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1.  Acetabular Component Positioning Using the Transverse Acetabular Ligament: Can You Find It and Does It Help? 
Several studies have reported that the transverse acetabular ligament (TAL) can be used to orient the acetabular component during total hip arthroplasty and that it can be identified in nearly all patients.
We attempted to determine how often the TAL could be identified during primary THA and its accuracy as a guide for acetabular component positioning.
In a prospective series of 63 patients (64 hips) undergoing primary THA, two surgeons attempted to identify the TAL and, if it was found, to use it for acetabular component orientation. Patients in whom the TAL was identified served as the study group and the ligament was used for cup orientation in those patients; the remaining patients in whom the ligament could not be identified served as a control group and had free-hand cup positioning. Anteversion was determined by radiographic measurement from true lateral views.
The TAL was identified in only 30 hips (47%) and was more likely to be found in patients who did not have inferior acetabular osteophytes. Acetabular position was not improved using this ligament for reference.
The TAL could not be routinely identified at surgery and when used for cup orientation it was no more accurate for cup positioning than free-hand technique.
PMCID: PMC3018210  PMID: 20737303
2.  Assessment of acetabulum anteversion aligned with the transverse acetabulum ligament: cadaveric study using image-free navigation system 
Orthopedic Reviews  2013;5(1):e5.
The transverse acetabulum ligament (TAL) has been used as an intraoperative anatomical landmark to position the acetabulum cup in total hip arthroplasty (THA). However, the validity of the use of TAL has not been clarified. The purpose of this study was to examine the orientation of the cup component aligned with the TAL in cadaveric study. The 31 hips in 25 whole-body embalmed cadavers were examined. The donors were 12 men and 13 women. Simulated THA procedure using image-free navigation system was performed and a trial cup with a diameter of approximately 2 mm less than the size of the acetabulum were inserted and snugly fitted on the TAL through the posterior wall of acetabulum. The orientation of the cup component was measured using an image-free THA navigation system. The measured radiographic anteversion and inclination angles averaged 18.2±7.2° (range: 2.0–33.2°) and 43.5±4.2° (range: 33.1–51.0°) respectively. Based on the Lewinnek's safe zone criteria, 26 hips (80.6%) were judged to be within the. Moreover, in the analysis of the gender difference of TAL angles, the average anteversion angle was shown to be significant larger in female than male population. The TAL can be effectively used an intraoperative landmark to align the acetabulum component helping reduce the risk of dislocation after surgery. In the intraoperative judgment, a gender difference in the alignment of the TAL should be taken into consideration.
PMCID: PMC3662261  PMID: 23705063
transverse acetabulum ligament; THA; cup orientation; cadaveric study.
3.  The 2014 Frank Stinchfield Award: The ‘Landing Zone’ for Wear and Stability in Total Hip Arthroplasty Is Smaller Than We Thought: A Computational Analysis 
Positioning of total hip bearings involves tradeoffs, because cup orientations most favorable in terms of stability are not necessarily ideal in terms of reduction of contact stress and wear potential. Previous studies and models have not addressed these potentially competing considerations for optimal total hip arthroplasty (THA) function.
We therefore asked if component positioning in total hips could be addressed in terms of balancing bearing surface wear and stability. Specifically, we sought to identify acetabular component inclination and anteversion orientation, which simultaneously resulted in minimal wear while maximizing construct stability, for several permutations of femoral head diameter and femoral stem anteversion.
A validated metal-on-metal THA finite element (FE) model was used in this investigation. Five dislocation-prone motions as well as gait were considered as were permutations of femoral anteversion (0°–30°), femoral head diameter (32–48 mm), cup inclination (25°–75°), and cup anteversion (0°–50°), resulting in 4320 distinct FE simulations. A novel metric was developed to identify a range of favorable cup orientations (so-called “landing zone”) by considering both surface wear and component stability.
When considering both wear and stability with equal weight, ideal cup position was more restrictive than the historically defined safe zone and was substantially more sensitive to cup anteversion than to inclination. Ideal acetabular positioning varied with both femoral head diameter and femoral version. In general, ideal cup inclination decreased with increased head diameter (approximately 0.5° per millimeter increase in head diameter). Additionally, ideal inclination increased with increased values of femoral anteversion (approximately 0.3° per degree increase in stem anteversion). Conversely, ideal cup anteversion increased with increased femoral head diameter (0.3° per millimeter increase) and decreased with increased femoral stem anteversion (approximately 0.3° per degree increase). Regressions demonstrated strong correlations between optimal cup inclination versus head diameter (Pearson’s r = −0.88), between optimal cup inclination versus femoral anteversion (r = 0.96), between optimal cup anteversion versus head diameter (r = 0.99), and between optimal cup anteversion and femoral anteversion (r = −0.98). For a 36-mm cup with a 20° anteverted stem, the ideal cup orientation was 46° ± 12° inclination and 15° ± 4° anteversion.
The range of cup orientations that maximized stability and minimized wear (so-called “landing zone”) was substantially smaller than historical guidelines and specifically did not increase with increased head size, challenging the presumption that larger heads are more forgiving. In particular, when the cup is oriented to improve not only stability, but also wear in the model, there was little or no added stability achieved by the use of larger femoral heads. Additionally, ideal cup positioning was more sensitive to cup anteversion than to inclination.
Clinical Relevance
Positioning THA bearings involves tradeoffs regarding stability and long-term bearing wear. Cup positions most favorable to minimization of wear such as low inclination and elevated anteversion were detrimental in terms of construct stability. Orientations were identified that best balanced the competing considerations of wear and stability.
PMCID: PMC4294904  PMID: 25091222
4.  Acetabular Component Positioning Using Anatomic Landmarks of the Acetabulum 
The acetabular cup should be properly oriented to prevent dislocation and to reduce wear. However, achieving proper cup placement is challenging with potentially large variations of cup position. We propose a new technique to position the acetabular cup.
We used this technique, then determined actual cup position and subsequent dislocation rate.
We measured acetabular abduction (α°) and anteversion (β°) on preoperative CT scans in 46 patients (50 hips) scheduled for THA. During the operation, we identified the transverse acetabular notch (TAN) and anterior acetabular notch (AAN), a notch at the anterior acetabular margin. We then marked two reference points for 40° abduction at the acetabular rim: the superior point, which is opposite the TAN, and the inferior point at |α − 40| mm inside (when α was > 40°) or outside the TAN (when α was < 40°). We also marked two reference points for 15° anteversion: the posterior point opposite the AAN and the anterior point at |β − 15| mm inside (when β was < 15°) or outside the AAN (when β was > 15°). During cup insertion, we aligned cup abduction to the line between the superior and inferior points and cup anteversion to the line between the anterior and posterior points. We measured cup abduction and anteversion and evaluated the dislocation rate. One patient was lost to followup before 60 months; the minimum followup for the other 45 patients was 60 months (mean, 62.8 months; range, 60–65 months).
The mean cup abduction was 40° (range, 32°–47°) and the mean cup anteversion was 17° (range, 8°–25°). No dislocation occurred postoperatively in 49 hips (45 patients) for a minimum of 5 years followup.
We obtained adequate cup position with our method and none of 45 patients (49 hips) had dislocation.
Level of Evidence
Level IV, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of level of evidence.
PMCID: PMC3492628  PMID: 22777589
5.  Cup implantation accuracy using the HipCOMPASS mechanical intraoperative support device 
SpringerPlus  2016;5(1):784.
While navigation systems have been developed to increase implantation accuracy in total hip arthroplasty (THA), they are not yet sufficiently versatile or commonly used. Therefore, to elevate the appeal of such systems, we have developed HipCOMPASS, a simple and effective mechanical angle indicator for use in supine THA.
