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1.  Posterior approach and uncemented stems increases the risk of reoperation after hemiarthroplasties in elderly hip fracture patients 
Acta Orthopaedica  2014;85(1):18-25.
Background
Hemiarthroplasties are performed in great numbers worldwide but are seldom registered on a national basis. Our aim was to identify risk factors for reoperation after fracture-related hemiarthroplasty in Norway and Sweden.
Material and methods
A common dataset was created based on the Norwegian Hip Fracture Register and the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register. 33,205 hip fractures in individuals > 60 years of age treated with modular hemiarthroplasties were reported for the period 2005–2010. Cox regression analyses based on reoperations were performed (covariates: age group, sex, type of stem and implant head, surgical approach, and hospital volume).
Results
1,164 patients (3.5%) were reoperated during a mean follow-up of 2.7 (SD 1.7) years. In patients over 85 years, an increased risk of reoperation was found for uncemented stems (HR = 2.2, 95% CI: 1.7–2.8), bipolar heads (HR = 1.4, CI: 1.2–1.8), posterior approach (HR = 1.4, CI: 1.2–1.8) and male sex (HR = 1.3, CI: 1.0–1.6). For patients aged 75–85 years, uncemented stems (HR = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.2–2.0) and men (HR = 1.3, CI: 1.1–1.6) carried an increased risk. Increased risk of reoperation due to infection was found for patients aged < 75 years (HR = 1.5, CI: 1.1–2.0) and for uncemented stems. For open surgery due to dislocation, the strongest risk factor was a posterior approach (HR = 2.2, CI: 1.8–2.6). Uncemented stems in particular (HR = 3.6, CI: 2.4–5.3) and male sex increased the risk of periprosthetic fracture surgery.
Interpretation
Cemented stems and a direct lateral transgluteal approach reduced the risk of reoperation after hip fractures treated with hemiarthroplasty in patients over 75 years. Men and younger patients had a higher risk of reoperation. For the age group 60–74 years, there were no such differences in risk in this material.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2014.885356
PMCID: PMC3940987  PMID: 24460108
2.  Unipolar versus bipolar Exeter hip hemiarthroplasty: a prospective cohort study on 830 consecutive hips in patients with femoral neck fractures 
International Orthopaedics  2011;36(4):711-717.
Background
Hip replacement using a hemiarthroplasty (HA) is a common surgical procedure in elderly patients with fractures of the femoral neck. Data from the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register suggest that there is a higher risk for revision surgery with the bipolar HA compared with the unipolar HA.
Purpose
In this study we analysed the reoperation and the dislocation rates for Exeter HAs in patients with a displaced femoral neck fracture, comparing the unipolar and bipolar prosthetic designs. Additionally, we compared the outcome for HAs performed as a primary intervention with those performed secondary to failed internal fixation.
Methods
We studied 830 consecutive Exeter HAs (427 unipolar and 403 bipolar) performed either as a primary operation for a displaced fracture of the femoral neck or as a secondary procedure after failed internal fixation of a fracture of the femoral neck. Cox regression analyses were performed to evaluate factors associated with reoperation and prosthetic dislocation. Age, gender, the surgeon’s experience, indication for surgery (primary or secondary) and type of HA (unipolar or bipolar) were tested as independent variables in the model.
Results
The prosthetic design (uni- or bipolar) had no influence on the risk for reoperation or dislocation, nor had the age, gender or the surgeon’s experience. The secondary HAs were associated with a significantly increased risk for reoperation (HR 2.6, CI 1.5–4.5) or dislocation (HR 3.3, CI 1.4–7.3) compared to the primary HAs. We found no difference in the risk for reoperation or dislocation when comparing Exeter unipolar and bipolar HAs, but special attention is called for to reduce the risk of prosthesis dislocation and reoperation after a secondary HA.
doi:10.1007/s00264-011-1326-3
PMCID: PMC3311798  PMID: 21789497
3.  Changes in implant choice and surgical technique for hemiarthroplasty 
Acta Orthopaedica  2012;83(1):7-13.
Background and purpose
Treatment of displaced femoral neck fractures in Sweden has shifted towards more arthroplasties, especially hemiarthroplasties. We describe the hemiarthroplasty population in Sweden 2005 through 2009.
Methods
Since 2005, the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register has registered hemiarthroplasties on a national basis. We assessed hemiarthroplasty procedures in the Register 2005–2009 regarding patient details, implants, and surgical techniques. Completeness of recordings was calculated compared to the Swedish National Patient Register.
Results
Completeness increased from 89% to 96% during the study period. 21,346 hemiarthroplasty procedures were assessed. The relative number of patients with femoral neck fracture as diagnosis increased from 91% to 94%; the proportion of men increased from 27% to 30%. The median age increased from 83 to 84 years in men and from 84 to 85 years in women. Patients classified as having evident cognitive impairment increased from 19% to 22%. More men than women were ASA 4. The proportion of monoblock-type implants (Austin-Moore and Thompson) decreased from 18% to 0.9%. Modular implants increased generally, but in 2009 bipolar implants decreased in favor of unipolar implants. Lubinus and Exeter stems, and Mega Caput and Vario Cup implant heads were most common. The use of uncemented implants decreased from 10% to 3%. Use of the anterolateral approach increased from 47% to 56%.
Interpretation
Important changes in surgical technique and implant choice occurred during the observation period. We interpret these changes as being reflections of the continuing effort by Swedish orthopedic surgeons to improve the quality of treatment, because the changes are consistent with recent findings in the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register and in other scientific studies.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2011.641104
PMCID: PMC3278650  PMID: 22112151
4.  Arthroplasty options in femoral-neck fracture: answers from the national registries 
International Orthopaedics  2011;36(1):1-8.
