There are multiple revision implant systems currently available for socket revision in revision total hip arthroplasty. Up until now, not all of these systems have been followed up with regards to their long-term use as a revision implantation.
For the first time, this study presents the hemispherical porous-coated socket Plasmacup SC, produced by Aesculap, Tuttlingen, Germany, and the clinical and radiological mid-term results of this revision cup implant.
Over a period of ten years the Plasmacup SC press-fit-cup was used as a revision implant in 72 consecutive aseptic cases which were included in this retrospective study. The mean follow-up period was 8 years. Bone graft transplantation was performed in 32% of all cases. In 90%, the cup was fixed with additional screws. The follow-up radiographs were analysed with regards to cup migration, osteointegration and osteolysis in the DeLee zones using a computer aided program taking the teardrop figure as a main point of reference. For clinical evaluation the Harris-Hip-Score and the WOMAC-Score were utilized.
At the follow up examination, the mean Harris-Hip-Score was 83.5 points and the mean WOMAC-Score 34.7 points. 93% of all patients were satisfied with the result of the operation. No aseptic cup loosening could be observed and only one cup had to be removed due to infection. No significant longitudinal or transversal cup migration could be observed.
Aesculap's Plasmacup SC is suitable as a cementless cup revision implant. There is stable cup osteointegration, post press-fit implantation, even in the case of major acetabular bone defects.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the initial acetabular implant stability and late acetabular implant migration in press fit cups combined with screw fixation of the acetabular component in order to answer the question whether screws are necessary for the fixation of the acetabular component in cementless primary total hip arthroplasty. One hundred and seven hips were available for follow-up after primary THA using a cementless, porous-coated acetabular component. A total of 631 standardized radiographs were analyzed digitally by the "single-film-x-ray-analysis" method (EBRA). One hundred 'and one (94.4%) acetabular components did not show significant migration of more than 1 mm. Six (5.6%) implants showed migration of more than 1 mm. Statistical analysis did not reveal preoperative patterns that would identify predictors for future migration. Our findings suggest that the use of screw fixation for cementless porous- coated acetabular components for primary THA does not prevent cup migration.
cementless; acetabular; fixation; with screws; without screws; EBRA; Total Hip Arthroplasty
Uncemented press-fit cups provide bone fixation in primary THA, but the use of screws is sometimes necessary to achieve primary stability of the socket. However, it is unclear whether and when screws should be used.
We analyzed the factors related to screw use with a press-fit uncemented cup and assessed whether screw use is associated with the same rates of loosening and revision as a press-fit technique.
We retrospectively reviewed 248 patients who underwent THA using the same prosthetic design. Eighty-eight hips had screws to achieve primary cup fixation (Group 1), and 189 did not (Group 2). Mean age was 50 years (range, 14–73 years). We analyzed factors related to the patient, acetabular type, and reconstruction of the rotation center of the hip. Minimum followup was 5 years (mean, 8.9 years; range, 5–12 years).
We found higher screw use in women, patients with less physical activity, Acetabular Types A or C, and a distance from the center of the prosthetic femoral head to the normal center of rotation of more than 3 mm. There were four revisions in Group 1 and five in Group 2. Eight hips had radiographic loosening in Group 1 and nine in Group 2. Cups with a postoperative abduction angle of more than 50° had a higher risk for loosening.
Press fit was achieved less frequently in women and patients with Acetabular Types A or C and less physical activity; a closer distance to the normal center of rotation decreased screw use. Screw use to augment fixation achieved survival similar to that of a press-fit cup.
Level of Evidence
Level II, prognostic study. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence
Background and purpose
Lasting stability of cementless implants depends on osseointegration into the implant surface, and long-term implant fixation can be predicted using radiostereometric analysis (RSA) with short-term follow-up. We hypothesized that there would be improved fixation of high-porosity trabecular metal (TM) tibial components compared to low-porosity titanium pegged porous fiber-metal (Ti) polyethylene metal backings.
In a prospective, parallel-group, randomized unblinded clinical trial, we compared cementless tibial components in patients aged 70 years and younger with osteoarthritis. The pre-study sample size calculation was 22 patients per group. 25 TM tibial components were fixed press-fit by 2 hexagonal pegs (TM group) and 25 Ti tibial components were fixed press-fit and by 4 supplemental screws (Ti group). Stereo radiographs for evaluation of absolute component migration (primary effect size) and single-direction absolute component migration (secondary effect size) were obtained within the first postoperative week and at 6 weeks, 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years. American Knee Society score was used for clinical assessment preoperatively, and at 1 and 2 years.
