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1.  Posterior approach and uncemented stems increases the risk of reoperation after hemiarthroplasties in elderly hip fracture patients 
Acta Orthopaedica  2014;85(1):18-25.
Background
Hemiarthroplasties are performed in great numbers worldwide but are seldom registered on a national basis. Our aim was to identify risk factors for reoperation after fracture-related hemiarthroplasty in Norway and Sweden.
Material and methods
A common dataset was created based on the Norwegian Hip Fracture Register and the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register. 33,205 hip fractures in individuals > 60 years of age treated with modular hemiarthroplasties were reported for the period 2005–2010. Cox regression analyses based on reoperations were performed (covariates: age group, sex, type of stem and implant head, surgical approach, and hospital volume).
Results
1,164 patients (3.5%) were reoperated during a mean follow-up of 2.7 (SD 1.7) years. In patients over 85 years, an increased risk of reoperation was found for uncemented stems (HR = 2.2, 95% CI: 1.7–2.8), bipolar heads (HR = 1.4, CI: 1.2–1.8), posterior approach (HR = 1.4, CI: 1.2–1.8) and male sex (HR = 1.3, CI: 1.0–1.6). For patients aged 75–85 years, uncemented stems (HR = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.2–2.0) and men (HR = 1.3, CI: 1.1–1.6) carried an increased risk. Increased risk of reoperation due to infection was found for patients aged < 75 years (HR = 1.5, CI: 1.1–2.0) and for uncemented stems. For open surgery due to dislocation, the strongest risk factor was a posterior approach (HR = 2.2, CI: 1.8–2.6). Uncemented stems in particular (HR = 3.6, CI: 2.4–5.3) and male sex increased the risk of periprosthetic fracture surgery.
Interpretation
Cemented stems and a direct lateral transgluteal approach reduced the risk of reoperation after hip fractures treated with hemiarthroplasty in patients over 75 years. Men and younger patients had a higher risk of reoperation. For the age group 60–74 years, there were no such differences in risk in this material.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2014.885356
PMCID: PMC3940987  PMID: 24460108
2.  Unipolar versus bipolar Exeter hip hemiarthroplasty: a prospective cohort study on 830 consecutive hips in patients with femoral neck fractures 
International Orthopaedics  2011;36(4):711-717.
Background
Hip replacement using a hemiarthroplasty (HA) is a common surgical procedure in elderly patients with fractures of the femoral neck. Data from the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register suggest that there is a higher risk for revision surgery with the bipolar HA compared with the unipolar HA.
Purpose
In this study we analysed the reoperation and the dislocation rates for Exeter HAs in patients with a displaced femoral neck fracture, comparing the unipolar and bipolar prosthetic designs. Additionally, we compared the outcome for HAs performed as a primary intervention with those performed secondary to failed internal fixation.
Methods
We studied 830 consecutive Exeter HAs (427 unipolar and 403 bipolar) performed either as a primary operation for a displaced fracture of the femoral neck or as a secondary procedure after failed internal fixation of a fracture of the femoral neck. Cox regression analyses were performed to evaluate factors associated with reoperation and prosthetic dislocation. Age, gender, the surgeon’s experience, indication for surgery (primary or secondary) and type of HA (unipolar or bipolar) were tested as independent variables in the model.
Results
The prosthetic design (uni- or bipolar) had no influence on the risk for reoperation or dislocation, nor had the age, gender or the surgeon’s experience. The secondary HAs were associated with a significantly increased risk for reoperation (HR 2.6, CI 1.5–4.5) or dislocation (HR 3.3, CI 1.4–7.3) compared to the primary HAs. We found no difference in the risk for reoperation or dislocation when comparing Exeter unipolar and bipolar HAs, but special attention is called for to reduce the risk of prosthesis dislocation and reoperation after a secondary HA.
doi:10.1007/s00264-011-1326-3
PMCID: PMC3311798  PMID: 21789497
3.  Changes in implant choice and surgical technique for hemiarthroplasty 
Acta Orthopaedica  2012;83(1):7-13.
Background and purpose
Treatment of displaced femoral neck fractures in Sweden has shifted towards more arthroplasties, especially hemiarthroplasties. We describe the hemiarthroplasty population in Sweden 2005 through 2009.
Methods
Since 2005, the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register has registered hemiarthroplasties on a national basis. We assessed hemiarthroplasty procedures in the Register 2005–2009 regarding patient details, implants, and surgical techniques. Completeness of recordings was calculated compared to the Swedish National Patient Register.
Results
Completeness increased from 89% to 96% during the study period. 21,346 hemiarthroplasty procedures were assessed. The relative number of patients with femoral neck fracture as diagnosis increased from 91% to 94%; the proportion of men increased from 27% to 30%. The median age increased from 83 to 84 years in men and from 84 to 85 years in women. Patients classified as having evident cognitive impairment increased from 19% to 22%. More men than women were ASA 4. The proportion of monoblock-type implants (Austin-Moore and Thompson) decreased from 18% to 0.9%. Modular implants increased generally, but in 2009 bipolar implants decreased in favor of unipolar implants. Lubinus and Exeter stems, and Mega Caput and Vario Cup implant heads were most common. The use of uncemented implants decreased from 10% to 3%. Use of the anterolateral approach increased from 47% to 56%.
Interpretation
Important changes in surgical technique and implant choice occurred during the observation period. We interpret these changes as being reflections of the continuing effort by Swedish orthopedic surgeons to improve the quality of treatment, because the changes are consistent with recent findings in the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register and in other scientific studies.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2011.641104
PMCID: PMC3278650  PMID: 22112151
4.  Clinical outcome after undisplaced femoral neck fractures 
Acta Orthopaedica  2011;82(3):268-274.
