Many surgical techniques have been published on how to treat congenital pseudoarthrosis of the tibia (CPT). We combined Ilizarov’s fixator with intramedullary nailing of the tibia and developed a procedure which combines the advantages of both methods: Ilizarov’s high fusion rate with alignment control and the protection against refracture provided by the intramedullary nail. The results of this approach are presented and discussed.
Material and methods
Seven boys and three girls aged 3–14 years (mean age 8 years 2 months) were treated using our combined technique. In six cases, the CPT was associated with neurofibromatosis. Two strategies were adopted: in six cases, a compression was applied on the bone defect, and in four cases, segmental bone transportation was performed before the compression procedure. The final follow-up (1.2–6.6 years) included a clinical and radiological examination.
Tibial union was achieved in nine cases without bone grafting. In one case, tibial union still remains uncertain, despite intertibiofibular bone grafting and additional compression procedures. Thirteen overall complications were noted, including three valgus deformity of the ankle. Bone transportation failed to achieve complete limb lengthening in three cases. One deep infection occurred 4 years after removal of the external fixator. The treatment for this included nail removal and antibiotic therapy for 3 months. Despite a permanent protection of orthosis, a refracture occurred 2 years after nail removal, reverting to the initial level of pseudarthrosis. Another surgical attempt using the same method was then performed with a satisfactory result.
The association of Ilizarov’s technique and intramedullary nailing achieved and maintained tibial union in nine of ten patients at final follow-up. It also allowed correction of axial deformities and prevented refracture. Despite the short duration of the follow-up and a high rate of complications in our series, this method can be useful in many cases of CPT in which healing has failed to occur despite many previous surgeries.
Congenital pseudoarthrosis of the tibia; Ilizarov technique; Intramedullary nailing
The results of treatment of congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia (CPT) are frequently unsatisfactory because of the need for multiple operations for recalcitrant nonunion, residual deformities, and limb-length discrepancies (LLD). Although the etiology of CPT is basically unknown, recent reports suggest the periosteum is the primary site for the pathologic processes in CPT. We hypothesized complete excision of the diseased periosteum and the application of a combined approach including free periosteal grafting, bone grafting, and intramedullary (IM) nailing of both the tibia and fibula combined with Ilizarov fixation would improve union rates and reduce refracture rates. We retrospectively reviewed 20 patients at two centers. The minimum followup was 2 years (mean, 4.3 years; range, 2–10.7 years). Union was achieved after the primary operation in all patients. Ten refractures occurred in eight of the 20 patients (two each in two patients, one each in six patients). Seven patients underwent seven secondary surgical procedures to simultaneously treat refracture and angular deformities. We used bisphosphonate as adjuvant therapy in three patients with refracture without subsequent refracture. We performed no amputations in these 20 patients. All patients were braced through skeletal maturity. Combining periosteal and bone grafting, IM nailing, and Ilizarov fixation is an effective treatment. IM nailing decreases the severity of subsequent fracture.
Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Two common treatment options for congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia (CPT) are intramedullary fixation following resection/shortening of the pseudarthrosis site and reconstruction with an Ilizarov external fixator following resection. We present in detail a narrative of two cases with similar degrees of tibial dysplasia associated with NF-1 treated using these different methods and followed to completion.
Technical issues and details of the treatment methods from case reports are discussed in depth. The eventual profoundly different outcomes are correlated to the technical variations used.
Treatment with the Charnley–Williams rodding method and aggressive bone grafting supplemented by rh-BMP2 resulted in a normal functioning limb at maturity, while treatment with first, an ineffective version of IM rodding, followed by two sessions of bone transport using an Ilizarov fixator failed to gain useful union and eventually resulted in amputation.
Technical details, heretofore inadequately reviewed in the literature, are crucial to the success of either of these commonly utilized treatment methods for CPT.
Congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia; Charnley–Williams intramedullary rodding; Bone transport with Ilizarov fixator; rhBMP2 treatment for CPT
The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of tibial lengthening using a reamed type intramedullary nail and an Ilizarov external fixator for the treatment of leg length discrepancy or short stature. This retrospective study was performed on 18 tibiae (13 patients) in which attempts were made to reduce complications. We used an Ilizarov external fixator and a nail (10 mm diameter in 17 tibiae and 11 mm in one tibia) in combination. Average limb lengthening was 4.19 cm (range, 2.5–5.5). The mean duration of external fixation was 12.58 days per centimetre gain in length, and the mean consolidation index was 40.53 (range, 35.45–51.85). All distracted segments healed spontaneously without refracture or malalignment. Gradual limb lengthening using a reamed type intramedullary nail and circular external fixation in combination was found to be reliable and effective and reduced external fixation time with fewer complications.
Congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia (CPT) is one of the most challenging problems in pediatric orthopaedics. The treatment goals are osteosynthesis, stabilization of the ankle mortise by fibular stabilization, and lower limb-length equalization. Each of these goals is difficult to accomplish but regardless of the surgical options, the basic biological considerations are the same: pseudarthrosis resection, biological bone bridging of the defect by stable fixation, and the correction of any angular deformity. The Ilizarov method is certainly valuable for the treatment of CPT because it can address not only pseudarthrosis but also all complex deformities associated with this condition. Leg-length discrepancy can be managed by proximal tibial lengthening using distraction osteogenesis combined with or without contralateral epiphysiodesis. However, treatment of CPT is fraught with complications due to the complex nature of the disease, and failure is common. Residual challenges, such as refracture, growth disturbance, and poor foot and ankle function with stiffness, are frequent and perplexing. Refracture is the most common and serious complication after primary healing and might result in the re-establishment of pseudarthrosis. Therefore, an effective, safe and practical treatment method that minimizes the residual challenges after healing and accomplishes the multiple goals of treatment is needed. This review describes a multi-targeted approach for tackling these challenges, which utilizes the Ilizarov technique in atrophic-type CPT.
Congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia; Ilizarov osteosynthesis; Fibular pseudarthrosis
Fibular hemimelia is partial or total aplasia of the fibula; it represents the most frequent congenital defect of the long bones. It usually is associated with other anomalies of the tibia, femur, and foot.
We reviewed 32 patients with Type III fibular hemimelia treated by successive lower limb lengthening and deformity correction using the Ilizarov method. We had three aims; first, to analyze complications, including the need for reoperation. The second was to assess knee and ankle function, specifically addressing knee ROM and stability and function of the foot and ankle. The third was assessment of overall patient satisfaction.
Patients and Methods
Thirty-two patients underwent 56 tibia lengthenings and 14 ipsilateral femoral lengthenings. Their mean age and mean functional leg-length discrepancy at initial treatment were 6.7 years and 6.2 cm, respectively. Activity level, pain, patient satisfaction with function, pain, and cosmesis, complications, and residual length discrepancy were assessed at the end of treatment.
The mean number of surgeries was six per case. The healing index was 44.9 days/cm. Although complications were observed during 60 lengthenings (82%), the highly versatile system overcame most of them. Nearly equal limb length and a plantigrade foot were achieved by 16 patients. For two patients, a Syme’s amputation was performed. The outcome was considered satisfactory in 17 patients (53%) and relatively good in eight patients (25%).
The Ilizarov technique has satisfactory results for treatment of Type III congenital fibular hemimelia and can be considered a good alternative to amputation.
Level of Evidence
Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Nonunion in diaphyseal fractures of the humerus can be treated by various modalities like plating and bone grafting, exchange nailing, fibular strut grafting and Ilizarov’s method of ring fixation. To achieve union in infected nonunion in which multiple surgeries have already been done is further challenging. We conducted a prospective study wherein the outcome of the treatment of nonunion of diaphyseal fractures of the humerus by Ilizarov’s method was analyzed.
Materials and Methods:
Nineteen patients with diaphyseal nonunion of the humerus were treated by Ilizarov’s external fixator. These included nonunion after plating (n=11), intramedullary nailing (n=1) or conservative methods (n=7). In post-surgical infected nonunion (n=6), the implants were removed, debridement done, bone fragments were docked followed by application of ring fixator and compression. In aseptic nonunion (n=13), distraction for three weeks followed by compression was the protocol. Early shoulder and elbow physiotherapy was instituted. The apparatus was removed after clinical and radiological union and the results were assessed for bone healing and functional status.