There were no intraoperative complications, and no postoperative infections or revisions. All patients had improved function and regained full extension. All tibial components migrated initially. Most migration of the TM components (n = 24) occurred within the first 3 months after surgery whereas migration of the Ti components (n = 22) appeared to stabilize first after 1 year. The TM components migrated less than the Ti components at 1 year (p = 0.01) and 2 years (p = 0.004).
We conclude that the mechanical fixation of TM tibial components is superior to that of screw-fixed Ti tibial components. We expect long-term implant survival to be better with the TM tibial component.
Dislocation after THA continues to be relatively common. Dual mobility sockets have been associated with low dislocation rates, but it remains unclear whether their use in primary THA would not introduce additional complications.
We therefore asked whether a current cementless dual mobility socket (1) reduced the dislocation rate after primary THA, (2) provided a pain-free and mobile hip, and (3) provided durable radiographic fixation of the acetabular component without any unique modes of failure.
We retrospectively reviewed 168 patients who underwent primary THA using a dual mobility socket between January 2000 and June 2002. The average age at surgery was 67 years. We assessed the rate of dislocation, hip function, and acetabular fixation on serial radiographs. Of the 168 patients, 119 (71%) had clinical and radiographic evaluation at a minimum of 5 years (mean, 6 years; range, 5–8 years).
A long-neck option left the base of the Morse taper uncovered in 53 hips. Four patients underwent revision for dislocation between the femoral head and the mobile insert (intraprosthetic dislocation) at a mean 6 years; all four revisions occurred among the 53 hips with an incompletely covered Morse taper.
A current cementless dual mobility socket was associated with a pain-free and mobile hip and durable acetabular fixation without dislocations if the long-neck option was not used. However, intraprosthetic dislocation related to contact at the femoral neck to mobile insert articulation required revision in four hips. Surgeons should be aware of this specific complication.
Level of Evidence
Level IV, therapeutic study. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Acetabular osteolysis associated with socket loosening is one of the main long-term complications of total hip arthroplasty. In case of major bone loss, where <50% host bone coverage can be obtained with a porous-coated cementless cup, it is generally agreed that a metal ring or cage in association with a cemented component and allograft bone should be used. In order to promote allograft bone consolidation and incorporation, we have associated demineralised bone matrix (DBM, Grafton® A Flex) to the construct ion. Here we describe the technical details of major acetabular reconstruction using the Kerboull acetabular reinforcement device with allograft bone and DBM. This device has a hook that must be placed under the teardrop of the acetabulum and a plate for iliac fixation. The main advantages of this device are help in restoring the normal centre of hip rotation, guiding the reconstruction and partially unloading the graft. The Kerboull acetabular reinforcement device has provided a 92% survival rate free of loosening at 13-year follow-up in a consecutive series of 60 type III and IV deficiencies. Our preliminary results using DBM indicate faster allograft consolidation and remodelling.
Total hip arthroplasty has been a very succesful orthopaedic procedure. The optimal fixation method of the acetabular component however, has not yet been defined.
We performed a systematic review using the Medline and Embase databases to find evidence for the superiority of cemented or cementless acetabular components on short- and long-term clinical and radiological parameters. Methodological quality for randomised trials was assessed using the van Tulder checklist, and for the non randomised studies we used the Newcastle-Ottawa quality assessment scale.
Our search strategy revealed 16 randomised controlled trials (RCT) and 19 non RCT studies in which cemented and cementless acetabular components are compared. A best evidence analysis for complications, wear, osteolysis, migration and clinical scores showed no superiority for either cemented or cementless socket in the RCTs. A best evidence analysis for non RCT studies revealed better osteolysis, migration properties and aseptic loosening survival for cementless sockets; however, wear and overall survival favoured the cemented sockets.
We recommend that an orthopaedic surgeon should choose an established cemented or cementless socket for hip replacement based on patient characteristics, knowledge, experience and preference.
