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1.  Salvage of failed trochanteric and subtrochanteric fractures using a distally fixed, modular, uncemented hip revision stem 
Acta Orthopaedica  2012;83(5):488-492.
Background and purpose
Treatment options for failed internal fixation of hip fractures include prosthetic replacement. We evaluated survival, complications, and radiographic outcome in 30 patients who were operated with a specific modular, uncemented hip reconstruction prosthesis as a salvage procedure after failed treatment of trochanteric and subtrochanteric fractures.
Patients and methods
We used data from the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register and journal files to analyze complications and survival. Initially, a high proportion of trochanteric fractures (7/10) were classified as unstable and 12 of 20 subtrochanteric fractures had an extension through the greater trochanter. Modes of failure after primary internal fixation were cutout (n = 12), migration of the femoral neck screw (n = 9), and other (n = 9).
Results
Mean age at the index operation with the modular prosthesis was 77 (52–93) years and the mean follow-up was 4 (1–9) years. Union of the remaining fracture fragments was observed in 26 hips, restoration of proximal bone defects in 16 hips, and bone ingrowth of the stem in 25 hips. Subsidence was evident in 4 cases. 1 patient was revised by component exchange because of recurrent dislocation, and another 6 patients were reoperated: 5 because of deep infections and 1 because of periprosthetic fracture. The cumulative 3-year survival for revision was 96% (95% CI: 89–100) and for any reoperation it was 83% (68–93).
Interpretation
The modular stem allowed fixation distal to the fracture system. Radiographic outcome was good. The rate of complications, however—especially infections—was high. We believe that preoperative laboratory screening for low-grade infection and synovial cultures could contribute to better treatment in some of these patients.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2012.733917
PMCID: PMC3488175  PMID: 23083435
2.  Higher risk of reoperation for bipolar and uncemented hemiarthroplasty 
Acta Orthopaedica  2012;83(5):459-466.
Background and purpose
Hemiarthroplasty as treatment for femoral neck fractures has increased markedly in Sweden during the last decade. In this prospective observational study, we wanted to identify risk factors for reoperation in modular hemiarthroplasties and to evaluate mortality in this patient group.
Patients and methods
We assessed 23,509 procedures from the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register using the most common surgical approaches with modular uni- or bipolar hemiarthroplasties related to fractures in the period 2005–2010. Completeness of registration (individual procedures) was 89–96%. The median age was 85 years and the median follow-up time was 18 months.
Results
3.8% underwent reoperation (any further hip surgery), most often because of implant dislocation or infection. The risk of reoperation (Cox regression) was higher for uncemented stems (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.5), mainly because of periprosthetic femoral fractures. Bipolar implants had a higher risk of reoperation irrespective of cause (HR = 1.3), because of dislocation (1.4), because of infection (1.3), and because of periprosthetic fracture (1.7). The risk of reoperation due to acetabular erosion was lower (0.30) than for unipolar implants, but reoperation for this complication was rare (1.7 per thousand). Procedures resulting from failed internal fixation had a more than doubled risk; the risk was also higher for males and for younger patients. The surgical approach had no influence on the risk of reoperation generally, but the anterolateral transgluteal approach was associated with a lower risk of reoperation due to dislocation (HR = 0.7). At 1 year, the mortality was 24%. Men had a higher risk of death than women (1.8).
Interpretation
We recommend cemented hemiarthroplasties and the anterolateral transgluteal approach. We also suggest that unipolar implants should be used, at least for the oldest and frailest patients.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2012.727076
PMCID: PMC3488171  PMID: 22998529
3.  Unipolar versus bipolar Exeter hip hemiarthroplasty: a prospective cohort study on 830 consecutive hips in patients with femoral neck fractures 
International Orthopaedics  2011;36(4):711-717.
Background
Hip replacement using a hemiarthroplasty (HA) is a common surgical procedure in elderly patients with fractures of the femoral neck. Data from the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register suggest that there is a higher risk for revision surgery with the bipolar HA compared with the unipolar HA.
Purpose
In this study we analysed the reoperation and the dislocation rates for Exeter HAs in patients with a displaced femoral neck fracture, comparing the unipolar and bipolar prosthetic designs. Additionally, we compared the outcome for HAs performed as a primary intervention with those performed secondary to failed internal fixation.
Methods
We studied 830 consecutive Exeter HAs (427 unipolar and 403 bipolar) performed either as a primary operation for a displaced fracture of the femoral neck or as a secondary procedure after failed internal fixation of a fracture of the femoral neck. Cox regression analyses were performed to evaluate factors associated with reoperation and prosthetic dislocation. Age, gender, the surgeon’s experience, indication for surgery (primary or secondary) and type of HA (unipolar or bipolar) were tested as independent variables in the model.
Results
The prosthetic design (uni- or bipolar) had no influence on the risk for reoperation or dislocation, nor had the age, gender or the surgeon’s experience. The secondary HAs were associated with a significantly increased risk for reoperation (HR 2.6, CI 1.5–4.5) or dislocation (HR 3.3, CI 1.4–7.3) compared to the primary HAs. We found no difference in the risk for reoperation or dislocation when comparing Exeter unipolar and bipolar HAs, but special attention is called for to reduce the risk of prosthesis dislocation and reoperation after a secondary HA.
doi:10.1007/s00264-011-1326-3
PMCID: PMC3311798  PMID: 21789497
4.  Arthroplasty options in femoral-neck fracture: answers from the national registries 
International Orthopaedics  2011;36(1):1-8.
Purpose
Femoral-neck fracture in the elderly population is a problem that demands the attention of the orthopaedic community as life expectancy continues to increase. There are several different treatment options in use, and this variety in and of itself indicates the absence of an ideal single treatment option. Recent debate has focussed on the probable superiority of total hip arthroplasty (THA) over hemiarthroplasty for femoral-neck fracture. Clinical trials and systematic reviews of such trials have not provided a convincing answer to this question.
Methods
We analysed data from national registries evaluating prosthetic replacements for femoral-neck fracture in the elderly. We compared revision and reoperation rates of hemiarthroplasty and THA, analysed the prognostic variables that influenced implant survival and the major causes of failure.
Results
Data from the Australian and Italian registries indicate that THA has an increased revision rate compared with bipolar hemiarthroplasty in femoral-neck fracture in the elderly. The registries identify that age over 75 years and the use of the anterior surgical approach are associated with better survivorship in patients who have a hemiarthroplasty. Cemented fixation of the femoral stem in hemiarthroplasty and THA is supported by registry data. Acetabular erosion accounted for a very low percentage of hemiarthroplasty revisions and reoperations.
Conclusion
Our review of data from national registries supports the continued use of bipolar hemiarthroplasty in femoral-neck fracture in the elderly and identifies age, method of fixation and surgical approach as important prognostic variables in determining implant survival.
doi:10.1007/s00264-011-1354-z
PMCID: PMC3251685  PMID: 21931966
5.  Posterior approach and uncemented stems increases the risk of reoperation after hemiarthroplasties in elderly hip fracture patients 
Acta Orthopaedica  2014;85(1):18-25.
