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1.  Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Norwegian pain catastrophizing scale in patients with low back pain 
Pain catastrophizing has been found to be an important predictor of disability and days lost from work in patients with low back pain. The most commonly used outcome measure to identify pain catastrophizing is the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS). To enable the use of the PCS in clinical settings and research in Norwegian speaking patients, the PCS had to be translated. The purpose of this study was therefore to translate and cross-culturally adapt the PCS into Norwegian and to test internal consistency, construct validity and reproducibility of the PCS.
The PCS was translated before it was tested for psychometric properties. Patients with subacute or chronic non-specific low back pain aged 18 years or more were recruited from primary and secondary care. Validity of the PCS was assessed by evaluating data quality (missing, floor and ceiling effects), principal components analysis, internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha), and construct validity (Spearman’s rho). Reproducibility analyses included standard error of measurement, minimum detectable change, limits of agreement, and intraclass correlation coefficients.
A total of 38 men and 52 women (n = 90), with a mean (SD) age of 47.6 (11.7) years, were included for baseline testing. A subgroup of 61 patients was included for test-retest assessments. The Norwegian PCS was easy-to-comprehend. The principal components analysis supported a three-factor structure, internal consistency was satisfactory for the PCS total score (α 0.90) and the subscales rumination (α 0.83) and helplessness (α 0.86), but not for the subscale magnification (α 0.53). In total, 86% of the correlation analyses were in accordance with predefined hypothesis. The reliability analyses showed intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.74 − 0.87 for the PCS total score and subscales. The PCS total score (range 0–52 points) showed a standard error of measurement of 4.6 points and a 95% minimum detectable change estimate of 12.8 points.
The Norwegian PCS total score showed acceptable psychometric properties in terms of comprehensibility, consistency, construct validity, and reproducibility when applied to patients with subacute or chronic LBP from different clinical settings. Our study support the use of the PCS total score for clinical or research purposes identifying or evaluating pain catastrophizing.
PMCID: PMC3407790  PMID: 22726668
Low back pain; Pain catastrophizing; Validity; Reliability; Translation
2.  The PedsQL™ Oral Health Scale: feasibility, reliability and validity of the Brazilian Portuguese version 
Oral and orofacial problems may cause a profound impact on children’s oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) because of symptoms associated with these conditions that may influence the physical, psychological and social aspects of their daily life. The OHRQoL questionnaires found in the literature are very specific and are not able to measure the impact of oral health on general health domains. Consequently, the objective of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Portuguese version for Brazilian translation of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ (PedsQL™) Oral Health Scale in combination with the PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales.
The PedsQL™ Oral Health Scale was forward-backward translated and cross-culturally adapted for the Brazilian Portuguese language. In order to assess the feasibility, reliability and validity of the Brazilian version of the instrument, a study was carried out in Belo Horizonte with 208 children and adolescents between 2 and 18 years-of-age and their parents. Clinical evaluation of dental caries, socioeconomic information and the Brazilian versions of the PedsQL™ Oral Health Scale, PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales, Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ11-14 and CPQ8-10) and Parental-Caregiver Perception Questionnaire (P-CPQ) were administered. Statistical analysis included feasibility (missing values), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), internal consistency reliability, and test-retest intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) of the PedsQL™ Oral Health Scale.
There were no missing data for both child self-report and parent proxy-report on the Brazilian version of the PedsQL™ Oral Health Scale. The CFA showed that the five items of child self-report and parent proxy-report loaded on a single construct. The Cronbach's alpha coefficients for child/adolescent and parent oral health instruments were 0.65 and 0.59, respectively. The test-retest reliability (ICC) for child self-report and parent proxy-report were 0.90 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.86-0.93] and 0.86 (95%CI = 0.81-0.90), respectively. The PedsQL™ Oral Health Scale demonstrated acceptable construct validity, convergent validity and discriminant validity.
These results supported the feasibility, reliability and validity of the Brazilian version of the PedsQL™ Oral Health Scale for child self-report for ages 5–18 years-old and parent proxy-report for ages 2–18 years-old children.
PMCID: PMC3425333  PMID: 22531004
Oral health; PedsQL; Quality of life; Validation; Child; Adolescent
3.  Translation of the Patient Scar Assessment Scale (PSAS) to French with cross-cultural adaptation, reliability evaluation and validation 
Canadian Journal of Surgery  2009;52(6):E259-E263.
Patient esthetic satisfaction related to scarring after orthopedic surgery was rarely assessed before the development of the Patient Scar Assessment Scale (PSAS). The purpose of our study was to translate and validate the PSAS and assess the psychometric properties of the French version.
We conducted a staged validation with forward and backward translation and concurrent validation. The validation committee comrpised bilingual experts. The patient validation sample comprised 53 orthopedic surgery patients who were assessed at a minimum of 1 year postoperatively. We followed a standardized process for cross-cultural adaptation to develop and assess the French version. First, 2 independent translators completed the forward translation of the PSAS and then met to achieve a consensus version. This consolidated version was then backward translated into English and cross-verified with the original version. A group of orthopedic and plastic surgeons assessed this version for content validity. We assessed the test–retest reliability of the new French scale, which was filled out twice by a cohort of 53 patients, using scale distribution analysis, internal consistency (Chronbach α) and absolute agreement (intraclass correlation coefficients [ICC (2,1)]).
The level of agreement on the translation process between the translators initially and then later among the expert panel was high. The reliability of the translated version (PSAS-Fr) and its internal consistency was high (Chronback α 0.87–0.98 for each of the 6 questions), and the test–retest reliability was excellent (ICC 0.96). On the other hand, there was no bias between occasions (retests difference −0.24) and the scores fell within 2 standard deviations of 5. Older patients had higher satisfaction about scar appearance.
The PSAS-Fr was successfully translated from the original English version and demonstrated strong cross-sectional psychometric properties. Further assessment in longitudinal studies is warranted.
PMCID: PMC2792396  PMID: 20011161
4.  Measurement properties of the Dizziness Handicap Inventory by cross-sectional and longitudinal designs 
The impact of dizziness on quality of life is often assessed by the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI), which is used as a discriminate and evaluative measure. The aim of the present study was to examine reliability and validity of a translated Norwegian version (DHI-N), also examining responsiveness to important change in the construct being measured.