Purpose
Femoral-neck fracture in the elderly population is a problem that demands the attention of the orthopaedic community as life expectancy continues to increase. There are several different treatment options in use, and this variety in and of itself indicates the absence of an ideal single treatment option. Recent debate has focussed on the probable superiority of total hip arthroplasty (THA) over hemiarthroplasty for femoral-neck fracture. Clinical trials and systematic reviews of such trials have not provided a convincing answer to this question.
Methods
We analysed data from national registries evaluating prosthetic replacements for femoral-neck fracture in the elderly. We compared revision and reoperation rates of hemiarthroplasty and THA, analysed the prognostic variables that influenced implant survival and the major causes of failure.
Results
Data from the Australian and Italian registries indicate that THA has an increased revision rate compared with bipolar hemiarthroplasty in femoral-neck fracture in the elderly. The registries identify that age over 75 years and the use of the anterior surgical approach are associated with better survivorship in patients who have a hemiarthroplasty. Cemented fixation of the femoral stem in hemiarthroplasty and THA is supported by registry data. Acetabular erosion accounted for a very low percentage of hemiarthroplasty revisions and reoperations.
Conclusion
Our review of data from national registries supports the continued use of bipolar hemiarthroplasty in femoral-neck fracture in the elderly and identifies age, method of fixation and surgical approach as important prognostic variables in determining implant survival.
doi:10.1007/s00264-011-1354-z
PMCID: PMC3251685  PMID: 21931966
5.  Cemented versus Uncemented Hemiarthroplasty for Femoral Neck Fractures in Elderly Patients: A Meta-Analysis 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(7):e68903.
Objective
Controversy still exists regarding using cemented or uncemented hemiarthroplasty for femoral neck fractures in elderly patients. The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness and safety of the two surgical techniques in femoral neck fracture patients over 70 years old.
Methods
We searched PUBMED, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CNKI and VIP Database from inception to December 2012 for relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Outcomes of interest include postoperative hip function, residue pain, complication rates, mortality, reoperation rate, operation time and intraoperative blood loss. Odds ratios (OR) and weighted mean differences (WMD) from each trial were pooled using random-effects model or fixed-effects model given on the heterogeneity of the included studies.
Results
7 RCTs involving 1,125 patients (1,125 hips) were eligible for meta-analysis. Our results demonstrate that cemented hemiarthroplasty is associated with better postoperative hip function (OR = 0.48, 95% CI, 0.31–0.76; P = 0.002), lower residual pain (OR = 0.43, 95%CI, 0.29–0.64; P<0.0001), less implant-related complications (OR = 0.15, 95%CI, 0.09–0.26; P<0.00001) and longer operation time (WMD = 7.43 min, 95% CI, 5.37–9.49 min; P<0.00001). No significant difference was observed between the two groups in mortality, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular complications, local complications, general complications, reoperation rate and intraoperative blood loss.
Conclusions
Compared with uncemented hemiarthroplasty, the existing evidence indicates that cemented hemiarthroplasty can achieve better hip function, lower residual pain and less implant-related complications with no increased risk of mortality, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular complications, general complications, local complications and reoperation rate in treating elderly patients with femoral neck fractures.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0068903
PMCID: PMC3720851  PMID: 23935902
6.  Hip arthroplasty after failed fixation of trochanteric and subtrochanteric fractures 
Acta Orthopaedica  2012;83(5):493-498.
Background and purpose
Hip arthroplasty is an option for elderly patients with osteoporosis for the treatment of failure after fixation of trochanteric and subtrochanteric fractures, either as a total hip arthroplasty (THA) or as a hemiarthroplasty (HA). We analyzed the reoperation rate and risk factors for reoperation in a consecutive series of patients.
Methods
All patients (n = 88) operated from 1999 to 2006 with a THA (n = 63) or an HA (n = 25) due to failure of fixation of a trochanteric fracture (n = 63) or subtrochanteric fracture (n = 25) were included. Background data were collected from the patient records. A search was performed in the national registry of the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare in order to find information on all reoperations. The follow-up time was 5–11 years.
Results
The reoperation rate was 16% (14/88 hips). A periprosthetic fracture occurred in 6 patients, a deep prosthetic infection in 5 patients, and a dislocation of the prosthesis in 3 patients. Standard-length femoral stems had an increased risk of reoperation (11/47) compared to long stems (3/41) (HR = 4, 95% CI: 1.0–13; p = 0.06).
Interpretation
The high reoperation rate reflects the complexity of the surgery. Using long femoral stems that bridge previous holes and defects may be one way to reduce the risk for reoperation.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2012.688724
PMCID: PMC3488176  PMID: 22574819
7.  Total Hip Arthroplasty Versus Hemiarthroplasty for Displaced Femoral Neck Fractures: Meta-analysis of Randomized Trials 
Background
Most patients with displaced femoral neck fractures are treated by THA and hemiarthroplasty, but it remains uncertain which if either is associated with better function and lower risks of complications.
Questions/purposes
We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to determine whether THA was associated with lower rates of reoperations, mortality, complications, and better function compared with hemiarthroplasty.
Methods
We searched the PubMed, Embase, Chinese Biomedicine Literature, and Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials databases and identified 12 RCTs (including a total of 1320 patients) for meta-analysis. Risk ratios (RRs) and weighted mean differences (WMDs) from each trial were pooled using random-effects or fixed-effects models depending on the heterogeneity of the included studies.
