Screw failure of cancellous bone screws is not uncommon. To compare the effect of varying pilot-hole size on pullout strength of cancellous bone screws in human cadaveric bone, we designed and performed a biomechanical study to allow quantitative analysis.
Three pairs of distal femurs and 4 pairs of proximal tibias from embalmed human cadavers were stabilized in a mould, and the bone cortex was overdrilled. Four sites in a linear transverse plane were randomly assigned, anatomically matched with the paired bone and drilled with either pilot-hole size 3.2 mm or 2.5 mm. The cancellous screw (Synthes noncannulated 4.5-mm shaft, 6.5-mm external diameter) was guided into the pilot hole and pulled on by a test frame (Instron 8874 biaxial servo-hydraulic test frame) with increasing force to the point of failure, and the forces at which failure resulted were compared.
A comparison of 25 anatomically paired sites with a 2-tailed paired t test and Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test indicated significantly stronger pullout strength (p = 0.047 and p = 0.047) of the 2.5-mm compared with the 3.2-mm pilot hole. Subanalysis of the 4 studied locations indicated that 3 supported the above findings and 1 supported a reverse trend.
Generally, cancellous screws demonstrated a significantly (p < 0.05) stronger hold using a smaller size pilot hole than the recommended standard diameter. All locations except the inner lateral site supported this finding.
Restoration and maintenance of the plateau surface are the key points in the treatment of tibial plateau fractures. Any deformity of the articular surface jeopardizes the future of the knee by causing osteoarthritis and axis deviation. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of Trabecular Metal (porous tantalum metal) on stability and strength of fracture repair in the central depression tibial plateau fracture.
Six matched pairs of fresh frozen human cadaveric tibias were fractured and randomly assigned to be treated with either the standard of treatment (impacted cancellous bone graft stabilized by two 4.5 mm screws under the comminuted articular surface) or the experimental method (the same screws supporting a 2 cm diameter Trabecular Metal (TM) disc placed under the comminuted articular surface). Each tibia was tested on a MTS machine simulating immediate postoperative load transmission with 500 Newton for 10,000 cycles and then loaded to failure to determine the ultimate strength of the construct.
The trabecular metal construct showed 40% less caudad displacement of the articular surface (1, 32 ± 0.1 mm vs. 0, 80 ± 0.1 mm) in cyclic loading (p < 0.05). Its mechanical failure occurred at a mean of 3275 N compared to 2650 N for the standard of care construct (p < 0, 05).
The current study shows the biomechanical superiority of the trabecular metal construct compared to the current standard of treatment with regards to both its resistance to caudad displacement of the articular surface in cyclic loading and its strength at load to failure.
Dynamic hip screw (DHS) has been the standard treatment for stable trochanteric fracture patterns, but complications of lag screw cut out from a superior aspect, due to inadequate bone anchorage, occur frequently in elderly osteoporotic patients. Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) has been used as an augmentation tool to facilitate fixation stability in cadaveric femora for biomechanical studies and in pathological fractures. However, there are very few reports on the utilization of PMMA cement to prevent these complications in fresh intertrochanteric fractures. A prospective study was conducted to evaluate the outcome and efficacy of PMMA augmented DHS in elderly osteoporotic patients with intertrochanteric fractures.
Materials and Methods:
The study included 64 patients (AO type31-A2.1 in eight, A2.2 in 29, A2.3 in 17 patients, and 31-A3.1 in five, A3.2 in three, and A3.3 in two patients) with an average age of 72 years (60 – 94 years) of which 60 were available for final followup. PMMA augmentation of DHS was performed in all cases by injecting PMMA cement into the femoral head with a custommade gun designed by the authors. The clinical outcome was rated as per the Salvati and Wilson scoring system at the time of final followup of one year. Results were graded as excellent (score > 31), good (score 24 – 31), fair (score 16 – 23), and poor (score < 16).
Fracture united in all patients and the average time to union was 13.8 weeks (range 12 – 16 weeks). At an average followup of 18 months (range 12 – 24 months), no incidence of varus collapse or superior screw cut out was observed in any of the patients in spite of weightbearing ambulation from the early postoperative period. There was no incidence of avascular necrosis (AVN) or cement penetration into the joint in our series. Most of the patients were able to regain their prefracture mobility status with a mean hip pain score of 8.6.
