Background and purpose After joint replacement, a repair process starts at the interface between bone and cement. If this process is disturbed, the prosthesis may never become rigidly fixed to the bone, leading to migration—and with time, loosening. Cox-2 inhibitors are widely used as postoperative analgesics, and have adverse effects on bone healing. This could tamper prosthesis fixation. We investigated whether celecoxib, a selective Cox-2 inhibitor, increases prosthesis migration in total knee replacement (TKR).
Methods 50 patients were randomized to either placebo or celecoxib treatment, 200 mg twice daily, for 3 weeks after TKR (NexGen; Zimmer). Maximum total point motion (MTPM) of the tibial component was measured after 2 years using radiostereometric analysis (RSA). In addition, range of motion, pain, and, subjective outcome were evaluated.
Results No differences in prosthesis migration, pain scores, range of motion, and subjective outcome were found after 2 years. Confidence intervals were narrow.
Interpretation It is unlikely that Celecoxib increases the risk of loosening, and it may be used safely in conjunction with TKR.
In lower-extremity surgery there are significant risks associated with the use of tourniquets. This prospective study was done to assess to what extent these risks may be offset by the potential advantages of tourniquets, namely reductions in blood loss, length of hospital stay and complication rates.
A prospective case study.
A major urban hospital.
Sixty-three consecutive patients scheduled for primary cemented total knee arthroplasty (TKA) were blindly randomized into tourniqet (n = 33) and non-tourniquet (n = 30) groups.
TKA during which a pneumatic tourniquet was applied or not applied to control blood loss.
Main outcome measures
Perioperative blood loss, operating time, complication rates, hospital stay and transfusion needs.
Differences in the total measured blood loss, intraoperative blood loss and the Hemovac drainage blood loss between the 2 groups were not significantly different (p > 0.25). The calculated total blood loss was actually lower in the non-tourniquet group (p = 0.02). Between the groups there were no statistical differences in surgical time, length of hospital stay, transfusion requirements or rate of complications (although there was a trend to more complications in the tourniquet group (p = 0.06)).
The effectiveness of a pneumatic tourniquet to control blood loss in TKA is questionable.
Background and purpose
In a previous radiostereometric (RSA) trial the uncoated, uncemented, Interax tibial components showed excessive migration within 2 years compared to HA-coated and cemented tibial components. It was predicted that this type of fixation would have a high failure rate. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate whether this RSA prediction was correct.
Materials and methods
We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the revision rate for aseptic loosening of the uncoated and cemented Interax tibial components.
3 studies were included, involving 349 Interax total knee arthroplasties (TKAs) for the comparison of uncoated and cemented fixation. There were 30 revisions: 27 uncoated and 3 cemented components. There was a 3-times higher revision rate for the uncoated Interax components than that for cemented Interax components (OR = 3; 95% CI: 1.4–7.2).
This meta-analysis confirms the prediction of a previous RSA trial. The uncoated Interax components showed the highest migration and turned out to have the highest revision rate for aseptic loosening. RSA appears to enable efficient detection of an inferior design as early as 2 years postoperatively in a small group of patients.
The objective of this study was to compare the early migration
characteristics and functional outcome of the Triathlon cemented
knee prosthesis with its predecessor, the Duracon cemented knee
prosthesis (both Stryker).
A total 60 patients were prospectively randomised and tibial
component migration was measured by radiostereometric analysis (RSA)
at three months, one year and two years; clinical outcome was measured
by the American Knee Society score and the Knee Osteoarthritis and
Injury Outcome Score.
There were no statistically significant differences in rotation
or translation around or along the three coordinal axes, or in the
maximum total point motion (MTPM) during the two-year follow-up.
The Triathlon cemented knee prosthesis has similar early stability
and is likely to perform at least as well as the Duracon cemented
knee prosthesis over the longer term.