Background
Hemiarthroplasties are performed in great numbers worldwide but are seldom registered on a national basis. Our aim was to identify risk factors for reoperation after fracture-related hemiarthroplasty in Norway and Sweden.
Material and methods
A common dataset was created based on the Norwegian Hip Fracture Register and the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register. 33,205 hip fractures in individuals > 60 years of age treated with modular hemiarthroplasties were reported for the period 2005–2010. Cox regression analyses based on reoperations were performed (covariates: age group, sex, type of stem and implant head, surgical approach, and hospital volume).
Results
1,164 patients (3.5%) were reoperated during a mean follow-up of 2.7 (SD 1.7) years. In patients over 85 years, an increased risk of reoperation was found for uncemented stems (HR = 2.2, 95% CI: 1.7–2.8), bipolar heads (HR = 1.4, CI: 1.2–1.8), posterior approach (HR = 1.4, CI: 1.2–1.8) and male sex (HR = 1.3, CI: 1.0–1.6). For patients aged 75–85 years, uncemented stems (HR = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.2–2.0) and men (HR = 1.3, CI: 1.1–1.6) carried an increased risk. Increased risk of reoperation due to infection was found for patients aged < 75 years (HR = 1.5, CI: 1.1–2.0) and for uncemented stems. For open surgery due to dislocation, the strongest risk factor was a posterior approach (HR = 2.2, CI: 1.8–2.6). Uncemented stems in particular (HR = 3.6, CI: 2.4–5.3) and male sex increased the risk of periprosthetic fracture surgery.
Interpretation
Cemented stems and a direct lateral transgluteal approach reduced the risk of reoperation after hip fractures treated with hemiarthroplasty in patients over 75 years. Men and younger patients had a higher risk of reoperation. For the age group 60–74 years, there were no such differences in risk in this material.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2014.885356
PMCID: PMC3940987  PMID: 24460108
6.  Treatment and Displacement Affect the Reoperation Rate for Femoral Neck Fracture 
Background
Femoral neck fractures (FNFs) comprise 50% of geriatric hip fractures. Appropriate management requires surgeons to balance potential risks and associated healthcare costs with surgical treatment. Treatment complications can lead to reoperation resulting in increased patient risks and costs. Understanding etiologies of treatment failure and the population at risk may decrease reoperation rates.
Questions/purposes
We therefore (1) determined if treatment modality and/or displacement affected reoperation rates after FNF; and (2) identified factors associated with increased reoperation and timing and reasons for reoperation.
Methods
We reviewed 1411 records of patients older than 60 years treated for FNF with internal fixation or hemiarthroplasty between 1998 and 2009. We extracted patient age, sex, fracture classification, treatment modality and date, occurrence of and reasons for reoperation, comorbid conditions at the time of each surgery, and dates of death or last contact. Minimum followup was 12 months (median, 45 months; range, 12–157 months).
Results
Internal fixation (hazard ratio [HR], 6.38) and displacement (HR, 2.92) were independently associated with increased reoperation rates. The reoperation rate for nondisplaced fractures treated with fixation was 15% and for displaced fractures 38% after fixation and 7% after hemiarthroplasty. Most fractures treated with fixation underwent reoperation within 1 year primarily for nonunion. Most fractures treated with hemiarthroplasty underwent reoperation within 3 months, primarily for infection.
Conclusions
Overall, hemiarthroplasty resulted in fewer reoperations versus internal fixation and displaced fractures underwent reoperation more than nondisplaced. Our data suggest there are fewer reoperations when treating elderly patients with displaced FNFs with hemiarthroplasty than with internal fixation.
Level of Evidence
Level III, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-013-3020-9
PMCID: PMC3705035  PMID: 23640205
7.  Which is the Best Alternative for Displaced Femoral Neck Fractures in the Elderly?: A Meta-Analysis 
Background
Treatment of displaced femoral neck fractures includes internal fixation and arthroplasty. However, whether arthroplasty or internal fixation is the primary treatment for displaced femoral neck fractures in elderly patients remains a subject for debate. The literature contains conflicting evidence regarding rates of mortality, revision surgery, major postoperative complications, and function in elderly patients with displaced femoral neck fractures treated either by internal fixation or arthroplasty (either hemiarthroplasty or THA).
Questions/purpose
We determined mortality, revision surgery rates, major surgical complications (which include infection, nonunion or early redisplacement, avascular necrosis, dislocation, loosening of the prosthesis, acetabular erosion, fracture below or around the implant, and other severe general complications such as deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism), and function in patients treated with either internal fixation or arthroplasty for displaced femoral neck fractures in the elderly.
Methods
We searched PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing internal fixation and arthroplasty. We identified 20 RCTs with 4508 patients meeting all the criteria for eligibility. We performed a meta-analysis of the major complications, reoperations, function, pain, and mortality.
Results
Compared with internal fixation, arthroplasty reduced the risk of the major complications (95% CI, 0.21–0.54 for 1 year; 95% CI, 0.16–0.31 for 5 years) and the incidence of reoperation 1 to 5 years after surgery (95% CI, 0.15–0.34 for 1 year; 95% CI, 0.08–0.24 for 5 years), and provided better pain relief (95% CI, 0.34–0.72). Function was superior (RR = 0.59; 95% CI, 0.44–0.79) for patients treated with arthroplasty than for patients treated by internal fixation. However, mortality 1 to 3 years after surgery was similar (95% CI, 0.96–1.23, p = 0.20 for 1 year; 95% CI, 0.91–1.17, p = 0.63 for 3 years).
Conclusions
Arthroplasty can reduce the risk of major complications and the incidence of reoperation compared with internal fixation, and provide better pain relief and function, but it does not reduce mortality.
Level of Evidence
Level II, prognostic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-012-2250-6
PMCID: PMC3348330  PMID: 22278852
8.  Extensively coated revision stems in proximally deficient femur: Early results in 15 patients 
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics  2008;42(3):287-293.
Background:
Hip replacement following failed internal fixation (dynamic hip screw for intertrochanteric fractures) or previous hip arthroplasty presents a major surgical challenge. Proximal fitting revision stems do not achieve adequate fixation. Distal fixation with long-stemmed extensively coated cementless implants (like the Solution™ system) affords a suitable solution. We present our early results of 15 patients treated with extensively coated cementless revision stems.
Materials and Methods:
Fifteen patients with severely compromised proximal femora following either failed hip arthroplasty or failed internal fixation (dynamic hip screw fixation for intertrochanteric fractures) were operated by the senior author over a two-year period. Eight patients had aseptic loosening of their femoral stems following cemented hip replacements, with severe thinning of their proximal cortices and impending stress fractures. Seven had secondary hip arthritis following failure of long implants for comminuted intertrochanteric or subtrochanteric femoral fractures. All patients were treated by removal of implant (cemented stems/DHS implants) and insertion of long-stemmed extensively coated cementless revision (‘Solution™ DePuy, Warsaw (IN), US’) stems along with press-fit acetabular component (Duraloc Cup, DePuy, Warsaw (IN), US). All eight hip revisions needed extended trochanteric osteotomies.