The survival of acetabular components depends on several factors: wear, osteolysis and septic or aseptic loosening. Osteolysis seems to be the main cause for concern in cementless arthroplasties. Acetabular osteolysis results from particle debris and segmental unloading of acetabular bone by rigid sockets. We investigated a cementless elastic monoblock socket with regard to acetabular osteolysis and aseptic loosening in a cohort of young patients. We evaluated 158 hip arthroplasties with a minimum follow-up of ten years (ten to 18) and a mean age of 42 years (18–50). The overall revision rate at 14 years was 80% with a 98% survival rate for aseptic loosening. The mean polyethylene wear rate was 0.11 mm/year. Progressive acetabular osteolysis was seen in 3% of patients evaluated. In conclusion, we found low pelvic osteolysis rates, acceptable overall wear rates, satisfactory overall survival and excellent survival rates for aseptic loosening of a cementless elastic monoblock socket in patients younger than 50 years. Ongoing tribology developments and knowledge about acetabular bone adaptations behind acetabular implants will further lower wear and osteolysis rates and optimise survival rates of cementless sockets.
Hip replacement following failed internal fixation (dynamic hip screw for intertrochanteric fractures) or previous hip arthroplasty presents a major surgical challenge. Proximal fitting revision stems do not achieve adequate fixation. Distal fixation with long-stemmed extensively coated cementless implants (like the Solution™ system) affords a suitable solution. We present our early results of 15 patients treated with extensively coated cementless revision stems.
Materials and Methods:
Fifteen patients with severely compromised proximal femora following either failed hip arthroplasty or failed internal fixation (dynamic hip screw fixation for intertrochanteric fractures) were operated by the senior author over a two-year period. Eight patients had aseptic loosening of their femoral stems following cemented hip replacements, with severe thinning of their proximal cortices and impending stress fractures. Seven had secondary hip arthritis following failure of long implants for comminuted intertrochanteric or subtrochanteric femoral fractures. All patients were treated by removal of implant (cemented stems/DHS implants) and insertion of long-stemmed extensively coated cementless revision (‘Solution™ DePuy, Warsaw (IN), US’) stems along with press-fit acetabular component (Duraloc Cup, DePuy, Warsaw (IN), US). All eight hip revisions needed extended trochanteric osteotomies.
All patients were primarily kept in bed on physiotherapy for six weeks and then gradually progressed to weight-bearing walking over the next six to eight weeks. The Harris Hip Scores and patient satisfaction were used for final evaluation. We achieved good results in the short term studied. In our first three patients (all following failed cemented total hip replacements), we resorted to cerclage wiring to hold osteotomised segments (done to facilitate stem removal). The subsequent 12 proceeded without the need for cerclage wiring. One patient had a intraoperative severe comminuted fracture extending into the supracondylar region while hammering in the stem. Post cerclage wiring, she was put on a long knee brace and her mobilization was delayed to 12 weeks.
The extensively coated cementless (‘Solution™’) femoral stem provides a reasonable ‘solution’ to the deficient femur in hip revision. The proximal femoral deficiences can be relatively easily bypassed and distal fixation can be achieved with this stem. Extreme care needs to be taken to avoid fractures and penetration of the femoral shaft, which can, however, be managed by cerclage wiring. Principles of a successful outcome include preservation of the functional continuity of the abduction apparatus, care to recognize and prevent distal extension of fracture while inserting the stem (preemptive cerclage wiring) and supervised rehabilitation.
Cementless fixation; extensively coated; proximally deficient femur
One of the major failure modes of cementless acetabular components is the loosening of the acetabular cup, which is mostly attributable to insufficient initial stability. A hemispherical cup with a porous coating which is inserted with press-fit fixation and secured with several screws is one of the most widely used approaches. Many studies have found that bone screws are very helpful aids for cup fixation, but the optimal surgical technique for inserting screws has not been clearly reported. In this study, hemispherical cups were fixed into blocks of foam bone with zero to three screws. The effects of three types of screw eccentricity (a 1-mm offset and angular eccentricities of 15° and 25°) on the initial stability of the acetabular cup were evaluated. The experimental results indicate that increasing the number of screws enhances the cup stability in the case of ideal screwing (i.e., with no eccentricity). An angular eccentricity of 15° did not affect the cup stability for fixation with one or two screws. However, the presence of 25° of angular eccentricity significantly reduced the stability of the cup, while 1 mm of offset eccentricity produced an even greater impact.