How accurate is the mean cup orientation [in terms of errors in radiographic anteversion (RA) and inclination (RI)] in cases where HipCOMPASS is used for intraoperative support? Does HipCOMPASS increase this cup orientation accuracy compared to THA cases without it? Does HipCOMPASS increase mean operation time?
We measured cup orientation in 97 THA cases with HipCOMPASS and in 80 cases without it. Then we compared the angles determined in preoperative planning with the angles revealed by postoperative computed tomography (CT) for both groups. The discrepancy between them was defined as an error. Errors greater than 10° were considered outliers. Additionally, mean operative time with and without the Hip COMPASS were compared.
With the use of HipCOMPASS, the mean absolute error values in radiographic anteversion and inclination were 2.9° ± 2.3° (range 0°–12.8°) and 2.9° ± 2.1° (0.1°–7.7°), respectively. In contrast, without the use of HipCOMPASS, radiographic anteversion and inclination error values were 8.8° ± 5.8° (0.1°–25.4°) and 6.1° ± 4.5° (0.2°–21.0°), respectively. Outlier occurrence rates were 1.0 % with HipCOMPASS and 48.8 % without it. Mean operative times with and without HipCOMPASS use were 109.2 ± 23.8 min (74–199 min) and 137.6 ± 40.6 min (71–298 min), respectively.
The study has found that HipCOMPASS dramatically increases implantation accuracy and it is also a simple and highly versatile tool that can be implemented quickly. Given its low cost in addition to its favourable accuracy, simple implementation, and short operative time, HipCOMPASS can be regarded as a very useful and effective THA support device.
Level of evidence
Retrospective comparative study, Level 3.
PMCID: PMC4912536  PMID: 27386270
6.  Does Fluoroscopy With Anterior Hip Arthoplasty Decrease Acetabular Cup Variability Compared With a Nonguided Posterior Approach? 
The direct anterior approach for THA offers some advantages, but is associated with a significant learning curve. Some of the technical difficulties can be addressed by the use of intraoperative fluoroscopy which may improve the accuracy of acetabular component placement.
The purposes of this study were to determine if (1) there is decreased variability of acetabular cup inclination and anteversion with the direct anterior approach using fluoroscopic guidance as compared with the posterior approach THA without radiographic guidance; (2) if there is a learning curve associated with achieving accuracy with the direct anterior approach THA. We also wanted (3) to assess the frequency of complications including dislocation with the anterior approach, which initially had a learning curve, and the posterior approach.
This retrospective, comparative study of 825 THAs (372 posterior THAs without fluoroscopic guidance and 453 direct anterior THAs, performed by one surgeon, focused on a radiographic analysis to determine cup inclination and anteversion on standardized pelvic radiographs using specialized software. The first 100 direct anterior THAs performed while transitioning from the posterior approach to the direct anterior approach were included in the learning curve group. During this learning curve period, the direct anterior approach was used for all patients except those with conversion of previously fixed intertrochanteric or femoral neck fractures to THAs, gluteus medius tears, and obese patients with an immobile abdominal pannus (100 of 127 THAs). Variability of the acetabular component was compared among the posterior group, learning curve group, and direct anterior group.
Variances for cup inclination and anteversion were significantly lower in the direct anterior group (19 and 16 respectively, p < 0.01) as compared with the posterior group (50 and 79 respectively).Target inclination and anteversion were achieved better in the direct anterior group (98% and 97% respectively) as compared with the posterior group (86% and 77% respectively) (p < 0.01, OR for inclination = 9.1, 95% CI, 3.5 to 23.4; OR for anteversion = 8, 95% CI, 4 to 16). In the learning curve group, target anteversion achieved (91% of cases) was marginally lower than that of the direct anterior group (p = 0.03; OR = 2.9, 95% CI, 1.1 to 7.3) and target inclination (95%) was similar (p = 0.13). There was one posterior dislocation in the posterior group, two anterior dislocations in the learning curve group, and none in the direct anterior group.
Use of fluoroscopy with the patient in the supine position during direct anterior THA enables intraoperative assessment of cup orientation resulting in decreased variability of acetabular cup anteversion. However, there is a learning curve associated with achieving this accuracy. We could not discern whether this difference was the result of the approach or the use of fluoroscopy in the direct anterior group.
Level of Evidence
Level III, therapeutic study. See the Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
PMCID: PMC4016457  PMID: 24549773
7.  Native femoral anteversion should not be used as reference in cementless total hip arthroplasty with a straight, tapered stem: a retrospective clinical study 
Improper femoral and acetabular component positioning can be associated with instability, impingement, component wear and finally patient dissatisfaction in total hip arthroplasty (THA). The concept of “femur first”/“combined anteversion”, incorporates various aspects of performing a functional optimization of the prosthetic stem and cup position of the stem relative to the cup intraoperatively.
In the present study we asked two questions: (1) Do native femoral anteversion and anteversion of the implant correlate? (2) Do anteversion of the final broach and implant anteversion correlate?
In a secondary analysis of a prospective controlled trial, a subgroup of 55 patients, who underwent computer-assisted, cementless THA with a straight, tapered stem through an anterolateral, minimally invasive (MIS) approach in a lateral decubitus position were examined retrospectivly. Intraoperative fluoroscopy was used to verify a “best-fit” position of the final broach. An image-free navigation system was used for measurement of the native femoral version, version of the final broach and the final implant. Femoral neck resection height was measured in postoperative CT-scans. This investigation was approved by the local Ethics Commission (No.10-121-0263) and is a secondary analysis of a larger project (DRKS00000739, German Clinical Trials Register May-02–2011).
The mean difference between native femoral version and final implant was 1.9° (+/− 9.5), with a range from −20.7° to 21.5° and a Spearman’s correlation coefficient of 0.39 (p < 0.003). In contrast, we observed a mean difference between final broach and implant version of −1.9° (+/− 3.5), with a range from −12.7° to 8.7° and a Spearman’s correlation coefficient of 0.89 (p < 0.001). In 83.6 % (46/55) final stem version was outside the normal range as defined by Tönnis (15-20°). The mean femoral neck resection height was 7.3 mm (+/− 5.6). There was no correlation between resection height and version of the implant (Spearman’s correlation coefficient 0.14).
Native femoral version significantly differs from the final anteversion of a cementless, straight, tapered stem and therefore is not a reliable reference in cementless THA. Measuring anteversion of the final “fit and fill” broach is a feasible assistance in order to predict final stem anteversion intraoperatively. There is no correlation between femoral neck resection height and version of the implant.
PMCID: PMC5028956  PMID: 27646313
Hip arthroplasty; Stem version; Combined anteversion; Imageless navigation
8.  Improving Cup Positioning Using a Mechanical Navigation Instrument 
Although surgical navigation reduces the rate of malpositioned acetabular cups in total hip arthroplasty (THA), its use has not been widely adopted. As a result of our perceived need for simple and efficient methods of navigation, we developed a mechanical navigation device for acetabular cup orientation.
We assessed accuracy of cup orientation (mean error of cup inclination and anteversion) of a novel mechanical navigation device, percentage of outliers, length of operation, and compared the results with a series of CT-based computer-assisted THAs.
Cup orientation of 70 THAs performed using the mechanical navigation device was compared with a historical control group of 146 THAs performed using CT-based computer navigation. Postoperative cup orientation was measured using a validated two-dimensional/three-dimensional matching method. An outlier was defined outside a range of ± 10° from the planned inclination and/or anteversion.