Background and purpose
Little attention has been paid to undisplaced femoral neck fractures. By using data from the Norwegian Hip Fracture Register, we investigated the risk of reoperation and the clinical outcome after treatment of these fractures in patients over 60 years of age.
Methods
Data on 4,468 patients with undisplaced femoral neck fractures who were operated with screw osteosynthesis were compared to those from 10,289 patients with displaced femoral neck fractures treated with screw osteosynthesis (n = 3,389) or bipolar hemiarthroplasty (n = 6,900). The evaluation was based on number of reoperations and patient assessment at 4 and 12 months of follow-up.
Results
The 1-year implant survival was 89% after screw fixation for undisplaced fractures, 79% after screw fixation for displaced fractures, and 97% after hemiarthroplasty for displaced fractures. Patients with displaced fractures who were operated with internal fixation had a higher risk of reoperation (RR = 1.9, CI: 1.7–2.2), reported more pain, were less satisfied, and had lower quality of life than patients with undisplaced fractures treated with internal fixation (p < 0.05). Patients with displaced fractures who were operated with hemiarthroplasty had a lower risk of reoperation than patients with undisplaced fractures who were operated with internal fixation (RR = 0.32, CI: 0.27–0.38). Furthermore, they had the lowest degree of pain, were most satisfied, and reported the highest quality of life.
Interpretation
Interpretation The differences in clinical outcome found were less than what is considered to be of clinical importance. The results support the use of screw osteosynthesis for undisplaced femoral neck fractures in elderly patients, although even better results were obtained in the hemiarthroplasty group in patients with displaced fractures.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2011.588857
PMCID: PMC3235303  PMID: 21619501
5.  Treatment and Displacement Affect the Reoperation Rate for Femoral Neck Fracture 
Background
Femoral neck fractures (FNFs) comprise 50% of geriatric hip fractures. Appropriate management requires surgeons to balance potential risks and associated healthcare costs with surgical treatment. Treatment complications can lead to reoperation resulting in increased patient risks and costs. Understanding etiologies of treatment failure and the population at risk may decrease reoperation rates.
Questions/purposes
We therefore (1) determined if treatment modality and/or displacement affected reoperation rates after FNF; and (2) identified factors associated with increased reoperation and timing and reasons for reoperation.
Methods
We reviewed 1411 records of patients older than 60 years treated for FNF with internal fixation or hemiarthroplasty between 1998 and 2009. We extracted patient age, sex, fracture classification, treatment modality and date, occurrence of and reasons for reoperation, comorbid conditions at the time of each surgery, and dates of death or last contact. Minimum followup was 12 months (median, 45 months; range, 12–157 months).
Results
Internal fixation (hazard ratio [HR], 6.38) and displacement (HR, 2.92) were independently associated with increased reoperation rates. The reoperation rate for nondisplaced fractures treated with fixation was 15% and for displaced fractures 38% after fixation and 7% after hemiarthroplasty. Most fractures treated with fixation underwent reoperation within 1 year primarily for nonunion. Most fractures treated with hemiarthroplasty underwent reoperation within 3 months, primarily for infection.
Conclusions
Overall, hemiarthroplasty resulted in fewer reoperations versus internal fixation and displaced fractures underwent reoperation more than nondisplaced. Our data suggest there are fewer reoperations when treating elderly patients with displaced FNFs with hemiarthroplasty than with internal fixation.
Level of Evidence
Level III, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-013-3020-9
PMCID: PMC3705035  PMID: 23640205
6.  Arthroplasty options in femoral-neck fracture: answers from the national registries 
International Orthopaedics  2011;36(1):1-8.
Purpose
Femoral-neck fracture in the elderly population is a problem that demands the attention of the orthopaedic community as life expectancy continues to increase. There are several different treatment options in use, and this variety in and of itself indicates the absence of an ideal single treatment option. Recent debate has focussed on the probable superiority of total hip arthroplasty (THA) over hemiarthroplasty for femoral-neck fracture. Clinical trials and systematic reviews of such trials have not provided a convincing answer to this question.
Methods
We analysed data from national registries evaluating prosthetic replacements for femoral-neck fracture in the elderly. We compared revision and reoperation rates of hemiarthroplasty and THA, analysed the prognostic variables that influenced implant survival and the major causes of failure.
Results
Data from the Australian and Italian registries indicate that THA has an increased revision rate compared with bipolar hemiarthroplasty in femoral-neck fracture in the elderly. The registries identify that age over 75 years and the use of the anterior surgical approach are associated with better survivorship in patients who have a hemiarthroplasty. Cemented fixation of the femoral stem in hemiarthroplasty and THA is supported by registry data. Acetabular erosion accounted for a very low percentage of hemiarthroplasty revisions and reoperations.
Conclusion
Our review of data from national registries supports the continued use of bipolar hemiarthroplasty in femoral-neck fracture in the elderly and identifies age, method of fixation and surgical approach as important prognostic variables in determining implant survival.
doi:10.1007/s00264-011-1354-z
PMCID: PMC3251685  PMID: 21931966
7.  Cemented versus Uncemented Hemiarthroplasty for Femoral Neck Fractures in Elderly Patients: A Meta-Analysis 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(7):e68903.
Objective
Controversy still exists regarding using cemented or uncemented hemiarthroplasty for femoral neck fractures in elderly patients. The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness and safety of the two surgical techniques in femoral neck fracture patients over 70 years old.
Methods
We searched PUBMED, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CNKI and VIP Database from inception to December 2012 for relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Outcomes of interest include postoperative hip function, residue pain, complication rates, mortality, reoperation rate, operation time and intraoperative blood loss. Odds ratios (OR) and weighted mean differences (WMD) from each trial were pooled using random-effects model or fixed-effects model given on the heterogeneity of the included studies.