Two samples (n = 92 and n = 27) included participants with dizziness of mainly vestibular origin. A cross-sectional design was used to examine the factor structure (exploratory factor analysis), internal consistency (Cronbach's α), concurrent validity (Pearson's product moment correlation r), and discriminate ability (ROC curve analysis). Longitudinal designs were used to examine test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) statistics, smallest detectable difference (SDD)), and responsiveness (Pearson's product moment correlation, ROC curve analysis; area under the ROC curve (AUC), and minimally important change (MIC)). The DHI scores range from 0 to 100.
Factor analysis revealed a different factor structure than the original DHI, resulting in dismissal of subscale scores in the DHI-N. Acceptable internal consistency was found for the total scale (α = 0.95). Concurrent correlations between the DHI-N and other related measures were moderate to high, highest with Vertigo Symptom Scale-short form-Norwegian version (r = 0.69), and lowest with preferred gait (r = - 0.36). The DHI-N demonstrated excellent ability to discriminate between participants with and without 'disability', AUC being 0.89 and best cut-off point = 29 points. Satisfactory test-retest reliability was demonstrated, and the change for an individual should be ≥ 20 DHI-N points to exceed measurement error (SDD). Correlations between change scores of DHI-N and other self-report measures of functional health and symptoms were high (r = 0.50 - 0.57). Responsiveness of the DHI-N was excellent, AUC = 0.83, discriminating between self-perceived 'improved' versus 'unchanged' participants. The MIC was identified as 11 DHI-N points.
The DHI-N total scale demonstrated satisfactory measurement properties. This is the first study that has addressed and demonstrated responsiveness to important change of the DHI, and provided values of SDD and MIC to help interpret change scores.
PMCID: PMC2804706  PMID: 20025754
5.  Psychometric properties of the Vertigo symptom scale – Short form 
The aim of the study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Vertigo symptom scale – short form (VSS-SF), a condition-specific measure of dizziness, following translation of the scale into Norwegian.
A cross-sectional survey design was used to examine the factor structure, internal consistency and discriminative ability (sample I, n = 503). A cross-sectional pre-intervention design was used to examine the construct validity (sample II, n = 36) of the measure and a test-retest design was used to examine reliability (sub-sample of sample II, n = 28).
The scree plot indicated a two factor structure accounting respectively for 41% and 12% of the variance prior to rotation. The factors were related to vertigo-balance (VSS-V) and autonomic-anxiety (VSS-A). Twelve of the items loaded clearly on either of the two dimensions, while three items cross-loaded. Internal consistency of the VSS-SF was high (alpha = 0.90). Construct validity was indicated by correlation between path length registered by platform posturography and the VSS-V (r = 0.52), but not with the VSS-A. The ability to discriminate between dizzy and not dizzy patients was excellent for the VSS-SF and sub-dimension VSS-V (area under the curve 0.87 and 0.91, respectively), and acceptable for the sub-dimension VSS-A (area under the curve 0.77). High test-retest reliability was demonstrated (ICC VSS-SF: 0.88, VSS-V: 0.90, VSS-A: 0.90) and no systematic change was observed in the scores from test to retest after 2 days.
Using a Norwegian translated version of the VSS-SF, this is the first study to provide evidence of the construct validity of this instrument demonstrating a stable two factor structure of the scale, and the identified sub-dimensions of dizziness were related to vertigo-balance and autonomic-anxiety, respectively. Evidence regarding a physical construct underlying the vertigo-balance sub-scale was provided. Satisfactory internal consistency was indicated, and the discriminative ability of the instruments was demonstrated. The instrument showed satisfactory test-retest reliability.
PMCID: PMC2329601  PMID: 18371190
6.  Psychometric Properties of Self-Report Concussion Scales and Checklists 
Journal of Athletic Training  2012;47(2):221-223.
Alla S, Sullivan SJ, Hale L, McCrory P. Self-report scales/checklists for the measurement of concussion symptoms: a systematic review. Br J Sports Med. 2009;43 (suppl 1):i3–i12.
Clinical Question:
Which self-report symptom scales or checklists are psychometrically sound for clinical use to assess sport-related concussion?
Data Sources:
Articles available in full text, published from the establishment of each database through December 2008, were identified from PubMed, Medline, CINAHL, Scopus, Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, PsycINFO, and AMED. Search terms included brain concussion, signs or symptoms, and athletic injuries, in combination with the AND Boolean operator, and were limited to studies published in English. The authors also hand searched the reference lists of retrieved articles. Additional searches of books, conference proceedings, theses, and Web sites of commercial scales were done to provide additional information about the psychometric properties and development for those scales when needed in articles meeting the inclusion criteria.
Study Selection:
Articles were included if they identified all the items on the scale and the article was either an original research report describing the use of scales in the evaluation of concussion symptoms or a review article that discussed the use or development of concussion symptom scales. Only articles published in English and available in full text were included.
Data Extraction:
From each study, the following information was extracted by the primary author using a standardized protocol: study design, publication year, participant characteristics, reliability of the scale, and details of the scale or checklist, including name, number of items, time of measurement, format, mode of report, data analysis, scoring, and psychometric properties. A quality assessment of included studies was done using 16 items from the Downs and Black checklist1 and assessed reporting, internal validity, and external validity.
Main Results:
The initial database search identified 421 articles. After 131 duplicate articles were removed, 290 articles remained and were added to 17 articles found during the hand search, for a total of 307 articles; of those, 295 were available in full text. Sixty articles met the inclusion criteria and were used in the systematic review. The quality of the included studies ranged from 9 to 15 points out of a maximum quality score of 17. The included articles were published between 1995 and 2008 and included a collective total of 5864 concussed athletes and 5032 nonconcussed controls, most of whom participated in American football. The majority of the studies were descriptive studies monitoring the resolution of concussive self-report symptoms compared with either a preseason baseline or healthy control group, with a smaller number of studies (n = 8) investigating the development of a scale.