Results
THA was associated with a lower risk of subsequent reoperations compared with hemiarthroplasty (RR = 0.53; 95% CI, 0.34–0.84). There was no difference in mortality between patients undergoing THA and hemiarthroplasty (RR = 0.81; 95% CI, 0.60–1.09). For complications, there was a higher risk of dislocation in patients undergoing THA (RR = 1.99; 95% CI, 1.26–3.15), but there were no differences in local infections (RR = 1.60; 95% CI, 0.74–3.46) and general complications (RR = 1.15; 95% CI, 0.91–1.45). Patients with THA had higher Harris hip scores at 1 year (WMD = 3.81; 95% CI, 0.87–6.74) and at 3 or 4 years (WMD = 10.07; 95% CI, 6.92–13.21).
Conclusions
Despite more dislocations, THA can benefit patients with displaced femoral neck fractures with a lower reoperation rate and higher functional scores.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11999-012-2293-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s11999-012-2293-8
PMCID: PMC3392403  PMID: 22395872
8.  Conversion of failed hemiarthroplasty to total hip arthroplasty: A short to mid-term follow-up study 
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics  2008;42(3):294-300.
Background:
The conversion of hemiarthroplasty (unipolar or bipolar) of the hip to total hip replacement has been reported to be associated with very high rates of intra- and postoperative complications. We present a prospective analysis of the outcome of conversion surgery in patients with failed hemiarthroplasty.
Materials and Methods:
Forty-four cases, 30 women and 14 men, average age 62 years (range 42-75 years) of failed hemiarthroplasty were converted to total hip replacement between January 1998 and December 2004. Groin pain was the main presenting complaint in the majority of the patients (24 out of 44). Six patients had infection and were operated with staged procedure. All acetabular and the majority (86.5%) of femoral components used in our series were uncemented.
Results:
After an average follow-up of 6.4 years (range, two to nine years) Harris hip scores improved from 38 (range 15-62) preoperatively to 86 (range 38 to 100) and 22 (50%) patients were community ambulators without support while 17 (38%) needed minimal support of cane. Fifteen out of 18 (83%) patients who had isolated groin pain preoperatively experienced no pain postoperatively while three patients (17%) reported only partial improvement. Intraoperative and postoperative complications included iatrogenic fracture of the femur in two, femoral perforation in two, partial trochanteric avulsion in two, fracture of the acetabular floor in three hips, and postoperative dislocation in one. None of these complications resulted in a poor long-term outcome. The rate of loosening in our series was 2.3% (one out of 44) after a mean follow-up of 6.4 years with a mean survival of 97.4% at 72 months.
Conclusion:
Conversion of symptomatic hemiarthroplasty to total hip arthroplasty is a safe option that gives good functional results, with marginally higher rates of intra-operative complications. The patients should be warned of the possibility of incomplete relief of groin pain postoperatively.
doi:10.4103/0019-5413.41852
PMCID: PMC2739459  PMID: 19753155
Conversion; hemiarthroplasty; total hip arthroplasty
9.  Salvage of failed trochanteric and subtrochanteric fractures using a distally fixed, modular, uncemented hip revision stem 
Acta Orthopaedica  2012;83(5):488-492.
Background and purpose
Treatment options for failed internal fixation of hip fractures include prosthetic replacement. We evaluated survival, complications, and radiographic outcome in 30 patients who were operated with a specific modular, uncemented hip reconstruction prosthesis as a salvage procedure after failed treatment of trochanteric and subtrochanteric fractures.
Patients and methods
We used data from the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register and journal files to analyze complications and survival. Initially, a high proportion of trochanteric fractures (7/10) were classified as unstable and 12 of 20 subtrochanteric fractures had an extension through the greater trochanter. Modes of failure after primary internal fixation were cutout (n = 12), migration of the femoral neck screw (n = 9), and other (n = 9).
Results
Mean age at the index operation with the modular prosthesis was 77 (52–93) years and the mean follow-up was 4 (1–9) years. Union of the remaining fracture fragments was observed in 26 hips, restoration of proximal bone defects in 16 hips, and bone ingrowth of the stem in 25 hips. Subsidence was evident in 4 cases. 1 patient was revised by component exchange because of recurrent dislocation, and another 6 patients were reoperated: 5 because of deep infections and 1 because of periprosthetic fracture. The cumulative 3-year survival for revision was 96% (95% CI: 89–100) and for any reoperation it was 83% (68–93).
Interpretation
The modular stem allowed fixation distal to the fracture system. Radiographic outcome was good. The rate of complications, however—especially infections—was high. We believe that preoperative laboratory screening for low-grade infection and synovial cultures could contribute to better treatment in some of these patients.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2012.733917
PMCID: PMC3488175  PMID: 23083435
10.  Dorsal versus transgluteal approach for hip hemiarthroplasty: an analysis of early complications in seven hundred and four consecutive cases 
International Orthopaedics  2012;36(11):2219-2223.
Purpose
Hemiarthroplasty (HA) is an established treatment for femoral neck fractures of the elderly. Several surgical approaches are currently used including dorsal and transgluteal. It is still unclear whether one approach may be advantageous. We compared early complication rates after dorsal and transgluteal approaches.