Results
7 RCTs involving 1,125 patients (1,125 hips) were eligible for meta-analysis. Our results demonstrate that cemented hemiarthroplasty is associated with better postoperative hip function (OR = 0.48, 95% CI, 0.31–0.76; P = 0.002), lower residual pain (OR = 0.43, 95%CI, 0.29–0.64; P<0.0001), less implant-related complications (OR = 0.15, 95%CI, 0.09–0.26; P<0.00001) and longer operation time (WMD = 7.43 min, 95% CI, 5.37–9.49 min; P<0.00001). No significant difference was observed between the two groups in mortality, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular complications, local complications, general complications, reoperation rate and intraoperative blood loss.
Conclusions
Compared with uncemented hemiarthroplasty, the existing evidence indicates that cemented hemiarthroplasty can achieve better hip function, lower residual pain and less implant-related complications with no increased risk of mortality, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular complications, general complications, local complications and reoperation rate in treating elderly patients with femoral neck fractures.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0068903
PMCID: PMC3720851  PMID: 23935902
8.  Hip arthroplasty after failed fixation of trochanteric and subtrochanteric fractures 
Acta Orthopaedica  2012;83(5):493-498.
Background and purpose
Hip arthroplasty is an option for elderly patients with osteoporosis for the treatment of failure after fixation of trochanteric and subtrochanteric fractures, either as a total hip arthroplasty (THA) or as a hemiarthroplasty (HA). We analyzed the reoperation rate and risk factors for reoperation in a consecutive series of patients.
Methods
All patients (n = 88) operated from 1999 to 2006 with a THA (n = 63) or an HA (n = 25) due to failure of fixation of a trochanteric fracture (n = 63) or subtrochanteric fracture (n = 25) were included. Background data were collected from the patient records. A search was performed in the national registry of the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare in order to find information on all reoperations. The follow-up time was 5–11 years.
Results
The reoperation rate was 16% (14/88 hips). A periprosthetic fracture occurred in 6 patients, a deep prosthetic infection in 5 patients, and a dislocation of the prosthesis in 3 patients. Standard-length femoral stems had an increased risk of reoperation (11/47) compared to long stems (3/41) (HR = 4, 95% CI: 1.0–13; p = 0.06).
Interpretation
The high reoperation rate reflects the complexity of the surgery. Using long femoral stems that bridge previous holes and defects may be one way to reduce the risk for reoperation.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2012.688724
PMCID: PMC3488176  PMID: 22574819
9.  Total Hip Arthroplasty Versus Hemiarthroplasty for Displaced Femoral Neck Fractures: Meta-analysis of Randomized Trials 
Background
Most patients with displaced femoral neck fractures are treated by THA and hemiarthroplasty, but it remains uncertain which if either is associated with better function and lower risks of complications.
Questions/purposes
We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to determine whether THA was associated with lower rates of reoperations, mortality, complications, and better function compared with hemiarthroplasty.
Methods
We searched the PubMed, Embase, Chinese Biomedicine Literature, and Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials databases and identified 12 RCTs (including a total of 1320 patients) for meta-analysis. Risk ratios (RRs) and weighted mean differences (WMDs) from each trial were pooled using random-effects or fixed-effects models depending on the heterogeneity of the included studies.
Results
THA was associated with a lower risk of subsequent reoperations compared with hemiarthroplasty (RR = 0.53; 95% CI, 0.34–0.84). There was no difference in mortality between patients undergoing THA and hemiarthroplasty (RR = 0.81; 95% CI, 0.60–1.09). For complications, there was a higher risk of dislocation in patients undergoing THA (RR = 1.99; 95% CI, 1.26–3.15), but there were no differences in local infections (RR = 1.60; 95% CI, 0.74–3.46) and general complications (RR = 1.15; 95% CI, 0.91–1.45). Patients with THA had higher Harris hip scores at 1 year (WMD = 3.81; 95% CI, 0.87–6.74) and at 3 or 4 years (WMD = 10.07; 95% CI, 6.92–13.21).
Conclusions
Despite more dislocations, THA can benefit patients with displaced femoral neck fractures with a lower reoperation rate and higher functional scores.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11999-012-2293-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s11999-012-2293-8
PMCID: PMC3392403  PMID: 22395872
10.  Unipolar hemiarthroplasty versus bipolar hemiarthroplasty in patients with displaced femoral neck fractures. A four-year follow-up of a randomised controlled trial 
International Orthopaedics  2013;37(12):2457-2464.
Purpose
The treatment of choice for a displaced femoral neck fracture in the most elderly patients is a cemented hemiarthroplasty (HA). The optimal design, unipolar or bipolar head, remains unclear. The possible advantages of a bipolar HA are a better range of motion and less acetabular wear. The aim of this study was to evaluate hip function, health related quality of life (HRQoL), surgical outcome and acetabular erosion in a medium-term follow-up.
Methods
One hundred and twenty patients aged 80 or more with a displaced fracture of the femoral neck (Garden III and IV) were randomised to treatment with a cemented Exeter HA using a unipolar or a bipolar head. All patients were able to walk independently, with or without aids, before surgery. Follow-ups were performed at four, 12, 24 and 48 months postoperatively. Assessments included HRQoL (EQ-5D index score), hip function (Harris hip score [HHS]) and radiological acetabular erosion.
Results
The mean EQ-5D index score was generally higher among the patients with bipolar hemiarthroplasties at the follow-ups with a significant difference at 48 months: unipolar HAs 0.59 and bipolar HAs 0.70 (p = 0.04). There was an increased rate of acetabular erosion among the patients with unipolar hemiarthroplasties at the early follow-ups with a significant difference at 12 months (unipolar HAs 20 % and bipolar HAs 5 %, p = 0.03). At the later follow-ups the incidence of acetabular erosion accelerated in the bipolar group, and there were no significant differences between the groups at the 24- and 48-month follow-ups. There was no difference in HHS or reoperation rate between the groups at any of the follow-ups.