The authors initially identified 20 scales that were used among the 60 included articles. Further review revealed that 14 scales were variations of the Pittsburgh Steelers postconcussion scale (the Post-Concussion Scale, Post-Concussion Scale: Revised, Post-Concussion Scale: ImPACT, Post-Concussion Symptom Scale: Vienna, Graded Symptom Checklist [GSC], Head Injury Scale, McGill ACE Post-Concussion Symptoms Scale, and CogState Sport Symptom Checklist), narrowing down to 6 core scales, which the authors discussed further. The 6 core scales were the Pittsburgh Steelers Post-Concussion Scale (17 items), Post-Concussion Symptom Assessment Questionnaire (10 items), Concussion Resolution Index postconcussion questionnaire (15 items), Signs and Symptoms Checklist (34 items), Sport Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT) postconcussion symptom scale (25 items), and Concussion Symptom Inventory (12 items). Each of the 6 core scales includes symptoms associated with sport-related concussion; however, the number of items on each scale varied. A 7-point Likert scale was used on most scales, with a smaller number using a dichotomous (yes/no) classification.
Only 7 of the 20 scales had published psychometric properties, and only 1 scale, the Concussion Symptom Inventory, was empirically driven (Rasch analysis), with development of the scale occurring before its clinical use. Internal consistency (Cronbach α) was reported for the Post-Concussion Scale (.87), Post-Concussion Scale: ImPACT 22-item (.88–.94), Head Injury Scale 9-item (.78), and Head Injury Scale 16-item (.84). Test-retest reliability has been reported only for the Post-Concussion Scale (Spearman r = .55) and the Post-Concussion Scale: ImPACT 21-item (Pearson r = .65). With respect to validity, the SCAT postconcussion scale has demonstrated face and content validity, the Post-Concussion Scale: ImPACT 22-item and Head Injury Scale 9-item have reported construct validity, and the Head Injury Scale 9-item and 16-item have published factorial validity.
Sensitivity and specificity have been reported only with the GSC (0.89 and 1.0, respectively) and the Post-Concussion Scale: ImPACT 21-item when combined with the neurocognitive component of ImPACT (0.819 and 0.849, respectively). Meaningful change scores were reported for the Post-Concussion Scale (14.8 points), Post-Concussion Scale: ImPACT 22-item (6.8 points), and Post-Concussion Scale: ImPACT 21-item (standard error of the difference = 7.17; 80% confidence interval = 9.18).
Numerous scales exist for measuring the number and severity of concussion-related symptoms, with most evolving from the neuropsychology literature pertaining to head-injured populations. However, very few of these were created in a systematic manner that follows scale development processes and have published psychometric properties. Clinicians need to understand these limitations when choosing and using a symptom scale for inclusion in a concussion assessment battery. Future authors should assess the underlying constructs and measurement properties of currently available scales and use the ever-increasing prospective data pools of concussed athlete information to develop scales following appropriate, systematic processes.
PMCID: PMC3418135  PMID: 22488289
mild traumatic brain injuries; evaluation; reliability; validity; sensitivity; specificity
7.  An international measure of awareness and beliefs about cancer: development and testing of the ABC 
BMJ Open  2012;2(6):e001758.
To develop an internationally validated measure of cancer awareness and beliefs; the awareness and beliefs about cancer (ABC) measure.
Design and setting
Items modified from existing measures were assessed by a working group in six countries (Australia, Canada, Denmark, Norway, Sweden and the UK). Validation studies were completed in the UK, and cross-sectional surveys of the general population were carried out in the six participating countries.
Testing in UK English included cognitive interviewing for face validity (N=10), calculation of content validity indexes (six assessors), and assessment of test–retest reliability (N=97). Conceptual and cultural equivalence of modified (Canadian and Australian) and translated (Danish, Norwegian, Swedish and Canadian French) ABC versions were tested quantitatively for equivalence of meaning (≥4 assessors per country) and in bilingual cognitive interviews (three interviews per translation). Response patterns were assessed in surveys of adults aged 50+ years (N≥2000) in each country.
Main outcomes
Psychometric properties were evaluated through tests of validity and reliability, conceptual and cultural equivalence and systematic item analysis. Test–retest reliability used weighted-κ and intraclass correlations. Construction and validation of aggregate scores was by factor analysis for (1) beliefs about cancer outcomes, (2) beliefs about barriers to symptomatic presentation, and item summation for (3) awareness of cancer symptoms and (4) awareness of cancer risk factors.
The English ABC had acceptable test–retest reliability and content validity. International assessments of equivalence identified a small number of items where wording needed adjustment. Survey response patterns showed that items performed well in terms of difficulty and discrimination across countries except for awareness of cancer outcomes in Australia. Aggregate scores had consistent factor structures across countries.
The ABC is a reliable and valid international measure of cancer awareness and beliefs. The methods used to validate and harmonise the ABC may serve as a methodological guide in international survey research.
PMCID: PMC3547316  PMID: 23253874
early detection of cancer; cancer early diagnosis; validation studies; cross-cultural comparison; reliability and validity
8.  Cross-cultural adaptation of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire 11–14 (CPQ11–14) for the Brazilian Portuguese language 
Oral-Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) instruments are being used with increasing frequency in oral health surveys. However, these instruments are not available in all countries or all languages. The availability of cross-culturally valid, multi-lingual versions of instruments is important for epidemiological research. The Child Perceptions Questionnaire 11–14 (CPQ11–14) is an OHRQoL instrument that assesses the impact of oral conditions on the quality of life of children and adolescents. The objective of the current study was to carry out the cross-cultural adaptation of CPQ11–14 for the Brazilian Portuguese language.
After translation and cross-cultural adaptation, the CPQ 11–14 was tested on 160 11-to-14-year-old children who were clinically and radiographically examined for the presence or absence of dental caries. The children were receiving dental care at the Pediatric Dental and Orthodontic clinics of the Federal University of Minas Gerais, Brazil. To test the quality of the translation, 17 children answered the questionnaire. The internal consistency of the instrument was assessed by Cronbach's Alpha Coefficient and the test-retest reliability by Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC).
The mean CPQ11–14 score were 24.5 [standard deviation (SD) 18.27] in the group with caries and 12.89 [SD 10.95] in the group without caries. Median scores were 20 and 10 in the groups with and without caries, respectively (p < 0.001). Significant associations were identified between caries status and all CPQ domains (p < 0.05). Internal reliability was confirmed by a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.86. Test-retest reliability revealed satisfactory reproducibility (ICC = 0.85). The questionnaire proved to be a valid instrument. Construct validity was satisfactory, demonstrating highly significant correlations with global indicators for the total scale and subscales. The CPQ11–14 score was able to discriminate between different oral conditions (groups without and with untreated caries).
The present study demonstrated that the CPQ11–14 is applicable to children in Brazil. It has satisfactory psychometric properties, but further research is required to evaluate these properties in a population study.