Fracture union was achieved in all the 19 cases. Pin site infection was seen in 2 cases (10.52%). The bone healing results were excellent in eighteen cases (94.73%) and good in one case (5.26%).The functional results were found to be excellent in fourteen cases (73.68%), good in four (21.05%) and fair in one case (5.26%).
Ilizarov’s method is an excellent option for treatment of septic and aseptic non union of diaphyseal fractures of the humerus as it addresses all the problems associated with non union of the humerus like infection, deformity and joint stiffness.
Non union humerus; Ilizarov’s ring fixator; bone healing
Congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia (CPT) is a rare pathology, which is usually associated with neurofibromatosis type I. The natural history of the disease is extremely unfavorable and once a fracture occurs, there is a little or no tendency for the lesion to heal spontaneously. It is challenging to treat effectively this difficult condition and its possible complications. Treatment is mainly surgical and it aims to obtain a long term bone union, to prevent limb length discrepancies, to avoid mechanical axis deviation, soft tissue lesions, nearby joint stiffness, and pathological fracture. The key to get primary union is to excise hamartomatous tissue and pathological periosteum. Age at surgery, status of fibula, associated shortening, and deformities of leg and ankle play significant role in primary union and residual challenges after primary healing. Unfortunately, none of invasive and noninvasive methods have proven their superiority. Surgical options such as intramedullary nailing, vascularized fibula graft, and external fixator, have shown equivocal success rate in achieving primary union although they are often associated with acceptable results. Amputation must be reserved for failed reconstruction, severe limb length discrepancy and gross deformities of leg and ankle. Distinct advantages, complications, and limitation of each primary treatment as well as strategies to deal with potential complications have been described. Each child with CPT must be followed up till skeletal maturity to identify and rectify residual problems after primary healing.
Congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia; complications; children; surgery; treatment
The Ilizarov technique has been used to treat severe limb length discrepancy and short stature. However, complications of this treatment are frequent. Between 1984 and 2001, 57 patients (94 tibias) had an Ilizarov procedure for limb lengthening. Twenty patients had limb discrepancy and 37 had short stature. Their mean age was 20.2 years (range 15–34). The average limb lengthening was 8.37 cm (range 3.2–14.7), which was equivalent to 26% (range 9.2–60%) average tibial lengthening. A total of 90 complications were observed. Thirty-three unplanned procedures were required during the lengthening programme. Two patients stopped the lengthening programme. There was no difference in the complications in leg lengthening using Ilizarov technique between the group of patients with leg length discrepancy and the group with short stature. A good knowledge of the Ilizarov technique is necessary to perform a lengthening programme with a low rate of complications.
Limb lengthening using Ilizarov external fixation is safe, but the consolidation phase tends to take too long. A method that can safely reduce the time spent in external fixation would help increase patient tolerance and comfort. We report our results of lengthening over nails (LON) method in which an interlocking nail was used along with an Ilizarov external fixator to reduce external fixation duration in limb lengthening. This is a retrospective study.
Materials and Methods:
Twenty-seven lengthening surgeries were done with the LON method in 23 patients with 22 tibiae and five femora during the last 12 years. Length gain ranged from 1.5 cm to a maximum of 9.8 cm with a mean of 4.6 cm. The mean modified Paley difficulty score was 7.6 points. Fourteen associated procedures were performed in these patients, including equinus contracture releases, supracondylar osteotomies, ilizarov hip reonstruction and ankle fusion. We had a 29% rate of complications which included one problem, three obstacles and four complications with no serious deep intramedullary infections. Our rate of complications compares favorably with series reported in the literature. External fixation duration was reduced significantly to a mean of 17.8 days per cm.
A combination of intramedullary nailing along with external fixation significantly reduces external fixation time while maintaining low rate of complications. Great care needs to be taken to prevent pin track infection and deep intramedullary sepsis.