Conclusion
The bipolar HAs seem to result in better HRQoL beyond the first two years after surgery compared to unipolar HAs. Bipolar HAs displayed a later onset of acetabular erosion compared to unipolar HAs.
doi:10.1007/s00264-013-2117-9
PMCID: PMC3843188  PMID: 24122045
Arthroplasty; Hemiarthroplasty; Hip fracture; Elderly; Osteoporosis
11.  Conversion of failed hemiarthroplasty to total hip arthroplasty: A short to mid-term follow-up study 
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics  2008;42(3):294-300.
Background:
The conversion of hemiarthroplasty (unipolar or bipolar) of the hip to total hip replacement has been reported to be associated with very high rates of intra- and postoperative complications. We present a prospective analysis of the outcome of conversion surgery in patients with failed hemiarthroplasty.
Materials and Methods:
Forty-four cases, 30 women and 14 men, average age 62 years (range 42-75 years) of failed hemiarthroplasty were converted to total hip replacement between January 1998 and December 2004. Groin pain was the main presenting complaint in the majority of the patients (24 out of 44). Six patients had infection and were operated with staged procedure. All acetabular and the majority (86.5%) of femoral components used in our series were uncemented.
Results:
After an average follow-up of 6.4 years (range, two to nine years) Harris hip scores improved from 38 (range 15-62) preoperatively to 86 (range 38 to 100) and 22 (50%) patients were community ambulators without support while 17 (38%) needed minimal support of cane. Fifteen out of 18 (83%) patients who had isolated groin pain preoperatively experienced no pain postoperatively while three patients (17%) reported only partial improvement. Intraoperative and postoperative complications included iatrogenic fracture of the femur in two, femoral perforation in two, partial trochanteric avulsion in two, fracture of the acetabular floor in three hips, and postoperative dislocation in one. None of these complications resulted in a poor long-term outcome. The rate of loosening in our series was 2.3% (one out of 44) after a mean follow-up of 6.4 years with a mean survival of 97.4% at 72 months.
Conclusion:
Conversion of symptomatic hemiarthroplasty to total hip arthroplasty is a safe option that gives good functional results, with marginally higher rates of intra-operative complications. The patients should be warned of the possibility of incomplete relief of groin pain postoperatively.
doi:10.4103/0019-5413.41852
PMCID: PMC2739459  PMID: 19753155
Conversion; hemiarthroplasty; total hip arthroplasty
12.  Dorsal versus transgluteal approach for hip hemiarthroplasty: an analysis of early complications in seven hundred and four consecutive cases 
International Orthopaedics  2012;36(11):2219-2223.
Purpose
Hemiarthroplasty (HA) is an established treatment for femoral neck fractures of the elderly. Several surgical approaches are currently used including dorsal and transgluteal. It is still unclear whether one approach may be advantageous. We compared early complication rates after dorsal and transgluteal approaches.
Methods
We retrospectively analysed a cohort including 704 consecutive patients who received HA for femoral neck fracture; 212 male and 492 female patients were included, and the mean age was 80.4 years (SD 9.8 years). In 487 patients a dorsal and in 217 a transgluteal approach was chosen. In all patients an Excia® stem with self-centring bipolar head manufactured by Aesculap (Tuttlingen, Germany) was used. We evaluated early postoperative complications including dislocation, infection, haematoma, seroma and perioperative fracture. Complication rates after dorsal and transgluteal approaches were calculated and compared by the chi-square test.
Results
After a dorsal approach 10.5 % [confidence interval (CI) 7.7–13.2 %] of the patients suffered one or more early complications. Following a transgluteal approach this proportion was 9.7 % (CI 5.7–13.6 %), which was not significantly different (p = 0.75). The predominant complication after a dorsal approach was dislocation (3.9 %; CI 2.2–5.6 %). The dislocation rate after a transgluteal approach was significantly lower (0.5 %; CI 0–1.4 %). Postoperative haematoma however was seen after a transgluteal approach in 5.5 % (CI 2.5–8.6 %), which was significantly more frequent than after a dorsal approach (1.2 %; CI 0.2–2.2 %). The frequency of the other types of complications did not significantly differ.
Conclusions
The rate of early surgical complications after dorsal and transgluteal approaches is not significantly different. However, the dorsal approach predisposed to dislocation, whereas the transgluteal approach predisposed to haematoma.
doi:10.1007/s00264-012-1624-4
PMCID: PMC3479273  PMID: 22872411
13.  Salvage of failed trochanteric and subtrochanteric fractures using a distally fixed, modular, uncemented hip revision stem 
Acta Orthopaedica  2012;83(5):488-492.
Background and purpose
Treatment options for failed internal fixation of hip fractures include prosthetic replacement. We evaluated survival, complications, and radiographic outcome in 30 patients who were operated with a specific modular, uncemented hip reconstruction prosthesis as a salvage procedure after failed treatment of trochanteric and subtrochanteric fractures.
Patients and methods
We used data from the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register and journal files to analyze complications and survival. Initially, a high proportion of trochanteric fractures (7/10) were classified as unstable and 12 of 20 subtrochanteric fractures had an extension through the greater trochanter. Modes of failure after primary internal fixation were cutout (n = 12), migration of the femoral neck screw (n = 9), and other (n = 9).