PMCID: PMC2246108  PMID: 18194552
9.  Psychometric Properties of the Participation Scale among Former Buruli Ulcer Patients in Ghana and Benin 
Buruli ulcer is a stigmatising disease treated with antibiotics and wound care, and sometimes surgical intervention is necessary. Permanent limitations in daily activities are a common long term consequence. It is unknown to what extent patients perceive problems in participation in social activities. The psychometric properties of the Participation Scale used in other disabling diseases, such as leprosy, was assessed for use in former Buruli ulcer patients.
Former Buruli ulcer patients in Ghana and Benin, their relatives, and healthy community controls were interviewed using the Participation Scale, Buruli Ulcer Functional Limitation Score, and the Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue to measure stigma. The Participation Scale was tested for the following psychometric properties: discrimination, floor and ceiling effects, internal consistency, inter-item correlation, item-total correlation and construct validity.
In total 386 participants (143 former Buruli ulcer patients with their relatives (137) and 106 community controls) were included in the study. The Participation Scale displayed good discrimination between former Buruli ulcer patients and healthy community controls. No floor and ceiling effects were found. Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) was 0.88. In Ghana, mean inter-item correlation of 0.29 and item-total correlations ranging from 0.10 to 0.69 were found while in Benin, a mean inter-item correlation of 0.28 was reported with item-total correlations ranging from −0.08 to 0.79. With respect to construct validity, 4 out of 6 hypotheses were not rejected, though correlations between various constructs differed between countries.
The results indicate the Participation Scale has acceptable psychometric properties and can be used for Buruli ulcer patients in Ghana and Benin. Future studies can use this Participation Scale to evaluate the long term restrictions in participation in daily social activities of former BU patients.
Author Summary
Buruli ulcer is a stigmatising condition caused by infection with Mycobacterium ulcerans. Besides the long term medical consequences, Buruli ulcer may lead to participation restrictions in social life. The Participation Scale intends to assess perceived participation restrictions; however, this instrument has been developed in patients affected by leprosy and other disabling conditions, and has never been used before among Buruli ulcer patients. We aimed to analyze the reliability and validity of the Participation Scale among former Buruli ulcer patients in Ghana and Benin. This study included former Buruli ulcer patients from 2 different treatment sites, along with their relatives and healthy community controls residing in similar geographical areas. Former Buruli ulcer patients were interviewed using the Participation Scale, Buruli Ulcer Functional Limitation Score, and the Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue to measure stigma. Relatives and healthy community controls were interviewed using the Participation Scale. We tested the Participation Scale for discrimination, floor and ceiling effects, internal consistency, inter-item correlation, item-total correlation and construct validity. The results of the analysis suggest that the Participation Scale has acceptable psychometric properties. As such, the instrument can be used to assess participation restrictions among former Buruli ulcer patients in Ghana and Benin.
PMCID: PMC4230837  PMID: 25393289
10.  Parental-caregiver perceptions of child oral health-related quality of life (P-CPQ): Psychometric properties for the peruvian spanish language 
Objectives: The aim of the study was to cross-culturally adapt the Parental-Caregiver Perceptions Questionnaire (P-CPQ) to the Peruvian Spanish language and assess its reliability and validity. Study Design: To translate and cross-cultural adapt the instrument, 60 parents answered the P-CPQ in two pilot tests. The final version of the P-CPQ was evaluated in 200 parents of children aged 11 to 14 years, who were clinically examined for dental caries. The internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach’s alpha coefficient while repeat administration of the P-CPQ on the same 200 children facilitated the test-retest reliability via intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Construct and discriminant validity were based on associations of the P-CPQ with global ratings of oral health and clinical groups, respectively. Results: The mean (standard deviation) P-CPQ score was 15.64 (11.89). Internal consistency was confirmed by a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.84. Test-retest reliability revealed excellent reproducibility (ICC= 0.94). Construct validity was satisfactory, demonstrating significant correlations between global ratings (oral health and overall well-being) and the total scale and for subscale. Discriminant validity was significant (p<0.001), supporting its ability to discriminate between clinical groups. Conclusions: The Peruvian Spanish P-CPQ has satisfactory psychometric properties to assess parental-caregivers perceptions on their children’s oral health-related quality of life.
Key words:Quality of life, oral health, children, validity, reliability.
PMCID: PMC4048108  PMID: 24121913
11.  Cross-cultural adaptation of the Norwegian version of the spinal stenosis measure 
European Spine Journal  2008;17(3):456-462.
In order to satisfy the need of a tool for assessing the treatment of patients with degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis, an evaluation was made of the reliability, construct validity, and responsiveness of the Norwegian version of Spinal Stenosis Measure (SSM, original by Stucki)). This study was a part of a prospective, cohort study. About 75 patients referred for surgery for spinal stenosis participated in the study. A subsample of 30 patients answered the questionnaire twice, test and retest, with at least one week in between. The SSM was translated according to the Guillemin criteria. Reliability was assessed by Bland and Altman’s repeatability, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and the coefficient of variance (CV). Internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach’s alpha. Construct validity was analysed by correlation analyses. Responsiveness was calculated by the effect size. The reliability between test and retest scores was good for all three subscales of SSM as the ICC-values were above 0.9 and the CVs were below 15%. Cronbach’s alpha was above 0.8. The correlation analyses showed high correlation between scales that assessed the same construct, and low to moderate correlation between scales that assessed different constructs. Large effect sizes were found in all the SSM subscales with effect sizes ≥1.2.The Norwegian SSM version has added a highly useful tool for assessing the disease specific status and outcome after treatment in patients who suffer from degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis.
PMCID: PMC2270389  PMID: 18193302
Lumbar spinal stenosis; Norwegian version of the spinal stenosis measure; Reliability; Validity; Responsiveness
12.  Validation of the Brazilian Version of the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society Rating Scale for Lower Extremity Bone Sarcoma 
The Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) rating scale is an English-language instrument used worldwide to assess functional evaluation of patients with musculoskeletal cancer. Despite its use in several studies in English-speaking countries, its validity for assessing patients in other languages is unknown. The translation and validation of widely used scales can facilitate the comparison across international patient samples.
The objectives of this study were (1) to translate and culturally adapt the MSTS rating scale for functional evaluation in patients with lower extremity bone sarcomas to Brazilian Portuguese; (2) analyze its factor structure; and (3) test the reliability and (4) validity of this instrument.