Total knee replacement; Single radius; New design; Safety; RSA; TKR
Our objective was to compare outcomes (anesthesia time, total operative time, tourniquet time, duration of hospital stay, 90-day complication rate and transfusion rates) of patients with total knee arthroplasty (TKA) who underwent bariatric surgery before or after TKA. One-hundred-twenty-five patients were included: TKA before bariatric surgery (group 1; n=39); TKA within two years of bariatric surgery (group 2; n=25); and TKA more than 2 years after bariatric surgery (group 3; n=61). Patients with TKA more than 2 years after bariatric surgery had shorter anesthesia, total operative and tourniquet times than other groups; differences were significant between groups. Ninety-day complication and transfusion rates approached but did not meet statistical significance. Ninety-day complication rates and duration of hospital stay did not differ significantly between the three groups.
Total knee arthroplasty; morbidly obese; bariatric surgery; outcomes
The amount of blood loss in a primary cemented total knee arthroplasty (TKA) seems to vary in different reported studies. We carried out a prospective study to determine the factors affecting the peri-operative blood loss, hidden blood loss and blood transfusion requirements in a primary cemented total knee arthroplasty. The factors analysed were gender, diagnosis, tourniquet time and body mass index (BMI). We included a total of 66 consecutive patients who underwent primary TKA by a single surgeon (A.M). There was significantly more peri-operative blood loss in male patients than in females (p=0.001, Student’s t test). The patients with rheumatoid arthritis did not show any statistical difference in peri-operative blood loss compared with that in patients with osteoarthritis. The tourniquet time and the surgical time showed a positive correlation with peri-operative blood loss. The BMI did not show any correlation with peri-operative blood loss. The incidence of blood transfusion was significantly higher in patients with rheumatoid knees as their pre-operative haemoglobin value was low. The amount of hidden blood loss in our series was 38%. We concluded that gender and tourniquet time plays a role in blood loss in TKA, but diagnosis (advanced osteoarthritis [OA] or rheumatoid arthritis (RA) does not. The blood transfusion depends on both pre-operative haemoglobin value and intra-operative blood loss. The post-operative transfusion trigger can be brought to 8.0 g% in a haemodynamically stable patient.
The use of an intraoperative tourniquet for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a common practice. However, the effectiveness and safety are still questionable. A systematic review was conducted to examine that whether using a tourniquet in TKA was effective without increasing the risk of complications.
A comprehensive literature search was done in PubMed Medicine, Embase, and other internet database. The review work and the following meta-analysis were processed to evaluate the role of tourniquet in TKA.
Eight randomized controlled trials and three high-quality prospective studies involving 634 knees and comparing TKA with and without the use of a tourniquet were included in this analysis. The results demonstrated that using a tourniquet could decrease the measured blood loss but could not decrease the calculated blood loss, which indicated actual blood loss. Patients managed with a tourniquet might have higher risks of thromboembolic complications. Using the tourniquet with late release after wound closure could shorten the operation time; whereas early release did not show this benefit.
The current evidence suggested that using tourniquet in TKA may save time but may not reduce the blood loss. Due to the higher risks of thromboembolic complications, we should use a tourniquet in TKA with caution.
Tourniquet; Knee arthroplasty; Blood loss; Thromboembolism; Meta-analysis
Average blood loss after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) usually ranges from 1500 to 1900 cc, including both the postoperative drain and hidden blood loss. This represents about 46% of TKA patients requiring postoperative blood transfusion. Not only the risks of disease transmission but also those of ABO incompatibility, infection due to immunosupression, increased procedure costs, and increased length of hospital stay, are potential problems that foster blood saving strategies. In this study, 71 unilateral TKAs using a multimodal protocol to decrease blood loss were compared to 61 historical cases. Patients in both groups underwent cemented TKA with the same system, surgical technique, and multimodal protocol (MIS approach, plug in the femoral canal, tourniquet removal after wound closure and compressive bandage, analgesic periarticular infiltration with vasoconstrictor, postoperative drain at atmospheric pressure, opened 2 hours after the end of the surgical procedure and removed after 24 hours). The study series incorporated intravenous tranexamic acid (TXA) infusion in 2 doses of 10-15 mg/kg, 15 minutes before tourniquet release and 3 hours later. Results showed no transfusion requirements in the TXA series (0%), with 23/61 (37.7%) transfusions in the control, with an average cost decrease of 240 euros per patient. Visible bleeding in 24h significantly decreased from 553.36 cc (range 50-1500) to 169.72 cc (range 10-480) in the TXA series. As a conclusion, implementing a TXA-based multimodal protocol produced significant decrease in the transfusion rate, visible blood loss, and cost per patient, thus proving effectiveness and efficiency in the surgical management of TKA.