Metal-on-metal bearing with cemented femoral component and cementless acetabular fixation is the current standard in surface replacement arthroplasty (RSA) of the hip. Because of concerns about the long-term survivorship of cemented stems in conventional hip arthroplasty, it seems logical to achieve cementless fixation on the femoral side with RSA.
The goals of this review were to evaluate clinical and radiological data reported from previously published cementless RSA series. In addition, we intend to review author’s preliminary experience with Conserve Plus cementless devices specifically assessing the clinical outcomes, the complications rate, the survivorship, and the metallic ions levels measured in follow-up.
A references search was done with PubMed using the key words “cementless hip resurfacing”, “cementless hip resurfacing prosthesis”, and “femoral cementless hip resurfacing”. Additionally, the clinical outcomes, the complications rate, the survivorship, and the metallic ions levels were measured in 94 cementless Conserve Plus© devices in 90 patients (68 males and 22 females) with a mean age of 41.1 years (18–59). Mean follow-up was 13.1 months (8–16).
No revision was performed during the observed follow-up. Neither radiological signs of loosening nor neck narrowing >10% were evident. Chromium and cobalt levels in whole blood samples rose respectively from 0.53 μg/l (0.1–1.7) to 1.7 μg/l (0.6–2.9) and from 0.54 μg/l (0.1–1.4) to 1.98 μg/l (0.1–2.8).
Cementless “fit and fill” femoral-side fixation, which seems to be potentially evolved and design-related, should be considered for future hip-resurfacing device generations.
hip resurfacing; cementless device; cement; bone necrosis
Acetabular roof deficiency due to subluxation of the femoral head (Hartofilakidis type II) increases the complexity of total hip arthroplasty. In these cases some form of support is usually required, to reach stable fixation of the acetabular component. Pursuing this aim, the oval-shaped cementless cranial socket could be an alternative to conventional treatment options.
Between 1998 and 2008, 37 patients (40 hips) underwent primary total hip arthroplasty using the cranial socket (mean follow-up 5.6 years, range 26 to 133 months). In a retrospective study we compared these clinical and radiological results with the results of a matched control group consisting of 35 patients (40 hips) treated with a standard cementless hemispherical cup in combination with bulk femoral autografting (mean follow-up 6.9 years, range 30 to 151 months).
There were no statistically significant differences in the HHS (p = 0.205) or the SF-36 (p = 0.26) between both groups. There was no prosthesis failure due to septic or aseptic loosening. Time of surgery was significantly shorter in the cranial socket group (p < 0.001). The acetabular component could be placed in the ideal rotational hip centre in 24 (60%) hips in the cranial socket group and 32 (80%) hips in the control group, respectively.
Our study indicates, that the cranial socket can be an alternative treatment option for the reconstruction of acetabular deficiency in osteoarthritis secondary to developmental dysplasia.
A major concern during revision hip arthroplasty is acetabular bone loss and bleeding during the extraction of well-fixed cementless acetabular cup, because no interface exists between the host bone and the cup. Forceful removal of such component using curved gouges and osteotomes often leads to extended bone loss and compromises reimplantation of a new socket.
In the following case report, we removed a well-fixed polyethylene titanium-coated RM acetabular cup with 20 years of follow-up, by significant wear of the polyethylene layer. The isoelastic femoral stem was also removed by mechanical failure.
We report a technique for removal of the cementless acetabular cup using powered acetabular reamers. The RM cup was sequentially reamed and when the polyethylene layer was thin enough, the remaining cup was removed easily by hand tools. The acetabular bone stock is preserved and the risks of bone fractures and bleeding are minimized. To our knowledge, these principles were applied only in cemented cups.
We have used this technique in 10 cases with excellent results and no complications were noted. This is a simple, reproducible, non-costly, non-timing consuming, safe and successful technique to remove well-fixed titanium-coated RM acetabular cups.
Background and purpose
In a previous study based on the Finnish Arthroplasty Register, the survival of cementless stems was better than that of cemented stems in younger patients. However, the survival of cementless cups was poor due to osteolysis. In the present study, we analyzed population-based survival rates of the cemented and cementless total hip replacements in patients under the age of 55 years with primary osteoarthritis in Finland.
