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1.  Functional Outcome of Transphyseal Reconstruction of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament in Skeletally Immature Patients 
Knee Surgery & Related Research  2012;24(3):173-179.
Purpose
In anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, conventional adult reconstruction techniques have to face the potential risk of growth disturbance or angular deformities in skeletally immature patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of ACL reconstruction by conventional transphyseal tunnel technique.
Materials and Methods
On a retrospective basis, we reviewed 25 skeletally immature patients; all the patients showed skeletal maturity at last follow-up, and the mean age was 16.4 years. The average injury to surgery interval was 12.6 months. Clinical outcomes were assessed at a mean of 74.4 months postoperatively using the Lysholm Knee Scoring Scale, the Tegner activity level, the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC), and plain radiographs.
Results
All the patients had undergone transphyseal reconstruction of ACL. The mean Lysholm score was 48.36 points preoperatively and 93.32 points postoperatively; the mean Tegner activity level was changed from 3.0 points to 5.6 points. The mean IKDC level was categorized as C preoperatively and changed to A postoperatively.
Conclusions
Our midterm outcome at an average 6 years after surgery was satisfactory without significant leg length discrepancies or abnormal alignment of the knee joint. Transphyseal reconstruction of ACL is a good treatment modality in the skeletally immature patient.
doi:10.5792/ksrr.2012.24.3.173
PMCID: PMC3438279  PMID: 22977795
Anterior cruciate ligament; Skeletally immature; Adolescent
2.  Cell-based Therapy Improves Function in Adolescents and Young Adults With Patellar Osteochondritis Dissecans 
Background
Recent advances have been made in using chondrocytes and other cell-based therapy to treat cartilage defects in adults. However, it is unclear whether these advances should be extended to the adolescent and young adult-aged patients.
Questions/purposes
We assessed cell-based surgical therapy for patellar osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) in adolescents and young adults by (1) determining function with the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective and Lysholm-Gillquist scores; and (2) evaluating activity level using the Tegner-Lysholm scale.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed 23 patients between 12 and 21 years of age (mean 16.8 years) treated for OCD lesions involving the patella from 2001 to 2008. Twenty patients had autologous chondrocyte implantation and three patients had cultured bone marrow stem cell implantation. There were 19 males and four females. We obtained preoperative CT scans to assess patella subluxation, tilt, and congruence angle to determine choice of treatment. We obtained IKDC subjective knee evaluation scores, Tegner-Lysholm activity levels, and Lysholm-Gillquist knee scores preoperatively and at 6, 12, and 24 months postoperatively.
Results
Mean IKDC score, Tegner-Lysholm outcomes, and Lysholm-Gillquist scale improved from 45, 2.5, and 50, respectively, at surgery to 75, 4, and 70, respectively, at 24-month followup. Complications include periosteal hypertrophy observed in two patients.
Conclusion
Cell-based therapy was associated with short-term improvement in function in adolescents and young adults with patellar OCD.
Level of Evidence
Level IV, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-012-2338-z
PMCID: PMC3586029  PMID: 22476898
3.  Clinical and radiological outcomes after management of traumatic knee dislocation by open single stage complete reconstruction/repair 
Background
The purpose of our study was to analyze the clinical and radiological long-term outcomes of surgically treated traumatic knee dislocations and determine prognostic factors for outcome.
Methods
Retrospective consecutive series of patients treated surgically for traumatic knee dislocation with reconstruction/refixation of the anterior (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligaments (PCL) and primary complete repair of collaterals and posteromedial and posteromedial corner structures. 68 patients were evaluated clinically (IKDC score, SF36 health survey, Lysholm score, Knee Society score, Tegner score, visual analogue scale - VAS pain and satisfaction, Cooper test) and radiologically (weight bearing and stress radiographs) with a mean follow up of 12 ± 8 years. Instrumented anterior-posterior translation was measured (Rolimeter, KT-1000). Pearson correlation and stepwise regression analysis was used.
Results
82% of patients (n = 56) returned to their previous work. At final follow-up 6 patients (9%) suffered from pain VAS > 3. The mean side-to-side difference of anterior/posterior translation (KT-1000, 134N) was 1.6 ± 1.6 mm and 2.6 ± 1.4 mm. Valgus and varus stress testing in 30° flexion was <3 mm (normal) in 57 patients (86%). The IKDC score was normal/nearly normal in 38 (58%) patients and the mean Lysholm score 83 ± 17 (intact 98 ± 7). The median Tegner score decreased from 7 preinjury (range 3-10) to 5 at follow-up (range 0-10). The mean Knee Society score was 187 ± 15 (out of maximum 200). In 7 patients (10%) a secondary ligament reconstruction was performed. Three patients (4%) underwent a high tibial osteotomy and four (6%) received a primary unconstrained total knee replacement. According to the Kellgren Lawrence osteoarthritis score only mild degenerative changes were present. The stress radiographs showed stable results for anteroposterior translation. Injury of the lateral collateral ligament, refixation of the ACL/PCL and delayed surgery >40 days were significantly associated with worse outcome (p < 0.05).
Conclusions
Early complete reconstruction can achieve good functional results and patient satisfaction with overall restoration of sports and working capacity. Negative predictive factors for outcome were injury pattern, type of surgical procedure and timing of surgery.