Blood saving surgery; transfusion rate; TKA; tranexamic acid; effectiveness.
Background and purpose
There is no standard for patient triage in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) based on joint functional characteristics. This is largely due to the lack of objective postoperative measurement of success in TKA in terms of function and longevity, and the lack of knowledge of preoperative metrics that influence outcome. We examined the association between the preoperative mechanical environment of the patients knee joint during gait and the post-TKA stability of the tibial component as measured with radiostereometric analysis (RSA).
37 subjects were recruited out of a larger randomized RSA trial. 3-dimensional gait analysis was performed in the preoperative week. Longitudinal RSA data were gathered postoperatively at 6 months and 1 year.
We found a statistically significant association between the pattern of the knee adduction moment during gait preoperatively and the total migration of the implant at 6 months postoperatively. A substantial proportion of the variability in the total postoperative tibial component migration (R2 = 0.45) was explained by a combination of implant type, preoperative knee joint loading patterns during gait, and body mass index at 6 months postoperatively. The relationships did not remain statistically significant at 1 year postoperatively.
Our findings support the hypothesis that preoperative functional characteristics of patients, and particularly joint loading patterns during activities of daily living, are important for outcome in TKA. This represents a first step in the development of predictive models of objective TKA outcome based on preoperative patient characteristics, which may lead to better treatment strategies.
Background and purpose
In contrast to early migration, the long-term migration of hydroxyapatite- (HA-) coated tibial components in TKA has been scantily reported. This randomized controlled trial investigated the long-term migration measured by radiostereometric analysis (RSA) of HA-coated, uncoated, and cemented tibial components in TKA.
Patients and methods
68 knees were randomized to HA-coated (n = 24), uncoated (n = 20), and cemented (n = 24) components. All knees were prospectively followed for 11–16 years, or until death or revision. RSA was used to evaluate migration at yearly intervals. Clinical and radiographic evaluation was according to the Knee Society system. A generalized linear mixed model (GLMM, adjusted for age, sex, diagnosis, revisions, and BMI) was used to take into account the repeated-measurement design.
The present study involved 742 RSA analyses. The mean migration at 10 years was 1.66 mm for HA, 2.25 mm for uncoated and 0.79 mm for the cemented group (p < 0.001). The reduction of migration by HA as compared to uncoated components was most pronounced for subsidence and external rotation. 3 tibial components were revised for aseptic loosening (2 uncoated and 1 cemented), 3 for septic loosening (2 uncoated and 1 cemented), and 1 for instability (HA-coated). 2 of these cases were revised for secondary loosening after a period of stability: 1 case of osteolysis and 1 case of late infection. There were no statistically significant differences between the fixation groups regarding clinical or radiographic scores.
HA reduces migration of uncemented tibial components. This beneficial effect lasts for more than 10 years. Cemented components showed the lowest migration. Longitudinal follow-up of TKA with RSA allows early detection of secondary loosening.
There has been renewed interest for metal-on-metal hip resurfacing due to improved design and manufacturing of implants, better materials, and enhanced implant fixation. In contrast to conventional total hip replacements, only a few clinical hip resurfacing trials using radiostereometry (RSA) have been reported, and solely for the Birmingham hip resurfacing arthroplasty. The purpose of this RSA trial was to describe the migration pattern of a new hip resurfacing system (ReCap) within the first two years after primary surgery. Twenty-six patients underwent total hip replacement. The patients were followed-up for up to 24 months and were evaluated with the use of radiostereometric measurements. The prosthesis showed mean translations and rotation close to zero. Maximum translation was seen along the transverse axis in the medial direction (0.13 mm). No statistically significant translation or rotation was seen at two-years follow-up, (t-test, p <0.05, translation or rotation).