The MSTS rating scale for lower limbs was translated from English into Brazilian Portuguese. Translations were synthesized, translated back into English, and reviewed by a multidisciplinary committee for further implementation. The questionnaire was administered to 67 patients treated for malignant lower extremity bone tumors who were submitted to limb salvage surgery or amputation. They also completed a Brazilian version of the Toronto Extremity Salvage Score (TESS). Psychometric properties were analyzed including factor structure analysis, internal consistency, interobserver reliability, test-retest reliability, and construct validity (by comparing the adapted MSTS with TESS and discriminant validity).
The MSTS rating scale for lower limbs was translated and culturally adapted to Brazilian Portuguese. The MSTS-BR proved to be adequate with only one latent dimension. The scale was also found to be reliable in a population that speaks Brazilian Portuguese showing good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.84) and reliability (test-retest reliability and interobserver agreement of 0.92 and 0.98, respectively). Validity of the Brazilian MSTS rating scale was proved by moderate with TESS and good discriminant validity.
The Brazilian version of the MSTS rating scale was translated and validated. It is a reliable tool to assess functional outcome in patients with lower extremity bone sarcomas. It can be used for functional evaluation of Brazilian patients and crosscultural comparisons.
PMCID: PMC3825918  PMID: 23917993
13.  The suicide assessment scale: Psychometric properties of a Norwegian language version 
BMC Research Notes  2012;5:417.
Rating scales are valuable tools in suicide research and can also be useful supplements to the clinical interview in suicide risk assessments. This study describes the psychometric properties of a Norwegian language version of the Suicide Assessment Scale Self-report version (SUAS-S).
Participants were fifty-two patients (mean age = 39.3 years, SD = 10.7) with major depression (53.8%), bipolar disorder (25.0%) and/or a personality disorder (63.5%) referred to a psychiatric outpatient clinic. The SUAS-S, the screening section of the Beck Scale for Suicidal Ideation (BSS-5), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck’s Hopelessness Scale (BHS), the Symptom Check-List-90 R (SCL-90R) and the Clinical Global Impression for Severity of Suicidality (CGI-SS) were administered. One week later, the patients completed the SUAS-S a second time.
Cronbach’s alpha for SUAS-S was 0.88 and the test–retest reliability was 0.95 (95% CI: 0.93– 0.97). SUAS-S was positively correlated with the BSS-5 (r = 0.66; 95% CI: 0.47–0.85) for the study sample as a whole and for the suicidal (r = 0.52) and non-suicidal groups (r = 0.50) respectively. There was no difference between the SUAS-S and the BSS-5 in the ability to identify suicidality. This ability was more pronounced when the suicide risk was high. There was a substantial intercorrelation between the score on the SUAS-S and the BDI (0.81) and the BHS (0.76). The sensitivity and specificity of the SUAS-S was explored and an appropriate clinical cut-off value was assessed.
The study revealed good internal consistency, test–retest reliability and concurrent validity for the Suicide Assessment Scale Self-report version. The discriminatory ability for suicidality was comparable to that of the BSS-5.
PMCID: PMC3504573  PMID: 22870950
14.  Reliability, validity and responsiveness of a Norwegian version of the Chronic Sinusitis Survey 
The Chronic Sinusitis Survey (CSS) is a valid, disease-specific questionnaire for assessing health status and treatment effectiveness in chronic rhinosinusitis. In the present study, we developed a Norwegian version of the CSS and assessed its psychometric properties.
In the pooled data set of 65 patients from a trial of treatment for chronic sinusitis with long-standing symptoms and signs of sinusitis on computed tomography (CT), we assessed the reliability, validity and responsiveness of the CSS.
Test-retest reliability of the two CSS scales and the total scale ranged 0.87–0.92, while internal consistency reliability ranged 0.31–0.55. CSS subscale scores were associated with other items on sinusitis symptoms, and with the Mental health and Bodily pain scale of the SF-36. There was little association of the CSS scale scores with sinus CT findings. The patients with chronic sinusitis had worse scores on all three CSS scales than a healthy reference population (n = 42) (p < 0.001). The CSS sinus symptoms subscale and the total scale were sensitive to improvement in global symptoms during 12 weeks.
The Norwegian version of the CSS had acceptable test-retest reliability, but lower internal consistency reliability than the accepted standard criteria. The results support the construct validity of the measure and the sinusitis symptoms subscale and the total scales were responsive to change. This supports the use of the questionnaire in interventions for chronic sinusitis, but points at problems with the internal consistency reliability.
PMCID: PMC1468424  PMID: 16677392
15.  The 27-item Coping Strategies Questionnaire – Revised: Confirmatory factor analysis, reliability and validity in Italian-speaking subjects with chronic pain 
The Coping Strategies Questionnaire – Revised was developed as a tool to assess cognitive factors contributing to adaptive functioning in the presence of chronic pain. The English-language version of the questionnaire is well validated; however, translation of such questionnaires may affect their validity, among other factors. Accordingly, the authors of this study translated the Coping Strategies Questionnaire – Revised into Italian and conducted an extensive evaluation of the psychometric properties of the translated version of the questionnaire.
Increasing attention is being devoted to cognitive-behavioural measures to improve interventions for chronic pain.
To develop an Italian version of the Coping Strategies Questionnaire – Revised (CSQ-R), and to validate it in a study involving 345 Italian subjects with chronic pain.
The questionnaire was developed following international recommendations. The psychometric analyses included confirmatory factor analysis; reliability, assessed by internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha) and test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients); and construct validity, assessed by calculating the correlations between the subscales of the CSQ-R and measures of pain (numerical rating scale), disability (Sickness Impact Profile – Roland Scale), depression (Center for Epidemiological Studies – Depression Scale) and coping (Chronic Pain Coping Inventory) (Pearson’s correlation).
Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the CSQ-R model had an acceptable data-model fit (comparative fit index and normed fit index ≤0.90, root mean square error of approximation ≥0.08). Cronbach’s alpha was satisfactory (CSQ-R 0.914 to 0.961), and the intraclass correlation coefficients were good/excellent (CSQ-R 0.850 to 0.918). As expected, the correlations with the numerical rating scale, Sickness Impact Profile – Roland Scale, Center for Epidemiological Studies – Depression Scale and Chronic Pain Coping Inventory highlighted the adaptive and maladaptive properties of most of the CSQ-R subscales.