Using the mechanical navigation device, we observed a decrease in the errors of inclination (1.3° ± 3.4° [range, −6.6° to 8.2°] versus 3.5° ± 4.2° [−12.7° to 6.9°]), errors of anteversion (1.0° ± 4.1° [−8.8° to 9.5°] versus 3.0° ± 5.8° [−11.8° to 19.6°]), percentages of outliers (0% versus 9.6%), and length of operation (112 ± 22 [78–184] minutes versus 132 ± 18 [90–197] minutes) compared with CT-based navigation.
Compared with CT-based surgical navigation, navigation of acetabular cup orientation using a mechanical device can be performed in less time, lower mean errors, and minimal equipment.
PMCID: PMC3018200  PMID: 20852974
9.  Results of Total Hip Arthroplasty after Core Decompression with Tantalum Rod for Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head 
Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery  2016;8(1):38-44.
Early stage osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) has many treatment options including core decompression with implantation of a tantalum rod. The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinical and radiological outcomes and potential complications during conversion total hip arthroplasty (THA) in such patients.
Six male patients (8 hips) underwent THA subsequent to removing a tantalum rod (group I) from April 2010 to November 2011. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of these patients. We enrolled 12 age- and sex-matched patients (16 hips) during the same period, who had undergone primary THA without a previous operation as the control group (group II). All patients were followed for at least 3 years. We checked the Harris hip score (HHS), operative time, and volume of blood loss. Radiological results, including inclination, anteversion of the acetabular cup, presence of periprosthetic osteolysis, and subsidence of femoral stem were checked at the last follow-up.
The mean preoperative HHS values were 56.5 (range, 50 to 62) and 59.1 (range, 42 to 70) in groups I and II, respectively. The HHS improved to 96.0 (range, 93 to 100) and 97.6 (range, 93 to 100), respectively, at the 3-year follow-up (p = 0.172). Mean operation time was 98.8 minutes (range, 70 to 120 minutes) in group I and 77.5 minutes (range, 60 to 115 minutes) in group II (p = 0.006). Total blood loss volumes were 1,193.8 mL (range, 960 to 1,360 mL) and 944.1 mL (range, 640 to 1,280 mL) in groups I and II, respectively (p = 0.004). No significant differences in inclination or anteversion of acetabular cup and no evidence of osteolysis or subsidence of the femoral stem were reported in either group in radiological follow-up results. However, one case of squeaking occurred in group I during the follow-up.
The two groups showed no clinical or radiological differences except extended operative time and increased blood loss. However, the incidence of squeaking (1 of 8 hips) was higher, as compared to the control group or previously reported values.
PMCID: PMC4761599  PMID: 26929797
Femur head necrosis; Decompression; Hip replacement arthroplasty; Complications
10.  Percutaneously assisted total hip (PATH) and Supercapsular percutaneously assisted total hip (SuperPATH) arthroplasty: learning curves and early outcomes 
A new family of micro-posterior approaches, percutaneously assisted total hip (PATH), SuperCapsular (SuperCap) and Supercapsular percutaneously assisted total hip (SuperPATH) allow preservation of the short external rotators. This study assesses early outcomes and learning curves of the PATH and SuperPATH approaches.
Early outcomes of the first consecutive 49 PATH and 50 SuperPATH cases performed by a non-developer surgeon were evaluated. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare age, body mass index (BMI), and pre-operative hemoglobin. Gender was compared using a Chi-square test. Clinical outcomes were compared using a nonparametric Wilcoxon test or a Chi-square test. Learning curves were assessed using operative time as a surrogate. Acetabular cup abduction and anteversion were compared using the first post-operative radiograph and a modified protractor.
Both cohorts were similar with respect to diagnosis, gender, and BMI. Mean operative time in minutes was recorded for the PATH (114.5±17.5) and SuperPATH (101.7±18.3) cohorts (P value =0.0002). PATH operative time reached a plateau by case 40, but SuperPATH operative time continued to decrease by case 50. Transfusion rates were low in the PATH (4%) and SuperPATH (6%) cohorts. Mean length of stay (LOS) in days for the SuperPATH and PATH cohorts were 2.2 and 3.0, respectively (P value <0.0001). Complication rates were low in the SuperPATH (4.0%) and PATH (4.1%) cohorts. Acetabular cups in the SuperPATH cohort (anteversion: 23.5°±8.2°, abduction: 39.0°±8.4°) were significantly more anteverted (P value <0.0001) and less abducted (P value <0.05) than in the PATH cohort (anteversion: 13.1°±7.1°; abduction: 42.9°±7.6°).
Early results demonstrate that the PATH and SuperPATH approaches can be adopted with minimal complications and outcomes consistent with innovator outcomes, even during the learning curve. The SuperPATH technique was associated with shorter operative time that continued to decrease, suggesting that proficiency continues to decrease beyond the first 50 cases. In this author’s experience, acetabular cups implanted using the SuperPATH technique were more anteverted than those implanted using the PATH technique. Greater use of the transverse acetabular ligament to guide cup alignment reduced this effect.
PMCID: PMC4543331  PMID: 26366396
Total hip arthroplasty (THA); minimally invasive; percutaneously assisted total hip (PATH); Supercapsular percutaneously assisted total hip (SuperPATH); learning curve
11.  Visual intraoperative estimation of cup and stem position is not reliable in minimally invasive hip arthroplasty 
Acta Orthopaedica  2016;87(3):225-230.
Background and purpose
In hip arthroplasty, acetabular inclination and anteversion—and also femoral stem torsion—are generally assessed by eye intraoperatively. We assessed whether visual estimation of cup and stem position is reliable.
Patients and methods
In the course of a subgroup analysis of a prospective clinical trial, 65 patients underwent cementless hip arthroplasty using a minimally invasive anterolateral approach in lateral decubitus position. Altogether, 4 experienced surgeons assessed cup position intraoperatively according to the operative definition by Murray in the anterior pelvic plane and stem torsion in relation to the femoral condylar plane. Inclination, anteversion, and stem torsion were measured blind postoperatively on 3D-CT and compared to intraoperative results.
The mean difference between the 3D-CT results and intraoperative estimations by eye was −4.9° (−18 to 8.7) for inclination, 9.7° (−16 to 41) for anteversion, and −7.3° (−34 to 15) for stem torsion. We found an overestimation of > 5° for cup inclination in 32 hips, an overestimation of > 5° for stem torsion in 40 hips, and an underestimation < 5° for cup anteversion in 42 hips. The level of professional experience and patient characteristics had no clinically relevant effect on the accuracy of estimation by eye. Altogether, 46 stems were located outside the native norm of 10–20° as defined by Tönnis, measured on 3D-CT.
Even an experienced surgeon’s intraoperative estimation of cup and stem position by eye is not reliable compared to 3D-CT in minimally invasive THA. The use of mechanical insertion jigs, intraoperative fluoroscopy, or imageless navigation is recommended for correct implant insertion.