We conducted a prospective, randomised study on primary total
knee replacements to evaluate the effects of tourniquet use on total
calculated blood loss using Gross formula, post-operative measured
blood loss, operating time, need for blood transfusion,
post-operative pain, analgesia requirement and knee flexion. Forty
patients were operated on with the use of an arterial tourniquet
with pressure of 350 mmHg (group A), and 40 patients without the use
of a tourniquet (group B). Total calculated blood loss was
significantly increased (P=0.0165) without the use of a tourniquet. There was no
significant difference in measured blood loss or operating time. The
median units of blood given were similar in both groups. In spite of
autologous transfusions 14% of patients received additional
homologous transfusions. At 6 h post-operatively pain was
significantly less (P=0.0458) in
group B but was similar at 24 and 48 h. There was no significant
difference in analgesia requirement. The mean change in total
flexion in group B was significantly better (P<0.001) at 5 days than in group A, but knee
flexion was similar at 10 days and 3 months. Knee arthroplasty
operations without the use of a tourniquet cause a greater blood
loss but have only small benefits in the early post-operative
Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is widely recognized as an effective procedure for treatment of knee arthritis. However, there have been documented differences between men and women with respect to anatomic variability, timing of access to surgical care and surgical outcomes. We examined the influence of sex on the technical difficulty of TKA using a tourniquet and overall surgical time as a surrogate for complexity of exposure, soft-tissue balancing and implantation.
We performed a retrospective database review of patients who underwent primary TKA over a 5-year period. Tourniquet time, wound closure time and surgical time from 54 consecutive men (58 knees) and 48 women (58 knees) who underwent primary cemented TKA were recorded.
The mean surgical time among men (108.2, standard deviation [SD] 17 min) was significantly longer than among women (96.8 [SD 14.8] min; p = 0.001). Similarly, the mean tourniquet time among men (75.9 [SD 11.7] min) was significantly longer than among women (65.9 [SD 11.8] min; p = 0.001).
Total knee arthroplasty in men requires more time than in women because of the complexity of exposure and to achieve the desired alignment of the components. Our data may allow a better resolution of surgery time planning, which could lead to better use of health system resources.
Bioactive coating of uncemented total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is believed to increase bone ingrowth and enhance early fixation of the TKA. In a prospective randomized study using radiostereometric analysis (RSA) we examined migrations of the tibial implant, in an uncemented TKA with and without bioactive coating. The study was performed according to new RSA guidelines, and focus was put on some important methodological issues.
Materials and methods
Twenty-three patients with osteoarthrosis of the knee received an uncemented Duracon TKA either with bioactive (hydroxyapatite or periapatite) coating (+HA) or without bioactive coating (−HA). Patients had RSA examinations postoperatively and at 3, 6 and 12 months. Nine patients were excluded during the study resulting in 14 knees for final analysis.
At 12 months follow-up we found no significant differences in migrations between the two groups. However, in general the −HA group migrated more than the +HA group, and we found a significant larger variation in migration pattern in the −HA group. In the +HA group the tibia component stabilized after 6 months, whereas the −HA group showed continuous migration. Subsidence and posterior tilt were the main migration patterns in both groups.
Bioactive coating of TKA seems to enhance early stabilization of the tibia component. Similar results are found in previous studies.
Hydroxyapatite; Migration; Roentgenstereogrammetric analysis; Total knee arthroplasty; Tibial implant
Background and purpose
Clinical results of total knee replacement (TKR) are inferior in younger patients, mainly due to aseptic loosening. Coating of components with trabecular metal (TM) is a new way of enhancing fixation to bone. We have previously reported stabilization of TM tibial components at 2 years. We now report the 5-year follow-up of these patients, including RSA of their TM tibial components.
Patients and methods
22 patients (26 knees) received an uncemented TM cruciate-retaining tibial component and 19 patients (21 knees) a cemented NexGen Option cruciate-retaining tibial component. Follow-up with RSA, and clinical and radiographic examinations were done at 5 years. In bilaterally operated patients, the statistical analyses included only the first-operated knee.
Both groups had most migration within the first 3 months, the TM implants to a greater extent than the cemented implants. After 3 months, both groups stabilized and remained stable up to the 5-year follow-up.