Methods
We retrospectively analysed a cohort including 704 consecutive patients who received HA for femoral neck fracture; 212 male and 492 female patients were included, and the mean age was 80.4 years (SD 9.8 years). In 487 patients a dorsal and in 217 a transgluteal approach was chosen. In all patients an Excia® stem with self-centring bipolar head manufactured by Aesculap (Tuttlingen, Germany) was used. We evaluated early postoperative complications including dislocation, infection, haematoma, seroma and perioperative fracture. Complication rates after dorsal and transgluteal approaches were calculated and compared by the chi-square test.
Results
After a dorsal approach 10.5 % [confidence interval (CI) 7.7–13.2 %] of the patients suffered one or more early complications. Following a transgluteal approach this proportion was 9.7 % (CI 5.7–13.6 %), which was not significantly different (p = 0.75). The predominant complication after a dorsal approach was dislocation (3.9 %; CI 2.2–5.6 %). The dislocation rate after a transgluteal approach was significantly lower (0.5 %; CI 0–1.4 %). Postoperative haematoma however was seen after a transgluteal approach in 5.5 % (CI 2.5–8.6 %), which was significantly more frequent than after a dorsal approach (1.2 %; CI 0.2–2.2 %). The frequency of the other types of complications did not significantly differ.
Conclusions
The rate of early surgical complications after dorsal and transgluteal approaches is not significantly different. However, the dorsal approach predisposed to dislocation, whereas the transgluteal approach predisposed to haematoma.
doi:10.1007/s00264-012-1624-4
PMCID: PMC3479273  PMID: 22872411
11.  Lower reoperation rate for cemented hemiarthroplasty than for uncemented hemiarthroplasty and internal fixation following femoral neck fracture 
Acta Orthopaedica  2013;84(3):254-259.
Background and purpose
Elderly patients with displaced femoral neck fractures are commonly treated with a hemiarthroplasty (HA), but little is known about the long-term failure of this treatment. We compared reoperation rates for patients aged at least 75 years with displaced femoral neck fractures treated with either internal fixation (IF), cemented HA, or uncemented HA (with or without hydroxyapatite coating), after 12–19 years of follow-up.
Methods
4 hospitals with clearly defined guidelines for the treatment of 75+ year-old patients with a displaced femoral neck fracture were included. Cohort 1 (1991–1993) with 180 patients had undergone IF; cohort 2 (1991–1995) with 203 patients had received an uncemented bipolar Ultima HA stem (Austin-Moore); cohort 3 (1991–1995) with 209 patients had received a cemented Charnley-Hastings HA; and cohort 4 (1991–1998) with 158 patients had received an uncemented hydroxyapatite-coated Furlong HA. Data were retrieved from patient files, from the region-based patient administrative system, and from the National Registry of Patients at the end of 2010. We performed survival analysis with adjustment for comorbidity, age, and sex.
Results
Cemented HA had a reoperation rate (RR) of 5% and was used as reference in the Cox regression analysis, which showed significantly higher hazard ratios (HRs) for IF (HR = 3.8, 95% CI: 1.9–7.5; RR = 18%), uncemented HA (HR = 2.2, CI: 1.1–4.5; RR = 11%) and uncemented hydroxyapatite-coated HA (HR = 3.6, CI: 1.8–7.4; RR = 16%).
Interpretation
Cemented HA has a superior long-term hip survival rate compared to IF and uncemented HA (with and without hydroxyapatite coating) in patients aged 75 years or more with displaced femoral neck fractures.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2013.792033
PMCID: PMC3715822  PMID: 23594248
12.  Is the Dislocation Rate Higher after Bipolar Hemiarthroplasty in Patients with Neuromuscular Diseases? 
Abstract
Background
Patients with neuromuscular disease reportedly have a higher incidence of postoperative dislocation after bipolar hemiarthroplasty. Although the literature has focused on a high prevalence of preoperative neurologic conditions in patients who had dislocations after bipolar hemiarthroplasties, the relative incidence of dislocation in patients with neuromuscular disease and without is unclear.
Questions/purposes
We therefore (1) asked whether the incidence of postoperative dislocation after bipolar hemiarthroplasty was greater in patients with neuromuscular disease than for those without, and (2) whether function differed between the two groups, and (3) explored potential risk factors for dislocation in two groups.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed 190 patients who underwent bipolar hemiarthroplasties for fracture of the femoral neck between 1996 and 2008. Of the 190 patients, 42 had various neuromuscular diseases and 148 had no history of neuromuscular disease. Intraoperative stability was tested and posterior soft tissue repair was performed in all patients. We determined the incidence of dislocation, postoperative leg length discrepancy, and femoral offset in patients with or without neuromuscular disease.
Results
The incidence of dislocation was 2.6% in all patients. We observed similar rates of dislocation in the two groups: 4.8% (two of 42 hips) in patients with neuromuscular disease and 2.0% (three of 148 hips) in patients without neuromuscular disease.
Conclusions
In femoral neck fractures in patients with neuromuscular disease, careful preoperative management and operative technique such as a posterior soft tissue repair might decrease the risk of postoperative dislocation; therefore, we consider the bipolar hemiarthroplasty a reasonable treatment option.
Level of Evidence
Level III, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-011-2139-9
PMCID: PMC3293982  PMID: 22015999
13.  Dislocation of hip hemiarthroplasty following posterolateral surgical approach: a nested case–control study 
International Orthopaedics  2011;36(5):935-940.
Purpose
Hip hemiarthroplasty dislocation is a serious complication in treatment of displaced intracapsular hip fractures. We investigated factors associated with an increased risk of dislocation after cemented hip hemiarthroplasty following the posterolateral approach.