Cement augmentation of DHS appears to be an effective method of preventing osteoporosis related complications of fracture fixation in the trochanteric fractures. The technique used for cement augmentation in the present study is less likely to cause possible complications of cement augmentation like thermal necrosis, cement penetration into the joint, and AVN hip.
Dynamic hip screw; fractures; osteoporosis; polymethylmethacrylate; trochanteric
In vitro comparative testing of fracture fixation implants is limited by the highly variable material properties of cadaveric bone. Bone surrogate specimens are often employed to avoid this confounding variable. Although validated surrogate models of normal bone exist, no validated bone model simulating weak, osteoporotic bone is available. This study presents an osteoporotic long-bone model designed to match the lower cumulative range of mechanical properties found in large series of cadaveric femora reported in the literature. Five key structural properties were identified from the literature: torsional rigidity and strength, bending rigidity and strength, and screw pull-out strength. An osteoporotic bone surrogate was designed to meet the low range for each of these parameters, and was mechanically tested. For comparison, the same parameters were determined for surrogates of normal bone. The osteoporotic bone surrogate had a torsional rigidity and torsional strength within the lower 2% and 16%, respectively, of the literature based cumulative range reported for cadaveric femurs. Its bending rigidity and bending strength was within the lower 11% and 8% of the literature based range, respectively. Its pull-out strength was within the lower 2% to16% of the literature based range. With all five structural properties being within the lower 16% of the cumulative range reported for native femurs, the osteoporotic bone surrogate reflected the diminished structural properties seen in osteoporotic femora. In comparison, surrogates of normal bone demonstrated structural properties within 23%–118% of the literature based range. These results support the need and utility of the osteoporotic bone surrogate for comparative testing of implants for fixation of femoral shaft fractures in osteoporotic bone.
Osteoporosis; surrogate; bone; femur; mechanical properties
This study investigated the relationships between trabecular microstructure and elastic modulus, compressive strength, and suture anchor pullout strength. Twelve fresh-frozen humeri underwent mechanical testing followed by micro-computed tomography (μCT). Either compression testing of cylindrical bone samples or pullout testing using an Arthrex 5 mm Corkscrew was performed in synthetic sawbone or at specific locations in the humerus such as the greater tuberosity, lesser tuberosity, and humeral head. Synthetic sawbone underwent identical mechanical testing and μCT analysis. Bone volume fraction (BVF), structural model index (SMI), trabecular thickness (TbTh), trabecular spacing (TbSp), trabecular number (TbN), and connectivity density were compared against modulus, compressive strength, and pullout strength in both materials. In cadaveric bone, modulus showed correlations to all of the microstructural properties, while compressive and pullout strength were only correlated to BVF, SMI, and TbSp. The microstructure of synthetic bone differed from cadaveric bone as SMI and TbTh showed little variation across the densities tested. Therefore, SMI and TbTh were the only microstructural properties that did not show correlations to the mechanical properties tested in synthetic bone. This study helps identify key microstructure-property relationships in cadaveric and synthetic bone as well as illustrate the similarities and differences between cadaveric and synthetic bone as biomechanical test materials.
Suture Anchors; Pullout Strength; Micro-CT; Microstructure; Synthetic Bone
Background and purpose
The two most common complications of femoral impaction bone grafting are femoral fracture and massive implant subsidence. We investigated fracture forces and implant subsidence rates in embalmed human femurs undergoing impaction grafting. The study consisted of two arms, the first examining the force at which femoral fracture occurs in the embalmed human femur, and the second examining whether significant graft implant/subsidence occurs following impaction at a set force at two different impaction frequencies.
Using a standardized impaction grafting technique with modifications, an initial group of 17 femurs underwent complete destructive impaction testing, allowing sequentially increased, controlled impaction forces to be applied until femoral fracture occurred. A second group of 8 femurs underwent impaction bone grafting at constant force, at an impaction frequency of 1 Hz or 10 Hz. An Exeter stem was cemented into the neomedullary canals. These constructs underwent subsidence testing simulating the first 2 months of postoperative weight bearing.