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-11-102
PMCID: PMC2894008  PMID: 20507623
4.  Isokinetic evaluation after two-stage bicruciate reconstruction 
Acta Ortopedica Brasileira  2014;22(1):21-24.
Objective:
To assess the functional balance of the knee after bicruciate reconstruction and its correlation with clinical score.
Methods:
14 patients (11 men and three women), mean age 29.9±7.65 years, mean BMI 26.2±2.51 kg/m2 underwent surgical reconstruction of the Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL) and Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) in two stages, with a mean interval of 3 months between procedures. With a mean follow-up period of 27.33 months, the isokinetic knee analysis was performed at 60°/s and 180°/s and the Lysholm and Tegner scores were applied.
Results:
The Lysholm score was 86.8±11.1 points and the Tegner score showed a deficit of 30% compared to pre-injury level. In isokinetic evaluation, the deficit of the operated quadriceps average torque was 17.05% at 60°/s and 12.16% at 180°/s, while the average flexor torque deficit was 3.43% at 60°/s and 5.82% at 180°/s. Although it was observed torque deficit between members, there were no statistical differences regarding the functional balance between hamstrings and quadriceps.
Conclusion:
Although the results of isokinetic evaluation has shown a functional balance of the knee (flexor-extensor), which may have contributed to the good subjective Lysholm score in the bicruciate two-stage reconstruction, two-stage reconstruction did not restore the pre-injury functional level. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series.
doi:10.1590/S1413-78522014000100003
PMCID: PMC3952866  PMID: 24644415
Posterior cruciate ligament; Anterior cruciate ligament; Knee; Biomechanics
5.  The occurrence of osteoarthritis at a minimum of ten years after reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament 
Objective
The objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence of radiographic osteoarthritis in the operated knee in comparison with the contralateral knee ten years after a bone-tendon bone patellar autograft ACL-reconstruction and to evaluate to which level patients regain activity ten years after reconstruction.
Methods
Fifty-three patients with ACL instability were operated arthroscopically using the central third of the patellar tendon as a bone-tendon-bone autograft. At a minimum of 10 year follow up 28/44 patients matched the inclusion criteria and could be reached for follow-up. Evaluation included a patient satisfaction evaluation using a Visual Analog Scale, physical examination (International Knee Documentation Committee score, Tegner score, Lysholm score, KT-1000 stabilometry) and a radiological evaluation (Kellgren and Fairbanks classification).
Results
The patients' satisfaction, at a mean of 10,3 year follow-up, measured with a VAS score (0–10) was high with a mean of 8.5 (range 4 to 10). The KT 1000 arthrometer laxity measurements revealed in 55% of the patients an A rating (1–2 mm), in 29% a B rating (3–5 mm) and in 16% a C rating (6–10 mm). According to the Tegner score 54% of the patients were able to perform at the same activity level as pre-operatively. The mean pre-operative Tegner score was 6.8 and the mean post-operative Tegner score was 6.0 at final follow up. The Lysholm score showed satisfactory results with a mean of 91 points (range 56 to 100). According to the Kellgren and Fairbank classifications, there is a significant difference (p < 0.05) in development of OA between the ACL injured and subsequently operated knee in comparison to the contralateral knee.
Conclusion
The patellar BTB ACL reconstruction does not prevent the occurrence of radiological OA after 10 years but does help the patient to regain the pre-operative level of activity.
doi:10.1186/1749-799X-3-24
PMCID: PMC2430704  PMID: 18544170
6.  Reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament using a longitudinal patellar tunnel technique 
International Orthopaedics  2009;34(8):1321-1325.
Patellar instability is a common clinical problem affecting a young, active population. A large number of procedures have been described to treat patellar instability. We present the clinical results in a case series of 25 medial patellofemoral ligament reconstructions in 21 patients with up to 30 months follow-up (mean: 7.3). Reconstruction was performed using either the gracilis or semitendinosus tendon autograft. The Tegner activity score improved overall from 3 to 4.4 at follow-up and the mean follow-up Kujala score was 87 (range: 55–100). No patella redislocations were observed. Five patients (20%) required a manipulation under anaesthetic but subsequently regained a satisfactory range of motion. Medial patellofemoral reconstruction with both gracilis and semitendinosus tendon graft using a longitudinal tunnel technique provided good post-operative stability restoring the primary soft tissue restraint to pathological lateral patellar displacement with no complications of post-operative patellar fracture.