After a high initial degree of migration, the TM tibia stabilized. This stabilization lasted for at least 5 years, which suggests a good long-term performance regarding fixation. The cemented NexGen CR tibial components showed some migration in the first 3 months and then stabilized up to the 5-year follow-up. This has not been reported previously.
Blood loss after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is often associated with cardiovascular complications and a high transfusion rate of allogenic blood. In our study we focused our attention on developing a new intra-surgical procedure that appears safe, easy to perform and effective in the reduction of bleeding in TKA. We evaluated 84 patients who underwent TKA and met our inclusion criteria; they were assigned to two groups: 55 controls in which a saline solution was used to wash the surgical field before tourniquet release, and a second group of 29 patients, in which a saline solution containing a low dose of norepinephrine was locally applied before tourniquet release. The local administration of a low dose of norepinephrine has induced a significant reduction of perioperative blood loss and blood transfusion requirements; in addition, this method was characterised by the absence of complications or adverse effects. In conclusion, our data suggest that intraoperative local administration of a low dose of norepinephrine could represent an effective and safe method of reducing blood loss and preventing blood transfusions in patients with TKA.
Tranexamic acid (TEA) reduces blood loss and red cell transfusions in patients undergoing unilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, there is not much literature regarding the use of TEA in patients undergoing bilateral TKA in a single stage and the protocols for administration of TEA in such patients are ill-defined.
Materials and Methods:
We carried out a case control study evaluating the effect of TEA on postoperative hemoglobin (Hb), total drain output, and number of blood units transfused in 52 patients undergoing bilateral TKA in a single stage, and compared it with 56 matched controls who did not receive TEA. Two doses of TEA were administered in doses of 10 mg / kg each (slow intravenous (IV) infusion), with the first dose given just before tourniquet release of the first knee and the second dose three hours after the first one.
A statistically significant reduction in the total drain output and requirement of allogenic blood transfusion in cases who received TEA, as compared to the controls was observed. The postoperative Hb and Hb at the time of discharge were found to be lower in the control group, and this result was found to be statistically significant.
TEA administered in patients undergoing single stage bilateral TKA helped reduce total blood loss and decreased allogenic blood transfusion requirements. This might be particularly relevant, where facilities such as autologous reinfusion might not be available.
Antifibrinolytic; blood loss; hemoglobin; knee arthroplasty; tranexamic acid
Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is generally carried out using a tourniquet and blood loss occurring mainly post operatively is collected in drains. Tranexamic acid is an antifibrinolytic agent which decreases the total blood loss. Patients had unilateral / bilateral cemented TKA using combined spinal and epidural anaesthesia. In a double-blind fashion, they received either placebo (n=25) or tranexamic acid (n=25)10 mg.kg−1 i.v., just before tourniquet inflation, followed by 1 mg kg−1 h-1 i.v. till closure of the wound. The postoperative blood loss, transfusion requirement, cost effectiveness and complications were noted. The groups had similar characteristics. The mean volume of drainage fluid was 270 ml and 620 ml for unilateral(U/L) and bilateral(B/L) TKR patients in placebo group. Whereas it was 160ml and 286 ml respectively in unilateral(U/L) and bilateral(B/L) TKR patients who received tranexamic acid. This was considered statistically significant. Control group patients received 26 units of PRBC as compared to 4 units in tranexamic acid groups (p<0.001). This was again statistically significant. None of the patients in any of the groups developed deep vein thrombosis. Tranexamic acid decreased total blood loss by nearly 54% in B/L TKR and 40% in U/L TKR and drastically reduced (> 80%) blood transfusion.
Tranexamic acid; TKR; blood loss
In recent years, the use of low molecular weight heparins such as dalteparin has become attractive because of their ease of administration and superiority in preventing venous thromboembolism (VTE) compared with traditional agents. The primary purpose of our study was to evaluate the impact of dalteparin use on blood loss and transfusion rates in patients undergoing primary total joint arthroplasty. We also evaluated the effect of patient sex, releasing the tourniquet in knee arthroplasty and the turnover of house staff.