No femurs fractured below an impaction force of 0.5 kN. 15/17 of the femurs fractured at or above 1.6 kN of applied force. In the second group of 8 femurs, all of which underwent femoral impaction grafting at 1.6 kN, there was no correlation between implant subsidence and frequency of impaction. Average subsidence was 3.2 (1–9) mm.
It is possible to calculate a force below which no fracture occurs in the embalmed human femur undergoing impaction grafting. Higher impaction frequency at constant force did not reduce rates of implant subsidence in this experiment.
The objective of this cadaveric study was to analyze the effects of iatrogenic pedicle perforations from screw misplacement on the mean pullout strength of lower thoracic and lumbar pedicle screws. We also investigated the effect of bone mineral density (BMD), diameter of pedicle screws, and the region of spine on the pullout strength of pedicle screws.
Materials and Methods:
Sixty fresh human cadaveric vertebrae (D10–L2) were harvested. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan of vertebrae was done for BMD. Titanium pedicle screws of different diameters (5.2 and 6.2 mm) were inserted in the thoracic and lumbar segments after dividing the specimens into three groups: a) standard pedicle screw (no cortical perforation); b) screw with medial cortical perforation; and c) screw with lateral cortical perforation. Finally, pullout load of pedicle screws was recorded using INSTRON Universal Testing Machine.
Compared with standard placement, medially misplaced screws had 9.4% greater mean pullout strength and laterally misplaced screws had 47.3% lesser mean pullout strength. The pullout strength of the 6.2 mm pedicle screws was 33% greater than that of the 5.2 mm pedicle screws. The pullout load of pedicle screws in lumbar vertebra was 13.9% greater than that in the thoracic vertebra (P = 0.105), but it was not statistically significant. There was no significant difference between pullout loads of vertebra with different BMD (P = 0.901).
The mean pullout strength was less with lateral misplaced pedicle screws while medial misplaced pedicle screw had more pullout strength. The pullout load of 6.2 mm screws was greater than that of 5.2 mm pedicle screws. No significant correlation was found between bone mineral densities and the pullout strength of vertebra. Similarly, the pullout load of screw placed in thoracic and lumbar vertebrae was not significantly different.
Misplaced pedicle screw; pullout strength; vertebra
Fixed-angle devices have been a major advancement in orthopedic fracture care and have become an attractive option for fixation of distal radius fractures. Several volar locking plates exist, but there is insufficient literature comparing the strengths of these plates. This study compares the biomechanical strength of two popular volar locking plate systems (Synthes LCP and Hand Innovations DVR-A) along with a nonlocking volar T-plate (Synthes).
Twenty-three formalin-fixed cadaveric forearms were divided into three groups with similar ages and bone densities. An unstable extra-articular fracture was created using a standardized osteotomy. Each group was fixed with one of the three plates. Each specimen was loaded in axial compression for 2000 cycles at a force of 400 N. Each specimen that completed cyclic testing was loaded to failure. Stiffness, yield point, and ultimate strength were recorded for each construct.
Each fixed-angle construct completed all 2000 cycles. The nonlocking plates failed at an average of 560 cycles. The mean stiffness of the DVR-A, LCP, and the volar T-plates were 277.00, 343.17, and 175.67 N/mm, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between both fixed-angle plates and the nonlocking plate (p < 0.05). The difference between each fixed-angle construct did not reach significance. Yield point and ultimate strength could only be determined for the two fixed-angle devices. There was no statistically significant difference between the constructs for both yield point (DVR-A = 855.56 N, LCP = 894.15 N) and ultimate strength (DVR-A = 1,021.97 N, LCP = 1,114.87 N).
Given our data, fixed-angle constructs withstand cyclical loading representing normal physiologic forces encountered during post-operative rehabilitation. There was no significant biomechanical difference between the two fixed-angle constructs. Our results support that volar fixed-angle locking plates are an effective treatment for unstable extra-articular distal radius fractures, allowing early postoperative rehabilitation to safely be initiated.