doi:10.1007/s00264-009-0918-7
PMCID: PMC2989091  PMID: 19997732
7.  Prevalence and influence of tibial tunnel widening after isolated anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using patella-bone-tendon-bone-graft: long-term follow-up 
Orthopedic Reviews  2012;4(2):e21.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate incidence, degree and impact of tibial tunnel widening (TW) on patient-reported long-term clinical outcome, knee joint stability and prevalence of osteoarthritis (OA) after isolated anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. On average, 13.5 years after ACL reconstruction via patella-bone-tendon-bone autograft, 73 patients have been re-evaluated. Inclusion criteria consisted of an isolated anterior cruciate ligament rupture and reconstruction, a minimum of 10-year follow-up and no previous anterior cruciate ligament repair or associated intra-articular lesions. Clinical evaluation was performed via the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score and the Tegner and Lysholm scores. Instrumental anterior laxity testing was carried out with the KT-1000™ arthrometer. The degree of degenerative changes and the prevalence of osteoarthritis were assessed with the Kellgren-Lawrence score. Tibial tunnel enlargement was radiographically evaluated on both antero-posterior and lateral views under establishment of 4 degrees of tibial tunnel widening by measuring the actual tunnel diameters in mm on the sclerotic margins of the inserted tunnels on 3 different points (T1–T3). Afterwards, a conversion of the absolute values in mm into a 4 staged ratio, based on the comparison to the results of the initial drill-width, should provide a better quantification and statistical analysis. Evaluation was performed postoperatively as well as on 2 year follow-up and 13 years after ACL reconstruction. Minimum follow-up was 10 years. 75% of patients were graded A or B according to IKDC score. The mean Lysholm score was 90.2±4.8 (25–100). Radiological assessment on long-term follow-up showed in 45% a grade I, in 24% a grade II, in 17% a grade III and in additional 12% a grade IV enlargement of the tibial tunnel. No evident progression of TW was found in comparison to the 2 year results. Radiological evaluation revealed degenerative changes in sense of a grade II OA in 54% of patients. Prevalence of a grade III or grade IV OA was found in 20%. Correlation analysis showed no significant relationship between the amount of tibial tunnel enlargement (P>0.05), long-term clinical results, anterior joint laxity or prevalence of osteoarthritis. Tunnel widening remains a radiological phenomenon which is most commonly observed within the short to midterm intervals after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and subsequently stabilises on mid and long- term follow-up. It does not adversely affect long-term clinical outcome and stability. Furthermore, tunnel widening doesn't constitute an increasing prevalence of osteoarthritis.
doi:10.4081/or.2012.e21
PMCID: PMC3395990  PMID: 22802989
anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction; long-term follow-up; IKDC-score; tibial tunnel widening; osteoarthritis; long-term anterior laxity.
8.  Anatomical reconstruction of the patellar tendon using the fascia lata attached to the iliac bone following resection for soft tissue sarcoma: A case report 
Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences  2012;117(4):460-464.
A new reconstruction of the patellar tendon was performed in a 43-year-old patient who lost tendon and tibial tuberosity after a wide tumor resection for low-grade myofibroblastic sarcoma of the parapatellar tendon. In this technique, the patellar tendon was anatomically reconstructed using a fascia lata attached to the iliac bone. The iliac bone was fixed to the tibial bony trough with absorbable screws, and the fascia lata was fashioned into three branches: the central branch was folded through the tunnel in the patella, and the medial and lateral branches were tagged to the medial and lateral retinaculum, respectively, around the patella. The skin defect was covered by the bilateral head of the gastrocnemius flap and a split-thickness skin graft. At the 3-year follow-up, the active range of motion of the knee joint was 0 to 110 degrees. The functional result according to the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society scoring system was 97%. Radiographs showed that the grafted bone was united well to the tibial bone, and the grafted fascia was confirmed as a dark band on MRI. There was no evidence of disease and no complaint of the donor site. This procedure allows for the reconstruction of the patellar tendon in the original location. To our knowledge, this reconstructive procedure of the patellar tendon using the fascia lata attached to the iliac bone has never been reported in English literature.
doi:10.3109/03009734.2012.689379
PMCID: PMC3497216  PMID: 22651248
Fascia lata; patellar tendon; reconstruction; soft tissue sarcoma
9.  Femoral press-fit fixation in ACL reconstruction using bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft: results at 15 years follow-up 
Background
If anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is to be performed, decision regarding graft choice and its fixation remains one of the most controversial. Multiple techniques for ACL reconstruction are available. To avoid disadvantages related to fixation devices, a hardware-free, press-fit ACL reconstruction technique was developed.
The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical outcome and osteoarthritis progression in long term after ACL reconstruction with central third patellar-tendon autograft fixed to femur by press-fit technique.
Methods
Fifty two patients met inclusion/excusion criteria for this study. The patients were assessed preoperatively and at 15 years after surgery with International Knee Documentation Committee Knee Ligament Evaluation Form, Lysholm knee score, Tegner activity scale and radiographs.
Results
Good overall clinical outcomes and self-reported assessments were documented, and remained good at 15 years. The mean Lysholm and Tegner scores improved from 59.7 ± 18.5 and 4.2 ± 1.0 preoperatively to 86.4 ± 5.6 (p = 0.004) and 6.9 ± 1.4 (p = 0.005) respectively at follow-up. The IKDC subjective score improved from 60.1 ± 9.2 to 80.2 ± 8.1 (p = 0.003).
According to IKDC objective score, 75% of patients had normal or nearly normal knee joints at follow-up. Grade 0 or 1 results were seen in 85% of patients on laxity testing. Degenerative changes were found in 67% of patients. There was no correlation between arthritic changes and stability of knee and subjective evaluation (p > 0.05).
Conclusions
ACL reconstruction with patellar tendon autograft fixed to femur with press-fit technique allows to achieve good self-reported assessments and clinical ligament evaluation up to 15 years. Advantages of the bone-patellar-tendon-bone (BPTB) press-fit fixation include unlimited bone-to-bone healing, cost effectiveness, avoidance of disadvantages associated with hardware, and ease for revision surgery. BPTB femoral press-fit fixation technique can be safely applied in clinical practice and enables patients to return to preinjury activities including high-risk sports.