PMCID: PMC4900086  PMID: 26848628
12.  Poor accuracy of freehand cup positioning during total hip arthroplasty 
Several studies have demonstrated a correlation between the acetabular cup position and the risk of dislocation, wear and range of motion after total hip arthroplasty. The present study was designed to evaluate the accuracy of the surgeon’s estimated position of the cup after freehand placement in total hip replacement. Peroperative estimated abduction and anteversion of 200 acetabular components (placed by three orthopaedic surgeons and nine residents) were compared with measured outcomes (according to Pradhan) on postoperative radiographs. Cups were placed in 49.7° (SD 6.7) of abduction and 16.0° (SD 8.1) of anteversion. Estimation of placement was 46.3° (SD 4.3) of abduction and 14.6° (SD 5.9) of anteversion. Of more interest is the fact that for the orthopaedic surgeons the mean inaccuracy of estimation was 4.1° (SD 3.9) for abduction and 5.2° (SD 4.5) for anteversion and for their residents this was respectively, 6.3° (SD 4.6) and 5.7° (SD 5.0). Significant differences were found between orthopaedic surgeons and residents for inaccuracy of estimation for abduction, not for anteversion. Body mass index, sex, (un)cemented fixation and surgical approach (anterolateral or posterolateral) were not significant factors. Based upon the inaccuracy of estimation, the group’s chance on future cup placement within Lewinnek’s safe zone (5–25° anteversion and 30–50° abduction) is 82.7 and 85.2% for anteversion and abduction separately. When both parameters are combined, the chance of accurate placement is only 70.5%. The chance of placement of the acetabular component within 5° of an intended position, for both abduction and anteversion is 21.5% this percentage decreases to just 2.9% when the tolerated error is 1°. There is a tendency to underestimate both abduction and anteversion. Orthopaedic surgeons are superior to their residents in estimating abduction of the acetabular component. The results of this study indicate that freehand placement of the acetabular component is not a reliable method.
PMCID: PMC1914284  PMID: 17297597
Freehand cup positioning; Accuracy; Total hip arthroplasty
13.  Natural acetabular orientation in arthritic hips 
Bone & Joint Research  2015;4(1):6-10.
Acetabular component orientation in total hip arthroplasty (THA) influences results. Intra-operatively, the natural arthritic acetabulum is often used as a reference to position the acetabular component. Detailed information regarding its orientation is therefore essential. The aim of this study was to identify the acetabular inclination and anteversion in arthritic hips.
Acetabular inclination and anteversion in 65 symptomatic arthritic hips requiring THA were measured using a computer navigation system. All patients were Caucasian with primary osteoarthritis (29 men, 36 women). The mean age was 68 years (SD 8). Mean inclination was 50.5° (SD 7.8) in men and 52.1° (SD 6.7) in women. Mean anteversion was 8.3° (SD 8.7) in men and 14.4° (SD 11.6) in women.
The difference between men and women in terms of anteversion was significant (p = 0.022). In 75% of hips, the natural orientation was outside the safe zone described by Lewinnek et al (anteversion 15° ± 10°; inclination 40° ± 10°).
When using the natural acetabular orientation to guide component placement, it is important to be aware of the differences between men and women, and that in up to 75% of hips natural orientation may be out of what many consider to be a safe zone.
Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2015;4:6–10.
PMCID: PMC4313079  PMID: 25628463
Total hip arthroplasty; THA; Acetabulum; Orientation; Arthritis; Computer; Navigation; Inclination; anteversion
14.  Total Hip Arthroplasty Using Metal Head on a Highly Cross-linked Polyethylene Liner 
Hip & Pelvis  2015;27(4):216-222.
This retrospective study was performed to evaluate the clinical results and measure polyethylene liner wear in total hip arthroplasty (THA) with highly cross-linked polyethylene.
Materials and Methods
Except for patients who had died or were unable to have follow-up at least 2 years, 60 of 78 hips that underwent THA were included this study. The mean age was 64.5 years (range, 25-81 years) and the mean body mass index (BMI) was 23.0 kg/m2 (18.1-32.3 kg/m2). Diagnosis at the time of the operation was osteonecrois of the femoral head in 28 hips, primary osteoarthritis in 14, hip fracture in 13, and other diseases in 5. The mean follow-up period was 3.8 years (2.1-7.1 years). Harris hip score (HHS) was reviewed before THA and at the last follow-up. On the anteroposterior pelvic radiographs, acetabular cup inclination and ante-version were also measured. The annual linear wear rate was measured using Livermore's method on the radiographs.
The mean HHS was 60.1 (28-94) before operation and 90.4 (47-100) at the last follow-up. In the immediate post-operation, the average inclination and anteversion angles of the acetabular cups were 46.3° (standard deviation, ±6.7°) and, 21.4°(±10.1°) respectively. The mean of the annual linear polyethylene wear was 0.079 mm/year (0.001-0.291 mm/year). Age, gender and BMI were not statistically related to linear polyethylene wear but the period of follow-up and the acetabular cup's inclination showed significant negative and positive correlation respectively.
The wear rate of a highly cross-linked polyethylene was shown to correlate negatively with duration of follow-up. However, our study was based on a short-term follow-up, so a long-term follow-up study is necessary in the future.
PMCID: PMC4972792  PMID: 27536629
Total hip arthroplasty; Highly cross-linked polyethylene; Linear wear rate
15.  Does Native Combined Anteversion Influence Pain Onset in Patients With Dysplastic Hips? 
Combined anteversion is the sum of femoral and acetabular anteversion and represents their morphological relationship in the axial plane. Few studies have investigated the native combined anteversion in patients with symptomatic dysplastic hips.
We hypothesized the following: (1) dysplastic hips have two distinct populations, which differ from each other and from normal hips in their combined anteversion; and (2) these populations differ clinically in terms of correlation between age of onset of symptoms and amount of anteversion.
We measured radiographic parameters by CT of 100 dysplastic hips in 76 patients who were symptomatic enough to undergo periacetabular osteotomy and of 50 normal hips in 44 patients who had CT scans as part of preparation for computer-navigated TKAs; these patients had no visible hip arthritis or dysplasia and no hip symptoms. Dysplastic hips were divided into the anteversion (83 hips) and retroversion groups (17 hips) based on acetabular version. Age at pain onset was determined from their medical charts.
Combined anteversion in the anteversion group was greater than that in the retroversion and control groups: 47° ± 12°, 30° ± 16°, and 36° ± 9°, respectively. In the anteversion group, combined anteversion (r = −0.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], −0.66 to −0.27; p < 0.001) and femoral anteversion (r = −0.41; 95% CI, −0.60 to −0.19; p < 0.001) were associated with an earlier age at pain onset; however, no such relationships were observed in the retroversion group. After controlling for relevant potential confounding variables, we found that combined anteversion (hazard ratio [HR], 1.04; 95% CI, 1.01–1.07; p = 0.006) and Sharp angle (HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.02–1.17; p = 0.008) were associated with an earlier age of pain onset in the anteversion group.
These results suggest that not only lateral coverage of the femoral head, but also axial joint morphology is important for the development of pain in the anteversion group. Optimal combined anteversion should be considered during periacetabular osteotomy.
Level of Evidence
Level IV, prognostic study.
PMCID: PMC4626473  PMID: 26024581
16.  Comparison of Robotic-assisted and Conventional Acetabular Cup Placement in THA: A Matched-pair Controlled Study 
Improper acetabular component orientation in THA has been associated with increased dislocation rates, component impingement, bearing surface wear, and a greater likelihood of revision. Therefore, any reasonable steps to improve acetabular component orientation should be considered and explored.
We therefore sought to compare THA with a robotic-assisted posterior approach with manual alignment techniques through a posterior approach, using a matched-pair controlled study design, to assess whether the use of the robot made it more likely for the acetabular cup to be positioned in the safe zones described by Lewinnek et al. and Callanan et al.