Results:
All patients were primarily kept in bed on physiotherapy for six weeks and then gradually progressed to weight-bearing walking over the next six to eight weeks. The Harris Hip Scores and patient satisfaction were used for final evaluation. We achieved good results in the short term studied. In our first three patients (all following failed cemented total hip replacements), we resorted to cerclage wiring to hold osteotomised segments (done to facilitate stem removal). The subsequent 12 proceeded without the need for cerclage wiring. One patient had a intraoperative severe comminuted fracture extending into the supracondylar region while hammering in the stem. Post cerclage wiring, she was put on a long knee brace and her mobilization was delayed to 12 weeks.
Conclusions:
The extensively coated cementless (‘Solution™’) femoral stem provides a reasonable ‘solution’ to the deficient femur in hip revision. The proximal femoral deficiences can be relatively easily bypassed and distal fixation can be achieved with this stem. Extreme care needs to be taken to avoid fractures and penetration of the femoral shaft, which can, however, be managed by cerclage wiring. Principles of a successful outcome include preservation of the functional continuity of the abduction apparatus, care to recognize and prevent distal extension of fracture while inserting the stem (preemptive cerclage wiring) and supervised rehabilitation.
doi:10.4103/0019-5413.39554
PMCID: PMC2739478  PMID: 19753154
Cementless fixation; extensively coated; proximally deficient femur
9.  Periprosthetic Vancouver type B1 and C fractures treated by locking-plate osteosynthesis 
Acta Orthopaedica  2012;83(6):648-652.
Background and purpose
Historically, the treatment of periprosthetic femoral fractures (PFFs) has been associated with a high frequency of complications and reoperations. The preferred treatment is internal fixation, a revision of the femoral stem, or a combination of both. An improved understanding of plate use during internal fixation, and the introduction of locking-plate osteosynthesis may lead to improved outcome. We evaluated the outcome of Vancouver type B1 and C PFFs treated by locking-plate osteosynthesis, by assessing rates of fracture union and reoperations and by analyzing failure cases.
Patients and methods
From 2002 through 2011, 58 consecutive patients (60 fractures) with low-energy PFF around or below a stable femoral stem, i.e. Vancouver type B1 and C fractures, underwent osteosynthesis with a locking plate. All patients had a total hip replacement (THR). They were followed up clinically and radiographically, with 6 weeks between visits, until fracture union or until death. Fracture union was evaluated 6 months postoperatively.
Results
At a median follow-up time of 23 (0–121) months after PFF, 8 patients (8 fractures) had been reoperated due either to infection (n = 4), failure of fixation (n = 3), or loosening of the femoral stem (n = 1). All the patients who had been followed up for at least 6 months—and who did not undergo reoperation or die—went on to fracture union (n = 43).
Interpretation
Locking-plate osteosynthesis of periprosthetic Vancouver type B1 and C fractures gives good results regarding fracture union. It appears that spanning of the prosthesis to avoid stress-rising areas is important for successful treatment. Infection is the major cause of failure.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2012.747925
PMCID: PMC3555447  PMID: 23140109
10.  Total hip arthroplasty following failed fixation of proximal hip fractures 
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics  2008;42(3):279-286.
Background:
Most proximal femoral fractures are successfully treated with internal fixation but a failed surgery can be very distressing for the patient due to pain and disability. For the treating surgeon it can be a challenge to perform salvage operations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the short-term functional outcome and complications of total hip arthroplasty (THA) following failed fixation of proximal hip fracture.
Materials and Methods:
In a retrospective study, 21 hips in 20 patients (13 females and seven males) with complications of operated hip fractures as indicated by either established nonunion or fracture collapse with hardware failure were analysed. Mean age of the patients was 62 years (range 38 years to 85 years). Nine patients were treated for femoral neck fracture, 10 for intertrochanteric (I/T) fracture and two for subtrochanteric (S/T) fracture of the hip. Uncemented THA was done in 11 cases, cemented THA in eight hip joints and hybrid THA in two patients.
Results:
The average duration of follow-up was four years (2-13 years). The mean duration of surgery was 125 min and blood loss was 1300 ml. There were three dislocations postoperatively. Two were managed conservatively and one was operated. There was one superficial infection and one deep infection. Only one patient required a walker while four required walking stick for ambulation. The mean Harris Hip score increased from 32 preoperatively to 79 postoperatively at one year interval.
Conclusion:
Total hip arthroplasty is an effective salvage procedure after failed osteosynthesis of hip fractures. Most patients have good pain relief and functional improvements inspite of technical difficulties and high complication rates than primary arthroplasty.
doi:10.4103/0019-5413.41851
PMCID: PMC2739465  PMID: 19753153
Failed internal fixation; hip arthroplasty; hip fractures; THA
11.  The vertical hip fracture – a treatment challenge. A cohort study with an up to 9 year follow-up of 137 consecutive hips treated with sliding hip screw and antirotation screw 
Background
Femoral neck fractures with a vertical orientation have been associated with an increased risk for failure as they are both axial and rotational unstable and experience increased shear forces compared to the conventional and more horizontally oriented femoral neck fractures. The purpose of this study was to analyse outcome and risk factors for reoperation of these uncommon fractures.
Methods
A cohort study with a consecutive series of 137 hips suffering from a vertical hip fracture, treated with one method: a sliding hips screw with plate and an antirotation screw. Median follow-up time was 4.8 years. Reoperation data was validated against the National Board of Health and Welfare’s national registry using the unique Swedish personal identification number.
Results
The total reoperation rate was 18%. After multivariable Logistic regression analysis adjusting for possible confounding factors there was an increased risk for reoperation for displaced fractures (22%) compared to undisplaced fractures (3%), and for fractures with poor implant position (38%) compared to fractures with adequate implant position (15%).
Conclusions
The reoperation rate was high, and special attention should be given to achieve an appropriate position of the implant.
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-13-171
PMCID: PMC3495198  PMID: 22971243
Hip fracture; Osteosynthesis; Basicervical fracture; Vertical hip fracture
12.  Unplanned Hip Arthroplasty Imposes Clinical and Cost Burdens on Treating Institutions 
Background
Emergent surgery has been shown to be a risk factor for perioperative complications. Studies suggest that patient morbidity is greater with an unplanned hip arthroplasty, although it is controversial whether unplanned procedures also result in higher patient mortality. The financial impact of these procedures is not fully understood, as the costs of unplanned primary hip arthroplasties have not been studied previously.
Questions/purposes
We asked: (1) What are the institutional costs associated with unplanned hip arthroplasties (primary THA, hemiarthroplasty, revision arthroplasty, including treatment of periprosthetic fractures, dislocations, and infections)? (2) Does timing of surgery (urgent/unplanned versus elective) influence perioperative outcomes such as mortality, length of stay, or need for advanced care? (3) What diagnoses are associated with unplanned surgery and are treated urgently most often? (4) Do demographics and insurance status differ between admission types (unplanned versus elective hip arthroplasty)?