Using our hospital transfusion database, we prospectively studied the mean reduction in hemoglobin and transfusion rates of 1642 consecutive patients who underwent primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA) between January 2004 and December 2005. In 2004, warfarin was used exclusively for VTE prevention; however, in 2005, following the release of the 2004 American College of Chest Physicians’ guidelines, our centre began using dalteparin for VTE prophylaxis. We analyzed the impact of dalteparin use and the effect of patient sex, tourniquet release in TKA and house staff turnover months on blood loss and transfusion rates.
The use of dalteparin for postoperative VTE prevention in patients undergoing THA and TKA in 2005 was associated with a significantly greater mean reduction in hemoglobin compared with warfarin use in 2004 (p = 0.014 for patients undergoing THA, p < 0.001 for patients undergoing TKA). The use of dalteparin in 2005 was not associated with a significant increase in allogeneic blood transfusions compared with the use of warfarin in 2004, except in women (p < 0.001). Although we observed no significant differences in mean reduction in hemoglobin between men and women undergoing THA, women undergoing THA had significantly higher transfusion rates regardless of the method of VTE prophylaxis (p = 0.037 for warfarin, p < 0.001 for dalteparin). Intraoperative tourniquet release in patients undergoing TKA was associated with a significantly lower mean reduction in hemoglobin than release after wound closure (p = 0.005). Although house staff turnover months were associated with a significantly greater mean reduction in hemoglobin levels than non-turnover months (p = 0.039), these months were not associated with a significant increase in allogeneic blood transfusions (p = 0.59).
Low molecular weight heparins such as dalteparin are the most common form of VTE prophylaxis in Canada. Our results suggest that dalteparin use, timing of tourniquet release and house staff turnover can all influence transfusion rates and/or blood loss in patients undergoing primary total joint arthroplasty. This study also emphasizes that women undergoing THA are at particularly high risk for blood transfusion.
We performed a prospective, randomized study on 76 patients (82 knees) scheduled for total knee arthroplasty to determine the effect of tourniquet release and hemostasis on the peri- and postoperative blood loss. Patients were randomly divided in two groups. Posterior cruciate retaining tricompartmental total knee prostheses were used in all. In group 1, the tourniquet was deflated intraoperatively after the prosthetic components were settled and hemostasis was done. In group 2, the tourniquet was released after the wound was closed and a compressive bandage was applied. Mean blood drainage was 880.85 ml (320–1,315) in group 1 and 745.36 ml (220–1,175) in group 2 (p=0.03). The mean number of blood transfusions given, hemoglobin and hematocrit values, operation time, and tourniquet time were similar in both groups. Intraoperative tourniquet release and hemostasis does not reduce total blood loss in total knee arthroplasty.
Tourniquets are used to provide a bloodless surgical field for extremities. Hypotension due to vasodilation and bleeding after tourniquet deflation is a common event. Hemodynamic stability is modulated by the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Heart rate variability (HRV) is a sensitive method for detecting individuals who may be at risk of hemodynamic instability during general anesthesia. The purpose of this study was to investigate ANS function to predict hypotension after tourniquet deflation.
Eighty-six patients who underwent total knee replacement arthroplasty (TKRA) were studied. HRV, systolic blood pressure variability (SBPV) and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) were analyzed. We assigned two groups depending on the lowest systolic blood pressure (SBP) or mean BP (MBP) after tourniquet release (Group H; SBP < 80 mmHg or MBP < 60 mmHg, Group S; SBP > 80 mmHg and MBP > 60 mmHg).
Fifteen patients developed severe hypotension and ten patients were treated with ephedrine. Of the parameters of HRV, SBPV, and BRS, only BRSSEQ was significant being low in Group H. BRS and high-frequency SBPV were correlated with the degree of MBP change after tourniquet deflation.
Preoperative low BRS is associated with hypotension after tourniquet deflation, suggesting the importance of baroreflex regulation for intraoperative hemodynamic stability.
Baroreflex sensitivity; Heart rate variability; Hypotension; Systolic blood pressure variability; Tourniquet deflation
Background and purpose
The trabecular metal tibial monoblock component (TM) is a relatively new option available for total knee arthroplasty. We have previously reported a large degree of early migration of the trabecular metal component in a subset of patients. These implants all appeared to stabilize at 2 years. We now present 5-year RSA results of the TM and compare them with those of the NexGen Option Stemmed cemented tibial component (Zimmer, Warsaw IN).
