2DM, the exposure to dapagliflozin following a single oral dose of dapagliflozin 10 mg was not influenced by the concomitant administration of voglibose (0.2 mg t.i.d.). The geometric ratio (90% CI) for dapagliflozin AUC0-inf with/without voglibose was 1.009 (0.954, 1.067), and for Cmax 1.040 (0.899, 1.204). The median time to Cmax (tmax) and plasma clearance of dapagliflozin were also similar between treatments. The mean half-life (t½) for dapagliflozin was slightly higher when administered in combination with voglibose. Dapagliflozin 10 mg was well tolerated when administered alone and in combination with voglibose in Japanese patients with T2DM.
The results presented here support the co-administration of dapagliflozin and voglibose without dose adjustment of either agent.
Dapagliflozin; Drug-drug interaction; Pharmacokinetics; Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor; Type 2 diabetes; Voglibose
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing worldwide. Treatment of T2DM continues to present challenges, with a significant proportion of patients failing to achieve and maintain glycemic targets. Despite the availability of many oral antidiabetic agents, therapeutic efficacy is also offset by side effects such as weight gain and hypoglycemia. Therefore, the search for novel therapeutic agents with an improved benefit–risk profile continues. In the following review we focus on a novel class of oral antidiabetic drugs, the sodium glucose transporter protein 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, which have unique characteristics. SGLT2 inhibitors focus on the kidney as a therapeutic target, where they inhibit the reabsorption of glucose in the proximal tubule, causing an increase in urinary glucose excretion. Doing this, they reduce plasma glucose independently of the β-cell function of the pancreas. SGLT2 inhibitors are effective at lowering hemoglobin A1c, but also induce weight loss and reduce blood pressure, with a low risk of hypoglycemia. In general, the SGLT2 inhibitors are well tolerated, with the most frequent adverse events being mild urinal and genital infections. Since their primary site of effect is the kidney, these drugs are less effective in patients with impaired kidney function but evidence is emerging that these drugs may also have a protective effect against diabetic nephropathy. This review focuses on the most extensively studied SGLT2 inhibitors dapagliflozin, canagliflozin and empagliflozin. Dapagliflozin and canagliflozin have already been approved for marketing by the US Food and Drug Administration. The European Medicines Agency has accepted all three drugs for marketing.
canagliflozin; dapagliflozin; empagliflozin; sodium glucose transporter protein 2 inhibitors; type 2 diabetes
The efficacy and safety of canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, was evaluated in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) inadequately controlled with metformin and pioglitazone.
In this randomized, double-blind, phase 3 study, patients (N = 342) received canagliflozin 100 or 300 mg during a 26-week, placebo-controlled, core period and a 26-week, active-controlled extension in which placebo-treated patients were switched to sitagliptin 100 mg. Efficacy comparisons for canagliflozin versus placebo at week 26 are reported, with no comparisons versus sitagliptin at week 52 (sitagliptin used to maintain double-blind and control for safety). Safety data are reported for canagliflozin and placebo/sitagliptin.
Canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg significantly lowered haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) compared with placebo at week 26 (−0.89%, −1.03% and −0.26%; p < 0.001); reductions with canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg were maintained at week 52 (−0.92% and −1.03%). Relative to placebo, both canagliflozin doses significantly reduced body weight (−2.5 and −3.5 kg), fasting plasma glucose and systolic blood pressure (BP) at week 26 (p < 0.05 for all), with reductions maintained at week 52. Overall adverse event (AE) incidence over 52 weeks was 69.9, 76.3 and 76.5% with canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg and placebo/sitagliptin; AE-related discontinuation and serious AE rates were low. Incidences of genital mycotic infections and AEs related to osmotic diuresis and volume depletion were higher with canagliflozin than placebo/sitagliptin.