Between September 2008 and September 2012, 160 THAs were performed by the senior surgeon. Sixty-two patients (38.8%) underwent THA using a conventional posterior approach, 69 (43.1%) underwent robotic-assisted THA using the posterior approach, and 29 (18.1%) underwent radiographic-guided anterior-approach THAs. From September 2008 to June 2011, all patients were offered anterior or posterior approaches regardless of BMI and anatomy. Since introduction of the robot in June 2011, all THAs were performed using the robotic technique through the posterior approach, unless a patient specifically requested otherwise. The radiographic cup positioning of the robotic-assisted THAs was compared with a matched-pair control group of conventional THAs performed by the same surgeon through the same posterior approach. The safe zone (inclination, 30°–50°; anteversion, 5°–25°) described by Lewinnek et al. and the modified safe zone (inclination, 30°–45°; anteversion, 5°–25°) of Callanan et al. were used for cup placement assessment. Matching criteria were gender, age ± 5 years, and (BMI) ± 7 units. After exclusions, a total of 50 THAs were included in each group. Strong interobserver and intraobserver correlations were found for all radiographic measurements (r > 0.82; p < 0.001).
One hundred percent (50/50) of the robotic-assisted THAs were within the safe zone described by Lewinnek et al. compared with 80% (40/50) of the conventional THAs (p = 0.001). Ninety-two percent (46/50) of robotic-assisted THAs were within the modified safe zone described by Callanan et al. compared with 62% (31/50) of conventional THAs p (p = 0.001). The odds ratios for an implanted cup out of the safe zones of Lewinnek et al. and Callanan et al. were zero and 0.142, respectively (95% CI, 0.044, 0.457).
Use of the robot allowed for improvement in placement of the cup in both safe zones, an important parameter that plays a significant role in long-term success of THA. However, whether the radiographic improvements we observed will translate into clinical benefits for patients—such as reductions in component impingement, acetabular wear, and prosthetic dislocations, or in terms of improved longevity—remains unproven.
Level of Evidence
Level III, therapeutic study. See the Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
PMCID: PMC3889439  PMID: 23990446
17.  The association between Femoral Tilt and impingement-free range-of-motion in total hip arthroplasty 
There is a complex interaction among acetabular component position and antetorsion of the femoral stem in determining the maximum, impingement-free prosthetic range-of-motion (ROM) in total hip arthroplasty (THA). By insertion into the femoral canal, stems of any geometry follow the natural anterior bow of the proximal femur, creating a sagittal Femoral Tilt (FT). We sought to study the incidence of FT as measured on postoperative computed tomography scans and its influence on impingement-free ROM in THA.
The incidence of the postoperative FT was evaluated on 40 computed tomography scans after cementless THA. With the help of a three-dimensional computer model of the hip, we then systematically analyzed the effects of FT on femoral antetorsion and its influence on calculations for a ROM maximized and impingement-free compliant stem/cup orientation.
The mean postoperative FT on CT scans was 5.7° ± 1.8°. In all tests, FT significantly influenced the antetorsion values. Re-calculating the compliant component positions according to the concept of combined anteversion with and without the influence of FT revealed that the zone of compliance could differ by more than 200%. For a 7° change in FT, the impingement-free cup position differed by 4° for inclination when the same antetorsion was used.
A range-of-motion optimized cup position in THA cannot be calculated based on antetorsion values alone. The FT has a significant impact on recommended cup positions within the concept of “femur first” or “combined anteversion”. Ignoring FT may pose an increased risk of impingement as well as dislocation.
PMCID: PMC3416712  PMID: 22559740
18.  Reliability and Validity of Measuring Acetabular Component Orientation by Plain Anteroposterior Radiographs 
Inaccurate placement of an acetabular cup can cause impingement, dislocation, and accelerated wear. However, there is no universally agreed-on approach to measuring cup position using plain radiographs.
Our goal was to evaluate the reliability and validity of measuring the orientation of acetabular components on plain anteroposterior (AP) radiographs.
We obtained plain AP radiographs and CT scans for 60 patients who underwent 60 primary total hip arthroplasties (THAs). The method devised by Lewinnek et al. was used to measure the orientation of acetabular components on plain AP radiographs, and three-dimensional (3-D) CT scans were used to measure both the radiographic anteversion angle and the inclination angle. Reliability was evaluated by analysis of the agreement between inter- and intraobserver measurements using plain AP radiographs. Measurements on 3-D CT scans were regarded as the reference standard; validity was assessed by comparing radiographic measurements with the CT scans.
Inter- and intraobserver reliability for measuring component orientation on plain AP radiographs was nearly perfect with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.896 and 0.969 for anteversion and 0.984 and 0.993 for inclination. Measurement of cup inclination angles differed between plain radiographs and CT scans, but the difference was small, and the difference, although statistically significant, probably was not clinically important (2.3° ± 1.8°, p < 0.001). There was no significant difference between the anteversion as measured on CT scan versus that measured on plain radiographs (p = 0.19).
Measurement of the orientation of acetabular components on plain AP radiographs is reliable and accurate compared with measurement on CT.
Level of Evidence
Level II, diagnostic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
PMCID: PMC3734435  PMID: 23645336
19.  Acetabular Version Measurement in Total Hip Arthroplasty: the Impact of Inclination and the Value of Multi-Planar CT Reformation 
HSS Journal  2015;11(1):65-70.
The orientation of the acetabular cup component of a total hip arthroplasty can be evaluated in a number of ways, utilizing a myriad of imaging techniques and measurement parameters, including intraoperative surgical estimates, postoperative radiographs, and cross-sectional imaging such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
How do traditional versus corrected measurements of acetabular version vary from one another based on the inclination of the cup? What is the reliability of the corrected acetabular version measurements based on interobserver and intraobserver consistency?
Patients and Methods
Two fellowship-trained musculoskeletal radiologists reviewed CT scans on 60 total hip arthroplasties. Acetabular inclination, traditional CT acetabular version, and CT acetabular version corrected for inclination (by utilizing multi-planar reformations to measure in the plane of the cup face) were each measured. The difference was then calculated between the “traditional” axial CT and “corrected” acetabular version measurements, and the association between this difference and the acetabular inclination was assessed.
The “traditional” axial CT and “corrected” acetabular version measurements differed from one another in every case, with the traditional method yielding a version measurement that was on average 9.5° higher than the corrected technique. However, as the acetabular cup inclination angle decreased, the “traditional” measurement became more variable and increasingly discordant with the “corrected” version measurement.
There is inherent variability between the many methods utilized for defining and measuring acetabular version, with axial CT measurements often used as an accepted proxy for true cup anteversion. However, the variability between different measurement techniques is correlated with acetabular inclination, and this variability is most pronounced when acetabular inclination is low, ultimately leading to potential confusion in measurement terminology. The increasingly widespread availability of multi-planar CT reformations provides an opportunity to standardize methodology, eliminate the impact of inclination on acetabular version measurements, and potentially provide a more reliable comparison of the impact of cup orientation on surgical outcomes.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11420-014-9416-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4342403  PMID: 25737671
acetabulum; arthroplasty; computed tomography; cross-table; CT; hip; imaging; inclination; measurement; multi-planar; pelvis; radiograph; reformations; version
20.  Metal-on-Metal Total Hip Resurfacing Arthroplasty 
Executive Summary
The objective of this review was to assess the safety and effectiveness of metal on metal (MOM) hip resurfacing arthroplasty for young patients compared with that of total hip replacement (THR) in the same population.
Clinical Need
Total hip replacement has proved to be very effective for late middle-aged and elderly patients with severe degenerative diseases of the hips. As indications for THR began to include younger patients and those with a more active life style, the longevity of the implant became a concern. Evidence suggests that these patients experience relatively higher rates of early implant failure and the need for revision. The Swedish hip registry, for example, has demonstrated a survival rate in excess of 80% at 20 years for those aged over 65 years, whereas this figure was 33% by 16 years in those aged under 55 years.