Patients and methods
70 patients with osteoarthritis were randomized to receive either the TM implant or the cemented component. RSA examination was done postoperatively and at 6 months, 1 year, 2 years, and 5 years. RSA outcomes were translations, rotations, and maximum total point motion (MTPM) of the components. MTPM values were used to classify implants as “at risk” or “stable”.
At the 5-year follow-up, 45 patients were available for analysis. There were 27 in the TM group and 18 in the cemented group. MTPM values were similar in the 2 groups (p = 0.9). The TM components had significantly greater subsidence than the cemented components (p = 0.001). The proportion of “at risk” components at 5 years was 2 of 18 in the cemented group and 0 of 27 in the TM group (p = 0.2).
In the previous 2-year report, we expressed our uncertainty concerning the long-term stability of the TM implant due to the high initial migration seen in some cases. Here, we report stability of this implant up to 5 years in all cases. The implant appears to achieve solid fixation despite high levels of migration initially.
Wound ooze is common following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and persistent wound infection is a risk factor for infection, and increased length and cost of hospitalisation.
PATIENTS AND METHODS
We undertook a prospective study to assess the effect of tourniquet time, peri-articular local anaesthesia and surgical approach on wound oozing after TKA.
The medial parapatellar approach was used in 59 patients (77%) and subvastus in 18 patients (23%). Peri-articular local anaesthesia (0.25% Bupivacaine with 1:1,000,000 adrenalin) was used in 34 patients (44%). The mean tourniquet time was 83 min (range, 38–125 min). We found a significant association between cessation of oozing and peri-articular local anaesthesia (P = 0.003), length of the tourniquet time (P = 0.03) and the subvastus approach (P = 0.01).
Peri-articular local anaesthesia, the subvastus approach and shorter tourniquet time were all associated with less wound oozing after total knee arthroplasty.
Total knee arthroplasty; Wound ooze; Tourniquet; Subvastus approach
Primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) can be an alternative method for treating distal femoral fractures in elderly patients with knee osteoarthritis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic results in patients with knee osteoarthritis who underwent TKA with the Medial Pivot prosthesis for distal femoral fractures.
Materials and Methods
Eight displaced distal femoral fractures in 8 patients were treated with TKA using the Medial Pivot prosthesis and internal fixation. The radiographic and clinical evaluations were performed using simple radiographs and Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) knee scores during a mean follow-up period of 49 months.
All fractures united and the mean time to radiographic union was 15 weeks. The mean range of motion of the knee joint was 114.3° and the mean HSS knee score was 85.1 at the final follow-up.
Based on the radiographic and clinical results, TKA with internal fixation can be considered as an option for the treatment of simple distal femoral fractures in elderly patients who have advanced osteoarthritis of the knee with appropriate bone stock.
Knee; Distal femoral fracture; Osteoarthritis; Arthroplasty; Medial Pivot
We hypothesized that patella eversion during total knee arthroplasty (TKA) reduces early return of active knee extension and flexion, quadriceps muscle strength, and postoperative pain. In 100 conventional TKA knees and 100 minimally invasive TKA (MIS TKA) knees, we compared knee range of motion (ROM), postoperative pain, and quadriceps muscle strength at 1 day, 4 days, 1 week, 2 weeks, 3 weeks, 4 weeks, 12 weeks, 1 year, and 5 years after surgery. The differences of surgical approach between MIS TKA and conventional TKA of this study are length of skin incision with subcutaneal flap and patella eversion. In MIS TKA, skin incision is shorter than conventional TKA. Furthermore, patella is not everted in MIS TKA procedure. There were no significant differences in preoperative factors. Postoperative improvement of ROM, postoperative muscle strength recovery, and postoperative improvement of visual analog scale were faster in patients with MIS TKA when compared to that in patients with conventional TKA. On the other hand, no significant difference was observed in complication, 5-year clinical results of subjective knee function score, and the postoperative component angle and lower leg alignment. These results indicate that patella eversion may affect muscle strength recovery and postoperative pain.