Methods
We prospectively followed all 419 patients who were admitted to our Level I trauma center in 2011 for procedures including primary THA, hemiarthroplasty, and revision arthroplasty, including the treatment of periprosthetic fractures, dislocations, and infections. Fifty-seven patients who were treated urgently on an unplanned basis were compared with 362 patients who were treated electively. Demographics, admission diagnoses, complications, and costs were recorded and analyzed statistically.
Results
Median total costs were 24% greater for patients admitted for unplanned hip arthroplasties (USD18,206 [USD15,261–27,491] versus USD14,644 [USD13,511–16,309]; p < 0.0001) for patients admitted for elective arthroplasties. Patients with unplanned admissions had a 67% longer median hospital stay (5 days [range, 4–9 days] versus 3 days [range, 3–4 days]; p < 0.0001) for patients with elective admissions. Mortality rates were equivalent between groups (p = 1.0). Femoral fracture (p < 0.0001), periprosthetic fracture (p = 0.01), prosthetic infection (p = 0.005), and prosthetic dislocation (p < 0.0001) were observed at higher rates in the patients with unplanned admissions. These patients were older (p = 0.04), less likely to have commercial insurance (p < 0.0001), more likely to be transferred from another institution (p < 0.0001), and more likely to undergo a revision procedure (p < 0.0001).
Conclusions
Unplanned arthroplasty and urgent surgery are associated with increased financial and clinical burdens, which must be accounted for when considering bundled quality and reimbursement measures for these procedures.
Level of Evidence
Level II, therapeutic study. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-013-3226-x
PMCID: PMC3825898  PMID: 23928711
13.  Surgical preferences of patients at risk of hip fractures: hemiarthroplasty versus total hip arthroplasty 
Background
The optimal treatment of displaced femoral neck fractures in patients over 60 years is controversial. While much research has focused on the impact of total hip arthroplasty (THA) and hemiarthroplasty (HA) on surgical outcomes, little is known about patient preferences for either alternative. The purpose of this study was to elicit surgical preferences of patients at risk of sustaining hip fracture using a novel decision board.
Methods
We developed a decision board for the surgical management of displaced femoral neck fractures presenting risks and outcomes of HA and THA. The decision board was presented to 81 elderly patients at risk for developing femoral neck fractures identified from an osteoporosis clinic. The participants were faced with the scenario of sustaining a displaced femoral neck fracture and were asked to state their treatment option preference and rationale for operative procedure.
Results
Eighty-five percent (85%) of participants were between the age of 60 and 80 years; 89% were female; 88% were Caucasian; and 49% had some post-secondary education. Ninety-three percent (93%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 87-99%) of participants chose THA as their preferred operative choice. Participants identified several factors important to their decision, including the perception of greater walking distance (63%), less residual pain (29%), less reoperative risk (28%) and lower mortality risk (20%) with THA. Participants who preferred HA (7%; 95% CI, 1-13%) did so for perceived less invasiveness (50%), lower dislocation risk (33%), lower infection risk (33%), and shorter operative time (17%).
Conclusion
The overwhelming majority of patients preferred THA to HA for the treatment of a displaced femoral neck fracture when confronted with risks and outcomes of both procedures on a decision board.
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-12-289
PMCID: PMC3280185  PMID: 22196211
14.  Total Hip Arthroplasty for Hip Fractures 
Introduction:
This study aimed to determine the dislocation and reoperation rate, functional outcomes, and the survival rate of the unique subset of very old but lucid and independent patients with hip fractures following a total hip arthroplasty (THA) and geriatric team-coordinated perioperative care.
Method:
Between 2000 and 2006, previously independent ambulatory patients ≥80 years old presenting with an intracapsular hip fracture were given THAs under the care of an integrated orthopedic surgery–geriatric service. Their fracture-related complications, ambulation, mental status, and survival were followed for 5 to 11 years postinjury.
Results:
Five years postinjury, 57 (61.3%) patients of the original study group were living. In all, 3 (3.2%) patients had postoperative hip dislocations (and 2 patients had dislocation twice) and 2 reoperations were needed within the first postoperative month. There were no hip dislocations or reoperations after the first year. Radiographs obtained on 88% of the surviving patients at 5 years postoperatively showed that all remained unchanged from their immediate postoperative images. Nearly half of the patients were still able to ambulate as they did preoperatively and their mixed-model equation was statistically unchanged.
Conclusion:
This study of patients >80 years old with previously good functional status demonstrates that with appropriate surgical (best prosthesis, good operating technique, and regional anesthesia) and geriatric (pre- and postoperative assessments, close follow-up, medication adjustments, and fall-prevention instruction) care, they have few hip dislocations and reoperations, survive postfracture at least as long as their noninjured contemporaries, and continue to function and ambulate as they did prior to their injury.
doi:10.1177/2151458514520700
PMCID: PMC3962050  PMID: 24660092
hip fractures; geriatrics; orthogeriatric team; perioperative care; total hip arthroplasty
15.  Metal-on-Metal Total Hip Resurfacing Arthroplasty 
Executive Summary
Objective
The objective of this review was to assess the safety and effectiveness of metal on metal (MOM) hip resurfacing arthroplasty for young patients compared with that of total hip replacement (THR) in the same population.
Clinical Need
Total hip replacement has proved to be very effective for late middle-aged and elderly patients with severe degenerative diseases of the hips. As indications for THR began to include younger patients and those with a more active life style, the longevity of the implant became a concern. Evidence suggests that these patients experience relatively higher rates of early implant failure and the need for revision. The Swedish hip registry, for example, has demonstrated a survival rate in excess of 80% at 20 years for those aged over 65 years, whereas this figure was 33% by 16 years in those aged under 55 years.
Hip resurfacing arthroplasty is a bone-conserving alternative to THR that restores normal joint biomechanics and load transfer. The technique has been used around the world for more than 10 years, specifically in the United Kingdom and other European countries.
The Technology
Metal-on-metal hip resurfacing arthroplasty is an alternative procedure to conventional THR in younger patients. Hip resurfacing arthroplasty is less invasive than THR and addresses the problem of preserving femoral bone stock at the initial operation. This means that future hip revisions are possible with THR if the initial MOM arthroplasty becomes less effective with time in these younger patients. The procedure involves the removal and replacement of the surface of the femoral head with a hollow metal hemisphere, which fits into a metal acetabular cup.
Hip resurfacing arthroplasty is a technically more demanding procedure than is conventional THR. In hip resurfacing, the femoral head is retained, which makes it much more difficult to access the acetabular cup. However, hip resurfacing arthroplasty has several advantages over a conventional THR with a small (28 mm) ball. First, the large femoral head reduces the chance of dislocation, so that rates of dislocation are less than those with conventional THR. Second, the range of motion with hip resurfacing arthroplasty is higher than that achieved with conventional THR.
A variety of MOM hip resurfacing implants are used in clinical practice. Six MOM hip resurfacing implants have been issued licences in Canada.