Hip resurfacing arthroplasty is a bone-conserving alternative to THR that restores normal joint biomechanics and load transfer. The technique has been used around the world for more than 10 years, specifically in the United Kingdom and other European countries.
The Technology
Metal-on-metal hip resurfacing arthroplasty is an alternative procedure to conventional THR in younger patients. Hip resurfacing arthroplasty is less invasive than THR and addresses the problem of preserving femoral bone stock at the initial operation. This means that future hip revisions are possible with THR if the initial MOM arthroplasty becomes less effective with time in these younger patients. The procedure involves the removal and replacement of the surface of the femoral head with a hollow metal hemisphere, which fits into a metal acetabular cup.
Hip resurfacing arthroplasty is a technically more demanding procedure than is conventional THR. In hip resurfacing, the femoral head is retained, which makes it much more difficult to access the acetabular cup. However, hip resurfacing arthroplasty has several advantages over a conventional THR with a small (28 mm) ball. First, the large femoral head reduces the chance of dislocation, so that rates of dislocation are less than those with conventional THR. Second, the range of motion with hip resurfacing arthroplasty is higher than that achieved with conventional THR.
A variety of MOM hip resurfacing implants are used in clinical practice. Six MOM hip resurfacing implants have been issued licences in Canada.
Review Strategy
A search of electronic bibliographies (OVID Medline, Medline In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Embase, Cochrane CENTRAL and DSR, INAHTA) was undertaken to identify evidence published from Jan 1, 1997 to October 27, 2005. The search was limited to English-language articles and human studies. The literature search yielded 245 citations. Of these, 11 met inclusion criteria (9 for effectiveness, 2 for safety).
The result of the only reported randomized controlled trial on MOM hip resurfacing arthroplasty could not be included in this assessment, because it used a cemented acetabular component, whereas in the new generation of implants, a cementless acetabular component is used. After omitting this publication, only case series remained.
Summary of Findings
Health Outcomes
The Harris hip score and SF-12 are 2 measures commonly used to report health outcomes in MOM hip resurfacing arthroplasty studies. Other scales used are the Oxford hip score and the University of California Los Angeles hip score.
The case series showed that the mean revision rate of MOM hip resurfacing arthroplasty is 1.5% and the incidence of femoral neck fracture is 0.67%. Across all studies, 2 cases of osteonecrosis were reported. Four studies reported improvement in Harris hip scores. However, only 1 study reported a statistically significant improvement. Three studies reported improvement in SF-12 scores, of which 2 reported a significant improvement. One study reported significant improvement in UCLA hip score. Two studies reported postoperative Oxford hip scores, but no preoperative values were reported.
None of the reviewed studies reported procedure-related deaths. Four studies reported implant survival rates ranging from 94.4% to 99.7% for a follow-up period of 2.8 to 3.5 years. Three studies reported on the range of motion. One reported improvement in all motions including flexion, extension, abduction-adduction, and rotation, and another reported improvement in flexion. Yet another reported improvement in range of motion for flexion abduction-adduction and rotation arc. However, the author reported a decrease in the range of motion in the arc of flexion in patients with Brooker class III or IV heterotopic bone (all patients were men).
Safety of Metal-on-Metal Hip Resurfacing Arthroplasty
There is a concern about metal wear debris and its systemic distribution throughout the body. Detectable metal concentrations in the serum and urine of patients with metal hip implants have been described as early as the 1970s, and this issue is still controversial after 35 years.
Several studies have reported high concentration of cobalt and chromium in serum and/or urine of the patients with metal hip implants. Potential toxicological effects of the elevated metal ions have heightened concerns about safety of MOM bearings. This is of particular concern in young and active patients in whom life expectancy after implantation is long.
Since 1997, 15 studies, including 1 randomized clinical trial, have reported high levels of metal ions after THR with metal implants. Some of these studies have reported higher metal levels in patients with loose implants.
Adverse Biological Effects of Cobalt and Chromium
Because patients who receive a MOM hip arthroplasty are shown to be exposed to high concentrations of metallic ions, the Medical Advisory Secretariat searched the literature for reports of adverse biological effects of cobalt and chromium. Cobalt and chromium make up the major part of the metal articulations; therefore, they are a focus of concern.
Risk of Cancer
To date, only one study has examined the incidence of cancer after MOM and polyethylene on metal total hip arthroplasties. The results were compared to that of general population in Finland. The mean duration of follow-up for MOM arthroplasty was 15.7 years; for polyethylene arthroplasty, it was 12.5 years. The standardized incidence ratio for all cancers in the MOM group was 0.95 (95% CI, 0.79–1.13). In the polyethylene on metal group it was 0.76 (95% CI, 0.68–0.86). The combined standardized incidence ratio for lymphoma and leukemia in the patients who had MOM THR was 1.59 (95% CI, 0.82–2.77). It was 0.59 (95% CI, 0.29–1.05) for the patients who had polyethylene on metal THR. Patients with MOM THR had a significantly higher risk of leukemia. All patients who had leukemia were aged over than 60 years.
Cobalt Cardiotoxicity
Epidemiological Studies of Myocardiopathy of Beer Drinkers
An unusual type of myocardiopathy, characterized by pericardial effusion, elevated hemoglobin concentrations, and congestive heart failure, occurred as an epidemic affecting 48 habitual beer drinkers in Quebec City between 1965 and 1966. This epidemic was directly related the consumption of a popular beer containing cobalt sulfate. The epidemic appeared 1 month after cobalt sulfate was added to the specific brewery, and no further cases were seen a month after this specific chemical was no longer used in making this beer. A beer of the same name is made in Montreal, and the only difference at that time was that the Quebec brand of beer contained about 10 times more cobalt sulphate. Cobalt has been added to some Canadian beers since 1965 to improve the stability of the foam but it has been added in larger breweries only to draught beer. However, in small breweries, such as those in Quebec City, separate batches were not brewed for bottle and draught beer; therefore, cobalt was added to all of the beer processed in this brewery.
In March 1966, a committee was appointed under the chairmanship of the Deputy Minister of Health for Quebec that included members of the department of forensic medicine of Quebec’s Ministry of Justice, epidemiologists, members of Food and Drug Directorate of Ottawa, toxicologists, biomedical researchers, pathologists, and members of provincial police. Epidemiological studies were carried out by the Provincial Ministry of Health and the Quebec City Health Department.
The association between the development of myocardiopathy and the consumption of the particular brand of beer was proven. The mortality rate of this epidemic was 46.1% and those who survived were desperately ill, and recovered only after a struggle for their lives.
Similar cases were seen in Omaha (Nebraska). The epidemic started after a cobalt additive was used in 1 of the beers marketed in Nebraska. Sixty-four patients with the clinical diagnosis of alcoholic myocardiopathy were seen during an 18-month period (1964–1965). Thirty of these patients died. The first patient became ill within 1 month after cobalt was added to the beer, and the last patient was seen within 1 month of withdrawal of cobalt.
A similar epidemic occurred in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Between 1964 and 1967, 42 patients with acute heart failure were admitted to a hospital in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Twenty of these patients were drinking 6 to 30 bottles per day of a particular brand of beer exclusively. The other 14 patients also drank the same brand of beer, but not exclusively. The mortality rate from the acute illness was 18%, but late deaths accounted for a total mortality rate of 43%. Examination of the tissue from these patients revealed markedly abnormal changes in myofibrils (heart muscles), mitochondria, and sarcoplasmic reticulum.