Results
Mean age at the index operation with the modular prosthesis was 77 (52–93) years and the mean follow-up was 4 (1–9) years. Union of the remaining fracture fragments was observed in 26 hips, restoration of proximal bone defects in 16 hips, and bone ingrowth of the stem in 25 hips. Subsidence was evident in 4 cases. 1 patient was revised by component exchange because of recurrent dislocation, and another 6 patients were reoperated: 5 because of deep infections and 1 because of periprosthetic fracture. The cumulative 3-year survival for revision was 96% (95% CI: 89–100) and for any reoperation it was 83% (68–93).
Interpretation
The modular stem allowed fixation distal to the fracture system. Radiographic outcome was good. The rate of complications, however—especially infections—was high. We believe that preoperative laboratory screening for low-grade infection and synovial cultures could contribute to better treatment in some of these patients.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2012.733917
PMCID: PMC3488175  PMID: 23083435
14.  Preoperative Factors and Early Complications Associated With Hemiarthroplasty and Total Hip Arthroplasty for Displaced Femoral Neck Fractures 
Displaced femoral neck fractures are common injuries in the elderly individuals. There is controversy about the best treatment with regard to total hip arthroplasty (THA) versus hemiarthroplasty. This study uses the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) database to evaluate the preoperative risk factors associated with the decision to perform THA over hemiarthroplasty. We also evaluate the risk factors associated with postoperative complications after each procedure. Patients older than 50 years undergoing hemiarthroplasty or THA after fracture in the NSQIP database from 2007 to 2010 were compared to each other in terms of preoperative medical conditions, postoperative complications, and length of stay. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to adjust for preoperative risk factors for undergoing a THA versus a hemiarthroplasty and for complications after each procedure. In all, 783 patients underwent hemiarthroplasty and 419 underwent THA for fracture. Hemiarthroplasty patients had longer hospital stays. On multivariate logistic regression, the only significant predictor for having a THA after fracture over hemiarthroplasty was being aged 50 to 64 years. The patient characteristics/comorbidities that favored having a hemiarthroplasty were age >80 years, hemiplegia, being underweight, having a dependent functional status, being on dialysis, and having an early surgery. High body mass index, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class, gender, and other comorbidities were not predictors of having one procedure over another. Disseminated cancer and diabetes were predictive of complications after THA while being overweight, obese I, or a smoker were protective. High ASA class and do-not-resuscitate status were significant predictors of complications after a hemiarthroplasty. This study identified clinical factors influencing surgeons toward performing either THA or hemiarthroplasty for elderly patients after femoral neck fractures. Younger, healthier patients were more likely to receive THA. Patients particularly at higher risks of complications after hemiarthroplasty should be monitored closely.
doi:10.1177/2151458514528951
PMCID: PMC4212369  PMID: 25360335
fragility fractures; adult reconstructive surgery; geriatric medicine; geriatric trauma; trauma surgery
15.  Lower reoperation rate for cemented hemiarthroplasty than for uncemented hemiarthroplasty and internal fixation following femoral neck fracture 
Acta Orthopaedica  2013;84(3):254-259.
Background and purpose
Elderly patients with displaced femoral neck fractures are commonly treated with a hemiarthroplasty (HA), but little is known about the long-term failure of this treatment. We compared reoperation rates for patients aged at least 75 years with displaced femoral neck fractures treated with either internal fixation (IF), cemented HA, or uncemented HA (with or without hydroxyapatite coating), after 12–19 years of follow-up.
Methods
4 hospitals with clearly defined guidelines for the treatment of 75+ year-old patients with a displaced femoral neck fracture were included. Cohort 1 (1991–1993) with 180 patients had undergone IF; cohort 2 (1991–1995) with 203 patients had received an uncemented bipolar Ultima HA stem (Austin-Moore); cohort 3 (1991–1995) with 209 patients had received a cemented Charnley-Hastings HA; and cohort 4 (1991–1998) with 158 patients had received an uncemented hydroxyapatite-coated Furlong HA. Data were retrieved from patient files, from the region-based patient administrative system, and from the National Registry of Patients at the end of 2010. We performed survival analysis with adjustment for comorbidity, age, and sex.
Results
Cemented HA had a reoperation rate (RR) of 5% and was used as reference in the Cox regression analysis, which showed significantly higher hazard ratios (HRs) for IF (HR = 3.8, 95% CI: 1.9–7.5; RR = 18%), uncemented HA (HR = 2.2, CI: 1.1–4.5; RR = 11%) and uncemented hydroxyapatite-coated HA (HR = 3.6, CI: 1.8–7.4; RR = 16%).
Interpretation
Cemented HA has a superior long-term hip survival rate compared to IF and uncemented HA (with and without hydroxyapatite coating) in patients aged 75 years or more with displaced femoral neck fractures.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2013.792033
PMCID: PMC3715822  PMID: 23594248
16.  Randomized Trial of Hemiarthroplasty versus Internal Fixation for Femoral Neck Fractures: No Differences at 6 Years 
Background
Hemiarthroplasty has been shown superior to internal fixation for displaced femoral neck fractures (FNF) in the first 2 years. However, there are unanswered questions about the performance of hemiarthroplasty over the longer term compared with internal fixation.
Questions/purposes
We sought to compare hemiarthroplasty with internal fixation in terms of (1) outcomes scores for pain, hip function, and quality of life at a minimum of 5 years after surgery in a randomized trial. A secondary purpose was to compare (2) patient survival and (3) frequency of reoperation in the two groups.
Methods
A total of 222 consecutive patients older than 60 years, including those cognitively impaired, with FNF were randomized to either internal fixation with two parallel screws or bipolar hemiarthroplasty. At a minimum followup of 4.9 years (mean, 5.9 years; range, 4.9–7.2 years), 68 of the 70 surviving patients were examined by a study nurse and study physiotherapist blinded to initial treatment. Questionnaires on hip function (Harris hip score), quality of life (Eq5D), and activity of daily living function (Barthel ADL) were administered. The Barthel ADL index score was split into good function (score 95 or 100) and reduced function (score below 95).
