Background and purpose
Treatment options for failed internal fixation of hip fractures include prosthetic replacement. We evaluated survival, complications, and radiographic outcome in 30 patients who were operated with a specific modular, uncemented hip reconstruction prosthesis as a salvage procedure after failed treatment of trochanteric and subtrochanteric fractures.
Patients and methods
We used data from the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register and journal files to analyze complications and survival. Initially, a high proportion of trochanteric fractures (7/10) were classified as unstable and 12 of 20 subtrochanteric fractures had an extension through the greater trochanter. Modes of failure after primary internal fixation were cutout (n = 12), migration of the femoral neck screw (n = 9), and other (n = 9).
Mean age at the index operation with the modular prosthesis was 77 (52–93) years and the mean follow-up was 4 (1–9) years. Union of the remaining fracture fragments was observed in 26 hips, restoration of proximal bone defects in 16 hips, and bone ingrowth of the stem in 25 hips. Subsidence was evident in 4 cases. 1 patient was revised by component exchange because of recurrent dislocation, and another 6 patients were reoperated: 5 because of deep infections and 1 because of periprosthetic fracture. The cumulative 3-year survival for revision was 96% (95% CI: 89–100) and for any reoperation it was 83% (68–93).
The modular stem allowed fixation distal to the fracture system. Radiographic outcome was good. The rate of complications, however—especially infections—was high. We believe that preoperative laboratory screening for low-grade infection and synovial cultures could contribute to better treatment in some of these patients.
Femoral-neck fracture in the elderly population is a problem that demands the attention of the orthopaedic community as life expectancy continues to increase. There are several different treatment options in use, and this variety in and of itself indicates the absence of an ideal single treatment option. Recent debate has focussed on the probable superiority of total hip arthroplasty (THA) over hemiarthroplasty for femoral-neck fracture. Clinical trials and systematic reviews of such trials have not provided a convincing answer to this question.
We analysed data from national registries evaluating prosthetic replacements for femoral-neck fracture in the elderly. We compared revision and reoperation rates of hemiarthroplasty and THA, analysed the prognostic variables that influenced implant survival and the major causes of failure.
Data from the Australian and Italian registries indicate that THA has an increased revision rate compared with bipolar hemiarthroplasty in femoral-neck fracture in the elderly. The registries identify that age over 75 years and the use of the anterior surgical approach are associated with better survivorship in patients who have a hemiarthroplasty. Cemented fixation of the femoral stem in hemiarthroplasty and THA is supported by registry data. Acetabular erosion accounted for a very low percentage of hemiarthroplasty revisions and reoperations.
Our review of data from national registries supports the continued use of bipolar hemiarthroplasty in femoral-neck fracture in the elderly and identifies age, method of fixation and surgical approach as important prognostic variables in determining implant survival.
The aim of this non-randomised prospective study was to evaluate the short-term outcome of Gamma nail and dynamic hip screw (DHS) fixation in the treatment of subtrochanteric hip fractures due to low-energy trauma in the elderly. All of the 1,624 femoral hip fractures in 1,511 patients of the Oulu Hospital, aged over 49 years, were prospectively registered from 1991−1999 using special forms. Seventy-three (4.5%) of the fractures were subtrochanteric. After exclusions, 58 patients constituted the final study group. Of these, 43 were treated with Gamma nails and 15 with DHS. Background factors before the fracture, complications, reoperations and functional parameters at 4 months were recorded using standardised forms. Intraoperative and hospital data were collected from patient records. The Seinsheimer fracture types IIIA, IIC and V were the most common fracture patterns when the Seinsheimer classification system was used, and Fielding II and AO 31A3.3, respectively, were the most common types in the Fielding and AO classification system. There were four (9%) intraoperative complications in the Gamma nail group as compared to none in the DHS group. On the other hand, postoperative complications were more common in the DHS group (27%) than in the Gamma nail group (7%). We recognised a correlation between certain fracture types and the likelihood of typical intra- or postoperative complications or difficulties with both devices: In Gamma nailing, difficulty in closed reduction as well as the rate of open reduction and the use of supplementary fixation were most frequent in the Seinsheimer IIC fractures. It is also noticeable that all of the postoperative device failures and fracture displacements of the DHS group occurred in the Seinsheimer type IIIA category. Detailed fracture classification is essential for the choice of the fixation device, and the present study confirms the presumption that, despite the perioperative problems associated with Gamma nailing, this technique may be preferable to plate fixation for specific fracture types with medial cortical comminution, such as Seinsheimer type IIIA.