The CSQ-R was successfully translated into Italian. The translation proved to have good factorial structure, and its psychometric properties are similar to those of the original and other adapted versions. Its use is recommended for clinical and research purposes in Italy and abroad.
PMCID: PMC4158961  PMID: 24761430
Confirmatory factor analysis; Coping Strategies Questionnaire; Cross-cultural adaptation; Reliability; Validity
16.  Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Validation of the Spanish Version of the Performance Enhancement Attitude Scale (Petróczi, 2002) 
The aim of the present study was to cross-culturally adapt and validate the Spanish version of the Performance Enhancement Attitude Scale (PEAS). A cross-sectional multi-sample survey with 17 independent datasets was carried out. Cross-cultural adaptation of the PEAS into Spanish was conducted through forward/backward translations, consensus panels and comparative analyses of known-groups to establish evidence for its reliability and validity. Weighted Kappa coefficients with quadratic weighting were used to assess the reliability of each item, with Cronbach’s internal consistency coefficients for overall scale’s reliability and Spearman’s correlation coefficient for test–retest reliability over a one-week period. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed to assess the scale’s structure. Differences between self-admitted doping users and non-users were analysed to verify the PEAS’ construct validity in 8 datasets. Spearman’s correlation coefficient was also used to assess the relationships between the PEAS and self-esteem, self-efficacy and perceived descriptive norm to establish convergent validity. The scale showed satisfactory levels of internal consistency (α = 0.71–0.85), reliability of each item (Kappa values range 0.34-0.64) and temporal stability (r = 0.818; p < 0.001). CFA showed acceptable fit (RMSEA <0.08, mean RMSEA = 0.055; χ2/df < 3, mean χ2/df = 1.89) for all but one samples. As expected, self-admitted doping users showed more positive attitude toward doping than non-users. Significant and strong negative relationship was found between PEAS and self-efficacy; weak negative correlation with self-esteem and and positive correlation with perceived descriptive norm. The Spanish version of PEAS showed satisfactory psychometric properties. Considerations for application and improvement are outlined.
Key pointsFirst study that crosses culturally adapted the PEAS to the Spanish language.The Spanish version of PEAS has satisfactory psychometric properties.Users scored higher than non-users indicating a satisfactory construct validity. Significant positive correlation was found between PEAS and projected use.Significant negative correlation between PEAS and self-esteem and self-efficacy.
PMCID: PMC3990901  PMID: 24790501
Doping; assessment; psychometric properties; reliability; validity
17.  Observer ratings of neighborhoods: comparison of two methods 
BMC Public Health  2013;13:1024.
Although neighborhood characteristics have important relationships with health outcomes, direct observation involves imperfect measurement. The African American Health (AAH) study included two observer neighborhood rating systems (5-item Krause and 18-item AAH Neighborhood Assessment Scale [NAS]), initially fielded at two different waves. Good measurement characteristics were previously shown for both, but there was more rater variability than desired. In 2010 both measures were re-fielded together, with enhanced training and field methods implemented to decrease rater variability while maintaining psychometric properties.
AAH included a poor inner city and more heterogeneous suburban areas. Four interviewers rated 483 blocks, with 120 randomly-selected blocks rated by two interviewers. We conducted confirmatory factor analysis of scales and tested the Krause (5-20 points), AAH 18-item NAS (0-28 points), and a previous 7-item and new 5-item versions of the NAS (0-17 points, 0-11 points). Retest reliability for items (kappa) and scales (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient [ICC]) were calculated overall and among pre-specified subgroups. Linear regression assessed interviewer effects on total scale scores and assessed concurrent validity on lung and lower body functions. Mismeasurement effects on self-rated health were also assessed.
Scale scores were better in the suburbs than in the inner city. ICC was poor for the Krause scale (ICC=0.19), but improved if the retests occurred within 10 days (ICC=0.49). The 7- and 5-item NAS scales had better ICCs (0.56 and 0.62, respectively), and were higher (0.71 and 0.73) within 10 days. Rater variability for the Kraus and 5- and 7-item NAS scales was 1-3 points (compared to the supervising rater). Concurrent validity was modest, with residents living in worse neighborhood conditions having worse function. Unadjusted estimates were biased towards the null compared with measurement-error corrected estimates.
Enhanced field protocols and rater training did not improve measurement quality. Specifically, retest reliability and interviewer variability remained problematic. Measurement error partially reduced, but did not eliminate concurrent validity, suggesting there are robust associations between neighborhood characteristics and health outcomes. We conclude that the 5-item AAH NAS has sufficient reliability and validity for further use. Additional research on the measurement properties of environmental rating methods is encouraged.
PMCID: PMC3840667  PMID: 24168373
18.  Cross - cultural adaptation and preliminary validation of the Turkish version of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale among 5-6-year-old children 
In Turkey, formal pre-primary education for children 5- 6 years old provides the ideal setting for school-based oral health promotion programs and oral health care services. To develop effective oral health promotion programs, there is a need to assess this target group's subjective oral health needs as well as clinical needs. The Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) is a well-known instrument for assessing oral health quality of life in children aged 0-5 years old and their families. This study aimed to adapt the ECOHIS for children 5-6 years old in a Turkish-speaking community and to undertake a preliminary investigation of its psychometric properties.
The Turkish version of the ECOHIS was obtained with forward/backward translations, expert panels and pre-testing and it was tested in a convenience sample of 121 parents of 5- 6 year-old children attending nursery classes of three public schools. Data were collected through clinical examinations and self-completed questionnaires. The main analyses were carried out on the imputed data set. The validity of content, face, construct, discriminant and convergent and as well as the reliability of internal and test-retest of the ECOHIS were evaluated. Sensitivity analysis was performed to examine the effect of the complete case analysis for managing "Don't know" responses on the validity and reliability of the ECOHIS.
The analysis of the imputed data set showed that Cronbach's alphas for the child and family sections were 0.92 and 0.84 respectively, and for the whole scale was 0.93. The intraclass correlation coefficient for test-retest was 0.86. The scale scores on the child and parent sections indicating worse quality of life were significantly associated with poor parental ratings of their child's oral health, high caries experience, higher gingival index scores and problem-orientated dental attendance, supporting its construct, convergent and discriminant validity. Sensitivity analysis showed that the mean imputation method and the complete case analysis did not have differing effects on the validity and reliability of the ECOHIS.