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-13-115
PMCID: PMC3492212  PMID: 22738187
10.  Isolated anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in patients aged fifty years: comparison of hamstring graft versus bone-patellar tendon-bone graft 
International Orthopaedics  2013;37(5):809-817.
Purpose
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficiency contributes to symptomatic functional instability of the knee, regardless of age. We evaluated patient-reported clinical outcome, instrumental stability and prevalence of radiological osteoarthritis based on two homogenous patient samples aged 50 years, an average of three years after isolated ACL reconstruction.
Methods
ACL reconstruction using a bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) autograft was done in 19 patients and a four-stranded semitendinosus tendon (ST) autograft in 22 patients. Clinical and functional follow-up assessment was performed an average of 32 months after surgical treatment. Clinical and functional follow-up assessment included the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score, Tegner score and Lysholm score. Instrumental stability testing was carried out using the KT–1000™ arthrometer. The degree of degenerative changes and prevalence of osteoarthritis was based on the Kellgren–Lawrence classification.
Results
Mean follow-up was 32 months (range, 28–36). Mean age was 49.4 years in both groups. The median pre-injury Tegner score was 5.5 (range, 2–8) and the median preoperative Lysholm score was 35 (range, 15–69). At two years, all variables improved significantly for both groups compared to the preoperative values (P < 0.05), with no significant intergroup differences. Approximately 76 % of patients were graded A or B according to the IKDC score in both groups. Activity level according to the scores of Tegner and Lysholm was 4.9/5.3 and 83.4/82.5 on two-year-follow up in both groups. Radiological assessment reported degenerative changes of grade I Osteoarthritis (OA) in 36 % of patients. Grade-II OA was found in 31 % of patients. Grade-III OA and grade-IV OA were found in about 24 % and 7 % of all patients, respectively. Correlation analyses showed significant relationships between conservation of knee-joint stability and clinical outcome according to the IKDC score, and activity level according to the Lysholm score (p < 0.05).
Conclusion
Arthroscopic ACL reconstruction using either BPTB graft or hamstring graft in appropriately selected middle-aged patients results in patient satisfaction and good clinical results, with return to a reasonable level of activity regardless of surgical method and graft choice.
doi:10.1007/s00264-013-1807-7
PMCID: PMC3631493  PMID: 23377111
11.  Reconstruction of medial patellofemoral ligament for chronic patellar instability 
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics  2012;46(4):447-454.
Background:
Disruption of the capsule, medial patellar retinaculum, and/or vastus medialis obliqus has been associated with recurrent patellar instability. Biomechanical studies have shown that the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) is the main restraint against lateral patella displacement and reconstruction of the MPFL has become an accepted surgical technique to restore patellofemoral stability in patients having recurrent patellar dislocation. We report a prospective series of patients of chronic patellar instability treated by reconstruction of medial patellofemoral ligament.
Materials and Methods:
Twelve patients (15 knees) with recurrent dislocation of patella, were operated between January 2006 and December 2008. All patients had generalised ligament laxity with none had severe grade of patella alta or trochlear dysplasia. The MPFL was reconstructed with doubled semitendinosus tendon. Patients were followed up with subjective criteria, patellar inclination angle, and Kujala score.
Results:
The mean duration of followup after the operative procedures was an average of 42 months (range 24–60 months) 10 knees showed excellent results, 3 knees gave good results, and 2 knees had a fair result. The average patellar inclination angle decreased from 34.3° to 18.6°. The average preoperative Kujala functional score was 44.8 and the average postoperative score was 91.9.
Conclusion:
MPFL reconstruction using the semitendinosus tendon gives good results in patients with chronic patellar instability without predisposing factors like severe patella alta and high-grade trochlear dysplasia, and for revision cases.
doi:10.4103/0019-5413.97259
PMCID: PMC3421936  PMID: 22912521
Hamstring tendon; medial patellofemoral ligament; patellofemoral instability
12.  Transphyseal Reconstruction of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament Using Hamstring Autograft in Skeletally Immature Adolescents 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2005;20(6):1034-1038.
Eleven skeletally immature adolescents underwent anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using a transphyseal tibial and femoral tunnel. An autologous quadrupled hamstring tendon was used in all cases and the average follow-up was 77.7 months. Clinical results were evaluated using Lysholm knee scores and a return to pre-injury sports activities. Radiological results were evaluated using side-to-side differences of instrumented laxities and growth disturbances compared with the uninjured side on final follow-up orthoroentgenograms. The mean Lysholm score was 97.8 (range 94-100) and mean side-to-side laxity difference was 2.4 mm (range 1-4). Ten of 11 patients returned to pre-injury sports activity. No patient had a leg length discrepancy of over 1 cm or a significant abnormal angular deformity of the knee joint. Therefore, anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using the transphyseal tunnel and hamstring autograft in skeletally immature adolescents is believed to be a reliable treatment method, which is not associated with significant leg length discrepancy or abnormal angular deformity of the knee joint.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2005.20.6.1034
PMCID: PMC2779305  PMID: 16361818
Adolescent; Anterior Cruciate Ligament; Reconstructive Surgical Procedures
13.  Anatomic Reconstruction of the Medial Patellofemoral Ligament in Children and Adolescents Using a Pedicled Quadriceps Tendon Graft 
Arthroscopy Techniques  2014;3(2):e303-e308.
Reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) has recently become a popular procedure for children and adolescents with patellofemoral instability. Nevertheless, high complication rates of up to 26% have been reported. The traditionally used technique requires patellar bone tunnels that may place the proportionately smaller patella at higher risk of fracture. Because of the adjacent physis of the femoral insertion, anatomic reconstruction of the MPFL has the risk of injury to the growth plate. This technical report therefore presents a technique for anatomic reconstruction of the MPFL in a skeletally immature population using a pedicled superficial quadriceps tendon graft, hardware-free patellar graft attachment, and anatomic femoral fixation distal to the femoral physis. The advantages of this technique include avoidance of bony patellar complications, an anatomically truer reconstruction, a single incision, and sparing of the hamstring tendons for reconstruction of any future ligamentous injuries.
doi:10.1016/j.eats.2014.01.005
PMCID: PMC4044542  PMID: 24904782
14.  Long-term outcomes following single-bundle transtibial arthroscopic posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction 
International Orthopaedics  2012;37(2):337-343.
Purpose
Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injury has a reported incidence of 3–20 %. PCL reconstruction is aimed at reducing onset of premature articular degeneration and improving function. Numerous operative techniques have been described with varying degrees of result consistency.
Methods
We evaluated 15 patients treated for isolated primary posterior cruciate ligament injury with a mean follow-up of 4.1 years (range one to nine). Post-reconstruction clinical assessment included the Lysholm and Tegner knee scoring scale, international knee documentation committee (IKDC) ligament evaluation, and KT2000 arthrometer assessment.
Results
On the Lysholm knee score 11 patients (73 %) had excellent results, three patients (20 %) had good results and one patient (7 %) had a poor result. On the Tegner activity score the majority of patients scored 7–8 with a return to high level sports. At the final follow-up, the post-reconstruction IKDC score was normal or nearly normal (A and B) in 14 (93 %) patients, and abnormal (C) in one (7 %) patient. According to KT-2000 arthrometer measurements at final follow-up review, 11 patients (73 %) were rated as normal (A, 0–2 mm), and four patients (27 %) as nearly normal (B, 3–5 mm). These results were independent of age, mechanism of injury, time elapsed to surgical reconstruction, and length of follow-up.
Conclusions
Despite being a technically demanding procedure, the outcomes reported in this study show that single bundle transtibial arthroscopic PCL repair using four strands hamstring autograft provides satisfactory and consistent functional outcomes.
doi:10.1007/s00264-012-1609-3
PMCID: PMC3560887  PMID: 22777384
15.  Hamstring transfer for quadriceps paralysis in post polio residual paralysis 
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics  2012;46(5):575-580.
Context:
Paralysis of quadriceps muscle leads to severe disability as the knee is unstable and cannot be fully extended and locked in extension, which results in giving way of the knee joint. Because of this, the patient tries to get stability of the knee by various means like hand to knee gait, extreme internal or external rotation of the affected limb to stabilize knee by support of medial or lateral collateral ligament, respectively, or by tilting pelvis. When there is concomitant weakness of gluteus maximus quadriceps and hamstrings (MRC muscle power less than grade III), patient may develop compensatory hyperlordosis of spine. Hamstring (H) transfer is a well-accepted procedure for patients with quadriceps (Q) weakness. For hamstring transfer, we have used a modified technique of anchoring of biceps femoris and semitendinosus tendon to patella. Instead of cutting the periosteum over the patella in an I-shaped manner, an osteoperisoteal flap was raised after two parallel incisions over the patella and both tendons were sutured under the flap with each other. We conducted a retrospective evaluation of the results of modified hamstring transfer in 267 patients of post polio residual paralysis with residual quadriceps paralysis.
Materials and Methods:
Two hundred and fifty young patients (100 male and 150 female patients) who had quadriceps paralysis due to polio were managed by hamstring transfer at a single center between 1984 and 1996 and were followed for a mean of 5 years (range 4–12 years). Age of patients ranged from 7 to 18 years in 238 patients and 12 patients were above the age of 18 years. All cases were followed periodically, and assessment of knee extension, extension lag, knee flexion, elimination of calliper, and avoidance of hand to knee gait was done.
Results:
One hundred and sixty two patients (65%) showed excellent results, 38 patients (15%) had good results, and 50 patients (20%) showed poor results. Ninety three patients had major complications like genu recurvatum, restricted knee flexion, and extension lag. Ten patients had minor complications like superficial infection and epidermal edge necrosis.
Conclusions:
H to Q transfer in the presence of quadriceps paralysis with good power in hamstring is a better alternative than supracondylar osteotomy because it is a dynamic correction and it produces some degree of recurvatum with increasing stability of knee in extension while walking. While inserting hamstring over patella the periosteum is not cut in an I-shaped fashion to create a flap which gives additional strength to new insertion and also patella act as a fulcrum during the extension of knee by producing the bowstring effect.
doi:10.4103/0019-5413.101044
PMCID: PMC3491794  PMID: 23162153
Hamstring transfer; post polio residual paralysis; quadriceps paralysis
16.  Surgical Technique: Second-generation Bone Marrow Stimulation via Surgical Dislocation to Treat Hip Cartilage Lesions 
Background
Compared to knees, hips have more bony constraint and soft tissue coverage. Thus, repair of focal cartilage defects in hips requires more invasive and technically complex surgeries than simple arthroscopy or arthrotomy. Autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis (AMIC) is a second-generation bone marrow stimulation technique. Improvement in Tegner, Lysholm, International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS), and Cincinnati scores has been reported at 1 and 2 years after AMIC in knees. AMIC is potentially useful to repair defects in hips, but it is unknown whether it relieves symptoms or results in a durable construct.