Volar locking plate; Distal radius fracture; Fixed angle device
To test the hypotheses that, compared with controls 1) femoroplasty (the injection of bone cement into the proximal femur in an attempt to prevent fragility fracture) increases the yield and ultimate loads, yield and ultimate energies, and stiffness of the proximal osteoporotic femur in a simulated fall model; and 2) the manner in which the cement distributes in the proximal femur affects the extent to which those mechanical properties are altered.
In 10 pairs of osteoporotic human cadaveric femora, we injected 1 femur of each pair with 40 -- 50 mL of polymethylmethacrylate bone cement; the noninjected femur served as the control. The filling percentage was calculated in 4 anatomical regions of the femur: head, neck, trochanter, and subtrochanter. All specimens were biomechanically tested in a configuration that simulated a fall on the greater trochanter. Student's t test, linear regression, and multinomial logistic regression statistical analyses were conducted where appropriate, with significant difference defined as P < 0.05.
Femoroplasty significantly increased yield load (22.0%), ultimate load (37.3%), yield energy (79.6%), and ultimate energy (154%) relative to matched controls, but did not significantly change stiffness (-10.9%). There was a strong (r2 = 0.7) correlation between yield load and filling percentage in the femoral neck.
This study showed that 1) femoroplasty significantly increased fracture load and energy to fracture when osteoporotic femora were loaded in simulated fall conditions and 2) cement filling in the femoral neck may have an important role in the extent to which femoroplasty affects mechanical strength of the proximal femur.
femoroplasty; hip fracture; osteoporosis; prophylactic; bone cement
Pre-clinical tests are often performed to screen new implant designs, surgical techniques and cement formulations. In this work, we developed a technique to simulate the cement-bone morphology found with postmortem retrieved cemented hip replacements. With this technique, a soy wax barrier is created along the endosteal surface of the bone, prior to cementing of the femoral component. This approach was applied to six fresh frozen human cadaver femora and the resulting cement-bone morphology and micromotion following application of torsional loads were measured on a transverse section of each bone. The contact fraction between cement and bone for the wax barrier specimens (6.4±5.7%, range: 0.5 – 15%) was similar to that found in post-mortem retrievals (10.5±10.3%, range: 0.4–32.5%). Micro-motions at the cement-bone interface for the wax barrier specimens (0.5±1.06 mm, range: 0.005–2.66) were similar, but on average larger, than those found with postmortem retrievals (0.092±0.22mm, range: 0.002–0.73). The use of a wax barrier coating technique could improve experimental pre-clinical tests because it produces a cement-bone interface similar to those of functioning cemented components obtained following in vivo service.
Pre-clinical model; arthroplasty; aseptic loosening; cement; hip replacement
Recently developed inflatable nails avoid reaming and interlocking screws in tibial fractures and reflect a new principle for stabilization of long bone fractures. We asked if the bending stiffness, rotational rigidity, or play (looseness of rotation) differed between an inflatable versus large-diameter reamed interlocked nails, and whether the maximal torque to failure of the two bone-implant constructs differed. In a cadaveric model, we compared the biomechanical properties with those of an interlocked nail in eight pairs of fractured tibial bones. Bending stiffness, rotational rigidity, play (looseness in rotation), and torsional strength within 20° rotation were investigated using a biaxial servohydraulic testing system. For all biomechanical variables, we found a large interindividual variance between the pairs attributable to bone quality (osteoporosis) for both fixation methods. The inflatable nail had a higher bending stiffness, with a mean difference of 58 N/mm, and a lower torsional strength, with a mean difference of 13.5 Nm, compared with the locked nail. During torsional testing we noted slippage between the inflatable nail and bone. We observed no differences in play or rotational rigidity. Given the lower torsional strength we recommend caution with weightbearing until there are signs of fracture consolidation.
Anterior screw fixation has been widely adopted for the treatment of Type II dens fractures. However, there is still controversy regarding whether one- or two-screw fixation is more appropriate.
We addressed three questions: (1) Do one- and two-screw fixation techniques differ regarding shear stiffness and rotational stiffness? (2) Can shear stiffness and rotational stiffness after screw fixation be restored to normal? (3) Does stiffness after screw fixation correlate with bone mineral density (BMD)?