Results
The mean survival of the groups was similar with 66.4% (73 of 110) of the patients undergoing hemiarthroplasty and 70.5% (79 of 112) of the patients undergoing internal fixation having died since surgery (p = 0.51). Only 12 of 31 living patients in the internal fixation group had retained their native hips at a mean of 6 years. Between 2 and 6 years, there were two new major reoperations (both in the internal fixation group, for avascular necrosis and deep wound infection). The mean Harris hip score was 66 (SD 19) and 67 (SD 20) in the internal fixation and hemiarthroplasty groups, respectively (p = 0.96). The mean Eq5D index was 0.50 (SD 0.40) in the internal fixation group and 0.34 (SD 0.36) in the hemiarthroplasty group (p = 0.10). Function in terms of ADLs was comparable between the groups; of the patients in the internal fixation group, 42% reported good function on the Barthel ADL index, and the corresponding number in the hemiarthroplasty group was 51% (p = 0.44).
Conclusions
Hemiarthroplasty has predictable and good long-term results after FNF and is the treatment of choice compared with internal fixation. Further studies will evaluate if total hip arthroplasty has advantages over hemiarthroplasty in patients with fracture with long life expectancy.
Level of Evidence
Level II, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-013-3245-7
PMCID: PMC3889441  PMID: 23975250
17.  Is the Dislocation Rate Higher after Bipolar Hemiarthroplasty in Patients with Neuromuscular Diseases? 
Abstract
Background
Patients with neuromuscular disease reportedly have a higher incidence of postoperative dislocation after bipolar hemiarthroplasty. Although the literature has focused on a high prevalence of preoperative neurologic conditions in patients who had dislocations after bipolar hemiarthroplasties, the relative incidence of dislocation in patients with neuromuscular disease and without is unclear.
Questions/purposes
We therefore (1) asked whether the incidence of postoperative dislocation after bipolar hemiarthroplasty was greater in patients with neuromuscular disease than for those without, and (2) whether function differed between the two groups, and (3) explored potential risk factors for dislocation in two groups.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed 190 patients who underwent bipolar hemiarthroplasties for fracture of the femoral neck between 1996 and 2008. Of the 190 patients, 42 had various neuromuscular diseases and 148 had no history of neuromuscular disease. Intraoperative stability was tested and posterior soft tissue repair was performed in all patients. We determined the incidence of dislocation, postoperative leg length discrepancy, and femoral offset in patients with or without neuromuscular disease.
Results
The incidence of dislocation was 2.6% in all patients. We observed similar rates of dislocation in the two groups: 4.8% (two of 42 hips) in patients with neuromuscular disease and 2.0% (three of 148 hips) in patients without neuromuscular disease.
Conclusions
In femoral neck fractures in patients with neuromuscular disease, careful preoperative management and operative technique such as a posterior soft tissue repair might decrease the risk of postoperative dislocation; therefore, we consider the bipolar hemiarthroplasty a reasonable treatment option.
Level of Evidence
Level III, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-011-2139-9
PMCID: PMC3293982  PMID: 22015999
18.  Dislocation of hip hemiarthroplasty following posterolateral surgical approach: a nested case–control study 
International Orthopaedics  2011;36(5):935-940.
Purpose
Hip hemiarthroplasty dislocation is a serious complication in treatment of displaced intracapsular hip fractures. We investigated factors associated with an increased risk of dislocation after cemented hip hemiarthroplasty following the posterolateral approach.
Methods
Between January 2002 and December 2008, 602 hip fractures were treated with cemented unipolar hip hemiarthroplasty. A registry-based analysis was carried out to determine the total number of hemiarthroplasty dislocations in these patients. A control group of 96 patients without dislocation was randomly selected. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate clinical and operative factors associated with dislocation.
Results
Thirty-four patients (5.6%) experienced at least one dislocation. Most were the result of a fall and occurred within two months after surgery. There was a trend for increased dislocation in patients who had been operated on more than 48 hours after admission and in patients who had a longer operative time. Smaller centre-edge angle and hip offset were observed in patients with dislocation. Recurrent dislocation was a significant problem, as 18 patients (62%) experienced multiple dislocations.
Conclusions
The risk of hemiarthroplasty dislocation following the posterolateral surgical approach may be reduced by prompt surgical treatment and fall prevention in the early postoperative period. Patients with smaller acetabular coverage seem more predisposed to dislocation after the posterolateral approach and may be more suitable for other surgical approaches.
doi:10.1007/s00264-011-1353-0
PMCID: PMC3337111  PMID: 21931967
Medicine & Public Health; Orthopedics
19.  Treatment of femoral neck fractures in elderly patients over 60 years of age - which is the ideal modality of primary joint replacement? 
Background
Femoral neck fractures in the elderly are frequent, represent a great health care problem, and have a significant impact on health insurance costs. Reconstruction options using hip arthroplasty include unipolar or bipolar hemiarthroplasty (HA), and total hip arthroplasty (THA). The purpose of this review is to discuss the indications, limitations, and pitfalls of each of these techniques.
Methods
The Pubmed database was searched for all articles on femoral neck fracture and for the reconstruction options presented in this review using the search terms "femoral neck fracture", "unipolar hemiarthroplasty", "bipolar hemiarthroplasty", and "total hip arthroplasty". In addition, cross-referencing was used to cover articles eventually undetected by the respective search strategies. The resulting articles were then reviewed with regard to the different techniques, outcome and complications of the distinct reconstruction options.