Description of Technique
A surgical hip dislocation is used to access the defect. This is débrided to stable cartilage shoulders, necrotic bone is removed, and the lesion base is drilled. Autogenous bone graft is used for lesions with bony defects to create a level surface. Fibrin gel and a collagen membrane are placed to stabilize the superclot for fibrocartilage formation.
Methods
We treated six patients with AMIC in the hip between 2009 and 2010. We obtained Oxford Hip and UCLA Activity Scores. Repair quality was assessed on 6-month postoperative MRI using the modified magnetic resonance observation of cartilage repair tissue (MOCART) system. Minimum 1-year followup data were available for four patients (range, 1–2.5 years).
Results
Postoperative Oxford Hip Scores ranged from 13 to 17, UCLA Activity Scores ranged from 5 to 10, and MOCART scores ranged from 55 to 75. No complications occurred.
Conclusions
We describe AMIC in the hip. Although these patients had pain relief and improved function, long-term followup is necessary to assess the duration of improvement, durability of repair, and potential for arthrosis.
Level of Evidence
Level IV, therapeutic study. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-012-2466-5
PMCID: PMC3492623  PMID: 22773396
17.  Anteromedial portal versus transtibial drilling techniques in ACL reconstruction: a blinded cross-sectional study at two- to five-year follow-up 
International Orthopaedics  2010;34(5):747-754.
Drilling of the femoral tunnel with the transtibial (TT) technique is widely used in bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Recent studies suggest higher knee stability with the use of the anteromedial portal (AMP). The purpose of this study was to compare functional and clinical outcomes of BPTB ACL reconstruction using the TT or the AMP technique for drilling the femoral tunnel. All ACL reconstructions between January 2003 and April 2006 were approached for eligibility. Forty-seven patients met inclusion criteria (21 TT group and 26 AMP group). Blinded assessments of IKDC score, knee stability and range of motion, one-leg hop test, mid-quadriceps circumference, VAS for satisfaction with surgery, Lysholm and Tegner scores, and SF-12 questionnaire were obtained for both groups. Data on preoperative and postoperative surgical timing were retrospectively reviewed through the charts. The AMP group demonstrated a significantly lower recovery time from surgery to walking without crutches (p < 0.01), to return to normal life (p < 0.03), to return jogging (p < 0.03), to return training (p < 0.03), and to return to play (p < 0.03). Knee stability values measured with KT-1000, Lachman test, pivot-shift sign, and objective IKDC score assessments were significantly better for the AMP compared to TT group (p < 0.002, p < 0.03, p < 0.02, p < 0.015, respectively). No differences were found for VAS for satisfaction with surgery, Lysholm, Tegner, and SF-12 between both groups. The use of the AMP technique significantly improved the anterior-posterior and rotational knee stability, IKDC scores, and recovery time from surgery compared to the TT technique.
doi:10.1007/s00264-010-1000-1
PMCID: PMC2903180  PMID: 20401753
18.  Patellar Tendinopathy 
Sports Health  2013;5(3):220-224.
Background:
Calcific deposits (CaDs) may be related to chronic postoperative pain and may affect function after patellar tendon surgery.
Study Design:
Cross-sectional.
Hypothesis:
We hypothesized that patients with CaDs (+CaDs) would rate lower than those without (−CaDs) on measures of knee function and quality of life.
Methods:
Patients completed the Tegner Lysholm Knee Scoring Scale (Lysholm), Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), the International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form (IKDC), and the Tegner Activity Level Scale. Sixteen postsurgical and 16 age-matched controls were tested. Patients +CaDs were 5.6 years older than those patients −CaDs and had 4.2 years of longer elapse since surgery. Bilateral patellar tendons were examined for CaDs with musculoskeletal ultrasound imaging. One-way analysis of variance was used to determine if differences existed among patients +CaDs and −CaDs and healthy controls. Hierarchical logistic regressions were used to determine which variables best predicted the presence of CaDs.
Results:
CaDs were found in 44% (7 of 16) of postsurgical patients, who scored lower than controls on all dimensions of the Lysholm, KOOS, and IKDC. Patients +CaD had lower KOOS scores than controls (symptoms, activities of daily living, and quality of life). Age and time since surgery were both moderately related to the presence of CaDs, and both correctly predicted 71% of patients +CaDs.
Conclusion:
Calcific deposits were found in the patellar tendon of 44% of postsurgical patients, who rated themselves lower on all subjective measures of knee function and quality of life following surgery. Age is an important factor for developing CaDs postsurgery.
Clinical Relevance:
Calcific deposits may be present in patellar tendons following surgery, but their direct role in functional or clinical limitations remains unknown.
doi:10.1177/1941738113478768
PMCID: PMC3658397  PMID: 24427392
anterior cruciate ligament; knee; musculoskeletal ultrasound imaging
19.  Surgical Technique: Does Mini-invasive Medial Collateral Ligament and Posterior Oblique Ligament Repair Restore Knee Stability in Combined Chronic Medial and ACL Injuries? 