We randomly assigned 14 fresh axes into two groups (seven axes each): one receiving one-screw fixation and another receiving two-screw fixation. Shear and torsional stiffness were measured using a nondestructive low-load test in six directions. A transverse osteotomy then was created at the base of the dens and fixed using one or two screws. Shear and torsional stiffness were tested again under the same testing conditions.
Mean stiffness in all directions after screw fixation was similar in both groups. The stiffness after one- and two-screw fixation was not restored to normal: the mean shear stiffness restored ratio was less than 50% and the mean torsional stiffness restored ratio was less than 6% in both groups. BMD did not correlate with mean stiffness after screw fixation in both groups.
One- and two-screw fixation for Type II dens fractures provide similar stability but neither restores normal shear or torsional stiffness.
One-screw fixation might be used as an alternative to two-screw fixation. Assumed BMD should not influence surgical decision making.
Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty are well-established minimally invasive treatment options for compression fractures of osteoporotic vertebral bodies. Possible procedural disadvantages, however, include incomplete fracture reduction or a significant loss of reduction after balloon tamp deflation, prior to cement injection. A new procedure called “vertebral body stenting” (VBS) was tested in vitro and compared to kyphoplasty. VBS uses a specially designed catheter-mounted stent which can be implanted and expanded inside the vertebral body. As much as 24 fresh frozen human cadaveric vertebral bodies (T11-L5) were utilized. After creating typical compression fractures, the vertebral bodies were reduced by kyphoplasty (n = 12) or by VBS (n = 12) and then stabilized with PMMA bone cement. Each step of the procedure was performed under fluoroscopic control and analysed quantitatively. Finally, static and dynamic biomechanical tests were performed. A complete initial reduction of the fractured vertebral body height was achieved by both systems. There was a significant loss of reduction after balloon deflation in kyphoplasty compared to VBS, and a significant total height gain by VBS (mean ± SD in %, p < 0.05, demonstrated by: anterior height loss after deflation in relation to preoperative height [kyphoplasty: 11.7 ± 6.2; VBS: 3.7 ± 3.8], and total anterior height gain [kyphoplasty: 8.0 ± 9.4; VBS: 13.3 ± 7.6]). Biomechanical tests showed no significant stiffness and failure load differences between systems. VBS is an innovative technique which allows for the possibly complete reduction of vertebral compression fractures and helps maintain the restored height by means of a stent. The height loss after balloon deflation is significantly decreased by using VBS compared to kyphoplasty, thus offering a new promising option for vertebral augmentation.
Vertebral body stenting; Vertebroplasty; Kyphoplasty; Osteoporosis; Vertebral compression fracture
Determining bone mineral density (BMD) with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is an established and widely used method that is also applied prior to biomechanical testing. However, DXA is affected by a number of factors. In order to delay decompositional processes, human specimens for biomechanical studies are usually stored at about -20°C; similarly, bone mineral density measurements are usually performed in the frozen state. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of bone temperature on the measured bone mineral density.
Using DXA, bone mineral density measurements were taken in 19 fresh-frozen human femora, in the frozen and the thawed state. Water was used to mimic the missing soft tissue around the specimens. Measurements were taken with the specimens in standardized internal rotation. Total-BMD and single-BMD values of different regions of interest were used for evaluation.
Fourteen of the 19 specimens showed a decrease in BMD after thawing. The measured total-BMD of the frozen specimens was significantly (1.4%) higher than the measured BMD of the thawed specimens.
Based on our findings we recommend that the measurement of bone density, for example prior to biomechanical testing, should be standardized to thawed or frozen specimens. Temperature should not be changed during measurements. When using score systems for data interpretation (e.g. T- or Z-score), BMD measurements should be performed only on thawed specimens.