Review Strategy
A search of electronic bibliographies (OVID Medline, Medline In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Embase, Cochrane CENTRAL and DSR, INAHTA) was undertaken to identify evidence published from Jan 1, 1997 to October 27, 2005. The search was limited to English-language articles and human studies. The literature search yielded 245 citations. Of these, 11 met inclusion criteria (9 for effectiveness, 2 for safety).
The result of the only reported randomized controlled trial on MOM hip resurfacing arthroplasty could not be included in this assessment, because it used a cemented acetabular component, whereas in the new generation of implants, a cementless acetabular component is used. After omitting this publication, only case series remained.
Summary of Findings
 
Health Outcomes
The Harris hip score and SF-12 are 2 measures commonly used to report health outcomes in MOM hip resurfacing arthroplasty studies. Other scales used are the Oxford hip score and the University of California Los Angeles hip score.
The case series showed that the mean revision rate of MOM hip resurfacing arthroplasty is 1.5% and the incidence of femoral neck fracture is 0.67%. Across all studies, 2 cases of osteonecrosis were reported. Four studies reported improvement in Harris hip scores. However, only 1 study reported a statistically significant improvement. Three studies reported improvement in SF-12 scores, of which 2 reported a significant improvement. One study reported significant improvement in UCLA hip score. Two studies reported postoperative Oxford hip scores, but no preoperative values were reported.
None of the reviewed studies reported procedure-related deaths. Four studies reported implant survival rates ranging from 94.4% to 99.7% for a follow-up period of 2.8 to 3.5 years. Three studies reported on the range of motion. One reported improvement in all motions including flexion, extension, abduction-adduction, and rotation, and another reported improvement in flexion. Yet another reported improvement in range of motion for flexion abduction-adduction and rotation arc. However, the author reported a decrease in the range of motion in the arc of flexion in patients with Brooker class III or IV heterotopic bone (all patients were men).
Safety of Metal-on-Metal Hip Resurfacing Arthroplasty
There is a concern about metal wear debris and its systemic distribution throughout the body. Detectable metal concentrations in the serum and urine of patients with metal hip implants have been described as early as the 1970s, and this issue is still controversial after 35 years.
Several studies have reported high concentration of cobalt and chromium in serum and/or urine of the patients with metal hip implants. Potential toxicological effects of the elevated metal ions have heightened concerns about safety of MOM bearings. This is of particular concern in young and active patients in whom life expectancy after implantation is long.
Since 1997, 15 studies, including 1 randomized clinical trial, have reported high levels of metal ions after THR with metal implants. Some of these studies have reported higher metal levels in patients with loose implants.
Adverse Biological Effects of Cobalt and Chromium
Because patients who receive a MOM hip arthroplasty are shown to be exposed to high concentrations of metallic ions, the Medical Advisory Secretariat searched the literature for reports of adverse biological effects of cobalt and chromium. Cobalt and chromium make up the major part of the metal articulations; therefore, they are a focus of concern.
Risk of Cancer
To date, only one study has examined the incidence of cancer after MOM and polyethylene on metal total hip arthroplasties. The results were compared to that of general population in Finland. The mean duration of follow-up for MOM arthroplasty was 15.7 years; for polyethylene arthroplasty, it was 12.5 years. The standardized incidence ratio for all cancers in the MOM group was 0.95 (95% CI, 0.79–1.13). In the polyethylene on metal group it was 0.76 (95% CI, 0.68–0.86). The combined standardized incidence ratio for lymphoma and leukemia in the patients who had MOM THR was 1.59 (95% CI, 0.82–2.77). It was 0.59 (95% CI, 0.29–1.05) for the patients who had polyethylene on metal THR. Patients with MOM THR had a significantly higher risk of leukemia. All patients who had leukemia were aged over than 60 years.
Cobalt Cardiotoxicity
 
Epidemiological Studies of Myocardiopathy of Beer Drinkers
An unusual type of myocardiopathy, characterized by pericardial effusion, elevated hemoglobin concentrations, and congestive heart failure, occurred as an epidemic affecting 48 habitual beer drinkers in Quebec City between 1965 and 1966. This epidemic was directly related the consumption of a popular beer containing cobalt sulfate. The epidemic appeared 1 month after cobalt sulfate was added to the specific brewery, and no further cases were seen a month after this specific chemical was no longer used in making this beer. A beer of the same name is made in Montreal, and the only difference at that time was that the Quebec brand of beer contained about 10 times more cobalt sulphate. Cobalt has been added to some Canadian beers since 1965 to improve the stability of the foam but it has been added in larger breweries only to draught beer. However, in small breweries, such as those in Quebec City, separate batches were not brewed for bottle and draught beer; therefore, cobalt was added to all of the beer processed in this brewery.
In March 1966, a committee was appointed under the chairmanship of the Deputy Minister of Health for Quebec that included members of the department of forensic medicine of Quebec’s Ministry of Justice, epidemiologists, members of Food and Drug Directorate of Ottawa, toxicologists, biomedical researchers, pathologists, and members of provincial police. Epidemiological studies were carried out by the Provincial Ministry of Health and the Quebec City Health Department.
The association between the development of myocardiopathy and the consumption of the particular brand of beer was proven. The mortality rate of this epidemic was 46.1% and those who survived were desperately ill, and recovered only after a struggle for their lives.
Similar cases were seen in Omaha (Nebraska). The epidemic started after a cobalt additive was used in 1 of the beers marketed in Nebraska. Sixty-four patients with the clinical diagnosis of alcoholic myocardiopathy were seen during an 18-month period (1964–1965). Thirty of these patients died. The first patient became ill within 1 month after cobalt was added to the beer, and the last patient was seen within 1 month of withdrawal of cobalt.
A similar epidemic occurred in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Between 1964 and 1967, 42 patients with acute heart failure were admitted to a hospital in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Twenty of these patients were drinking 6 to 30 bottles per day of a particular brand of beer exclusively. The other 14 patients also drank the same brand of beer, but not exclusively. The mortality rate from the acute illness was 18%, but late deaths accounted for a total mortality rate of 43%. Examination of the tissue from these patients revealed markedly abnormal changes in myofibrils (heart muscles), mitochondria, and sarcoplasmic reticulum.
In Belgium, a similar epidemic was reported in 1966, in which, cobalt was used in some Belgian beers. There was a difference in mortality between the Canadian or American epidemic and this series. Only 1 of 24 patients died, 1.5 years after the diagnosis. In March 1965, at an international meeting in Brussels, a new heart disease in chronic beer drinkers was described. This disease consists of massive pericardial effusion, low cardiac output, raised venous pressure, and polycythemia in some cases. This syndrome was thought to be different from the 2 other forms of alcoholic heart disease (beriberi and a form characterized by myocardial fibrosis).