Canagliflozin improved glycaemic control, reduced body weight and systolic BP, and was generally well tolerated in patients with T2DM on metformin and pioglitazone over 52 weeks.
metformin; phase 3 study; SGLT2 inhibitor; thiazolidinediones; type 2 diabetes
Aims We examined the efficacy, safety and tolerability of canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) undergoing diet and exercise therapy.
Methods Patients aged 20–80 years with T2DM diagnosed ≥3 months previously, and HbA1c of 6.9–9.9% were randomized to 50, 100, 200 or 300 mg canagliflozin or placebo once daily for 12 weeks. The primary and secondary endpoints were changes in HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), urinary glucose/creatinine and postprandial glycaemic parameters following a meal test. The safety assessments included adverse events (AEs) and clinical laboratory tests.
Results Overall, 383 patients were randomized to receive either placebo (n = 75), or 50 mg (n = 82), 100 mg (n = 74), 200 mg (n = 77) or 300 mg canagliflozin (n = 75). At week 12, significant reductions in HbA1c were observed in all canagliflozin groups relative to placebo (−0.61, –0.80, –0.79 and −0.88% for 50, 100, 200 and 300 mg, respectively, versus +0.11% for placebo; all, p < 0.01). FPG and postprandial glycaemic parameters improved significantly in the canagliflozin groups. Body weight was significantly decreased by canagliflozin. No deaths or drug-related serious AEs were reported. There was no dose-dependent increase in the incidence of AEs in the canagliflozin groups. The incidence of hypoglycaemia was low; episodes were not severe or dose dependent. Canagliflozin did not affect serum creatinine levels or the urinary albumin/creatinine ratio.
Conclusions Treatment with canagliflozin for 12 weeks significantly improved glycaemic control and reduced body weight in Japanese patients with T2DM. Canagliflozin was well tolerated.
Management of type 2 diabetes with metformin often does not provide adequate glycemic control, thereby necessitating add-on treatment. In a 24-week clinical trial, dapagliflozin, an investigational sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor, improved glycemic control in patients inadequately controlled with metformin. The present study is an extension that was undertaken to evaluate dapagliflozin as long-term therapy in this population.
This was a long-term extension (total 102 weeks) of a 24-week phase 3, multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group trial. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1) to blinded daily treatment (placebo, or dapagliflozin 2.5 to 5, or 10 mg) plus open-label metformin (≥1,500 mg). The previously published primary endpoint was change from baseline in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) at 24 weeks. This paper reports the follow-up to week 102, with analysis of covariance model performed at 24 weeks with last observation carried forward; a repeated measures analysis was utilized to evaluate changes from baseline in HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and weight.
A total of 546 patients were randomized to 1 of the 4 treatments. The completion rate for the 78-week double-blind extension period was lower for the placebo group (63.5%) than for the dapagliflozin groups (68.3% to 79.8%). At week 102, mean changes from baseline HbA1c (8.06%) were +0.02% for placebo compared with -0.48% (P = 0.0008), -0.58% (P <0.0001), and -0.78% (P <0.0001) for dapagliflozin 2.5 to 5, and 10 mg, respectively. In addition, all dapagliflozin groups had sustained reductions from baseline in FPG (-1.07 to -1.47 mmol/l) and body weight (-1.10 to -1.74 kg) at 102 weeks, whereas increases were noted in placebo-treated patients for both of these outcomes. Events of hypoglycemia were rare and were not severe. Evidence suggestive of genital infection was reported in 11.7% to 14.6% of dapagliflozin patients and 5.1% of placebo patients, with one related discontinuation (dapagliflozin 5 mg). Evidence suggestive of urinary tract infection was reported in 8.0% to 13.3% of dapagliflozin patients and 8.0% of placebo patients, with one related discontinuation (dapagliflozin 2.5 mg).
Dapagliflozin added to metformin for 102 weeks enabled sustained reductions in HbA1c, FPG, and weight without increased risk of hypoglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes who were inadequately controlled on metformin alone.