Consolidation time; intramedullary nails; lengthening over nails; limb lengthening
The treatment of 31 consecutive adult patients, ages 25–67 years with chronic draining osteomyelitis (12 cases) or infected pseudarthrosis (19 cases) by the Papineau technique was retrospectively reviewed. The initial injury was an open fracture in 24 patients and a closed fracture in 7 patients. In all cases an Ilizarov circular external fixation device was used for the stabilization of the fracture or for bone lengthening. Mean follow-up for the group was 20 months (range, 10 months to 5 years) and there was successful limb salvage in all cases with eradication of infection and bone consolidation was achieved. The Ilizarov circular external fixation was removed at a mean of 18 weeks (range, 14–24 weeks). The mean time to bone union was 5 months (range, 4–10 months). All patients returned to their pre-treatment activity levels or better.
papineau; osteomyelitis; diabetes; pseudoarthrosis; lower extremity
Background and purpose Failed treatment of fractures may be corrected by the Ilizarov technique but complications are common. In 52 patients with compromised healing of femoral and tibial fractures, the results of secondary reconstruction with Ilizarov treatment were investigated retrospectively in order to identify the factors that contribute to the risk of complications.
Methods 52 consecutive patients was analyzed. The median interval between injury and secondary reconstruction was 3 (0.1–27) years. The patients had failed fracture treatment resulting in bone defects, pseudarthrosis, infection, limb length discrepancy (LLD) caused by bone consolidation after bone loss, malunion, soft-tissue loss, and stiff joints. Most patients had a combination of these deformities. The results were analyzed by using logistic regression in a polytomous universal mode (PLUM) logistic regression model.
Results The median treatment time was 9 (4–30) months, and the obstacle and complication rate was 105% per corrected bone segment. In 2 patients treatment failed, which resulted in amputation. In all other patients healing of nonunion could be established, malunion could be corrected, and infections were successfully treated. The statistical analysis revealed that relative bone loss of the affected bone was the only predictor for occurrence of complications. From these data, we constructed a simple graph that shows the relationship between relative bone loss of the affected bone and risk of complications.
Interpretation Relative bone loss of the affected bone segment is the main predictor of complications after Ilizarov treatment of previously failed fracture treatment. The visualization of the analysis in a simple graph may assist comparison of the complication rates in the literature.
Circular external fixators have several advantages over other surgical options in the treatment of limb length discrepancy and axial deformity. The innovative Taylor Spatial Frame (TSF) combines a rigid hexapod fixation system with the support of a web-based software program, and thus offers the possibility of simultaneous corrections of multidirectional deformities. Whilst there is still some scepticism of many Ilizarov device users about the advantages of the TSF, the purpose of the study was to perform a comparison between the TSF and the Ilizarov ring fixator (IRF) with regard to the accuracy of deformity correction in the lower limb.
Two hundred and eight consecutive deformity corrections in 155 patients were retrospectively evaluated. There were 79 cases treated with the IRF and 129 cases treated with the TSF. The mean age of the patients at the time of surgery was 13.2 years (range; 2–49 years). Standing anteroposterior and lateral radiographs were evaluated preoperatively and immediately after removal of the frames. The final result was compared to the preoperatively defined aim of the deformity correction. According to the treated count of dimensions, we differentiated four types of deformity corrections. The results were graded into four groups based on the persisting axial deviation after removal of the frame.
The aim of the deformity correction was achieved in a total of 90.7% in the TSF group, compared to 55.7% in the IRF group. On the basis of the count of dimensions, the TSF achieved obviously higher percentages of excellent results (one dimension: TSF 100%; IRF 79.3%; two dimensions: TSF 91.8%; IRF 48.6%; three dimensions: TSF 91.1%; IRF 28.6%; four dimensions: TSF 66.7%; IRF 0%). In addition, the degree of the persisting deformity increased with the number of planes of the deformity correction.
The TSF allowed for much higher precision in deformity correction compared to the IRF. In two-, three- and four-dimensional deformity corrections in particular, the TSF showed clear advantages. This may derive from the TSF-specific combination of a hexapod fixator with the support of an Internet-based software program, enabling precise simultaneous multiplanar deformity corrections.