The mystery of the above epidemics as stated by investigators is that the amount of cobalt added to the beer was below the therapeutic doses used for anemia. For example, 24 pints of Quebec brand of beer in Quebec would contain 8 mg of cobalt chloride, whereas an intake of 50 to 100 mg of cobalt as an antianemic agent has been well tolerated. Thus, greater cobalt intake alone does not explain the occurrence of myocardiopathy. It seems that there are individual differences in cobalt toxicity. Other features, like subclinical alcoholic heart disease, deficient diet, and electrolyte imbalance could have been precipitating factors that made these patients susceptible to cobalt’s toxic effects.
In the Omaha epidemic, 60% of the patients had weight loss, anorexia, and occasional vomiting and diarrhea 2 to 6 months before the onset of cardiac symptoms. In the Quebec epidemic, patients lost their appetite 3 to 6 months before the diagnosis of myocardiopathy and developed nausea in the weeks before hospital admission. In the Belgium epidemic, anorexia was one of the most predominant symptoms at the time of diagnosis, and the quality and quantity of food intake was poor. Alcohol has been shown to increase the uptake of intracoronary injected cobalt by 47%. When cobalt enters the cells, calcium exits; this shifts the cobalt to calcium ratio. The increased uptake of cobalt in alcoholic patients may explain the high incidence of cardiomyopathies in beer drinkers’ epidemics.
As all of the above suggest, it may be that prior chronic exposure to alcohol and/or a nutritionally deficient diet may have a marked synergistic effect with the cardiotoxicity of cobalt.
Conclusions
MOM hip resurfacing arthroplasty has been shown to be an effective arthroplasty procedure as tested in younger patients.
However, evidence for effectiveness is based only on 7 case series with short duration of follow-up (2.8–3.5 years). There are no RCTs or other well-controlled studies that compare MOM hip resurfacing with THR.
Revision rates reported in the MOM studies using implants currently licensed in Canada (hybrid systems, uncemented acetabular, and cemented femoral) range from 0.3% to 3.6% for a mean follow-up ranging from 2.8 to 3.5 years.
Fracture of femoral neck is not very common; it occurs in 0.4% to 2.2% of cases (as observed in a short follow-up period).
All the studies that measured health outcomes have reported improvement in Harris Hip and SF-12 scores; 1 study reported significant reduction in pain and improvement in function, and 2 studies reported significant improvement in SF-12 scores. One study reported significant improvement in UCLA Hip scores.
Concerns remain on the potential adverse effects of metal ions. Longer-term follow-up data will help to resolve the inconsistency of findings on adverse effects, including toxicity and carcinogenicity.
Ontario-Based Economic Analysis
The device cost for MOM ranges from $4,300 to $6,000 (Cdn). Traditional hip replacement devices cost about $2,000 (Cdn). Using Ontario Case Costing Initiative data, the total estimated costs for hip resurfacing surgery including physician fees, device fees, follow-up consultation, and postsurgery rehabilitation is about $15,000 (Cdn).
Cost of Total Hip Replacement Surgery in Ontario
MOM hip arthroplasty is generally recommended for patients aged under 55 years because its bone-conserving advantage enables patients to “buy time” and hence helps THRs to last over the lifetime of the patient. In 2004/2005, 15.9% of patients who received THRs were aged 55 years and younger. It is estimated that there are from 600 to 1,000 annual MOM hip arthroplasty surgeries in Canada with an estimated 100 to 150 surgeries in Ontario. Given the increased public awareness of this device, it is forecasted that demand for MOM hip arthroplasty will steadily increase with a conservative estimate of demand rising to 1,400 cases by 2010 (Figure 10). The net budget impact over a 5-year period could be $500,000 to $4.7 million, mainly because of the increasing cost of the device.
Projected Number of Metal-on-Metal Hip Arthroplasty Surgeries in Ontario: to 2010
PMCID: PMC3379532  PMID: 23074495
16.  A Review of Periprosthetic Femoral Fractures Associated With Total Hip Arthroplasty 
Periprosthetic fractures of the femur in association with total hip arthroplasty are increasingly common and often difficult to treat. Patients with periprosthetic fractures are typically elderly and frail and have osteoporosis. No clear consensus exists regarding the optimal management strategy because there is limited high-quality research. The Vancouver classification facilitates treatment decisions. In the presence of a stable prosthesis (type-B1 and -C fractures), most authors recommend surgical stabilization of the fracture with plates, strut grafts, or a combination thereof. In up to 20% of apparent Vancouver type-B1 fractures, the femoral stem is loose, which may explain the high failure rates associated with open reduction and internal fixation. Some authors recommend routine opening and dislocation of the hip to perform an intraoperative stem stability test to rule out a loose component. Advances in plating techniques and technology are improving the outcomes for these fractures. For fractures around a loose femoral prosthesis (types B2 and 3), revision using an extensively porous-coated uncemented long stem, with or without additional fracture fixation, appears to offer the most reliable outcome. Cement-in-cement revision using a long-stem prosthesis is feasible in elderly patients with a well-fixed cement mantle. It is essential to treat the osteoporosis to help fracture healing and to prevent further fractures. We provide an overview of the causes, classification, and management of periprosthetic femoral fractures around a total hip arthroplasty based on the current best available evidence.
doi:10.1177/2151458512462870
PMCID: PMC3598446  PMID: 23569704
periprosthetic fracture; femur; total hip arthroplasty; Vancouver type; stem
17.  Total Hip Arthroplasty Versus Hemiarthroplasty for Displaced Femoral Neck Fractures: Meta-analysis of Randomized Trials 
Background
Most patients with displaced femoral neck fractures are treated by THA and hemiarthroplasty, but it remains uncertain which if either is associated with better function and lower risks of complications.
Questions/purposes
We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to determine whether THA was associated with lower rates of reoperations, mortality, complications, and better function compared with hemiarthroplasty.
Methods
We searched the PubMed, Embase, Chinese Biomedicine Literature, and Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials databases and identified 12 RCTs (including a total of 1320 patients) for meta-analysis. Risk ratios (RRs) and weighted mean differences (WMDs) from each trial were pooled using random-effects or fixed-effects models depending on the heterogeneity of the included studies.
Results
THA was associated with a lower risk of subsequent reoperations compared with hemiarthroplasty (RR = 0.53; 95% CI, 0.34–0.84). There was no difference in mortality between patients undergoing THA and hemiarthroplasty (RR = 0.81; 95% CI, 0.60–1.09). For complications, there was a higher risk of dislocation in patients undergoing THA (RR = 1.99; 95% CI, 1.26–3.15), but there were no differences in local infections (RR = 1.60; 95% CI, 0.74–3.46) and general complications (RR = 1.15; 95% CI, 0.91–1.45). Patients with THA had higher Harris hip scores at 1 year (WMD = 3.81; 95% CI, 0.87–6.74) and at 3 or 4 years (WMD = 10.07; 95% CI, 6.92–13.21).
Conclusions
Despite more dislocations, THA can benefit patients with displaced femoral neck fractures with a lower reoperation rate and higher functional scores.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11999-012-2293-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s11999-012-2293-8
PMCID: PMC3392403  PMID: 22395872
18.  Is It a Simple Stress Fracture or Bisphosphonate-related Atypical Fracture? 
Journal of Bone Metabolism  2012;19(2):129-132.