Femoral neck fractures with a vertical orientation have been associated with an increased risk for failure as they are both axial and rotational unstable and experience increased shear forces compared to the conventional and more horizontally oriented femoral neck fractures. The purpose of this study was to analyse outcome and risk factors for reoperation of these uncommon fractures.
A cohort study with a consecutive series of 137 hips suffering from a vertical hip fracture, treated with one method: a sliding hips screw with plate and an antirotation screw. Median follow-up time was 4.8 years. Reoperation data was validated against the National Board of Health and Welfare’s national registry using the unique Swedish personal identification number.
The total reoperation rate was 18%. After multivariable Logistic regression analysis adjusting for possible confounding factors there was an increased risk for reoperation for displaced fractures (22%) compared to undisplaced fractures (3%), and for fractures with poor implant position (38%) compared to fractures with adequate implant position (15%).
The reoperation rate was high, and special attention should be given to achieve an appropriate position of the implant.
Hip fracture; Osteosynthesis; Basicervical fracture; Vertical hip fracture
Background and purpose
The surgical methods for treatment of femoral neck fractures and trochanteric hip fractures vary. We describe the changes in Sweden over the period 1998–2007 and the regional differences in treatment.
Patients and methods
Data on 144,607 patients were drawn from the National Patient Register.
The proportion of femoral neck fractures treated with arthroplasty increased from 10% in 1998 to 52% in 2007. The use of intramedullary (IM) nails for pertrochanteric fractures increased from 5% to 20%, at the expense of the use of different sliding hip screws. In subtrochanteric fractures, the use of IM nails increased from 32% to 72%. Re-admissions within 180 days due to hip complications were more common after internal fixation for femoral neck fractures than after arthroplasty, and more common after intramedullary nailing of pertrochanteric fractures than after use of sliding hip screws. Treatment varied substantially within Sweden, particularly regarding the use of IM nails.
An increase in arthroplasties reflects an evidence-based treatment rationale for femoral neck fractures, whereas the increase in use of IM nails in pertrochanteric fractures lacks scientific support. The geographic variations call for national treatment guidelines. Further clinical trials are needed to solve the treatment issues regarding per- and subtrochanteric fractures.
Most proximal femoral fractures are successfully treated with internal fixation but a failed surgery can be very distressing for the patient due to pain and disability. For the treating surgeon it can be a challenge to perform salvage operations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the short-term functional outcome and complications of total hip arthroplasty (THA) following failed fixation of proximal hip fracture.
Materials and Methods:
In a retrospective study, 21 hips in 20 patients (13 females and seven males) with complications of operated hip fractures as indicated by either established nonunion or fracture collapse with hardware failure were analysed. Mean age of the patients was 62 years (range 38 years to 85 years). Nine patients were treated for femoral neck fracture, 10 for intertrochanteric (I/T) fracture and two for subtrochanteric (S/T) fracture of the hip. Uncemented THA was done in 11 cases, cemented THA in eight hip joints and hybrid THA in two patients.
The average duration of follow-up was four years (2-13 years). The mean duration of surgery was 125 min and blood loss was 1300 ml. There were three dislocations postoperatively. Two were managed conservatively and one was operated. There was one superficial infection and one deep infection. Only one patient required a walker while four required walking stick for ambulation. The mean Harris Hip score increased from 32 preoperatively to 79 postoperatively at one year interval.
Total hip arthroplasty is an effective salvage procedure after failed osteosynthesis of hip fractures. Most patients have good pain relief and functional improvements inspite of technical difficulties and high complication rates than primary arthroplasty.
Failed internal fixation; hip arthroplasty; hip fractures; THA
Metallic wires and cables are commonly used in primary and revision THA for fixation of periprosthetic fractures and osteotomies of the greater trochanter. These systems provide secure fixation and high healing rates but fraying, third-body generation, accelerated wear of the bearing surface, and injury to the surgical team remain concerning.
We determined the rate of cable failure, union, and complications associated with a novel, nonmetallic cerclage cable in periprosthetic fracture and osteotomy fixation during THA.