Patients and methods
3,668 implants fulfilled our inclusion criteria. The previous data included years 1980–2001, whereas the current study includes years 1987–2006. The implants were classified in 3 groups: (1) implants with a cementless, straight, proximally circumferentially porous-coated stem and a porous-coated press-fit cup (cementless group 1); (2) implants with a cementless, anatomic, proximally circumferentially porous-coated stem, with or without hydroxyapatite, and a porous-coated press-fit cup with or without hydroxyapatite (cementless group 2); and (3) a cemented stem combined with a cemented all-polyethylene cup (the cemented group). Analyses were performed separately for 2 time periods: those operated 1987–1996 and those operated 1997–2006.
The 15-year survival for any reason of cementless total hip replacement (THR) group 1 operated on 1987–1996 (62%; 95% CI: 57–67) and cementless group 2 (58%; CI: 52–66) operated on during the same time period was worse than that of cemented THRs (71%; CI: 62–80), although the difference was not statistically significant. The revision risk for aseptic loosening of cementless stem group 1 operated on 1987–1996 (0.49; CI: 0.32–0.74) was lower than that for aseptic loosening of cemented stems (p = 0.001).
Excessive wear of the polyethylene liner resulted in numerous revisions of modular cementless cups. The outcomes of total hip arthroplasty appear to have been relatively unsatisfactory for younger patients in Finland.
Background and purpose
Cementless total hip arthroplasty is currently favored by many orthopedic surgeons. The design of the porous surface is critically important for long-term fixation. We examined the clinical and radiographic outcome of the cementless titanium hip implant with a bottom coating of apatite-wollastonite containing bioactive glass ceramic.
We retrospectively reviewed 109 hips (92 patients) that had undergone primary cementless total hip arthroplasty with bioactive glass ceramic bottom-coated implants. The mean follow-up period was 7 (3–9) years. Hip joint function was evaluated with the Merle d’Aubigné and Postel hip score, and radiographic changes were determined from anteroposterior radiographs.
The mean hip score improved from 9.7 preoperatively to 17 at the final follow-up. The overall survival rate was 100% at 9 years, when radiographic loosening or revision for any reason was used as the endpoint. 3 stems in 2 patients subsided more than 3 mm vertically within 1 year after implantation. Radiographs of the interface of the stem and femur were all classified as bone ingrowth fixation.
The short-term results of this study show good outcome for cementless implants with a bottom coating of apatite-wollastonite containing bioactive glass ceramic.
Ceramic-on-ceramic coupling is thought to be a durable alternative to metal- or alumina-on-polyethylene pairing. No evidence exists suggesting superior clinical and radiological results for hydroxyapatite-coated stems versus uncoated stems. The aim of this study is to report the performance of an alumina-on-alumina bearing cementless total hip arthroplasty and to compare stems with a tapered design with and without hydroxyapatite coating. We prospectively analysed the results of cementless tapered femoral stems (40 hydroxyapatite-coated versus 22 uncoated stems), a metal-backed fibre mesh hydroxyapatite-coated socket and alumina-on-alumina pairing. Of 75 hips studied, 62 were available for follow-up (mean of 10.5 years after surgery). The average Harris hip score was 90. Only one hydroxyapatite-coated stem was revised for aseptic loosening. One instance of non-progressive osteolysis was detected around a screw of a cup. All other components showed radiographic signs of stable ingrowth. Hydroxyapatite coating of the stem had no significant impact on the clinical or radiological results. Total hip arthroplasty with the presented implant and pairing provides a durable standard for all patients requiring hip joint replacement against which all newer generations of cementless implants should be judged.
Changes in bone mineral
density (BMD) around the components of the Zweymueller total hip
arthroplasty were measured, using dual energy X-ray
absorptiometry, in 36 women who were operated on for primary
osteoarthritis. Seven regions of interest were studied. No
changes occurred around the screw socket and the greater
trochanter, but there was a significant reduction of BMD, only
when measured immediately after the operation at the lesser
trochanter and at the distal femoral cortex lateral and medial
to the tip of the stem. These changes were not related to the
age of the patients. The reduction of BMD in the femur was
mostly associated with areas where bone had been removed at
operation. The press-fit fixation of the Zweymueller stem and
the maintenance of its fixation with time did not induce further
bone turn-over around it. The absence of changes in bone mineral
density was due to the relatively small amount of subchondral
removed and to the continued stable fixation of the
Cementless acetabular components require good initial fixation to allow bony in-growth. The initial press-fit stability, important for designs that do not rely on supplemental fixation, was examined for three designs with different porous coating systems: beads, fiber mesh, and plasma spray. The ability to withstand tangential loads was determined (maximum rim loads: 122–1730 N). The plasma-sprayed acetabular cups withstood the greatest tangential load within the specified range of motion of 150 µm (P<0.01). Differences in surface preparation of titanium acetabular cups may significantly affect the initial stability of the implants in rim loading.