A number of reports regarding atypical fractures of the femur have raised questions concerning the possible correlation between long-term bisphosphonate treatment and the occurrence of insufficiency fractures in the proximal femur. However, clinically, it is often confused whether is it a fatigue fracture because of implant induced stress concentration or a bisphosphonate-related atypical fracture, especially in a patient with a subtrochanteric fracture who receive bisphosphonate therapy after open reduction and internal fixation, such as dynamic hip screw (DHS) fixation for previous ipsilateral femoral neck or intertrochanteric fracture. The authors experienced a case of a progressive femoral insufficiency fracture in a woman who had been on Fosamax (Alendronic acid with Vitamin D; Merck & Co. Inc, NJ, USA) therapy for four years after ipsilateral femoral neck fracture treated with a two hole DHS system. Despite a high suspicion of an insufficiency femoral subtrochanteric fracture by bone scan, the occult fracture progressed to a displaced femoral subtrochanteric fracture one year after. The fracture site was fixed with a 6 hole DHS plate, and six months after reoperation the patient had no symptoms and the fracture site had united without any complication.
doi:10.11005/jbm.2012.19.2.129
PMCID: PMC3780922  PMID: 24524043
Bisphosphonate; Early diagnosis; Femoral fractures; Fractures stress; Osteoporosis
19.  Uncemented and cemented primary total hip arthroplasty in the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register 
Acta Orthopaedica  2010;81(1):34-41.
Background and purpose
Since the introduction of total hip arthroplasty (THA) in Sweden, both components have most commonly been cemented. A decade ago the frequency of uncemented fixation started to increase, and this change in practice has continued. We therefore analyzed implant survival of cemented and uncemented THA, and whether the modes of failure differ between the two methods of fixation.
Patients and methods
All patients registered in the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register between 1992 and 2007 who received either totally cemented or totally uncemented THA were identified (n = 170,413). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis with revision of any component, and for any reason, as the endpoints was performed. Cox regression models were used to calculate risk ratios (RRs) for revision for various reasons, adjusted for sex, age, and primary diagnosis.
Results
Revision-free 10-year survival of uncemented THA was lower than that of cemented THA (85% vs. 94%, p < 0.001). No age or diagnosis groups benefited from the use of uncemented fixation. Cox regression analysis confirmed that uncemented THA had a higher risk of revision for any reason (RR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.4–1.6) and for aseptic loosening (RR = 1.5, CI: 1.3–1.6). Uncemented cup components had a higher risk of cup revision due to aseptic loosening (RR = 1.8, CI: 1.6–2.0), whereas uncemented stem components had a lower risk of stem revision due to aseptic loosening (RR = 0.4, CI: 0.3–0.5) when compared to cemented components. Uncemented stems were more frequently revised due to periprosthetic fracture during the first 2 postoperative years than cemented stems (RR = 8, CI: 5–14). The 5 most common uncemented cups had no increased risk of revision for any reason when compared with the 5 most commonly used cemented cups (RR = 0.9, CI: 0.6–1.1). There was no significant difference in the risk of revision due to infection between cemented and uncemented THA.
Interpretation
Survival of uncemented THA is inferior to that of cemented THA, and this appears to be mainly related to poorer performance of uncemented cups. Uncemented stems perform better than cemented stems; however, unrecognized intraoperative femoral fractures may be an important reason for early failure of uncemented stems. The risk of revision of the most common uncemented cup designs is similar to that of cemented cups, indicating that some of the problems with uncemented cup fixation may have been solved.
doi:10.3109/17453671003685400
PMCID: PMC2856202  PMID: 20180715
20.  Primary total hip arthroplasty versus internal fixation in displaced fracture of femoral neck in sexa- and septuagenarians 
Background
The optimal treatment of femoral neck fracture in the elderly patient is still under debate. In patients aged 60–80 years, the decision between internal fixation and arthroplasty remains controversial. The primary aim of the present study is to evaluate the functional outcome of patients aged 60–80 years with femoral neck fracture treated with total hip arthroplasty or closed reduction and internal fixation. The secondary aim is to evaluate the incidence of nonunion and avascular necrosis in femoral neck fracture in different age groups.
Materials and Methods
We studied 100 patients affected by displaced fracture of the femoral neck from May 2007 through June 2010. There were 60 men and 40 women with mean age of 66 years. Fifty patients were treated with closed reduction and internal fixation with cannulated screws (group A), and the other 50 patients with total hip arthroplasty (group B). Mean surgical time, blood loss, duration of hospital stay, Harris hip score, complications, and need for reoperation were recorded.
Results
Harris hip score was significantly higher in group B at 3-, 6-, 12-, and 18-month follow-up evaluation. The overall complication rate was 28 % in group A and 32 % in group B, which was not statistically significant. A statistically significant difference was found regarding patients who required reoperation in group A (20 %) compared with group B (no one). The average Harris hip score in the internal fixation group was 90.6 and in the total hip arthroplasty group was 93.7, which was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Our study showed an increased risk for intracapsular hip fracture developing nonunion with older age.
Conclusions
Primary total hip arthroplasty compared with internal fixation appears to be a reasonably safe method of treating displaced fracture of femoral neck in elderly patients. We also concluded that outcome regarding hip function is generally better after total hip arthroplasty compared with internal fixation.
Level of evidence
Level II-Prospective cohort study.
doi:10.1007/s10195-013-0278-3
PMCID: PMC4182619  PMID: 24385140
Avascular necrosis; Nonunion; Internal fixation; Arthroplasty
21.  More intramedullary nails and arthroplasties for treatment of hip fractures in Sweden 
Acta Orthopaedica  2010;81(5):588-592.
Background and purpose
The surgical methods for treatment of femoral neck fractures and trochanteric hip fractures vary. We describe the changes in Sweden over the period 1998–2007 and the regional differences in treatment.
Patients and methods
Data on 144,607 patients were drawn from the National Patient Register.
Results
The proportion of femoral neck fractures treated with arthroplasty increased from 10% in 1998 to 52% in 2007. The use of intramedullary (IM) nails for pertrochanteric fractures increased from 5% to 20%, at the expense of the use of different sliding hip screws. In subtrochanteric fractures, the use of IM nails increased from 32% to 72%. Re-admissions within 180 days due to hip complications were more common after internal fixation for femoral neck fractures than after arthroplasty, and more common after intramedullary nailing of pertrochanteric fractures than after use of sliding hip screws. Treatment varied substantially within Sweden, particularly regarding the use of IM nails.
Interpretation
An increase in arthroplasties reflects an evidence-based treatment rationale for femoral neck fractures, whereas the increase in use of IM nails in pertrochanteric fractures lacks scientific support. The geographic variations call for national treatment guidelines. Further clinical trials are needed to solve the treatment issues regarding per- and subtrochanteric fractures.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2010.506631
PMCID: PMC3214748  PMID: 20860442
22.  Early Experience with a Novel Nonmetallic Cable in Reconstructive Hip Surgery 
Background
Metallic wires and cables are commonly used in primary and revision THA for fixation of periprosthetic fractures and osteotomies of the greater trochanter. These systems provide secure fixation and high healing rates but fraying, third-body generation, accelerated wear of the bearing surface, and injury to the surgical team remain concerning.