Mechanical stability of the stem is believed to be an important factor in successful impaction grafting in revision THA. We asked whether particle size, femoral bone deficiencies, stem design, graft composition, and impaction technique influenced the initial stability of the stem in vitro using model femora and human bone particles. Bone particles made with a reciprocating blade-type bone mill contained larger particles with a broader size distribution than those made by a rotating drum-type bone mill and had higher stiffness on compression testing. The stiffness on torsional testing decreased as the degree of proximal-medial segmental deficiencies increased. The stiffness and maximum torque in a stem with a rectangular cross section and wide anteroposterior surface were higher in torsional tests. Adding hydroxyapatite granules to the bone particles increased the torsional stability. To facilitate compact bone particles, we developed a spacer between the guidewire and modified femoral packers. This spacer facilitated compacting bone particles from the middle up to the proximal and the technique increased the amount of impacted bone particles at the middle of the stem and also improved the initial stability of the stem. Stem design and degree of deficiencies influenced stiffness in the torsional test and the addition of hydroxyapatite granules enhanced torsional stiffness.
This study was designed to derive the theoretical formulae to predict the pullout strength of pedicle screws with an inconstant outer and/or inner diameter distribution (conical screws). For the transpedicular fixation, one of the failure modes is the screw loosening from the vertebral bone. Hence, various kinds of pedicle screws have been evaluated to measure the pullout strength using synthetic and cadaveric bone as specimens. In the literature, the Chapman's formula has been widely proposed to predict the pullout strength of screws with constant outer and inner diameters (cylindrical screws).
This study formulated the pullout strength of the conical and cylindrical screws as the functions of material, screw, and surgery factors. The predicted pullout strength of each screw was compared to the experimentally measured data. Synthetic bones were used to standardize the material properties of the specimen and provide observation of the loosening mechanism of the bone/screw construct.
The predicted data from the new formulae were better correlated with the mean pullout strength of both the cylindrical and conical screws within an average error of 5.0% and R2 = 0.93. On the other hand, the average error and R2 value of the literature formula were as high as -32.3% and -0.26, respectively.
The pullout strength of the pedicle screws was the functions of bone strength, screw design, and pilot hole. The close correlation between the measured and predicted pullout strength validated the value of the new formulae, so as avoid repeating experimental tests.
The twin hook has been developed as an alternative to the conventional lag screw to be combined with a barrelled side-plate in the treatment of trochanteric hip fractures. With two oppositely directed apical hooks introduced into the subchondral bone of the femoral head, the twin hook provides different stabilising properties to the lag screw. The femoral head purchase of the twin hook and the lag screw were compared in a biomechanical study using artificial cancellous bone, and responses to axial and torsional loading was determined. A distinct yield point in load and torque was noted for the lag screw, representing failure of the laminas supporting the threads. For the twin hook, gradual increase of load and torque occurred during impaction of the bone supporting the hooks. The peak loads and torques were higher for the lag screw, but were similar for both devices after 8 mm deformation. The stiffness was higher for the lag screw, but in counter-clockwise rotation the stiffness for the lag screw was negligible. The twin hook appeared to provide fixation stability comparable to that offered by the lag screw, but with conceivable advantages in terms of a deformation response involving bone impaction and gradually increasing stability.
The objective of this study was to determine if a synthetic bone
substitute would provide results similar to bone from osteoporotic
femoral heads during in vitro testing with orthopaedic
implants. If the synthetic material could produce results similar
to those of the osteoporotic bone, it could reduce or eliminate
the need for testing of implants on bone.
Pushout studies were performed with the dynamic hip screw (DHS)
and the DHS Blade in both cadaveric femoral heads and artificial
bone substitutes in the form of polyurethane foam blocks of different
density. The pushout studies were performed as a means of comparing
the force displacement curves produced by each implant within each
The results demonstrated that test material with a density of
0.16 g/cm3 (block A) produced qualitatively similar force
displacement curves for the DHS and qualitatively and quantitatively
similar force displacement curves for the DHS Blade, whereas the
test material with a density of 0.08 g/cm3 (block B)
did not produce results that were predictive of those recorded within
the osteoporotic cadaveric femoral heads.
This study demonstrates that synthetic material with a density
of 0.16 g/cm3 can provide a good substitute for cadaveric
osteoporotic femoral heads in the testing of implants. However we
do recognise that no synthetic material can be considered as a definitive
substitute for bone, therefore studies performed with artificial
bone substrates may need to be validated by further testing with
a small bone sample in order to produce conclusive results.