Dapagliflozin; metformin; SGLT2; sodium-glucose cotransporter 2; glycemic control; type 2 diabetes
Dapagliflozin is a selective inhibitor of the sodium–glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) that increases urinary glucose excretion to reduce hyperglycemia in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. A robust carcinogenicity risk assessment was undertaken to assess the chronic safety of dapagliflozin and SGLT2 inhibition.
Genotoxicity potential of dapagliflozin and its metabolites was assessed in silico, in vitro, and in vivo. Dapagliflozin was administered daily by oral gavage to mice, rats, and dogs to evaluate carcinogenicity risks, including the potential for tumor promotion. SGLT2−/− mice were observed to evaluate the effects of chronic glucosuria. The effects of dapagliflozin and increased glucose levels on a panel of human bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) cell lines were also evaluated in vitro and in an in vivo xenograft model.
Dapagliflozin and its metabolites were not genotoxic. In CD-1 mice and Sprague–Dawley rats treated for up to 2 years at ≥100× human clinical exposures, dapagliflozin showed no differences versus controls for tumor incidence, time to onset for background tumors, or urinary bladder proliferative/preneoplastic lesions. No tumors or preneoplastic lesions were observed in dogs over 1 year at >3,000× the clinical exposure of dapagliflozin or in SGLT2−/− mice observed over 15 months. Transcription profiling in Zucker diabetic fatty rats showed that 5-week dapagliflozin treatment did not induce tumor promoter-associated or cell proliferation genes. Increasing concentrations of glucose, dapagliflozin, or its primary metabolite, dapagliflozin 3-O-glucuronide, did not affect in vitro TCC proliferation rates and dapagliflozin did not enhance tumor growth in nude mice heterotopically implanted with human bladder TCC cell lines.
A multitude of assessments of tumorigenicity risk consistently showed no effects, suggesting that selective SGLT2 inhibition and, specifically, dapagliflozin are predicted to not be associated with increased cancer risk.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s13300-014-0053-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Antidiabetic drug; Dapagliflozin; Experimental pharmacology; Glycemic control; SGLT2 inhibitor; Type 2 diabetes mellitus
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a prevalent, progressive disease with a need for innovative therapeutic agents to continue to advance disease management. Dapagliflozin is the second agent in a new class of oral antihyperglycemic drugs: sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. SGLT2 is responsible for the majority of renal glucose reuptake; inhibition of the cotransporter allows for increased renal glucose excretion that consequently leads to reduced plasma glucose levels. Because this mechanism does not require the action of insulin, dapagliflozin rarely causes hypoglycemia and is effective in patients both early and late in the course of their disease. Studies of dapagliflozin have demonstrated efficacy both as monotherapy and in combination with oral antihyperglycemic agents and insulin. Dapagliflozin has been shown to decrease hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) values 6 mmol/mol (0.5%) to 8 mmol/mol (0.7%). The most common adverse reactions observed with dapagliflozin in clinical trials were female genital mycotic infections, urinary tract infections, and nasopharyngitis. Dapagliflozin is a new oral agent for type 2 diabetes with short-term efficacy similar to dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors; its long-term safety and efficacy are unknown.
dapagliflozin; hypoglycemic agents; sodium-glucose transporter 2; type 2 diabetes mellitus
To examine the safety and efficacy of dapagliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor, added on to pioglitazone in type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on pioglitazone.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Treatment-naive patients or those receiving metformin, sulfonylurea, or thiazolidinedione entered a 10-week pioglitazone dose-optimization period with only pioglitazone. They were then randomized, along with patients previously receiving pioglitazone ≥30 mg, to 48 weeks of double-blind dapagliflozin 5 (n = 141) or 10 mg (n = 140) or placebo (n = 139) every day plus open-label pioglitazone. The primary objective compared HbA1c change from baseline with dapagliflozin plus pioglitazone versus placebo plus pioglitazone at week 24. Primary analysis was based on ANCOVA model using last observation carried forward; all remaining analyses used repeated-measures analysis.