This study provided preliminary evidence concerning validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the scale among 5-6-year-old children. Future studies should be conducted on the ECOHIS to evaluate fully its psychometric properties in both community- based and clinically-based studies among parents of children younger than five. This study provides initial evidence that the ECOHIS aimed at children aged 0-5 years may be a useful tool for assessing the oral health quality of life in 6 year - old preschool children.
PMCID: PMC3310831  PMID: 22192577
Quality of life; oral health; reliability and validity; child; preschool.
19.  Assessment of the Equivalence of the Spanish and English Versions of the CAHPS® Hospital Survey on the Quality of Inpatient Care 
Health Services Research  2005;40(6 Pt 2):2140-2161.
To describe translation and cultural adaptation procedures, and examine the degree of equivalence between the Spanish and English versions of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's (AHRQ) Consumer Assessments of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS®) Hospital Survey (H-CAHPS®) of patient experiences with care.
Data Sources
Cognitive interviews on survey comprehension with 12 Spanish-speaking and 31 English-speaking subjects. Psychometric analyses of 586 responses to the Spanish version and 19,134 responses to the English version of the H-CAHPS survey tested in Arizona, Maryland, and New York in 2003.
Study Design
A forward/backward translation procedure followed by committee review and cognitive testing was used to ensure a translation that was both culturally and linguistically appropriate. Responses to the two language versions were compared to evaluate equivalence and assess the reliability and validity of both versions.
Data Collection/Extraction Methods
Comparative analyses were carried out on the 32 items of the shortened survey version, focusing on 16 items that comprise seven composites representing different aspects of hospital care quality (communication with nurses, communication with doctors, communication about medicines, nursing services, discharge information, pain control, and physical environment); three items that rate the quality of the nursing staff, physician staff, and the hospital overall; one item on intention to recommend the hospital. The other 12 items used in the analyses addressed mainly respondent characteristics. Analyses included item descriptives, correlations, internal consistency reliability of composites, factor analysis, and regression analysis to examine construct validity.
Principal Findings
Responses to both language versions exhibit similar patterns with respect to item–scale correlations, factor structure, content validity, and the association between each of the seven qualities of care composites with both the hospital rating and intention to recommend the hospital. Internal consistency reliability was slightly, yet significantly lower for the Spanish-language respondents for five of the seven composites, but overall the composites were generally equivalent across language versions.
The results provide preliminary evidence of the equivalence between the Spanish and English versions of H-CAHPS. The translated Spanish version can be used to assess hospital quality of care for Spanish speakers, and compare results across these two language groups.
PMCID: PMC1361240  PMID: 16316442
Survey translation and adaptation; patient survey; language equivalence; hospital care quality; Spanish-language survey
20.  Validation and cultural adaptation of a German version of the Physicians' Reactions to Uncertainty scales 
The aim of the study was to examine the validity of a translated and culturally adapted version of the Physicians' Reaction to Uncertainty scales (PRU) in primary care physicians.
In a structured process, the original questionnaire was translated, culturally adapted and assessed after administering it to 93 GPs. Test-retest reliability was tested by sending the questionnaire to the GPs again after two weeks.
The principal factor analysis confirmed the postulated four-factor structure underlying the 15 items. In contrast to the original version, item 5 achieved a higher loading on the 'concern about bad outcomes' scale. Consequently, we rearranged the scales. Good item-scale correlations were obtained, with Pearson's correlation coefficient ranging from 0.56–0.84. As regards the item-discriminant validity between the scales 'anxiety due to uncertainty' and 'concern about bad outcomes', partially high correlations (Pearson's correlation coefficient 0.02–0.69; p < 0.001) were found, indicating an overlap between both constructs. The assessment of internal consistency revealed satisfactory values; Cronbach's alpha of the rearranged version was 0.86 or higher for all scales. Test-retest-reliability, assessed by means of the intraclass-correlation-coefficient (ICC), exceeded 0.84, except for the 'reluctance to disclose mistakes to physicians' scale (ICC = 0.66). In this scale, some substantial floor effects occurred, with 29.3% of answers showing the lowest possible value.
Dealing with uncertainty is an important issue in daily practice. The psychometric properties of the rearranged German version of the PRU are satisfying. The revealed floor effects do not limit the significance of the questionnaire. Thus, the German version of the PRU could contribute to the further evaluation of the impact of uncertainty in primary care physicians.
PMCID: PMC1903353  PMID: 17562018
21.  Validation of the conceptual research utilization scale: an application of the standards for educational and psychological testing in healthcare 
There is a lack of acceptable, reliable, and valid survey instruments to measure conceptual research utilization (CRU). In this study, we investigated the psychometric properties of a newly developed scale (the CRU Scale).
We used the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing as a validation framework to assess four sources of validity evidence: content, response processes, internal structure, and relations to other variables. A panel of nine international research utilization experts performed a formal content validity assessment. To determine response process validity, we conducted a series of one-on-one scale administration sessions with 10 healthcare aides. Internal structure and relations to other variables validity was examined using CRU Scale response data from a sample of 707 healthcare aides working in 30 urban Canadian nursing homes. Principal components analysis and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to determine internal structure. Relations to other variables were examined using: (1) bivariate correlations; (2) change in mean values of CRU with increasing levels of other kinds of research utilization; and (3) multivariate linear regression.
Content validity index scores for the five items ranged from 0.55 to 1.00. The principal components analysis predicted a 5-item 1-factor model. This was inconsistent with the findings from the confirmatory factor analysis, which showed best fit for a 4-item 1-factor model. Bivariate associations between CRU and other kinds of research utilization were statistically significant (p < 0.01) for the latent CRU scale score and all five CRU items. The CRU scale score was also shown to be significant predictor of overall research utilization in multivariate linear regression.
The CRU scale showed acceptable initial psychometric properties with respect to responses from healthcare aides in nursing homes. Based on our validity, reliability, and acceptability analyses, we recommend using a reduced (four-item) version of the CRU scale to yield sound assessments of CRU by healthcare aides. Refinement to the wording of one item is also needed. Planned future research will include: latent scale scoring, identification of variables that predict and are outcomes to conceptual research use, and longitudinal work to determine CRU Scale sensitivity to change.