Deformity correction; Comparison; Accuracy; Taylor Spatial Frame; Ilizarov ring fixator
Resistant clubfoot deformities of the foot and ankle remain a difficult problem even for the most experienced surgeon. We report a series of neglected resistant clubfoot deformities treated by limited surgery and Ilizarov distraction histogenesis.
Materials and Methods:
Twenty one patients with 27 feet having resistant clubfoot deformities were managed by Ilizarov distraction histogenesis from April 2005 to May 2008. The mean age was 12 years (range 8–20 years). A limited soft tissue dissection like percutaneous Achilles sheath tenotomy and plantar fasciotomy were done. Progressive correction of the deformities was achieved through the standard and simple Ilizarov frame construct setting. After removal of Ilizarov frame, a short leg walking cast was used for an additional 6 weeks, followed by an ankle foot orthrosis for 3 months.
The mean followup period was 18.7 months (range 20-36 months). The mean duration of fixator application was 3.6 months (range 3–5 months). At the time of removal of the fixator, a plantigrade foot was achieved in 25 feet and gait was improved in all patients. There was residual varus hind foot deformity in two patients. Out of 27 feet, 3 (11.11%) were rated as excellent, 17 (62.96%) as good, 5 (18.51%) as fair, and 2 (7.40%) as poor according to Reinkerand Carpenter scale. Excellent and good results (74.07%) were considered satisfactory, while fair and poor results (25.92%) were considered unsatisfactory.
The short term clinical and functional results of resistant clubfoot deformities with Ilizarov's external fixator is promising and apparently a good option.
Ilizarov frame; deformities; resistant clubfoot
Nonunion of humeral shaft fractures after previously failed surgical treatment presents a challenging therapeutic problem especially in the presence of osteoporosis, bone defect, and joint stiffness. It would be beneficial to combine the use of external fixation technique and intramedullary rod in the treatment of such cases. The present study evaluates the results of using external fixator augmented by intramedullary rod and autogenous iliac crest bone grafting (ICBG) for the treatment of humerus shaft nonunion following previously failed surgical treatment.
Materials and Methods:
Eighteen patients with atrophic nonunion of the humeral shaft following previous implant surgery with no active infection were included in the present study. The procedure included exploration of the nonunion, insertion of intramedullary rod (IM rod), autogenous ICBG and application of external fixator for compression. Ilizarov fixator was used in eight cases and monolateral fixator in ten cases. The monolateral fixator was preferred for females and obese patients to avoid abutment against the breast or chest wall following the use of Ilizarov fixator. The fixator was removed after clinical and radiological healing of the nonunion, but the IM rod was left indefinitely. The evaluation of results included both bone results (union rate, angular deformity and limb shortening) and functional outcome using the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) rating scale.
The mean follow-up was 35 months (range 24 to 52 months). Bone union was obtained in all cases. The functional outcome was satisfactory in 15 cases (83%) and unsatisfactory in 3 cases (17%) due to joint stiffness. The time to bone healing averaged 4.2 months (range 3 to 7 months). The external fixator time averaged 4.5 months (range 3.2 to 8 months). Superficial pin tract infection occurred in 39% (28/72) of the pins. No cases of nerve palsy, refracture, or deep infection were encountered.
The proposed technique is effective in treating humeral nonunion especially in the presence of osteoporosis and short bone segments. The inclusion of intramedullary rod as internal splint improves stability of fixation and prevents refracture after fixator removal.
Humerus; nonunion; external fixation; intramedullary fixation
The Ilizarov technique is an alternative for the treatment of complex foot deformities in children. The authors retrospectively reviewed children with relapsed clubfoot deformity, treated with soft tissue procedures and additional correction with an Ilizarov frame. Twelve consecutive patients (13 feet) with relapsed clubfoot deformity after previous surgical correction were reviewed. Treatment included open releases. An Ilizarov frame was applied as an adjunct in seven patients (mean age of 7.8 years) with severe deformity where complete intraoperative correction was not achieved. Clinical and radiographic assessment was undertaken. The mean Laaveg–Ponseti score, for the 7 feet treated with the Ilizarov frame, was 85.1 after minimum 4 years follow-up. One recurrence of forefoot deformity required metatarsal osteotomies. Postoperative radiographic measurements revealed values that can be considered as normal. Complications included pin tract infections (12% of inserted wires). Flat-topped talus was observed in 3 feet. Deformity correction was possible when soft tissue procedures were combined with the use of Ilizarov technique, in order to support and gradually improve surgical correction.