Methods
Between January 2002 and December 2008, 602 hip fractures were treated with cemented unipolar hip hemiarthroplasty. A registry-based analysis was carried out to determine the total number of hemiarthroplasty dislocations in these patients. A control group of 96 patients without dislocation was randomly selected. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate clinical and operative factors associated with dislocation.
Results
Thirty-four patients (5.6%) experienced at least one dislocation. Most were the result of a fall and occurred within two months after surgery. There was a trend for increased dislocation in patients who had been operated on more than 48 hours after admission and in patients who had a longer operative time. Smaller centre-edge angle and hip offset were observed in patients with dislocation. Recurrent dislocation was a significant problem, as 18 patients (62%) experienced multiple dislocations.
Conclusions
The risk of hemiarthroplasty dislocation following the posterolateral surgical approach may be reduced by prompt surgical treatment and fall prevention in the early postoperative period. Patients with smaller acetabular coverage seem more predisposed to dislocation after the posterolateral approach and may be more suitable for other surgical approaches.
doi:10.1007/s00264-011-1353-0
PMCID: PMC3337111  PMID: 21931967
Medicine & Public Health; Orthopedics
14.  Treatment of femoral neck fractures in elderly patients over 60 years of age - which is the ideal modality of primary joint replacement? 
Background
Femoral neck fractures in the elderly are frequent, represent a great health care problem, and have a significant impact on health insurance costs. Reconstruction options using hip arthroplasty include unipolar or bipolar hemiarthroplasty (HA), and total hip arthroplasty (THA). The purpose of this review is to discuss the indications, limitations, and pitfalls of each of these techniques.
Methods
The Pubmed database was searched for all articles on femoral neck fracture and for the reconstruction options presented in this review using the search terms "femoral neck fracture", "unipolar hemiarthroplasty", "bipolar hemiarthroplasty", and "total hip arthroplasty". In addition, cross-referencing was used to cover articles eventually undetected by the respective search strategies. The resulting articles were then reviewed with regard to the different techniques, outcome and complications of the distinct reconstruction options.
Results
THA yields the best functional results in patients with displaced femoral neck fractures with complication rates comparable to HA. THA is beneficially implanted using an anterior approach exploiting the internervous plane between the tensor fasciae latae and the sartorius muscles allowing for immediate full weight-bearing. Based on our findings, bipolar hemiarthroplasty, similar to unipolar hemiarthroplasty, cannot restorate neither anatomical nor biomechanical features of the hip joint. Therefore, it can only be recommended as a second line of defense-procedure for patients with low functional demands and limited live expectancy.
Conclusions
THA is the treatment of choice for femoral neck fractures in patients older than 60 years. HA should only be implanted in patients with limited life expectancy.
doi:10.1186/1754-9493-4-16
PMCID: PMC2972258  PMID: 20961437
15.  The type of surgical approach influences the risk of revision in total hip arthroplasty 
Acta Orthopaedica  2012;83(6):559-565.
Background and purpose
The most common surgical approaches in total hip arthroplasty in Sweden are the posterior and the anterolateral transgluteal approach. Currently, however, there is insufficient evidence to prefer one over the other regarding risk of subsequent surgery.
Patients and methods
We searched the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register between the years 1992 and 2009 to compare the posterior and anterolateral transgluteal approach regarding risk of revision in the 3 most common all-cemented hip prosthesis designs in Sweden. 90,662 total hip replacements met the inclusion criteria. We used Cox regression analysis for estimation of prosthesis survival and relative risk of revision due to dislocation, infection, or aseptic loosening.
Results
Our results show that for the Lubinus SPII prosthesis and the Spectron EF Primary prosthesis, the anterolateral transgluteal approach gave an increased risk of revision due to aseptic loosening (relative risk (RR) = 1.3, 95% CI: 1.0–1.6 and RR = 1.6, CI: 1.0–2.5) but a reduced risk of revision due to dislocation (RR = 0.7, CI: 0.5–0.8 and RR = 0.3, CI: 0.1–0.4). For the Exeter Polished prosthesis, the surgical approach did not affect the outcome for dislocation or aseptic loosening. The surgical approach had no influence on the risk of revision due to infection in any of these designs.
Interpretation
This observational study shows that the surgical approach affected the risk of revision due to aseptic loosening and dislocation for 2 of the most commonly used cemented implants in Sweden. Further studies are needed to determine whether these results are generalizable to other implants and to uncemented fixation.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2012.742394
PMCID: PMC3555460  PMID: 23116440
16.  High Dislocation Cumulative Risk in THA versus Hemiarthroplasty for Fractures 
Background
Although not all elderly patients with femoral neck fractures are candidates for THA, active, mentally competent, independent patients achieve the most durable functional scores with THA compared with hemiarthroplasty. However, a relatively high frequency of early or late dislocation could reduce the potential benefits with THA.
Questions/purposes
We asked whether the incidence of first-time, recurrent dislocation, and revision differed in patients with hip fractures having THA or hemiarthroplasty.
Patients and Methods
We retrospectively reviewed 380 patients with hip fractures (380 hips) who underwent THAs between 1995 and 1999, and compared them with 412 patients with hip fractures (412 hips) who underwent hemiarthroplasties between 1990 and 1994. The mean followup was 8 years (range, 1–20 years).