PMCID: PMC3117685  PMID: 21595888
22.  The Chinese version of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ (PedsQL™) 3.0 Asthma Module: reliability and validity 
Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) has been recognized as an important health outcome measurement for pediatric patients. One of the most promising instruments in measuring pediatric HRQOL emerged in recent years is the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL™). The PedsQL™ 3.0 Asthma Module, one of the PedsQL™disease-specific scales, was designed to measure HRQOL dimensions specifically tailored for pediatric asthma. The present study is aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the PedsQL™ 3.0 Asthma Module.
The PedsQL™ 3.0 Asthma Module was translated into Chinese following the PedsQL™ Measurement Model Translation Methodology. The Chinese version scale was administered to 204 children with asthma and 337 parents of children with asthma from four Triple A hospitals. The psychometric properties were then evaluated.
The percentage of missing value for each item of the scale ranged from 0.00% to 8.31%. All child self-report subscales and parent proxy-report subscales approached or exceeded the minimum reliability standard of 0.70 for alpha coefficient, except 3 subscales of Young Child (aged 5-7) self-report (alphas ranging from 0.59 to 0.68). Test-retest reliability was satisfactory with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) which exceeded the recommended standard of 0.80 in all subscales. Correlation coefficients between items and their hypothesized subscales were higher than those with other subscales. The PedsQL™ 3.0 Asthma Module distinguished between outpatients and inpatients. Patients with mild asthma reported higher scores than those with moderate/severe asthma in majority of subscales. The intercorrelations among the PedsQL™ 3.0 Asthma Module subscales and the PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales were in medium to large effect size. The child self-report scores were consistent with the parent proxy-report scores.
The Chinese version of the PedsQL™ 3.0 Asthma Module has acceptable psychometric properties, except the internal consistency reliability for Young Child (aged 5-7) self-report. Further studies should be focused on testing responsiveness of the Chinese version scale in longitudinal studies, evaluating the reliability and validity of the scale for the patients with severe asthma or teens independently, and assessing HRQOL of children with asthma in other areas.
PMCID: PMC3161836  PMID: 21819618
Asthma; Children; Health-related quality of life; Reliability; Validity; PedsQL
23.  Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Norwegian version of the Core Outcome Measures Index for low back pain 
European Spine Journal  2012;21(12):2539-2549.
The Core Outcome Measures Index (COMI) is a short multidimensional scale covering all domains recommended to be included as outcome measures for patients with low back pain (LBP). The purpose of the present study was to translate and cross-culturally adapt the COMI into Norwegian and to test clinimetric properties of the Norwegian COMI version in patients with non-specific LBP recruited from various clinical settings.
Ninety patients with non-specific LBP from primary care and hospital settings participated in the validation part and 61 also in the reproducibility part of the study (1 week apart). Acceptability, data quality, reproducibility and construct validity were investigated.
The questionnaire was well accepted and with little missing data and end effects. Reliability in terms of intraclass correlations (ICC) was satisfactory for the COMI index [0.89 (95 % CI 0.82–0.94)] and most single-core items. Agreement was acceptable for the COMI index [standard error of measurement (SEMagreement) 0.80, minimal detectable change (MDCindividual) 2.21], but exceeded the minimal standard of acceptability in some of the individual core items. Construct validity was acceptable for the COMI index.
The Norwegian version of the COMI index shows acceptable clinimetric properties in our patient population, but some of the sub-items had shortcomings. Our study, however, support the usefulness of the COMI index as an applicable stand-alone global scale when a light respondent burden is advisable.
PMCID: PMC3508207  PMID: 22695701
Multidimensional scale; COMI; Clinimetric properties; Low back pain
24.  Caregiving in severe mental illness: the psychometric properties of the Involvement Evaluation Questionnaire in Portugal 
Despite the achievements of previous research, caregiving assessments in severe mental illness should be crossculturally validated in order to define risk groups or to evaluate family work. This study reports on the psychometric properties of the European version of the Involvement Evaluation Questionnaire (IEQ-EU) in Portugal.
A Portuguese translation of the IEQ-EU was developed according to the 'European Psychiatric Services: Inputs Linked to Outcome Domains and Needs' (EPSILON) group guidelines. We then studied 194 caregivers who were related to patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders in psychiatric outpatient services. All relatives were assessed using the IEQ-EU. In order to describe the corresponding patients' sample, the majority (n = 162) was evaluated with the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHO-DAS II); 108 patients were also assessed with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF).
The factor structure of the Portuguese version of the questionnaire was similar to the original; internal consistency was good, with Cronbach's α ranging from 0.71 to 0.87 in the IEQ-EU scales (total score and domains: tension, supervision, worrying, urging); test-retest reliability yielded intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) from 0.80 to 0.94, concerning the same scores. Ecological validity was confirmed. Most caregiving consequences were reported on the worrying domain of the IEQ-EU.
Validity and reliability of the Portuguese IEQ-EU translation were established. Specifically the four IEQ-EU subscale domains seem to be valid in Portugal.
PMCID: PMC3364850  PMID: 22455541
Caregiver; crosscultural psychiatry; family member; measurement validation; questionnaires; schizophrenia
25.  Measuring health-related quality of life in young adolescents: Reliability and validity in the Norwegian version of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ 4.0 (PedsQL) generic core scales 
Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) studies concerning children and adolescents are a growing field of research. The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL™) is considered as a promising HRQOL instrument with the availability of age appropriate versions and parallel forms for both child and parents. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Norwegian translation of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL™) 4.0 generic core scale in a sample of healthy young adolescents.
A cross-sectional study of 425 healthy young adolescents and 237 of their caregivers participating as a proxy. Reliability was assessed by Cronbach's alpha. Construct validity was assessed using exploratory factor analysis and by exploring the intercorrelations between and among the four PedsQL subscales for adolescents and their parents.
All the self-report scales and proxy-report scales showed satisfactory reliability with Cronbach's alpha varying between 0.77 and 0.88. Factor analysis showed results comparable with the original version, except for the Physical Health scale. On average, monotrait-multimethod correlations were higher than multitrait-multimethod correlations. Sex differences were noted on the emotional functioning subscale, girls reported lower HRQOL than boys.
The Norwegian PedsQL is a valid and reliable generic pediatric health-related Quality of Life measurement that can be recommended for self-reports and proxy-reports for children in the age groups ranging from 13–15 years.
PMCID: PMC1584218  PMID: 16972987

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