In Belgium, a similar epidemic was reported in 1966, in which, cobalt was used in some Belgian beers. There was a difference in mortality between the Canadian or American epidemic and this series. Only 1 of 24 patients died, 1.5 years after the diagnosis. In March 1965, at an international meeting in Brussels, a new heart disease in chronic beer drinkers was described. This disease consists of massive pericardial effusion, low cardiac output, raised venous pressure, and polycythemia in some cases. This syndrome was thought to be different from the 2 other forms of alcoholic heart disease (beriberi and a form characterized by myocardial fibrosis).
The mystery of the above epidemics as stated by investigators is that the amount of cobalt added to the beer was below the therapeutic doses used for anemia. For example, 24 pints of Quebec brand of beer in Quebec would contain 8 mg of cobalt chloride, whereas an intake of 50 to 100 mg of cobalt as an antianemic agent has been well tolerated. Thus, greater cobalt intake alone does not explain the occurrence of myocardiopathy. It seems that there are individual differences in cobalt toxicity. Other features, like subclinical alcoholic heart disease, deficient diet, and electrolyte imbalance could have been precipitating factors that made these patients susceptible to cobalt’s toxic effects.
In the Omaha epidemic, 60% of the patients had weight loss, anorexia, and occasional vomiting and diarrhea 2 to 6 months before the onset of cardiac symptoms. In the Quebec epidemic, patients lost their appetite 3 to 6 months before the diagnosis of myocardiopathy and developed nausea in the weeks before hospital admission. In the Belgium epidemic, anorexia was one of the most predominant symptoms at the time of diagnosis, and the quality and quantity of food intake was poor. Alcohol has been shown to increase the uptake of intracoronary injected cobalt by 47%. When cobalt enters the cells, calcium exits; this shifts the cobalt to calcium ratio. The increased uptake of cobalt in alcoholic patients may explain the high incidence of cardiomyopathies in beer drinkers’ epidemics.
As all of the above suggest, it may be that prior chronic exposure to alcohol and/or a nutritionally deficient diet may have a marked synergistic effect with the cardiotoxicity of cobalt.
MOM hip resurfacing arthroplasty has been shown to be an effective arthroplasty procedure as tested in younger patients.
However, evidence for effectiveness is based only on 7 case series with short duration of follow-up (2.8–3.5 years). There are no RCTs or other well-controlled studies that compare MOM hip resurfacing with THR.
Revision rates reported in the MOM studies using implants currently licensed in Canada (hybrid systems, uncemented acetabular, and cemented femoral) range from 0.3% to 3.6% for a mean follow-up ranging from 2.8 to 3.5 years.
Fracture of femoral neck is not very common; it occurs in 0.4% to 2.2% of cases (as observed in a short follow-up period).
All the studies that measured health outcomes have reported improvement in Harris Hip and SF-12 scores; 1 study reported significant reduction in pain and improvement in function, and 2 studies reported significant improvement in SF-12 scores. One study reported significant improvement in UCLA Hip scores.
Concerns remain on the potential adverse effects of metal ions. Longer-term follow-up data will help to resolve the inconsistency of findings on adverse effects, including toxicity and carcinogenicity.
Ontario-Based Economic Analysis
The device cost for MOM ranges from $4,300 to $6,000 (Cdn). Traditional hip replacement devices cost about $2,000 (Cdn). Using Ontario Case Costing Initiative data, the total estimated costs for hip resurfacing surgery including physician fees, device fees, follow-up consultation, and postsurgery rehabilitation is about $15,000 (Cdn).
Cost of Total Hip Replacement Surgery in Ontario
MOM hip arthroplasty is generally recommended for patients aged under 55 years because its bone-conserving advantage enables patients to “buy time” and hence helps THRs to last over the lifetime of the patient. In 2004/2005, 15.9% of patients who received THRs were aged 55 years and younger. It is estimated that there are from 600 to 1,000 annual MOM hip arthroplasty surgeries in Canada with an estimated 100 to 150 surgeries in Ontario. Given the increased public awareness of this device, it is forecasted that demand for MOM hip arthroplasty will steadily increase with a conservative estimate of demand rising to 1,400 cases by 2010 (Figure 10). The net budget impact over a 5-year period could be $500,000 to $4.7 million, mainly because of the increasing cost of the device.
Projected Number of Metal-on-Metal Hip Arthroplasty Surgeries in Ontario: to 2010
PMCID: PMC3379532  PMID: 23074495
21.  Navigated Acetabular Cup Fixation for Acetabular Deformity or Revision Total Hip Arthroplasty 
Hip & Pelvis  2014;26(3):150-156.
To evaluate the usefulness of navigated acetabular cup fixation for total hip arthroplasty in patients with acetabular deformity or revision total hip arthroplasty.
Materials and Methods
This study enrolled 28 patients with at least 12 months' follow-up. The safe zone of the acetabular cup was defined as 40°±10°in inclination and 15°±10°in anteversion. The authors used the navigation and radiographic data to determine whether the acetabular cup was located within the safe zone or not. To evaluate the clinical outcomes, preoperative and last follow-up Harris hip scores were checked, and the occurrence of complications was evaluated.
According to the navigation data, the mean inclination and anteversion were 38.5°±4.7°(range, 32°-50°) and 16.6°±4.0°(range, 8°-23°), respectively. According to the radiographic data the mean inclination and anteversion were 40.5°±4.6°(range, 32°-50°) and 19.4°±4.2°(range, 8°-25°), respectively. In both cases, all values were within the safe zone. Harris hip score was improved in all patients from preoperative 52.3±14.4 points (range, 29-87 points) to 88.0±9.0 points (range, 65-99 points) at the last follow-up. There was no dislocation or loosening of both cases.
Navigated acetabular cup fixation is a useful technique for total hip arthroplasty in patients with acetabular deformity or revision total hip arthroplasty because it prevents the malposition and related complications.
PMCID: PMC4971140  PMID: 27536573
Hip; Acetabular deformity; Revision; Acetabular cup fixation; Imageless navigation
22.  Accuracy of acetabular cup positioning using imageless navigation 
Correct placement of the acetabular cup is a crucial step in total hip replacement to achieve a satisfactory result and remains a challenge with free-hand techniques. Imageless navigation may provide a viable alternative to free-hand technique and improve placement significantly. The purpose of this project was to assess and validate intra-operative placement values for both inclination and anteversion as displayed by an imageless navigation system to post-operative measurement of cup position using high resolution CT scans.
Thirty-two subjects who underwent primary hip joint arthroplasty using imageless navigation were included. The average age was 66.5 years (range 32-87). 23 non-cemented and 9 cemented acetabular cups were implanted. The desired position for the cup was 45 degrees of inversion and 15 degrees of anteversion. A pelvic CT scan using a multi-slice CT was used to assess the position of the cup radiographically.
Two subjects were excluded because of dislodgement of the tracking pin. Pearson correlation revealed a strong and significant correlation (r = 0.68; p < 0.006) for cup inclination and a moderate non-significant correlation (r = 0.53; p = 0.45) between intra-operative readings and cup placement for anteversion.
These findings can be explained with the possible introduction of systematic error. Even though the acquisition of anatomic landmarks is simple, they must be acquired with great precision. An error of 1 cm can result in a mean anteversion error of 6 degrees and inclination error of 2.5 degrees. Whilst computer assisted surgery results in highly accurate cup placements for inclination, anteversion of the cup cannot be determined accurately.
PMCID: PMC3162566  PMID: 21831275
23.  Navigated cup implantation in hip arthroplasty 
Acta Orthopaedica  2009;80(5):538-544.