Clubfoot; Ilizarov; Recurrent; Relapsed; Release
Conventional wire fixation of Ilizarov rings often fails to provide 90-90 configuration because of vital structures, which is essential for optimum stability. Hybrid assembly with half pins is an alternative. The aim of this study is to compare the results of Hybrid assembly with that of conventional classic circular transfixion wire Ilizarov assembly in 50 cases of infected nonunion of tibia between 1994 and 2003.
Materials and Methods:
This study includes two groups with 25 patients in each group: Group (A) conventional Ilizarov assembly and Group (B) hybrid Ilizarov assembly. Thirty-five cases developed infected nonunion following road traffic accidents while others after fall (6) bullet injury (4), infected osteosynthesis (3) and assault (2). There were 45 males and five females with mean age (18 to 56 years). All active cases (n=28) were treated by debridement including removal of implants in infected osteosynthesis. Twenty out of 22 cases in the quiescent group (non draining for last three consecutive months) were treated without open debridement; only two cases required open debridement for various reasons. All the cases were finally treated as atrophic aseptic nonunion with bone defect and were classified according to ASAMI.
Type B1: length of the limb maintained with bone gap (14 cases in both Group A and B) and Type B3: combined shortening with defect (five and seven cases in Group A and B respectively), were treated by bifocal osteosynthesis. Only one case in the B3 group was treated by trifocal osteosynthesis to shorten the time. Type B2: segments in contact with limb shortening (total nine cases; five and four cases in Group A and B respectively) with shortening up to 2 cm (total five cases) were treated with monofocal osteosynthesis while shortening up to 5 cm and beyond (total four cases) were treated with bifocal osteosynthesis.
The cases were followed up for two to six years and the results were evaluated by Paley criteria of bony results (union, infection, deformity and leg-length discrepancy) and Functional Results (significant limp, equinus rigidity of the ankle, soft-tissue dystrophy, pain and inactivity). In both the groups, 24 cases out of 25, had excellent to good bony result with Group B having twice more excellent result than Group A. Functional results were found to be similar in both the groups. Although persistence of infection and Grade III pin tract infection (PTI) were slightly higher in Group B, complications like delayed consolidation of regenerate, refracture, deformity and aneurysm of vessel were less in this group.
Discussion and Conclusion:
Ilizarov methodology produced a satisfactory result in infected nonunion of the tibia. Hybrid assembly was a fruitful advancement in the Ilizarov armamentarium. The results were comparable to Conventional assembly in terms of docking site problems, corticotomy site problems, PTIs and other problems.
Hybrid assembly; Ilizarov; infected nonunion; conventional (classic circular transfixion wire) Ilizarov assembly
Bone loss in the forearm results from high-energy trauma or follows non-union with infection. Ilizarov methodology provides stable fixation without implantation of permanent foreign bodies while permitting wrist and elbow movement. We are reporting our experience using distraction osteogenesis in the treatment of traumatic bone loss in the forearm. From 1991 to 2000, 11 consecutive patients with traumatic forearm bone loss were treated with Ilizarov ring fixation. Records were reviewed retrospectively. All patients were contacted 2-10 years after surgery at the Ilizarov Clinic in Lecco, Italy. Eleven atrophic non-unions with bone loss were treated. The time from injury to Ilizarov treatment averaged 2.1 years. Follow-up averaged 6.2 years. The union rate with Ilizarov treatment alone was 64%. Thirty-six percent of the patients were converted to a hypertrophic non-union and underwent compression plating. The overall rate of union was 100%. There were four unplanned reoperations and no refractures, neurovascular injuries or deep infections. Three patients had significant limitations of wrist function. Nine patients described their function as excellent. Ilizarov fixation with bone transport is a viable treatment option for atrophic forearm non-unions with bone loss. Treatment resulted in ablation of infection, healing of atrophic non-unions with minimal complications and early extremity use.