We retrospectively reviewed 29 patients who had primary and revision THAs using nonmetallic cables. Indications for use included fixation of an extended trochanteric osteotomy, intraoperative fracture of the proximal femur, strut allograft fixation, and a Vancouver B1 periprosthetic fracture of the femur. All patients were evaluated clinically and radiographically immediately postoperatively, at 3 weeks, 6 weeks, 3 months, and then annually thereafter. The minimum followup was 13 months (mean, 21 months; range, 13–30 months).
Two of the 29 patients (7%) developed a nonunion; all remaining osteotomies, fractures and allografts had healed at the time of most recent evaluation. Four patients (14%) dislocated postoperatively; two were treated successfully with closed reduction, while the other two required reoperation. We identified no evidence of breakage or other complications directly attributable to the cables.
The nonmetallic periprosthetic cables used in this series provided adequate fixation to allow for both osteotomy and fracture healing. We did not observe any complications directly related to the cables.
Level of Evidence Level IV, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Femoral neck fractures in the elderly are frequent, represent a great health care problem, and have a significant impact on health insurance costs. Reconstruction options using hip arthroplasty include unipolar or bipolar hemiarthroplasty (HA), and total hip arthroplasty (THA). The purpose of this review is to discuss the indications, limitations, and pitfalls of each of these techniques.
The Pubmed database was searched for all articles on femoral neck fracture and for the reconstruction options presented in this review using the search terms "femoral neck fracture", "unipolar hemiarthroplasty", "bipolar hemiarthroplasty", and "total hip arthroplasty". In addition, cross-referencing was used to cover articles eventually undetected by the respective search strategies. The resulting articles were then reviewed with regard to the different techniques, outcome and complications of the distinct reconstruction options.
THA yields the best functional results in patients with displaced femoral neck fractures with complication rates comparable to HA. THA is beneficially implanted using an anterior approach exploiting the internervous plane between the tensor fasciae latae and the sartorius muscles allowing for immediate full weight-bearing. Based on our findings, bipolar hemiarthroplasty, similar to unipolar hemiarthroplasty, cannot restorate neither anatomical nor biomechanical features of the hip joint. Therefore, it can only be recommended as a second line of defense-procedure for patients with low functional demands and limited live expectancy.
THA is the treatment of choice for femoral neck fractures in patients older than 60 years. HA should only be implanted in patients with limited life expectancy.
Trochanteric fractures are common fractures in the elderly. Due to characteristic demographic changes, the incidence of these injuries is rapidly increasing. Treatment of these fractures is associated with high rates of complications. In addition, the long-term results remain poor, with high morbidity, declines in function, and high mortality. Therefore, in this study, complication rates and patients’ outcomes were evaluated after fixation of geriatric trochanteric fractures using the Gamma3™ nail.
Patients aged 60 years old or older, with pertrochanteric and subtrochanteric femoral fractures, were included. Patients with polytrauma or pathological fractures were excluded. Age, sex, and fracture type were collected on admission. In addition, data were recorded concerning the surgeon (resident vs. consultant), time of operation, and local or systemic perioperative complications. Complications were also collected at the 6- and 12-month follow-ups after trauma. Barthel Index, IADL, and EQ-5D measurements were evaluated retrospectively on admission, as well as at discharge and during the follow-up.
Ninety patients were prospectively included between April 2009 and September 2010. The patients’ average age was 81 years old, and their average ASA score was 3. The incision/suture time was 53 min (95% CI 46–60 min). Hospital mortality was 4%, and overall mortality was 22% at the 12-month follow-up. Eight local complications occurred (4 haematomas, 1 deep infection, 1 cutting out, 1 irritation of the iliotibial tract, 1 periosteosynthetic fracture). The incidence of relevant systemic complications was 6%. Forty-two percent of the patients were operated on by residents in training, without significant differences in duration of surgery, complication rate, or mortality rate. The Barthel Index (82 to 71, p < .001), IADL (4.5 to 4.3, p = .0195) and EQ-5-D (0.75 to 0.66, p = .068) values did not reach pre-fracture levels during the follow-up period of 12 months.
The results showed a relatively low complication rate using the Gamma3™ nail, even if the nailing was performed by residents in training. The high mortality, declines in function, and low quality of life could probably be attributed to pre-existing conditions, such as physical status.