Intertrochanteric fracture; Biomechanical study; Artificial bone substitute; DHS; DHS Blade; Osteoporotic Bone
Artificial cadaveric femoral neck fractures were internally fixed with five different devices and subjected to cyclical loading of 0-1.0 kilonewtons (approximately one body weight) whilst in an anatomical position. Displacement of the proximal fragment was detected by a transducer and charted. Bone strength was assessed by a preliminary control loading phase on the intact bone. Efficiency of each fracture fixator could then be directly compared by the relative movement in each case. Five specimens each were tested with Moore's Pins, Trifin Nail, Garden Screws and a sliding screw-plate (OEC Ltd). By the criteria of the experiment, which put a severe shearing load on the implant, none of these devices reliably bore the representative body weight. An extended barrel-plate, which supported the sliding screw almost up to the fracture line, was then made. This device, employing some of Charnley's concepts, tolerated body weight in four cases out of five.
The use of bone grafts in orthopedic, maxillofacial and dental surgery has been growing. Nevertheless, both fresh autografts and frozen allografts have limitations, and therefore, alternative synthetic or natural biomaterials, such as processed and lyophilized bovine bone graft have been developed.
To evaluate in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility of lyophilized bovine bone manufactured in a semi-industrial scale, according to a modifical protocol developed by the authors.
Samples of bovine cancellous bone were processed according to a protocol developed by Kakiuchi et al., and modified to process samples of bovine cancellous bone. The following trials were performed: in vitro cytotoxicity, in vivo acute systemic toxicity, in vivo oral irritation potential, in vitro pyrogenic reaction, and bioburden.
The in vitro evaluation of lyophilized bovine cancellous bone revealed an absence of cytotoxicity in 100% of the samples. Regarding in vivo evaluation of acute systemic toxicity, neither macroscopic abnormalities nor deaths were noted in the animals. Pyrogenicity was not greater than 0.125 UE/ml in any of the samples. The bioburden revealed negative results for microbial growth before sterilization. Regarding the oral irritation potential, in vivo evaluation at 24 and 72 hours showed that the animals had no edema or erythema on the oral mucosa.
The protocol changes established by the authors to prepare lyophilized bovine cancellous bone at a semi-industrial scale is reproducible and yielded a product with excellent biocompatibility.
Surgery; Materials testing; Toxicity tests; Freeze drying; Bone transplantation
To provide a screening tool to reduce time and sample consumption when attempting mtDNA haplogroup typing.
A single base primer extension assay was developed to enable typing, in a single reaction, of twelve mtDNA haplogroup specific polymorphisms. For validation purposes a total of 147 samples were tested including 73 samples successfully haplogroup typed using mtDNA control region (CR) sequence data, 21 samples inconclusively haplogroup typed by CR data, 20 samples previously haplogroup typed using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis, and 31 samples of known ancestral origin without previous haplogroup typing. Additionally, two highly degraded human bones embalmed and buried in the early 1950s were analyzed using the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) multiplex.
When the SNP multiplex was used to type the 96 previously CR sequenced specimens, an increase in haplogroup or macrohaplogroup assignment relative to conventional CR sequence analysis was observed. The single base extension assay was also successfully used to assign a haplogroup to decades-old, embalmed skeletal remains dating to World War II.
The SNP multiplex was successfully used to obtain haplogroup status of highly degraded human bones, and demonstrated the ability to eliminate possible contributors. The SNP multiplex provides a low-cost, high throughput method for typing of mtDNA haplogroups A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, L1/L2, L3, M, and N that could be useful for screening purposes for human identification efforts and anthropological studies.
New concepts in plate fixation have led to an evolution in plate design for olecranon fractures. The purpose of this study was to compare the stiffness and strength of locking compression plate (LCP) fixation to one-third tubular plate fixation in a cadaveric comminuted olecranon fracture model with a standardised osteotomy.