Results
THA had a higher early risk of first-time dislocation and a higher late risk: 19 (4.5%) of the 412 hips treated with hemiarthroplasty had at least one dislocation whereas 30 (8.1%) of the 380 hips treated with THA had at least one dislocation. The cumulative number of dislocations at the most recent followup (first time and recurrent dislocations) was 58 (13%) for the 380 THAs and 22 (5%) for the 412 hemiarthroplasties. At the 10-year followup, eight THAs (2%) had revision (six recurrent dislocations, two loosenings), and 42 hemiarthroplasties (10%) had revision (40 acetabular protrusions, one recurrent dislocation).
Conclusions
The risk of revision for recurrent dislocation increases with THA, but it remains lower than the risk of revision for wear of cartilage and acetabular protrusion in hemiarthroplasty.
Level of Evidence
Level III, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-011-1987-7
PMCID: PMC3183183  PMID: 21773860
17.  Direction of hip arthroplasty dislocation in patients with femoral neck fractures 
International Orthopaedics  2010;34(5):641-647.
In order to prevent hip arthroplasty dislocations, information regarding the direction of the dislocation is important for accurate implant positioning and for optimising the postoperative regimens in relation to the surgical approach used. The aim of this study was to analyse the influence of the surgical approach on the direction of the dislocation in patients treated by a hemiarthroplasty (HA) or total hip arthroplasty (THA) after a femoral neck fracture. Fracture patients have a high risk for dislocations, and this issue has not been previously studied in a selected group of patients with a femoral neck fracture. We analysed the radiographs of the primary dislocation in 74 patients who had sustained a dislocation of their HA (n = 42) or THA (n = 32). In 42 patients an anterolateral (AL) surgical approach was used and in 32 a posterolateral (PL). The surgical approach significantly influenced the direction of dislocation in patients treated with HA (p < 0.001), while no such correlation was found after THA (p = 0.388). For THA patients there was a correlation between the mean angle of anteversion of the acetabular component and the direction of dislocation when comparing patients with anterior and posterior dislocations (p = 0.027). These results suggest that the surgical approach of a HA has an influence on the direction of dislocation, in contrast to THA where the position of the acetabular component seems to be of importance for the direction of dislocation in patients with femoral neck fractures.
doi:10.1007/s00264-009-0943-6
PMCID: PMC2903178  PMID: 20091307
18.  Surgical preferences of patients at risk of hip fractures: hemiarthroplasty versus total hip arthroplasty 
Background
The optimal treatment of displaced femoral neck fractures in patients over 60 years is controversial. While much research has focused on the impact of total hip arthroplasty (THA) and hemiarthroplasty (HA) on surgical outcomes, little is known about patient preferences for either alternative. The purpose of this study was to elicit surgical preferences of patients at risk of sustaining hip fracture using a novel decision board.
Methods
We developed a decision board for the surgical management of displaced femoral neck fractures presenting risks and outcomes of HA and THA. The decision board was presented to 81 elderly patients at risk for developing femoral neck fractures identified from an osteoporosis clinic. The participants were faced with the scenario of sustaining a displaced femoral neck fracture and were asked to state their treatment option preference and rationale for operative procedure.
Results
Eighty-five percent (85%) of participants were between the age of 60 and 80 years; 89% were female; 88% were Caucasian; and 49% had some post-secondary education. Ninety-three percent (93%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 87-99%) of participants chose THA as their preferred operative choice. Participants identified several factors important to their decision, including the perception of greater walking distance (63%), less residual pain (29%), less reoperative risk (28%) and lower mortality risk (20%) with THA. Participants who preferred HA (7%; 95% CI, 1-13%) did so for perceived less invasiveness (50%), lower dislocation risk (33%), lower infection risk (33%), and shorter operative time (17%).
Conclusion
The overwhelming majority of patients preferred THA to HA for the treatment of a displaced femoral neck fracture when confronted with risks and outcomes of both procedures on a decision board.
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-12-289
PMCID: PMC3280185  PMID: 22196211
19.  Cementless hemiarthroplasty for femoral neck fractures in elderly patients 
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics  2008;42(1):56-60.
Objectives:
The use of cement is associated with increased morbidity and mortality rate in elderly patients, hence cementless hemiarthroplasty is suggested. We evaluated the results of cementless hemiarthroplasty for femoral neck fractures in elderly patients with high-risk clinical problems.
Materials and Methods:
Forty-eight patients (29 females, 19 males) with a mean age of 88 years (range: 78 to 102 years). having femoral neck fractures were treated with the use of cementless hemiarthroplasty. Porous-coated femoral stems were used in 30 patients (62%) and modular type femoral revision stems in 18 patients (38%). Bipolar femoral heads were used in all patients. Radiological follow-up after operation was done at the one, three, six months and annually.
Results:
The mean follow-up period was 4.2 years (range: 18 months to eight years). None of the patients died during hospitalization. Medical complications occurred in six patients (12%) within the follow-up period and four patients (8%) died within this period. Only two hips were converted to total hip arthroplasty due to acetabular erosion. Femoral revision was planned for one patient with a subsidence of > 3 mm. None of the patients had acetabular protrusion or heterotopic ossification. The mean Harris-hip score was 84 (range: 52 to 92). Dislocation occured in one patient (2%).
Conclusion:
Cementless hemiarthroplasty is a suitable method of treatment for femoral neck fractures in elderly patients with high-risk clinical problems especially of a cardiopulmonary nature. This method decreases the risk of hypotension and fat embolism associated with cemented hemiarthroplasty.
doi:10.4103/0019-5413.38582
PMCID: PMC2759587  PMID: 19823656
Cementless femoral prosthesis; cementless hemiarthroplasty; femoral neck fracture; hemiarthroplasty in elderly
20.  Stability of hip hemiarthroplasties 
International Orthopaedics  2004;28(5):274-277.