Results
THA yields the best functional results in patients with displaced femoral neck fractures with complication rates comparable to HA. THA is beneficially implanted using an anterior approach exploiting the internervous plane between the tensor fasciae latae and the sartorius muscles allowing for immediate full weight-bearing. Based on our findings, bipolar hemiarthroplasty, similar to unipolar hemiarthroplasty, cannot restorate neither anatomical nor biomechanical features of the hip joint. Therefore, it can only be recommended as a second line of defense-procedure for patients with low functional demands and limited live expectancy.
Conclusions
THA is the treatment of choice for femoral neck fractures in patients older than 60 years. HA should only be implanted in patients with limited life expectancy.
doi:10.1186/1754-9493-4-16
PMCID: PMC2972258  PMID: 20961437
20.  Unipolar versus bipolar hemiarthroplasty for displaced femoral neck fractures: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials 
Background
Whether bipolar hemiarthroplasty (BH) for displaced femoral neck fractures has benefit over unipolar hemiarthroplasty (UH) remains controversial. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the relative effects between BH and UH.
Methods
A systematic literature search (up to April, 2014) was conducted to include RCTs comparing BH with UH for displaced femoral neck fractures. Two authors independently assessed methodological quality of the included studies and extracted data. Surgical information and postoperative outcomes were analyzed.
Results
A total of 10 RCTs including 1,190 patients were indentified. Our results demonstrated that BH was associated with similar or better outcomes in hip function, hip pain, and quality of life while with a higher cost compared with UH. Moreover, there were no significant differences between BH and UH with regard to operation time, blood loss, blood transfusion, hospital stay, mortality, reoperation, dislocation, and complications. BH could significantly decrease the incidence of acetabular erosion at 1 year follow-up compared with UH (RR = 0.24, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.06 to 0.89, P = 0.03), but no significant difference was observed at 4 months, 2 years, and 4 years follow-ups.
Conclusions
Based on the current evidence, BH is not superior to UH in terms of surgical information and postoperative results. Despite similar or better clinical outcomes compared with UH, BH with a higher cost could not decrease long-term acetabular erosion rate.
doi:10.1186/s13018-015-0165-0
PMCID: PMC4334611  PMID: 25616914
Femoral neck fractures; Arthroplasty; Hemiarthroplasty; Randomized controlled trials; Systematic review; Meta-analysis
21.  The type of surgical approach influences the risk of revision in total hip arthroplasty 
Acta Orthopaedica  2012;83(6):559-565.
Background and purpose
The most common surgical approaches in total hip arthroplasty in Sweden are the posterior and the anterolateral transgluteal approach. Currently, however, there is insufficient evidence to prefer one over the other regarding risk of subsequent surgery.
Patients and methods
We searched the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register between the years 1992 and 2009 to compare the posterior and anterolateral transgluteal approach regarding risk of revision in the 3 most common all-cemented hip prosthesis designs in Sweden. 90,662 total hip replacements met the inclusion criteria. We used Cox regression analysis for estimation of prosthesis survival and relative risk of revision due to dislocation, infection, or aseptic loosening.
Results
Our results show that for the Lubinus SPII prosthesis and the Spectron EF Primary prosthesis, the anterolateral transgluteal approach gave an increased risk of revision due to aseptic loosening (relative risk (RR) = 1.3, 95% CI: 1.0–1.6 and RR = 1.6, CI: 1.0–2.5) but a reduced risk of revision due to dislocation (RR = 0.7, CI: 0.5–0.8 and RR = 0.3, CI: 0.1–0.4). For the Exeter Polished prosthesis, the surgical approach did not affect the outcome for dislocation or aseptic loosening. The surgical approach had no influence on the risk of revision due to infection in any of these designs.
Interpretation
This observational study shows that the surgical approach affected the risk of revision due to aseptic loosening and dislocation for 2 of the most commonly used cemented implants in Sweden. Further studies are needed to determine whether these results are generalizable to other implants and to uncemented fixation.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2012.742394
PMCID: PMC3555460  PMID: 23116440
22.  Unplanned Hip Arthroplasty Imposes Clinical and Cost Burdens on Treating Institutions 
Background
Emergent surgery has been shown to be a risk factor for perioperative complications. Studies suggest that patient morbidity is greater with an unplanned hip arthroplasty, although it is controversial whether unplanned procedures also result in higher patient mortality. The financial impact of these procedures is not fully understood, as the costs of unplanned primary hip arthroplasties have not been studied previously.
Questions/purposes
We asked: (1) What are the institutional costs associated with unplanned hip arthroplasties (primary THA, hemiarthroplasty, revision arthroplasty, including treatment of periprosthetic fractures, dislocations, and infections)? (2) Does timing of surgery (urgent/unplanned versus elective) influence perioperative outcomes such as mortality, length of stay, or need for advanced care? (3) What diagnoses are associated with unplanned surgery and are treated urgently most often? (4) Do demographics and insurance status differ between admission types (unplanned versus elective hip arthroplasty)?
Methods
We prospectively followed all 419 patients who were admitted to our Level I trauma center in 2011 for procedures including primary THA, hemiarthroplasty, and revision arthroplasty, including the treatment of periprosthetic fractures, dislocations, and infections. Fifty-seven patients who were treated urgently on an unplanned basis were compared with 362 patients who were treated electively. Demographics, admission diagnoses, complications, and costs were recorded and analyzed statistically.