Materials and methods
Five matched pairs of cadaveric elbows were randomly assigned for fixation by either a contoured LCP combined with an intramedullary screw and unicortical locking screws or a one-third tubular plate combined with bicortical screws. Construct stiffness was measured by subjecting the specimens to cyclic loading while measuring gapping at the osteotomy site. Construct strength was measured by subjecting specimens to ramp load until failure.
There was no significant difference in fixation stiffness and strength between the two fixation methods. All failures consisted of failure of the bone and not of the hardware.
Contoured LCP and intramedullary screw fixation can be used as an alternative treatment method for comminuted olecranon fractures as its stiffness and strength were not significantly different from a conventional plating technique.
Locking compression plate; Comminuted; Olecranon fracture; Biomechanics; Cyclic loading
The incidence of femur fracture around total hip arthroplasties continues to increase at substantial cost to society. These fractures are frequently associated with a loose femoral component. Consequently, we sought to test whether femoral component loosening predisposes to periprosthetic femoral fracture. Because many periprosthetic femoral fractures are spiral in nature, we evaluated the torsional characteristics of the implanted femur in which the only design variable was instability of the femoral component. We used synthetic (polyurethane) (n = 15) and paired cadaveric femora (n = 10) with specimens divided into two groups: well-fixed and loose cemented stems. Each specimen was tested mechanically in internal rotation until failure. For the synthetic specimens, torque to failure was reduced by 38%, whereas stiffness was decreased 54% for the loose group compared with the well-fixed group. For the cadaveric specimens, torque to failure was reduced by 58%, whereas stiffness decreased 70% for the loose group compared with the well-fixed group. Fracture patterns were similar between synthetic and cadaveric femora with a proximal spiral pattern in loose specimens and more distal fracture patterns with well-fixed stems. Based on our data, patients with loosened femoral components are at risk for fracture at a substantially lower torque than those with well-fixed components.
Background and purpose
A proximal stem centralizer may be beneficial regarding cementing pressures, cement penetration, and stem alignment. We measured these parameters when cementing a mat-surfaced femoral component with and without the use of a proximal stem centralizer.
Material and methods
8 femoral prostheses with proximal centralizers and 8 femoral prostheses without proximal centralizers were cemented according to third-generation cementing technique in 8 pairs of embalmed cadaveric femora. We recorded intramedullary pressures (peak levels, the area under the pressure curves and mean pressure) with 6 pressure transducers during stem cementation. Computer tomographic scanning of specimens was performed to evaluate stem alignment after surgery. Thickness of the cement mantle, cement penetration, and stem centralization at the metaphyseal part of the femur were measured on cross sections using stereology.
There were no statistically significant differences in measured pressure and cement penetration values between the groups. There was similar cement distribution around the stems; however, in using a proximal centralizer, the cement mantle tended to be thinner laterally. Moreover, we found a larger variation in stem alignment on lateral projection in the proximal centralizer group.
No benefits regarding intramedullary pressures and cement penetration were obtained from cementation of a straight stem with a proximal stem centralizer. However, there was an increased risk of inferior stem positioning in the reamed medullary cavity using the centralizing device.
This study investigates how the microstructural properties of trabecular bone affect suture anchor performance. Seven fresh-frozen humeri were tested for pullout strength with a 5 mm Arthrex Corkscrew in the greater tuberosity, lesser tuberosity, and humeral head. Micro-computed tomography analysis was performed in the three regions of interest directly adjacent to individual pullout experiments. The morphometric properties of bone mineral density (BMD), structural model index (SMI), trabecular thickness (TbTh), trabecular spacing (TbS), trabecular number (TbN), and connectivity density were compared against suture anchor pullout strength. BMD (r = 0.64), SMI (r = -0.81), and TbTh (r = 0.71) showed linear correlations to the pullout strength of the suture anchor with p-values < 0.0001. A predictive model was developed to explain the variances in the individual BMD, SMI, and TbTh correlations. The multi-variant model of pullout strength showed a stronger relationship (r = 0.86) compared to the individual experimental results. This study helps confirm BMD is a major influence on the pullout strength of suture anchors, but also illustrates the importance of local microstructure in pullout resistance of suture anchors.
Suture Anchors; Pullout Strength; Micro-CT; Microstructure; Bone Mineral Density