In summary, the Gamma3™ nail seems to be a useful implant for the nailing of trochanteric fractures, although further studies are necessary comparing different currently available devices.
Trochanteric fractures; Surgical education; Gamma3 nail; Outcome; Quality of life; Complications; Mortality
Infection is a devastating complication of total hip arthroplasty (THA). Unavoidable reoperation during the acute recovery phase of hip arthroplasty has the potential for an increased infection rate but the risk is not well established nor is the fate of these infected hips.
We therefore report the infection rate for patients undergoing THA who returned to the operating room within 90 days of his or her index procedure for any surgical intervention on the same hip.
We identified 60 patients undergoing THA referred to or treated at our institution who required an unplanned and unavoidable return to the operating room during the acute recovery phase. The complications of the initial surgery that resulted in reoperation included instability, periprosthetic fracture, retained hardware, and nerve exploration. We then retrospectively reviewed the medical records to determine the infection rate and implant survivorship. The minimum followup was 1 month (average, 3.7 years; range, 1 month to 7 years) and included all patients who required resection before a minimum 2-year followup.
The infection rate for this cohort was 20 of 60 (33%). Six of these 20 retained their implants at 2 years after the reoperation and were considered infection-free. Two-stage reimplantation or resection was eventually performed in 14 of the infected patients.
A high percentage of patients undergoing THA developed a deep infection after unavoidable reoperation during the acute recovery phase. The reasons for the reoperations were potentially modifiable complications and situations that deserve further investigation to delineate protocols to minimize the risk of infection in these patients.
Level of Evidence
Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
The optimal treatment of displaced femoral neck fractures in patients over 60 years is controversial. While much research has focused on the impact of total hip arthroplasty (THA) and hemiarthroplasty (HA) on surgical outcomes, little is known about patient preferences for either alternative. The purpose of this study was to elicit surgical preferences of patients at risk of sustaining hip fracture using a novel decision board.
We developed a decision board for the surgical management of displaced femoral neck fractures presenting risks and outcomes of HA and THA. The decision board was presented to 81 elderly patients at risk for developing femoral neck fractures identified from an osteoporosis clinic. The participants were faced with the scenario of sustaining a displaced femoral neck fracture and were asked to state their treatment option preference and rationale for operative procedure.
Eighty-five percent (85%) of participants were between the age of 60 and 80 years; 89% were female; 88% were Caucasian; and 49% had some post-secondary education. Ninety-three percent (93%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 87-99%) of participants chose THA as their preferred operative choice. Participants identified several factors important to their decision, including the perception of greater walking distance (63%), less residual pain (29%), less reoperative risk (28%) and lower mortality risk (20%) with THA. Participants who preferred HA (7%; 95% CI, 1-13%) did so for perceived less invasiveness (50%), lower dislocation risk (33%), lower infection risk (33%), and shorter operative time (17%).
The overwhelming majority of patients preferred THA to HA for the treatment of a displaced femoral neck fracture when confronted with risks and outcomes of both procedures on a decision board.
We report a rare case of posterior hip dislocation after a low energy trauma. The patient sustained a trochanteric fracture in the same hip six months ago, which was fixed using a sliding hip screw and had healed. At surgery a deep wound infection was found and a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) was cultured. After thorough debridement, an excisional arthroplasty was decided. The patient received specific intravenous antibiotics and after six weeks a total hip arthroplasty was done. In three years follow-up the patients presented with a fully functional hip without any signs of infection. Hip dislocation after a trochanteric fracture internal fixation is rare complication associated with high morbidity and mortality. Infection eradication and a second stage arthroplasty can be life and limb saving.
Subtrochanteric fractures are fraught with certain anatomic, biologic and biomechanical challenges. Evolution of implants like the Gamma nail, fixed-angle nail plates, compression hip screws and dynamic hip screws with trochanteric stabilization plates underlines a persistent quest for a better implant. We studied the dynamic condylar screw DCS as an implant on a series of 30 consecutive patients with subtrochanteric fractures. Our purpose was to assess this implant as a panacea for subtrochanteric fractures. All cases of AO type A and B were anatomically fixed, whereas type C was biologically plated. The idea was to assess the applicability and adaptability of the DCS. Fractures in 29 cases united, with one patient suffering from an implant failure. There were 17 excellent, 5 good, 5 fair and 3 poor results. The DCS is a definite advance over previous methods of treatment; when combined with the utilization of biological fixation techniques for comminuted fractures, can be relied upon to treat all types of subtrochanteric fractures.