Circular external fixation using the Ilizarov apparatus combined with compression-distraction techniques was used to treat 11 patients with infected non-union and segmental bone loss of the tibia. The series comprised 8 males and 3 females, with an average age of 27 years (range 17–51 years). The average number of previous failed surgical attempts at union was 2 per patient (range 1 to 4). Three infected non-unions without shortening were treated with complete resection of the site and conversion of the diaphysis into a segmental defect. The functional results were excellent in 5, good in 3, fair in 2 and poor in one patient. No additional procedures were used in any of the patients.
Hereditary multiple exostoses (HME) is a genetic disorder that causes limb deformities due to disturbance at the growth plates.
Materials and methods
Six adolescents, whith symptomatic valgus deformity at the ankle and knee (seven affected legs) underwent correction procedures using the Ilizarov apparatus. In 5 legs, a bifocal Ilizarov apparatus was used, whereas in 2 legs the use of a monofocal apparatus was sufficient.
Correction of the mechanical axis was achieved in all cases, and limb length discrepancy was equalized in the 3 cases that underwent limb elogation. The average knee and ankle corrections were 15° and 18°, respectively. The average time from application to removal of the Ilizarove apparatus was 4.6 months. No major complication occurred.
The use of the Ilizarov method in adolescents with HME enables successful simultaneous correction of multiplanar, multifocal complex limb deformities.
Hereditary multiple exostosis; Ilizarov apparatus; Osteochondroma; Limb deformity
Roentgenographic and functional outcomes of expandable self locking intramedullary nailing and platelet rich plasma (PRP) gel in the treatment of long bone non-unions are reported.
Materials and methods
Twenty-two patients suffering from atrophic diaphyseal long bone non-unions were enrolled in the study. Patients were treated with removal of pre-existing hardware, decortication of non-union fragments, and fixation of pseudoarthrosis with expandable intramedullary nailing (Fixion™, Disc’O Tech, Tel Aviv, Israel). At surgery, PRP was placed in the pseudoarthrosis rim.
The thirteen-month follow-up showed 91% (20/22 patients) of patients attaining bony union. The average time to union was 21.5 weeks. No infection, neurovascular complication, rotational malalignment, or limb shortening >4 mm were observed. The healing rate of non-unions was comparable to that observed in previous studies but with a lower complication frequency.
The combined use of self locking intramedullary nailing and PRP in the management of atrophic diaphyseal long bone non-unions seems to produce comparable results with less complications than previously reported. Further data are warranted to investigate the single contribution of PRP gel and Fixion nail.
Intramedullary nailing; Platelet rich plasma; Pseudoarthrosis
Osteochondroma is the most common benign bone tumour. They most commonly affect the long tubular bones and almost half of osteochondromata are found around the knee. Osteochondroma arising from the distal metaphysis of the tibia typically result in a valgus deformity of the ankle joint secondary to relative shortening of the fibula. This case describes the use of Ilizarov technique for fibular lengthening following excision of a distal tibial osteochondroma. A 12-year-old girl presented with a 3-year history of a large swelling affecting the lateral aspect of the right distal tibia. Plain radiographs confirmed a large sessile osteochondroma arising from the postero-lateral aspect of the distal tibia with deformity of the fibula and 15 mm of fibular shortening. The patient underwent excision through a postero-lateral approach and subsequent fibular lengthening by Ilizarov technique. The patient made excellent recovery with removal of frame after 21 weeks and had made a full recovery with normal ankle function by 6 months. The Ilizarov method is a commonly accepted method of performing distraction osteogenesis for limb inequalities; however, this is mainly for the tibia, femur and humerus. We are unaware of any previous cases using the Ilizarov method for fibular lengthening. This case demonstrates the success of the Ilizarov method in restoring both fibular length and normal ankle anatomy.