This study was designed to investigate bone remodelling around the cup in cementless THA. Previous studies indicate an advantage of better sealing of the bone-prosthesis interface by HA/TCP coating of implants, inhibiting polyethylene-induced osteolysis. One hundred patients gave informed consent to participate in a controlled randomized study between porous coated Trilogy versus Trilogy Calcicoat (HA/TCP coated). The cup was inserted in press-fit fixation. The femoral component was a cementless porous coated titanium alloy stem (Bi-Metric), with a modular 28-mm CrCo head. The Harris Hip Score (HHS) and bone mineral density (BMD) determined by DEXA scanning were used to study the effect. Measurements revealed no difference between the two groups after 3 years either in the clinical outcome or in terms of periprosthetic bone density. Patients with a body mass index above normal regained more bone mineral than patients with normal weight. This finding supports the assumption that load is beneficial to bone remodelling.
Background and purpose Ceramic-on-ceramic articulation is an attractive alternative to metal-on-polyethylene (PE) bearings, but little is known about the in vivo effects induced by dissemination of alumina wear debris in the periprosthetic tissues. We hypothesized that wear debris is not the main factor responsible for loosening and failure of the implant but that mechanical problems caused by incorrect surgical technique, prosthetic design, or trauma, may cause instability of the implants and result in production of wear debris.
Patients and methods Clinical, radiographic, laboratory, and microbiological data from 30 consecutive patients with failed alumina-on-alumina arthroplasties, 19 with screwed socket and 11 with press-fit socket, were systematically collected and evaluated. Retrieved peri-implant tissues and prosthesis wear were also analyzed.
Results and Interpretation Loosening was due to malpositioning, primary mechanical instability, trauma, or infection. Bone stock was generally preserved, even if screwed implants showed higher levels of osteolysis. Variable implant wear and tissue macrophage reaction were present but activation of giant cells/osteoclasts was not induced, and no correlation between histocytic reaction and the level of osteolysis was found. These findings indicate that, in contrast to the situation with metal-on-PE bearings, wear debris and occasional osteolysis were the effect rather than the cause of failure of ceramic-on-ceramic implants, and that press-fit socket fixation was the socket fixation design of preference.
The quality of technique used at the time of socket cementation is crucial in ensuring a durable long-term result of the implant. We asked whether a new instrument, an aspirator retractor introduced into the wing of the ilium before socket preparation and cementation, would enhance cement fixation as defined by RSA and radiographic examination. We randomized 38 patients into two groups. The surgical technique was identical between the groups with the exception of the use of the aspirator retractor. Patients were followed clinically and with radiostereometry at a minimum of 2 years. We compared gross radiographic appearances, including the depth of penetration of cement and the incidence of postoperative and 2-year radiolucent lines. There was no difference in proximal migration between the two groups. No improvement of fixation was proven from the measured translations and rotations of the socket in the suction group. We found no difference in the number or extent of radiolucent lines or the depth of cement penetration when the iliac suction device was used in conjunction with contemporary cementing techniques. Although the data suggest no short-term advantage in this small study, we will continue to follow these patients presuming there will be improved outcomes in the longer term and since the device provides an easier method of obtaining adequate fixation, especially if technical difficulties are encountered during the pressurization procedure.
Long-term results of a retrospective series of primary arthroplasty with the original cementless dual mobility socket (A) and the midterm results with the second generation (B) are reported. In series A (follow-up 16.5 years) 437 total hip arthroplasties (THA) were included and in series B (follow-up five years) 231 hips. The 15-year survival rate was 84.4 ± 4.5% (revision for any reason as endpoint); 30 hips (6.8%) were revised for aseptic loosening. Five THA were revised for dislocation: two early and three after ten years or more. With the second generation socket neither dislocation nor revision for mechanical reasons were observed. The survival rate was 99.6 ± 0.4% (revision for any reason). The prevalence of revision for dislocation was very low in our series. This concept does not avoid wear and aseptic loosening, especially in young active patients, but the long-term stability has been confirmed. Dual mobility can be recommended for patients over 70 years of age and for younger patients with high risk of dislocation.