The dynamic condylar screw; Subtrochanteric fracture; Biological fixation
Background and purpose
Historically, the treatment of periprosthetic femoral fractures (PFFs) has been associated with a high frequency of complications and reoperations. The preferred treatment is internal fixation, a revision of the femoral stem, or a combination of both. An improved understanding of plate use during internal fixation, and the introduction of locking-plate osteosynthesis may lead to improved outcome. We evaluated the outcome of Vancouver type B1 and C PFFs treated by locking-plate osteosynthesis, by assessing rates of fracture union and reoperations and by analyzing failure cases.
Patients and methods
From 2002 through 2011, 58 consecutive patients (60 fractures) with low-energy PFF around or below a stable femoral stem, i.e. Vancouver type B1 and C fractures, underwent osteosynthesis with a locking plate. All patients had a total hip replacement (THR). They were followed up clinically and radiographically, with 6 weeks between visits, until fracture union or until death. Fracture union was evaluated 6 months postoperatively.
At a median follow-up time of 23 (0–121) months after PFF, 8 patients (8 fractures) had been reoperated due either to infection (n = 4), failure of fixation (n = 3), or loosening of the femoral stem (n = 1). All the patients who had been followed up for at least 6 months—and who did not undergo reoperation or die—went on to fracture union (n = 43).
Locking-plate osteosynthesis of periprosthetic Vancouver type B1 and C fractures gives good results regarding fracture union. It appears that spanning of the prosthesis to avoid stress-rising areas is important for successful treatment. Infection is the major cause of failure.
The aim of this prospective study was to assess the outcome of trochanteric fractures of the femur after external fixation in a group of elderly patients with high surgical risk. The study population consisted of 50 patients with trochanteric fractures of the femur and a mean age of 87 years who were classified by an anaesthetist as ASA 3 or 4 and considered not suitable for conventional fractures fixation. The fracture was fixed with an external fixator under spinal anaesthesia. The final follow-up was at 12 months. All fractures healed within 12 weeks. Superficial pin tract infection occurred in 30 patients, and fracture united with a shortening of 14 mm (5–20) in 12 patients. No implant failures or limitation of knee movements were recorded. Five patients died within 1 year. External fixation is a valuable treatment alternative for trochanteric fracture of the femur in elderly patients.
The incidence of hip fractures continues to rise. This study is the first evaluation of a new intramedullary implant, the Veronail, that provides double axis fixation into the femoral head and allows the surgeon to choose whether to use sliding or fixed locked proximal screw fixation for trochanteric femoral fractures. The fractures were classified according to the AO classification, and function was assessed with the Modified Harris Hip Score. 111 patients with trochanteric fractures were evaluated in eight Italian hospitals. The stable 31.A1 fractures were treated with sliding proximal screws, the subtrochanteric 31.A3 fractures with converging proximal screws, and the unstable 31.A2 fractures were treated with both types of proximal fixation. The unstable fractures treated with locked converging screws had the same function at one year as those treated with sliding screws. This study suggests a possible new method of treating unstable trochanteric femoral fractures. This may be the solution to prevent excessive collapse of the fracture with the resultant poor function and persisting pain noted in the literature. Two converging locked proximal screws seem to provide stable fixation in 31.A2 femoral fractures and produce as good a result as the use of traditional sliding screws. The role of converging locked proximal screws in unstable trochanteric fractures requires further evaluation.
Multi-center clinical trail; Outcome study; Hip fractures; Intramedullary nail; Sliding parallel screws
Bipolar hip hemiarthroplasty is used in the management of fractures of the proximal femur. The dual articulation is cited as advantageous in comparison to unipolar prostheses as it decreases acetabular erosion, has a lower dislocation rates and is easier to convert to a total hip arthroplasty (THA) should the need arise. However, these claims are debatable. Our study examines the rate of conversion of the bipolar hemiarthroplasty to THA and the justification for using it on the basis of future conversion to THA.