Background
Residual laxity remains after ACL reconstruction in patients with combined chronic ACL and medial instability. The question arises whether to correct medial capsular and ligament injuries when Grade II and III medial laxity is present.
Description of Technique
We developed a mini-invasive medial ligament plasty to repair the medial collateral ligament to correct residual medial valgus and rotatory laxity after ACL reconstruction.
Patients and Methods
We prospectively followed 36 patients with an ACL deficiency combined with chronic Grade II or III valgus and rotatory medial instability. The mean age was 37 years (range, 15–70 years). For all patients, we obtained preoperative and postoperative Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome, International Knee Documentation Committee, Lysholm, and Tegner Activity Level Scores. The minimum followup was 2 years (median, 3 years; range, 2–7 years).
Results
The mean subjective International Knee Documentation Committee score improved from 36 preoperatively to 94 at the last followup. While all patients had an International Knee Documentation Committee score of Grade C or D preoperatively, no patient did postoperatively. The mean Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score improved from 45 preoperatively to 93 postoperatively. Valgus and external rotatory tests were negative in all patients. The mean Tegner activity level decreased from 7 preinjury to 6 postoperatively, and the mean Lysholm score improved from 40 preoperatively to 93 at last followup.
Conclusions
This simple technique restored medial stability and knee function to normal or nearly normal in all patients.
Level of Evidence
Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-011-2018-4
PMCID: PMC3270172  PMID: 21842298
20.  Four-strand hamstring tendon autograft versus LARS artificial ligament for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction 
International Orthopaedics  2009;34(1):45-49.
This retrospective study compared the results after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using a four-strand hamstring tendon graft (4SHG) versus Ligament Advanced Reinforcement System (LARS) artificial ligament in 60 patients between January 2003 and July 2004 with a minimum four-year follow-up. The KT-1000 examination, the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) scoring systems and Lysholm knee scoring scale were used to evaluate the clinical results. The mean side-to-side difference was 2.4 ± 0.5 mm and 1.2 ± 0.3 mm in the 4SHG group and LARS group, respectively (P = 0.013). Although other results of ACL reconstruction, measured by IKDC evaluation, Lysholm scores and Tegner scores, showed using a LARS graft clinically tended to be superior to using a 4SHG, there were no significant differences calculated. Our results suggest that four years after ACL reconstruction using a LARS ligament or 4SHG dramatically improves the function outcome, while the patients in the LARS group displayed a higher knee stability than those in the 4SHG group.
doi:10.1007/s00264-009-0768-3
PMCID: PMC2899266  PMID: 19396441
21.  Outcome of opening wedge high tibial osteotomy augmented with a Biosorb® wedge and fixed with a plate and screws in 124 patients with a mean of ten years follow-up 
International Orthopaedics  2010;35(8):1151-1156.
The objective of this work was firstly to evaluate the long-term results of medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO) and secondly to evaluate the tolerance and integration of a Biosorb® wedge (β Tricalcium Phosphate, SBM Company, Lourdes, France). The series consisted of 124 knees in 110 patients, 74 men and 36 women, with mean age of 53.23±10.68 years (range 32–74) and treated between June 1995 and November 2000 for medial compartment knee osteoarthritis by the senior author. The mean preoperative Lysholm and Tegner functional score was 65.44±13.32 (range 27–80) and the preoperative HKA angle was 172.51°±3.8° (range 162–179°). According to the modified Ahlbäck classification there were 27 stage I, 42 stage II, 44 stage III and 11 stage IV knees. All patients were reviewed clinically and radiologically with a mean follow-up of 10.39±1.98 years (range 8–14 years). Immediate postoperative complications consisted of nine undisplaced lateral tibial plateau fractures of no clinical significance, two deep vein thromboses and three pulmonary emboli which resolved with appropriate treatment. At a later stage, there were seven delayed unions without development of pseudarthrosis, and three screw breakages when the AO T-plate was used, leading to a secondary angulation in one case, requiring revision by femoral osteotomy. Postoperative mean weightbearing HKA angle was 182°±1.8° (range 178–186°) and 73.4% of axes were 184°±2°. Fifteen knees (12.1%) underwent total knee arthroplasty (TKA) after a mean delay of 8.87±3.04 years and were excluded from the final analysis. Concerning the long-term results (n = 107 knees), the mean Lysholm-Tegner score was 88±12.7 points (51–100) and the KOOS score was 86±14.6 points (25–100) with 94 patients satisfied or very satisfied (87.85%). In terms of the HTO survivorship curve, with failure consisting of revision to TKA or another operation, survival was 88.8% at five years and 74% at ten years. Concerning Biosorb®, this was completely integrated in 100% of cases and there was complete resorption in 12.1% of cases and greater than 50% resorption in 52.3% of cases.
doi:10.1007/s00264-010-1102-9
PMCID: PMC3167423  PMID: 20668849
22.  Current Treatments of Isolated Articular Cartilage Lesions of the Knee Achieve Similar Outcomes 
Background
Many surgical techniques, including microfracture, periosteal and perichondral grafts, chondrocyte transplantation, and osteochondral grafts, have been studied in an attempt to restore damaged articular cartilage. However, there is no consensus regarding the best method to repair isolated articular cartilage defects of the knee.