It has been stated in the literature that a bipolar hemiarthroplasty has a lower risk of dislocation compared to a unipolar hemiarthroplasty. As this statement has not been substantiated we undertook a systematic review of the literature of published articles from the last 40 years. In addition we used our own database of hip fractures. One hundred and thirty-three published articles were included in the review to give a total of 23,107 cases. The overall dislocation rate for all types of hemiarthroplasty was 791/23,107 (3.4%). An increased risk of dislocation was associated with a posterior surgical approach and the use of a cemented prosthesis. After adjustment for surgical approach and the use of cement there was no difference in risk of dislocation between unipolar and bipolar hemiarthroplasties. There was an increased risk of open reduction for a bipolar hemiarthroplasty.
doi:10.1007/s00264-004-0572-z
PMCID: PMC3456984  PMID: 15316673
21.  Retrospective evaluation of bipolar hip arthroplasty in fractures of the proximal femur 
Background:
There is still controversy about the choice of treatment of displaced fractures of the neck of femur which leads the best clinical and functional outcomes. Treatment options include internal fixation, unipolar or bipolar hemiarthroplasty, or total hip replacement.
Aim:
The aim of this study is to find out which treatment option can lead to the best clinical and functional outcomes.
Patients and Methods:
Fifty one consecutive patients admitted to Makassed General Hospital with a diagnosis of a displaced fracture of the femoral neck during the year 2006 were selected. Preoperative and operative data was retrieved from inpatient hospital files. The patients then were interviewed to fill a questionnaire form. Radiological data was retrieved from inpatient hospital files and outpatient files upon latest follow up visit in clinic. Functional outcomes were assessed with use of Harris hip score. The main clinical measures were mortality and a reoperation.
Results:
Postoperatively, Thirty three patients (89.2%) either returned to the functional level that they had had before the fracture or used only a cane, which they had not needed before.
Conclusion:
In our study, the bipolar hemiarthroplasty has served us well. Two-year results of total hip replacement appeared to be better than those of bipolar hemiarthroplasty, but this finding was based on relatively small numbers of patients.
doi:10.4297/najms.2010.2409
PMCID: PMC3339098  PMID: 22558588
Hemiarthroplasty for treatment of neck of femur fracture; internal fixation for neck of femur fracture; total hip replacement for neck of femur fracture
22.  Which is the Best Alternative for Displaced Femoral Neck Fractures in the Elderly?: A Meta-Analysis 
Background
Treatment of displaced femoral neck fractures includes internal fixation and arthroplasty. However, whether arthroplasty or internal fixation is the primary treatment for displaced femoral neck fractures in elderly patients remains a subject for debate. The literature contains conflicting evidence regarding rates of mortality, revision surgery, major postoperative complications, and function in elderly patients with displaced femoral neck fractures treated either by internal fixation or arthroplasty (either hemiarthroplasty or THA).
Questions/purpose
We determined mortality, revision surgery rates, major surgical complications (which include infection, nonunion or early redisplacement, avascular necrosis, dislocation, loosening of the prosthesis, acetabular erosion, fracture below or around the implant, and other severe general complications such as deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism), and function in patients treated with either internal fixation or arthroplasty for displaced femoral neck fractures in the elderly.
Methods
We searched PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing internal fixation and arthroplasty. We identified 20 RCTs with 4508 patients meeting all the criteria for eligibility. We performed a meta-analysis of the major complications, reoperations, function, pain, and mortality.
Results
Compared with internal fixation, arthroplasty reduced the risk of the major complications (95% CI, 0.21–0.54 for 1 year; 95% CI, 0.16–0.31 for 5 years) and the incidence of reoperation 1 to 5 years after surgery (95% CI, 0.15–0.34 for 1 year; 95% CI, 0.08–0.24 for 5 years), and provided better pain relief (95% CI, 0.34–0.72). Function was superior (RR = 0.59; 95% CI, 0.44–0.79) for patients treated with arthroplasty than for patients treated by internal fixation. However, mortality 1 to 3 years after surgery was similar (95% CI, 0.96–1.23, p = 0.20 for 1 year; 95% CI, 0.91–1.17, p = 0.63 for 3 years).
Conclusions
Arthroplasty can reduce the risk of major complications and the incidence of reoperation compared with internal fixation, and provide better pain relief and function, but it does not reduce mortality.
Level of Evidence
Level II, prognostic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-012-2250-6
PMCID: PMC3348330  PMID: 22278852
23.  Functional comparison between uncemented Austin-Moore hemiarthroplasty and osteosynthesis with three screws in displaced femoral neck fractures—a matched-pair study of 168 patients 
International Orthopaedics  2003;28(1):28-31.
There is no consensus as to whether osteosynthesis (OS) or hemiarthroplasty (HA) should be used as the primary treatment of displaced femoral-neck fracture. In a prospective matched-pair study, we compared 84 patients treated with OS with three screws and 84 patients treated with uncemented Austin-Moore HA focusing on functional parameters, reoperations and mortality. At 4 months after the fracture, functional recovery was not significantly different between the study groups. However, OS patients tended to have slightly better functional ability than HA patients, as more of them were able to walk out of doors (45.2% versus 39.2%), more were able to walk without walking aids (23.7% versus 16.7%), and more returned to live in their own homes (80%versus 72.9%). OS patients used slightly but not significantly less painkillers and had less hip pain than HA patients. OS patients had had 15.4% more reoperations by 4 months and 14.2% more by 1 year compared to the HA group. The 4-month and 1-year mortality rates of the study groups were of the same order. Functional recovery was slightly better after OS with three screws than after uncemented HA, although no significant differences were seen in a sample of this size. On the other hand, OS was associated with a higher reoperation rate.
doi:10.1007/s00264-003-0517-y
PMCID: PMC3466578  PMID: 14586571
24.  Cemented or uncemented hemiarthroplasty for the treatment of femoral neck fractures? 
Acta Orthopaedica  2014;85(1):49-53.