Results
Median total costs were 24% greater for patients admitted for unplanned hip arthroplasties (USD18,206 [USD15,261–27,491] versus USD14,644 [USD13,511–16,309]; p < 0.0001) for patients admitted for elective arthroplasties. Patients with unplanned admissions had a 67% longer median hospital stay (5 days [range, 4–9 days] versus 3 days [range, 3–4 days]; p < 0.0001) for patients with elective admissions. Mortality rates were equivalent between groups (p = 1.0). Femoral fracture (p < 0.0001), periprosthetic fracture (p = 0.01), prosthetic infection (p = 0.005), and prosthetic dislocation (p < 0.0001) were observed at higher rates in the patients with unplanned admissions. These patients were older (p = 0.04), less likely to have commercial insurance (p < 0.0001), more likely to be transferred from another institution (p < 0.0001), and more likely to undergo a revision procedure (p < 0.0001).
Conclusions
Unplanned arthroplasty and urgent surgery are associated with increased financial and clinical burdens, which must be accounted for when considering bundled quality and reimbursement measures for these procedures.
Level of Evidence
Level II, therapeutic study. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-013-3226-x
PMCID: PMC3825898  PMID: 23928711
23.  High Dislocation Cumulative Risk in THA versus Hemiarthroplasty for Fractures 
Background
Although not all elderly patients with femoral neck fractures are candidates for THA, active, mentally competent, independent patients achieve the most durable functional scores with THA compared with hemiarthroplasty. However, a relatively high frequency of early or late dislocation could reduce the potential benefits with THA.
Questions/purposes
We asked whether the incidence of first-time, recurrent dislocation, and revision differed in patients with hip fractures having THA or hemiarthroplasty.
Patients and Methods
We retrospectively reviewed 380 patients with hip fractures (380 hips) who underwent THAs between 1995 and 1999, and compared them with 412 patients with hip fractures (412 hips) who underwent hemiarthroplasties between 1990 and 1994. The mean followup was 8 years (range, 1–20 years).
Results
THA had a higher early risk of first-time dislocation and a higher late risk: 19 (4.5%) of the 412 hips treated with hemiarthroplasty had at least one dislocation whereas 30 (8.1%) of the 380 hips treated with THA had at least one dislocation. The cumulative number of dislocations at the most recent followup (first time and recurrent dislocations) was 58 (13%) for the 380 THAs and 22 (5%) for the 412 hemiarthroplasties. At the 10-year followup, eight THAs (2%) had revision (six recurrent dislocations, two loosenings), and 42 hemiarthroplasties (10%) had revision (40 acetabular protrusions, one recurrent dislocation).
Conclusions
The risk of revision for recurrent dislocation increases with THA, but it remains lower than the risk of revision for wear of cartilage and acetabular protrusion in hemiarthroplasty.
Level of Evidence
Level III, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-011-1987-7
PMCID: PMC3183183  PMID: 21773860
24.  Direction of hip arthroplasty dislocation in patients with femoral neck fractures 
International Orthopaedics  2010;34(5):641-647.
In order to prevent hip arthroplasty dislocations, information regarding the direction of the dislocation is important for accurate implant positioning and for optimising the postoperative regimens in relation to the surgical approach used. The aim of this study was to analyse the influence of the surgical approach on the direction of the dislocation in patients treated by a hemiarthroplasty (HA) or total hip arthroplasty (THA) after a femoral neck fracture. Fracture patients have a high risk for dislocations, and this issue has not been previously studied in a selected group of patients with a femoral neck fracture. We analysed the radiographs of the primary dislocation in 74 patients who had sustained a dislocation of their HA (n = 42) or THA (n = 32). In 42 patients an anterolateral (AL) surgical approach was used and in 32 a posterolateral (PL). The surgical approach significantly influenced the direction of dislocation in patients treated with HA (p < 0.001), while no such correlation was found after THA (p = 0.388). For THA patients there was a correlation between the mean angle of anteversion of the acetabular component and the direction of dislocation when comparing patients with anterior and posterior dislocations (p = 0.027). These results suggest that the surgical approach of a HA has an influence on the direction of dislocation, in contrast to THA where the position of the acetabular component seems to be of importance for the direction of dislocation in patients with femoral neck fractures.
doi:10.1007/s00264-009-0943-6
PMCID: PMC2903178  PMID: 20091307
25.  Complications following hemiarthroplasty for displaced intracapsular femoral neck fractures in the absence of routine follow-up 
Introduction
Hemiarthroplasty is the most commonly performed surgery for displaced intracapsular femoral neck fractures. At present, it is not routine practice to follow up these patients despite the risk of all the complications associated with arthroplasty. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and nature of complications occurring following hemiarthroplasty that re-presented to this centre in the absence of routine postoperative follow-up.
Methods
Consecutive patients undergoing uncemented hip hemiarthroplasty for displaced intracapsular femoral neck fractures at a district general hospital between 2004 and 2009 were identified. Data were collected from the hospital database on all complications relating to the index procedure, further surgery performed and mortality.
Results
There were 490 hemiarthroplasties performed in 477 patients (mean age: 80 years, 75% female). Of these, 110 (22%) were referred postoperatively for specialist orthopaedic review. The prevalence of any complication following hemiarthroplasty was 12% (n=59) and the prevalence of hemiarthroplasty failure was 8% (n=40). The most common indications for failure were periprosthetic fracture (28%), aseptic femoral loosening (25%) and unexplained pain (25%). Persistent hip pain and poor mobility accounted for most complications not requiring further surgery (n=15). The mortality rate within 30 days and 1 year of hemiarthroplasty was 6% (n=31) and 29% (n=146) respectively.
Conclusions
In the absence of routine follow-up, complications were encountered frequently in patients undergoing hip hemiarthroplasty, with most requiring further surgery. Appropriate services should be implemented to allow timely referral for orthopaedic assessment, and enable the early identification and treatment of postoperative complications.
doi:10.1308/003588413X13511609958334
PMCID: PMC4132502  PMID: 23676812
Complications; Hemiarthroplasty; Failure; Femoral neck fracture; Follow-up; Mortality

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