Questions/purposes
We compared postoperative functional outcomes, followup MRI appearance, and arthroscopic examination after microfracture (MF), osteochondral autograft transplantation (OAT), or autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI).
Methods
We prospectively investigated 30 knees with MF, 22 with OAT, and 18 with ACI. Minimum followup was 3 years (mean, 5 years; range, 3–10 years). We included only patients with isolated cartilage defects and without other knee injuries. The three procedures were compared in terms of function using the Lysholm knee evaluation scale, Tegner activity scale, and Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) score; modified Outerbridge cartilage grades using MRI; and International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) repair grade using arthroscopy.
Results
All three procedures showed improvement in functional scores. There were no differences in functional scores and postoperative MRI grades among the groups. Arthroscopy at 1 year showed excellent or good results in 80% after MF, 82% after OAT, and 80% after ACI. Our study did not show a clear benefit of either ACI or OAT over MF.
Conclusions
Owing to a lack of superiority of any one treatment, we believe MF is a reasonable option as a first-line therapy given its ease and affordability relative to ACI or OAT.
Level of Evidence
Level II, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-012-2304-9
PMCID: PMC3392395  PMID: 22422593
23.  Bilateral recurrent discloation of the patella associated with below knee amputation: A case report 
Background
Recurrent dislocation of the patella in patients with below knee amputation is a known entity. Abnormally high-riding patella (patella alta) and medial patellofemoral ligament insufficiency in these patients predisposes them to patellar instability. The established treatment of this problem is surgical realignment.
Case presentation
A 25 year old male patient with bilateral below knee amputation presented with bilateral recurrent dislocation of the patella while walking on knees on uneven ground. Clinical and radiographic studies showed patella alta. A simple shoe modification was used to treat this patient.
Conclusions
A simple shoe modification can be used to treat such a condition which is otherwise treated surgically.
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-6-9
PMCID: PMC550654  PMID: 15717922
24.  Recessive multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (rMED) with homozygosity for C653S mutation in the DTDST gene - Phenotype, molecular diagnosis and surgical treatment of habitual dislocation of multilayered patella: Case report 
Background
Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED) is one of the more common generalised skeletal dysplasias. Due to its clinical heterogeneity diagnosis may be difficult. Mutations of at least six separate genes can cause MED. Joint deformities, joint pain and gait disorders are common symptoms.
Case Presentation
We report on a 27-year-old male patient suffering from clinical symptoms of autosomal recessive MED with habitual dislocation of a multilayered patella on both sides, on the surgical treatment and on short-term clinical outcome. Clinical findings were: bilateral hip and knee pain, instability of femorotibial and patellofemoral joints with habitual patella dislocation on both sides, contractures of hip, elbow and second metacarpophalangeal joints. Main radiographic findings were: bilateral dislocated multilayered patella, dysplastic medial tibial plateaus, deformity of both femoral heads and osteoarthritis of the hip joints, and deformity of both radial heads. In the molecular genetic analysis, the DTDST mutation g.1984T > A (p.C653S) was found at the homozygote state. Carrier status was confirmed in the DNA of the patient's parents. The mutation could be considered to be the reason for the patient's disease. Surgical treatment of habitual patella dislocation with medialisation of the tibial tuberosity led to an excellent clinical outcome.
Conclusions
The knowledge of different phenotypes of skeletal dysplasias helps to select genes for genetic analysis. Compared to other DTDST mutations, this is a rather mild phenotype. Molecular diagnosis is important for genetic counselling and for an accurate prognosis. Even in case of a multilayered patella in MED, habitual patella dislocation could be managed successfully by medialisation of the tibial tuberosity.
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-11-110
PMCID: PMC2902411  PMID: 20525296
25.  Outcome of repaired unstable meniscal tears in children and adolescents 
Acta Orthopaedica  2012;83(3):261-266.
Background
Unstable meniscal tears are rare injuries in skeletally immature patients. Loss of a meniscus increases the risk of subsequent development of degenerative changes in the knee. This study deals with the outcome of intraarticular meniscal repair and factors that affect healing. Parameters of interest were type and location of the tear and also the influence of simultaneous reconstruction of a ruptured ACL.
Methods
We investigated the outcome of 25 patients (29 menisci) aged 15 (4–17) years who underwent surgery for full thickness meniscal tears, either as isolated lesions or in combination with ACL ruptures. Intraoperative documentation followed the IKDC 2000 standard. Outcome measurements were the Tegner score (pre- and postoperatively) and the Lysholm score (postoperatively) after an average follow-up period of 2.3 years, with postoperative arthroscopy and MRT in some cases.
Results
24 of the 29 meniscal lesions healed (defined as giving an asymptomatic patient) regardless of location or type. 4 patients re-ruptured their menisci (all in the pars intermedia) at an average of 15 months after surgery following a new injury. Mean Lysholm score at follow-up was 95, the Tegner score deteriorated, mean preoperative score: 7.8 (4–10); mean postoperative score: 7.2 (4–10). Patients with simultaneous ACL reconstruction had a better outcome.
Interpretation
All meniscal tears in the skeletally immature patient are amenable to repair. All recurrent meniscal tears in our patients were located in the pars intermedia; the poorer blood supply in this region may give a higher risk of re-rupture. Simultaneous ACL reconstruction appears to benefit the results of meniscal repair.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2012.693017
PMCID: PMC3369152  PMID: 22616744

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