Background and purpose
Cemented hemiarthroplasty is preferred in treating displaced fractures of the femoral neck in the elderly. The cementing process may cause a fat embolism, leading to serious complications or death. In this study, we wanted to determine whether use of uncemented hemiarthroplasty (HA) would lead to reduced mortality and whether there are differences in the complications associated with these different types of arthroplasty.
Patients and methods
From the PERFECT database, which combines information from various treatment registries, we identified 25,174 patients who were treated with hemiarthroplasty for a femoral neck fracture in the years 1999–2009. The primary outcome was mortality. Secondary outcomes were reoperations, complications, re-admissions, and treatment times.
Results
Mortality was lower in the first postoperative days when uncemented HA was used. At 1 week, there was no significant difference in mortality (3.9% for cemented HA and 3.4% for uncemented HA; p = 0.09). This was also true after one year (26% for cemented HA and 27% for uncemented HA; p = 0.1). In patients treated with uncemented HA, there were significantly more mechanical complications (3.7% vs. 2.8%; p < 0.001), hip re-arthroplasties (1.7% vs. 0.95; p < 0.001), and femoral fracture operations (1.2% vs. 0.52%; p < 0.001) during the first 90 days after hip fracture surgery.
Interpretation
From registry data, mortality appears to be similar for cemented and uncemented HA. However, uncemented HA is associated with more frequent mechanical complications and reoperations.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2013.878827
PMCID: PMC3940991  PMID: 24397746
25.  Survivorship analysis of 150 consecutive patients with DIAM™ implantation for surgery of lumbar spinal stenosis and disc herniation 
European Spine Journal  2010;20(2):280-288.
Recently, the Device for Intervertebral Assisted Motion (DIAM™) has been introduced for surgery of degenerative lumbar disc diseases. The authors performed the current study to determine the survivorship of DIAM™ implantation for degenerative lumbar disc diseases and risk factors for reoperation. One hundred and fifty consecutive patients underwent laminectomy or discectomy with DIAM™ implantation for primary lumbar spinal stenosis or disc herniation. The characteristics of the 150 patients included the following: 84 males and 66 females; mean age at the time of surgery, 46.5 years; median value of follow-up, 23 months (range 1–48 months); 96 spinal stenosis and 54 disc herniations; and 146 one-level (115, L4–5; 31, L5–6) and 4 two-level (L4–5 and L5–6). In the current study, due to lumbosacral transitional vertebra (LSTV) L6 meant lumbarization of S1 and this had a prominent spinous process so that the DIAM™ was implanted at L5–6. Reoperations due to any reasons of the DIAM™ implantation level or adjacent levels were defined as a failure and used as the end point for determining survivorship. The cumulative reoperation rate and survival time were determined via Kaplan–Meier analysis. The log-rank test and Cox regression model were used to evaluate the effect of age, gender, diagnosis, location, and level of DIAM™ implantation on the reoperation rate. During a 4-year follow-up, seven patients (two males and five female) underwent reoperation at the DIAM™ implantation level, giving a reoperation rate of 4.7%. However, no patients underwent reoperation for adjacent level complications. The causes of reoperation were recurrent spinal stenosis (n = 3), recurrent disc herniation (n = 2), post-laminectomy spondylolisthesis (n = 1), and delayed deep wound infection (n = 1). The mean time between primary operation and reoperation was 13.4 months (range 2–29 months). Kaplan–Meier analysis predicted an 8% cumulative reoperation rate 4 years post-operatively. Survival time was predicted to be 45.6 ± 0.9 months (mean ± standard deviation). Based on the log-rank test, the reoperation rate was higher at L5–6 (p = 0.002) and two-level (p = 0.01) DIAM™ implantation compared with L4–5 and one-level DIAM™ implantation. However, gender (p = 0.16), age (p = 0.41), and diagnosis (p = 0.67) did not significantly affect the reoperation rate of DIAM™ implantation. Based on a Cox regression model, L5–6 [hazard ratio (HR), 10.3; 95% CI, 1.7–63.0; p = 0.01] and two-level (HR, 10.4; 95% CI, 1.2–90.2; p = 0.04) DIAM™ implantation were also significant variables associated with a higher reoperation rate. Survival time was significantly lower in L5–6 (47 vs. 22 months, p = 0.002) and two-level DIAM™ implantation (46 vs. 18 months, p = 0.01) compared with L4–5 and one-level DIAM™ implantation. The current results suggest that 8% of the patients who have a DIAM™ implantation for primary lumbar spinal stenosis or disc herniation are expected to undergo reoperation at the same level within 4 years after surgery. Based on the limited data set, DIAM™ implantation at L5–6 and two-level in patients with LSTV are significant risk factors for reoperation.
doi:10.1007/s00586-010-1599-z
PMCID: PMC3030713  PMID: 20953966
Survivorship; Reoperation; DIAM™; Spinal stenosis; Disc herniation; Lumbosacral transitional vertebra

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