All cases of bipolar hemiarthroplasty performed in our unit for hip fractures over a 9-year period (1999-2007) were reviewed. Medical notes and radiographs of all patients were reviewed, and all surviving patients that were contactable received a telephone follow-up.
Of all 164 patients reviewed with a minimum of 1 year from date of surgery, 4 patients had undergone a conversion of their bipolar prosthesis to THA. Three conversions were performed for infection, dislocation, and fracture. Only one (0.6%) conversion was performed for groin pain.
Our study show that bipolar hemiarthroplasties for hip fractures have a low conversion rate to THAs and this is comparable to the published conversion rate of unipolar hemiarthroplasties.
Hip fracture; Bipolar arthroplasty; Total hip arthroplasty
Although not all elderly patients with femoral neck fractures are candidates for THA, active, mentally competent, independent patients achieve the most durable functional scores with THA compared with hemiarthroplasty. However, a relatively high frequency of early or late dislocation could reduce the potential benefits with THA.
We asked whether the incidence of first-time, recurrent dislocation, and revision differed in patients with hip fractures having THA or hemiarthroplasty.
Patients and Methods
We retrospectively reviewed 380 patients with hip fractures (380 hips) who underwent THAs between 1995 and 1999, and compared them with 412 patients with hip fractures (412 hips) who underwent hemiarthroplasties between 1990 and 1994. The mean followup was 8 years (range, 1–20 years).
THA had a higher early risk of first-time dislocation and a higher late risk: 19 (4.5%) of the 412 hips treated with hemiarthroplasty had at least one dislocation whereas 30 (8.1%) of the 380 hips treated with THA had at least one dislocation. The cumulative number of dislocations at the most recent followup (first time and recurrent dislocations) was 58 (13%) for the 380 THAs and 22 (5%) for the 412 hemiarthroplasties. At the 10-year followup, eight THAs (2%) had revision (six recurrent dislocations, two loosenings), and 42 hemiarthroplasties (10%) had revision (40 acetabular protrusions, one recurrent dislocation).
The risk of revision for recurrent dislocation increases with THA, but it remains lower than the risk of revision for wear of cartilage and acetabular protrusion in hemiarthroplasty.
Level of Evidence
Level III, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Displaced femoral neck fractures in healthy elderly patients have traditionally been managed with hemiarthroplasty (HA). Recent data suggest that total hip arthroplasty (THA) may be a better alternative.
A systematic review of the English literature was conducted. Randomized controlled trials comparing all forms of THA with HA were included. Three authors independently extracted articles and predefined data. Results were pooled using a random effects model.
Eight trials totalling 986 patients were retrieved. After THA 4 % underwent revision surgery versus 7 % after HA. The one-year mortality was equal in both groups: 13 % (THA) versus 15 % (HA). Dislocation rates were 9 % after THA versus 3 % after HA. Equal rates were found for major (25 % in THA versus 24 % in HA) and minor complications (13 % THA versus 14 % HA). The weighted mean of the Harris hip score was 81 points after THA versus 77 after HA. The subdomain pain of the HHS (weighted mean score after THA was 42 versus 39 points for HA), the rate of patients reporting mild to no pain (75 % after THA versus 56 % after HA) and the score of WOMAC (94 points for THA versus 78 for HA) all favored THA. Quality of life measured with the EQ-5D favored THA (0.69 versus 0.57).
Total hip arthroplasty for displaced femoral neck fractures in the fit elderly may lead to higher patient-based outcomes but has higher dislocation rates compared with hemiarthroplasty. Further high-quality randomized clinical trails are needed to provide robust evidence and to definitively answer this clinical question.
Background and purpose
Hemiarthroplasty as treatment for femoral neck fractures has increased markedly in Sweden during the last decade. In this prospective observational study, we wanted to identify risk factors for reoperation in modular hemiarthroplasties and to evaluate mortality in this patient group.
Patients and methods
We assessed 23,509 procedures from the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register using the most common surgical approaches with modular uni- or bipolar hemiarthroplasties related to fractures in the period 2005–2010. Completeness of registration (individual procedures) was 89–96%. The median age was 85 years and the median follow-up time was 18 months.