Background and purpose Many studies have suggested that navigation-based implantation can improve cup positioning in total hip arthroplasty (THA). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to compile the best available evidence, and to overcome potential shortcomings because of small sample sizes in individual studies.
Methods The search strategy covered the major medical databases from January 1976 through August 2007, as well as various publishers' databases. The internal validity of individual studies was evaluated independently by 3 reviewers. We used random-effects modeling to obtain mean differences in cup angulation and relative risk (RR) of cup positioning outside Lewinnek's safe zone.
Results Of 363 citations originally identified, 5 trials of moderate methodology enrolling a total of 400 patients were included in the analysis. Mean cup inclination and anteversion were not statistically significantly different between the conventional groups and the navigated groups. Navigation reduced the variability in cup positioning and the risk of placing the acetabular component beyond the safe zone (RR = 0.21, CI: 0.13–0.32).
Interpretation Based on the current literature, navigation is a reliable tool to optimize cup placement, and to minimize outliers. However, long-term outcomes and cost utility analyses are needed before conclusive statements can be drawn about the value of routine navigation in THA.
PMCID: PMC2823338  PMID: 19916685
24.  Satisfying Results of Primary Hip Arthroplasty in Patients With Hip Dysplasia at a Mean Followup of 20 Years 
Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is a common cause of secondary osteoarthritis (OA) in younger patients, and when end-stage OA develops, a THA can provide a solution. Different options have been developed to reconstruct these defects, one of which is impaction bone grafting combined with a cemented cup. To determine the true value of a specific technique, it is important to evaluate patients at a long-term followup. As there are no long-term studies, to our knowledge, on THA in patients with DDH using impaction bone grafting with a cemented cup, we present the results of this technique at a mean of 15 years in patients with previous DDH.
We wished to determine (1) the long-term probability of cup revision at a minimum followup of 15 years for cemented acetabular impaction bone grafting in patients with DDH; (2) the radiographic appearance of the bone graft and radiographic signs of implant loosening; and (3) the complications and pre- and postoperative Harris hip scores with cemented THA combined with impaction bone grafting in patients with previous DDH.
Between January 1984 and December 1995 we performed 28 acetabular impaction bone grafting procedures for secondary OA believed to be caused by DDH in 22 patients; four patients died before 15 years, leaving 24 hips in 18 patients for retrospective analysis at a minimum of 15 years (mean, 20 years; range, 16–29 years). The diagnosis of DDH was made according to preoperative radiographs and intraoperative findings. All grades of dysplasia were included; five patients had Crowe Group I, eight had Group II, nine had Group III, and two had Group IV DDH. No patients were lost to followup. In all cases the acetabular defects were combined cavitary and segmental. Owing to the high number of deaths, we performed a competing-risk analysis to determine the probability of cup revision surgery.
The competing-risk analysis showed cumulative incidences at 15 and 20 years, with endpoint revision for any reason of 7% (95% CI, 0%–17%), whereas this was 4% (95% CI, 0%–11%) with endpoint revision of the cup for aseptic loosening. Three revision surgeries were performed. Two cup revisions were performed for aseptic loosening at 12 and 26 years. Another cup revision was performed owing to sciatic nerve problems at 2 years. A stable radiographic appearance of the graft was seen in 19 of the 25 unrevised hips. Four hips showed acetabular radiolucent lines and two showed acetabular osteolysis. None of the unrevised cups showed migration or radiographic failure. Postoperative complications included a pulmonary embolus and a superficial wound infection. The Harris hip score improved from 37 (range, 9–72) preoperatively to 83 (range, 42–99) at latest followup.
Cemented primary THA with the use of impaction bone grafting shows satisfying long-term results in patients with previous DDH. For future research it is important to evaluate this technique in a larger cohort with a long-term followup. Other techniques also should be evaluated at long-term followup to be able to compare different techniques in this important and specific patient group.
Level of Evidence
Level IV, therapeutic study.
PMCID: PMC5052201  PMID: 27492686
25.  Ceramic-on-ceramic THA Associated With Fewer Dislocations and Less Muscle Degeneration by Preserving Muscle Progenitors 
Dislocation is a common complication after total hip arthroplasty (THA). Although the etiology of dislocation is multifactorial, longer-term changes in muscle such as atrophy may influence the risk of prosthetic dislocation. Biological differences in wear products generated by different bearing surfaces may influence differences in the appearance of periarticular muscle after THA; however, such bearing-associated differences to our knowledge have not been studied in vivo, and few studies have evaluated bearing-associated differences in dislocation risk.
(1) Is there a correlation between the postoperative risk of dislocation at revision and the bearing surfaces of the primary arthroplasty? (2) Is there a higher extent of fatty muscle atrophy on CT scan in hips with osteolysis (polyethylene hips) as compared with hips without osteolysis (ceramic-on-ceramic hips)? (3) Are these two abnormalities (bone osteolysis and fatty atrophy) associated with a decrease of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in bone and in muscle?
We retrospectively evaluated 240 patients (240 hips) who had a THA revision (98% of which, 235 of the 240, were isolated acetabular revisions) and a normal contralateral hip. All patients had received the same implants for the primary arthroplasty (32-mm head) except for bearing surfaces (80 hips with ceramic-on-ceramic, 160 with polyethylene). No differences were noted between the groups in terms of age, sex, body mass index, proportion of patients who had a dislocation after the index arthroplasty but before the revision, and proportion of the patients with stem loosening in addition to acetabular loosening. Indications for revision generally were cup loosening. The revisions in the hips with polyethylene bearings generally had more acetabular bone loss, but the position of the center of the cup and the orientation of the cup were similar after reconstruction in the two groups. Before revision, osteolysis, muscle atrophy, and fatty degeneration were evaluated on CT scan and compared with the contralateral side. Bone muscle progenitors were evaluated by bone marrow MSCs and satellite cells for muscle. At revision, all the hips received the same implants with the same head diameter (32 mm) and a standard liner. Revisions were performed between 1995 and 2005. The followup after revision was at a mean of 14 years (range, 10–20 years) for ceramic revision and 12 years (range, 10–20 years) for polyethylene hips, and there was no differential loss to followup between the groups.
More hips with polyethylene liners at the time of index arthroplasty dislocated after revision than did hips with ceramic liners (18% [29 of 160] compared with 1% [one of 80]; odds ratio, 17.5; 95% confidence interval, 2.3363–130.9100; p = 0.005). For the 80 hips with ceramic-on-ceramic, no osteolysis was detected before revision; there was no muscle fatty degeneration of the gluteus muscles on CT scan or histology. For the 160 hips with polyethylene liners, osteolytic lesions on the acetabulum and femur were observed in 100% of the hips. The increased atrophy of the gluteus muscles observed on CT scan correlated with the increase of osteolysis (r = 0.62; p = 0.012). The surgical limbs in the patients with polyethylene hips as compared with ceramic-on-ceramic hips demonstrated a greater reduction in cross-sectional area (respectively, 11.6% compared with 3%; odds ratio, 3.82; p < 0.001) and radiological density (41% [14.1/34.1] compared with 9%; odds ratio, 6.8; p = 0.006) of gluteus muscles when compared with the contralateral normal side. (41% compared with 9%; odds ratio, 6.8; p = 0.006).
Ceramic bearing surfaces were associated with fewer dislocations after revision than polyethylene bearing surfaces. The reasons of the lower rate of dislocation with ceramic-on-ceramic bearings may be related to observed differences in the periarticular muscles (fat atrophy or not) with the two bearing surfaces.
Level of Evidence
Level III, therapeutic study.
PMCID: PMC4626505  PMID: 26054482

Results 1-25 (1408244)