At week 24, the mean reduction from baseline in HbA1c was −0.42% for placebo versus −0.82 and −0.97% for dapagliflozin 5 and 10 mg groups, respectively (P = 0.0007 and P < 0.0001 versus placebo). Patients receiving pioglitazone alone had greater weight gain (3 kg) than those receiving dapagliflozin plus pioglitazone (0.7–1.4 kg) at week 48. Through 48 weeks: hypoglycemia was rare; more events suggestive of genital infection were reported with dapagliflozin (8.6–9.2%) than placebo (2.9%); events suggestive of urinary tract infection showed no clear drug effect (5.0–8.5% for dapagliflozin and 7.9% for placebo); dapagliflozin plus pioglitazone groups had less edema (2.1–4.3%) compared with placebo plus pioglitazone (6.5%); and congestive heart failure and fractures were rare.
In patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on pioglitazone, the addition of dapagliflozin further reduced HbA1c levels and mitigated the pioglitazone-related weight gain without increasing hypoglycemia risk.
The importance of the kidney’s role in glucose homeostasis has gained wider understanding in recent years. Consequently, the development of a new pharmacological class of anti-diabetes agents targeting the kidney has provided new treatment options for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Sodium glucose co-transporter type 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, such as dapagliflozin, canagliflozin, and empagliflozin, decrease renal glucose reabsorption, which results in enhanced urinary glucose excretion and subsequent reductions in plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin concentrations. Modest reductions in body weight and blood pressure have also been observed following treatment with SGLT2 inhibitors. SGLT2 inhibitors appear to be generally well tolerated, and have been used safely when given as monotherapy or in combination with other oral anti-diabetes agents and insulin. The risk of hypoglycemia is low with SGLT2 inhibitors. Typical adverse events appear to be related to the presence of glucose in the urine, namely genital mycotic infection and lower urinary tract infection, and are more often observed in women than in men. Data from long-term safety studies with SGLT2 inhibitors and from head-to-head SGLT2 inhibitor comparator studies are needed to fully determine their benefit–risk profile, and to identify any differences between individual agents. However, given current safety and efficacy data, SGLT2 inhibitors may present an attractive option for T2DM patients who are failing with metformin monotherapy, especially if weight is part of the underlying treatment consideration.
anti-diabetes agents; efficacy; hyperglycemia; safety; sodium glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors; type 2 diabetes mellitus
To evaluate the effects of canagliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor, in type 2 diabetes mellitus inadequately controlled with metformin monotherapy.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, multicenter, dose-ranging study in 451 subjects randomized to canagliflozin 50, 100, 200, or 300 mg once daily (QD) or 300 mg twice daily (BID), sitagliptin 100 mg QD, or placebo. Primary end point was change in A1C from baseline through week 12. Secondary end points included change in fasting plasma glucose (FPG), body weight, and overnight urinary glucose-to-creatinine ratio. Safety and tolerability were also assessed.
Canagliflozin was associated with significant reductions in A1C from baseline (7.6–8.0%) to week 12: −0.79, −0.76, −0.70, −0.92, and −0.95% for canagliflozin 50, 100, 200, 300 mg QD and 300 mg BID, respectively, versus −0.22% for placebo (all P < 0.001) and −0.74% for sitagliptin. FPG was reduced by −16 to −27 mg/dL, and body weight was reduced by −2.3 to −3.4%, with significant increases in urinary glucose-to-creatinine ratio. Adverse events were transient, mild to moderate, and balanced across arms except for a non–dose-dependent increase in symptomatic genital infections with canagliflozin (3–8%) versus placebo and sitagliptin (2%). Urinary tract infections were reported without dose dependency in 3–9% of canagliflozin, 6% of placebo, and 2% of sitagliptin arms. Overall incidence of hypoglycemia was low.
Canagliflozin added onto metformin significantly improved glycemic control in type 2 diabetes and was associated with low incidence of hypoglycemia and significant weight loss. The safety/tolerability profile of canagliflozin was favorable except for increased frequency of genital infections in females.