3.8% underwent reoperation (any further hip surgery), most often because of implant dislocation or infection. The risk of reoperation (Cox regression) was higher for uncemented stems (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.5), mainly because of periprosthetic femoral fractures. Bipolar implants had a higher risk of reoperation irrespective of cause (HR = 1.3), because of dislocation (1.4), because of infection (1.3), and because of periprosthetic fracture (1.7). The risk of reoperation due to acetabular erosion was lower (0.30) than for unipolar implants, but reoperation for this complication was rare (1.7 per thousand). Procedures resulting from failed internal fixation had a more than doubled risk; the risk was also higher for males and for younger patients. The surgical approach had no influence on the risk of reoperation generally, but the anterolateral transgluteal approach was associated with a lower risk of reoperation due to dislocation (HR = 0.7). At 1 year, the mortality was 24%. Men had a higher risk of death than women (1.8).
We recommend cemented hemiarthroplasties and the anterolateral transgluteal approach. We also suggest that unipolar implants should be used, at least for the oldest and frailest patients.
Background and purpose
Fixation of unstable trochanteric fractures is challenging. Application of a circumferential wire may facilitate bone contact and avoid postoperative fracture displacement. However, the use of circumferential wires remains controversial due to possible disturbance of the blood supply to the underlying bone. We evaluated the results of applied circumferential wires, concentrating mainly on complications and reoperations.
Patients and methods
60 patients with unstable trochanteric fractures and use of circumferential wires (1 or more) and an intramedullary nail were included from 2 centers. We retrospectively assessed complications and reoperation rates within the first postoperative year.
In 37 of the 60 patients, 2 or more circumferential wires were used. Anatomic reduction was achieved in 24 of the patients and a total cortical displacement of ≤ 10 mm was achieved in 26 other patients. 6 of the 43 patients with radiographic audit after 12 weeks sustained a subsequent fracture displacement of more than 5 mm. 4 patients underwent reoperation: 1 due to deep infection, 1 due to technical failure during osteosynthesis, 1 had a screw cut out, and 1 sustained a new fracture following a new fall.
Application of circumferential wires as a supplement to intramedullary nails in unstable trochanteric fractures is an option as it provides good primary reduction which, in most patients, is maintained over time—with no apparent increase in reoperation rate. Based on our results and on other reports, the use of circumferential wires does not appear to be harmful as sometimes claimed.
Background and purpose
Total Hip Replacement (THA) is one of the most successful and cost-effective operations. Despite its benefits, marked ethnic differences in the utilization of THA are well documented. However, very little has been published on the influence of ethnicity on outcome. We investigate whether the outcome—in terms of reoperation within 2 years or revision up to 14 years after the primary operation—varies depending on ethnic background.
Records of total hip arthroplasties performed between 1992 and 2007 were retrieved from the Swedish Hip Arthropalsty Registry and integrated with data on ethnicity of patients from 2 demographical databases (i.e. Patient Register and Statistics Sweden). The first operated side in patients with THA recorded in the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register (SHAR) between 1992 and 2007 were generally included. We excluded patients with 1 Swedish and 1 non-Swedish parent and patients born abroad with 2 Swedish parents. After these exclusions 151,838 patients were left for analysis. There were 11,539 Swedish patients born outside Sweden. We used a Cox regression model including age, sex, diagnosis, type of fixation, whether or not there was comorbidity according to Elixhauser or not, marital status and educational level.
The mean age was lowest in the group of patient coming from outside Europe including the former Soviet Union (61 years), and highest in the Swedish population (70 years). Before adjustment, for covariates, patients born in Europe outside the Nordic countries showed a lower risk to undergo early reoperation (HR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.56–0.97), which increased after adjustment to (HR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.58–1.01). Before adjustment, patients born in the Nordic countries outside Sweden and those born outside Europe (including the former Soviet Union) showed a higher risk to undergo revision than patients born in Sweden (HR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.02–1.27; HR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.2–1.9), but this difference disappeared after adjustment for covariates.
We did not find any certain differences in reoperation within 2 years, or revision within 14 years, between patients born in Sweden and immigrants. Further studies are needed to determine whether our observations are biased by the attitude of health providers regarding performance of these procedures, or by a reluctance of certain patient groups to seek medical attention should any complications requiring reoperation or revision occur.