Questions/purposes
We determined the rate of cable failure, union, and complications associated with a novel, nonmetallic cerclage cable in periprosthetic fracture and osteotomy fixation during THA.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed 29 patients who had primary and revision THAs using nonmetallic cables. Indications for use included fixation of an extended trochanteric osteotomy, intraoperative fracture of the proximal femur, strut allograft fixation, and a Vancouver B1 periprosthetic fracture of the femur. All patients were evaluated clinically and radiographically immediately postoperatively, at 3 weeks, 6 weeks, 3 months, and then annually thereafter. The minimum followup was 13 months (mean, 21 months; range, 13–30 months).
Results
Two of the 29 patients (7%) developed a nonunion; all remaining osteotomies, fractures and allografts had healed at the time of most recent evaluation. Four patients (14%) dislocated postoperatively; two were treated successfully with closed reduction, while the other two required reoperation. We identified no evidence of breakage or other complications directly attributable to the cables.
Conclusions
The nonmetallic periprosthetic cables used in this series provided adequate fixation to allow for both osteotomy and fracture healing. We did not observe any complications directly related to the cables.
Level of Evidence Level IV, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-010-1284-x
PMCID: PMC2919859  PMID: 20204557
23.  Results of Total Hip Arthroplasty Differ in Subtypes of High Dislocation 
Background
In a previous study, we described two subtypes of high dislocation of the hip depending on the presence (C1) or absence (C2) of a false acetabulum, yet we have already presented the concise followup of total hip arthroplasty (THA) in these patients as a group at a minimum of 15 years.
Questions/purposes
In this retrospective study, we investigated differences in the results of THA in the C1 and C2 subtypes of high dislocation such as (1) survivorship of the reconstructions; (2) Merle d’Aubigné-Postel clinical scores; (3) leg lengthening and femoral shortening; and (4) site of reattachment and union rate of the greater trochanter.
Methods
We included 49 hips of the C1 subtype and 30 hips of the C2 subtype operated on from 1976 to 1994. We evaluated survivorship (using reoperation for any reason as the end point) and performed chart and radiographic reviews.
Results
The 15-year survival was 84% (± 10% [95% CI]) for the C1 subtype and 60% (± 17% [95% CI]) for the C2 subtype (p = 0.001). Cox regression analysis, after adjustment for confounding factors, showed also statistically significantly worse survivorship in the C2 subtype (p = 0.021) and, after adjustment for possible predictive factors, found a statistically significant relationship of high dislocation subtype (p = 0.018) and trochanteric union (p = 0.005) with survival of THAs. Pain, function, and mobility scores improved from preoperative to last followup in C1 and C2 groups but they did not differ between C1 and C2 hips. C2 hips were lengthened more (p < 0.001) despite greater amounts of femoral shortening (p = 0.006). Site of reattachment and the risk of greater trochanter nonunion were not different between the groups.
Conclusions
We found important differences in fundamental parameters after THA in the high-dislocation subtypes, including the risk of revision, which was higher in patients whose hips did not have a false acetabulum. These findings indicate that while reporting THA results in patients with high dislocation, mixing results of the two subtypes may lead to statistical bias.
Level of Evidence
Level III, therapeutic study. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-013-2983-x
PMCID: PMC3734426  PMID: 23572352
24.  Lower reoperation rate for cemented hemiarthroplasty than for uncemented hemiarthroplasty and internal fixation following femoral neck fracture 
Acta Orthopaedica  2013;84(3):254-259.
Background and purpose
Elderly patients with displaced femoral neck fractures are commonly treated with a hemiarthroplasty (HA), but little is known about the long-term failure of this treatment. We compared reoperation rates for patients aged at least 75 years with displaced femoral neck fractures treated with either internal fixation (IF), cemented HA, or uncemented HA (with or without hydroxyapatite coating), after 12–19 years of follow-up.
Methods
4 hospitals with clearly defined guidelines for the treatment of 75+ year-old patients with a displaced femoral neck fracture were included. Cohort 1 (1991–1993) with 180 patients had undergone IF; cohort 2 (1991–1995) with 203 patients had received an uncemented bipolar Ultima HA stem (Austin-Moore); cohort 3 (1991–1995) with 209 patients had received a cemented Charnley-Hastings HA; and cohort 4 (1991–1998) with 158 patients had received an uncemented hydroxyapatite-coated Furlong HA. Data were retrieved from patient files, from the region-based patient administrative system, and from the National Registry of Patients at the end of 2010. We performed survival analysis with adjustment for comorbidity, age, and sex.
Results
Cemented HA had a reoperation rate (RR) of 5% and was used as reference in the Cox regression analysis, which showed significantly higher hazard ratios (HRs) for IF (HR = 3.8, 95% CI: 1.9–7.5; RR = 18%), uncemented HA (HR = 2.2, CI: 1.1–4.5; RR = 11%) and uncemented hydroxyapatite-coated HA (HR = 3.6, CI: 1.8–7.4; RR = 16%).
Interpretation
Cemented HA has a superior long-term hip survival rate compared to IF and uncemented HA (with and without hydroxyapatite coating) in patients aged 75 years or more with displaced femoral neck fractures.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2013.792033
PMCID: PMC3715822  PMID: 23594248
25.  Retrospective Analysis of Infection Rate After Early Reoperation in Total Hip Arthroplasty 
Background
Infection is a devastating complication of total hip arthroplasty (THA). Unavoidable reoperation during the acute recovery phase of hip arthroplasty has the potential for an increased infection rate but the risk is not well established nor is the fate of these infected hips.
Questions/purposes
We therefore report the infection rate for patients undergoing THA who returned to the operating room within 90 days of his or her index procedure for any surgical intervention on the same hip.
Methods
We identified 60 patients undergoing THA referred to or treated at our institution who required an unplanned and unavoidable return to the operating room during the acute recovery phase. The complications of the initial surgery that resulted in reoperation included instability, periprosthetic fracture, retained hardware, and nerve exploration. We then retrospectively reviewed the medical records to determine the infection rate and implant survivorship. The minimum followup was 1 month (average, 3.7 years; range, 1 month to 7 years) and included all patients who required resection before a minimum 2-year followup.
Results
The infection rate for this cohort was 20 of 60 (33%). Six of these 20 retained their implants at 2 years after the reoperation and were considered infection-free. Two-stage reimplantation or resection was eventually performed in 14 of the infected patients.
Conclusions
A high percentage of patients undergoing THA developed a deep infection after unavoidable reoperation during the acute recovery phase. The reasons for the reoperations were potentially modifiable complications and situations that deserve further investigation to delineate protocols to minimize the risk of infection in these patients.
Level of Evidence
Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-010-1325-5
PMCID: PMC2919867  PMID: 20352388

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