Fibular shortening; Osteochondroma; Deformity; Ilizarov
Treatment options for comminuted tibial shaft fractures include plating, intramedullary nailing, and external fixation. No biomechanical comparison between an interlocking tibia nail with external fixation by an Ilizarov frame has been reported to date. In the present study, we compared the fatigue behaviour of Ilizarov frames to interlocking intramedullary nails in a comminuted tibial fracture model under a combined loading of axial compression, bending and torsion. Our goal was to determine the biomechanical characteristics, stability and durability for each device over a clinically relevant three month testing period. The study hypothesis was that differences in the mechanical properties may account for differing clinical results and provide information applicable to clinical decision making for comminuted tibia shaft fractures.
In this biomechanical study, 12 composite tibial bone models with a comminuted fracture and a 25 mm diaphyseal gap were investigated. Of these, six models were stabilized with a 180-mm four-ring Ilizarov frame, and six models were minimally reamed and stabilized with a 10 mm statically locked Russell-Taylor Delta™ tibial nail. After measuring the pre-fatigue axial compression bending and torsion stiffness, each model was loaded under a sinusoidal cyclic combined loading of axial compression (2.8/28 lbf; 12.46/124.6 N) and torque (1.7/17 lbf-in; 0.19/1.92 Nm) at a frequency of 3 Hz. The test was performed until failure (implant breakage or ≥ 5° angulations and/or 2 cm shortening) occurred or until 252,000 cycles were completed, which corresponds to approximately three months testing period.
In all 12 models, both the Ilizarov frame and the interlocking tibia nail were able to maintain fracture stability of the tibial defect and to complete the full 252,000 cycles during the entire study period of three months. A significantly higher stiffness to axial compression and torsion was demonstrated by the tibial interlocking nail model, while the Ilizarov frame provided a significantly increased range of axial micromotion.
This is the first study, to our knowledge, which compares the biomechanical properties of an intramedullary nail to an external Ilizarov frame to cyclic axial loading and torsion in a comminuted tibia shaft fracture model. Prospective, randomized trials comparing Ilizarov frames and interlocked tibial nails are needed to clarify the clinical impact of these biomechanical findings.
The aim of this study is to compare lengthening over an intramedullary nail to the conventional Ilizarov method with regard to percentage length increase, external fixation index, consolidation index and incidence of complications. This is a prospective randomized controlled study. Thirty-one limbs in 28 patients were included in the study; 15 were lengthened over an intramedullary nail, and 16 limbs were lengthened conventionally. The mean duration of external fixation in the lengthening over nail group was 52.2 days compared to 180.4 days in the conventional group. There was higher incidence of complications in the conventional method group. In comparison with conventional Ilizarov lengthening, lengthening over an intramedullary nail offers a shorter period of external fixation and fewer complications overall, but there is a high incidence of deep intramedullary infection which is serious.
Ilizarov; Bone lengthening; Intramedullary nail; Distraction osteogenesis
The treatment of rigid equinocavovarus foot deformities caused by neurologic disorders is often difficult and relapse is common.
We asked whether the Ilizarov technique could be used for correction of neurologic equinocavovarus foot deformities resulting in improved foot and ankle function and patient satisfaction.
Patients and Methods
The neurologic equinocavovarus foot deformities of 26 patients (mean age, 18.7 years; 29 feet) were treated using the Ilizarov technique. Nine feet were treated by distraction histiogenesis only with limited soft tissue release, whereas 20 feet needed additional osteotomy and/or tendon transfer/lengthening. Minimum followup was 12 months (mean, 72.9 months; range, 12–155 months).
The mean time required for deformity correction was 27.1 days (range, 14–47 days) and the mean time for stabilization in the apparatus was 23.2 days (range, 7–53 days). A painless, stable, and plantigrade result was obtained by 22 patients (24 feet). Mild residual foot deformity was observed in the remaining five feet of four patients. Six patients (six feet) experienced postoperative complications. Three patients (four feet) experienced recurrence of the deformity requiring surgical correction.
Ilizarov soft tissue distraction with or without callotasis of tarsal bone(s) allows a greater degree of correction of neurologic equinocavovarus foot deformities. However, to reduce the risk of recurrence after fixator removal, it may be necessary to overcorrect the deformity while in the fixator, to use nighttime splinting, and most importantly, to eliminate neuromuscular imbalance, if necessary, by combining arthrodesis with or without tendon transfer.
Level of Evidence
Level IV, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.