Acetabular fractures in the elderly population are marked by a high degree of variability in terms of patient and fracture characteristics. Successful outcomes depend on application of highly individualized management principles by experienced teams. Reviewed are indications and outcomes associated with various management options, including closed treatment, open reduction internal fixation, and acute or staged total hip arthroplasty. Proper initial management choices are critical, as early failures and subsequent salvage surgery can be accompanied by significant morbidity. Clinical results after ORIF closely follow the quality of articular reduction and the ability to maintain a congruent reduction of the hip joint. Fracture characteristics predictive of anatomic articular reduction should be treated with ORIF. Fracture characteristics predictive of early post-traumatic arthritis should be treated with simultaneous ORIF and THA. Presented is one referral institution’s treatment algorithm and management approach.
acetabulum; fracture; elderly; osteoporosis; total hip arthroplasty
Hip fracture is associated with high mortality. Cardiovascular disease and other comorbidities requiring long-term anticoagulant medication are common in these mostly elderly patients. The objective of our observational cohort study of patients undergoing surgery for hip fracture was to study the association between preoperative use of low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (LdAA) and intraoperative blood loss, blood transfusion and first-year all-cause mortality.
An observational cohort study was conducted on patients with hip fracture (cervical requiring hemiarthroplasty or pertrochanteric or subtrochanteric requiring internal fixation) participating in a randomized trial that found lack of efficacy of a compression bandage in reducing postoperative bleeding. The participants were 255 patients (≥50 years) of whom 118 (46%) were using LdAA (defined as ≤320 mg daily) preoperatively. Bleeding variables in patients with and without LdAA treatment at time of fracture were measured and blood transfusions given were compared using logistic regression. The association between first-year mortality and preoperative use of LdAA was analyzed with Cox regression adjusting for age, sex, type of fracture, baseline renal dysfunction and baseline cardiovascular and/or cerebrovascular disease.
Blood transfusions were given postoperatively to 74 (62.7%) LdAA-treated and 76 (54%) non-treated patients; the adjusted odds ratio was 1.8 (95% CI 1.04 to 3.3). First-year mortality was significantly higher in LdAA-treated patients; the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) was 2.35 (95% CI 1.23 to 4.49). The mortality was also higher with baseline cardiovascular and/or cerebrovascular disease, adjusted HR 2.78 (95% CI 1.31 to 5.88). Patients treated with LdAA preoperatively were significantly more likely to suffer thromboembolic events (5.7% vs. 0.7%, P = 0.03).
In patients with hip fracture (cervical treated with hemiarthroplasty or pertrochanteric or subtrochanteric treated with internal fixation) preoperative use of low-dose acetylsalicylic acid was associated with significantly increased need for postoperative blood transfusions and significantly higher all-cause mortality during one year after surgery.
Background and purpose
The aim of the present study was to assess incidence of and risk factors for infection after hip arthroplasty in data from 3 national health registries. We investigated differences in risk patterns between surgical site infection (SSI) and revision due to infection after primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) and hemiarthroplasty (HA).
Materials and methods
This observational study was based on prospective data from 2005–2009 on primary THAs and HAs from the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register (NAR), the Norwegian Hip Fracture Register (NHFR), and the Norwegian Surveillance System for Healthcare–Associated Infections (NOIS). The Norwegian Patient Register (NPR) was used for evaluation of case reporting. Cox regression analyses were performed with revision due to infection as endpoint for data from the NAR and the NHFR, and with SSI as the endpoint for data from the NOIS.
The 1–year incidence of SSI in the NOIS was 3.0% after THA (167/5,540) and 7.3% after HA (103/1,416). The 1–year incidence of revision due to infection was 0.7% for THAs in the NAR (182/24,512) and 1.5% for HAs in the NHFR (128/8,262). Risk factors for SSI after THA were advanced age, ASA class higher than 2, and short duration of surgery. For THA, the risk factors for revision due to infection were male sex, advanced age, ASA class higher than 1, emergency surgery, uncemented fixation, and a National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance (NNIS) risk index of 2 or more. For HAs inserted after fracture, age less than 60 and short duration of surgery were risk factors of revision due to infection.
The incidences of SSI and revision due to infection after primary hip replacements in Norway are similar to those in other countries. There may be differences in risk pattern between SSI and revision due to infection after arthroplasty. The risk patterns for revision due to infection appear to be different for HA and THA.