The objective of this prospective study was to evaluate the medium-term clinical and radiological results after navigated cementless implantation, without patella resurfacing, of a total knee endoprosthesis with tibial and femoral press-fit components, with a focus on survival rate and clinical outcome. The innovation is the non-cemented fixation together with the use of a navigation system.
Scope and Methods:
Sixty patients with gonarthrosis were included consecutively in this study. In all cases, the cementless Columbus total knee endoprosthesis with a coating out of pure titanium was implanted, using a navigation system. The Knee Society Score showed a statistically significant increase from 75 (± 21.26) before surgery to 180 (± 16.15) after a mean follow-up of 5.6 (± 0.25) years. The last radiological examination revealed no osteolysis. No radiolucent lines were seen at any time in the area of the femoral prosthetic components. In the tibial area, radiolucent lines were seen in 24.4 % of the cases, mostly in the distal uncoated part of the stem. During follow-up, no prosthesis had to be replaced because of aseptic loosening while in 2 cases revision surgery was necessary due to septic loosening and in 1 case due to unexplainable pain.
Results and Conclusions:
Navigated cementless implantation of the Columbus total knee endoprosthesis yielded good clinical and radiological results in the medium term. The excellent radiological osteointegration of the prosthetic components, coated with a microporous pure titanium layer and implanted with a press-fit technique, should be emphasized.
Cementless; clinical and radiological results; navigated; total knee arthroplasty.
Purpose. The Anatomic Fiber Metal plus stem (Zimmer) is one of the anatomically designed cementless stems to achieve stable fixation by metaphyseal fit. We studied outcomes of cementless total hip arthroplasty using this stem and possible effects of metaphyseal fit on outcomes. Methods. The cementless total hip arthroplasty using this stem was performed for 155 hips. One hundred and thirty-seven hips of 122 patients were followed for 5 to 16 (mean, 9.7) years and entered into the study. The metaphyseal fit was defined as good or poor in an anteroposterior radiograph after surgery. We studied the fixation of the stem and bone reaction on an anteroposterior radiograph at the final followup. Results. Twelve hips had revision, six acetabular components and six acetabular liners. No stem was revised. The biological fixation of the stem was bone ingrown fixation for 136 hips and unstable for one. The metaphyseal fit was good for 83 hips and poor for 54 hips. There were no differences for stem fixation and bone reaction between the two groups. Conclusions. The fixation of the stem was stable at a mean followup of 9.7 years independently from metaphyseal fit.
Background and purpose
Immediate implant stability is a key factor for success in cementless total hip arthroplasty (THA). Low bone mineral density (BMD) and age-related geometric changes of the proximal femur may jeopardize initial stability and osseointegration. We compared migration of hydroxyapatite-coated femoral stems in women with or without low systemic BMD.
Patients and methods
61 female patients with hip osteoarthritis were treated with cementless THA with anatomically designed hydroxyapatite-coated femoral stems and ceramic-ceramic bearing surfaces (ABG-II). Of the 39 eligible patients between the ages of 41 and 78 years, 12 had normal systemic BMD and 27 had osteopenia or osteoporosis. According to the Dorr classification, 21 had type A bone and 18 had type B. Translational and rotational migration of the stems was evaluated with radiostereometric analysis (RSA) up to 2 years after surgery.
Patients with low systemic BMD showed higher subsidence of the femoral stem during the first 3 months after surgery than did those with normal BMD (difference = 0.6, 95% CI: 0.1–1.1; p = 0.03). Low systemic BMD (odds ratio (OR) = 0.1, CI: 0.006–1.0; p = 0.02), low local hip BMD (OR = 0.3, CI: 0.1–0.7; p = 0.005) and ageing (OR = 1.1, CI: 1.0–1.2; p = 0.02) were risk factors for delayed translational stability. Ageing and low canal flare index were risk factors for delayed rotational stabilization (OR = 3, CI: 1.1–9; p = 0.04 and OR = 1.1, CI: 1.0–1.2; p = 0.02, respectively). Harris hip score and WOMAC score were similar in patients with normal systemic BMD and low systemic BMD.
Low BMD, changes in intraosseous dimensions of the proximal femur, and ageing adversely affected initial stability and delayed osseointegration of cementless stems in women.