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1.  Dual-mobility cups for revision due to instability are associated with a low rate of re-revisions due to dislocation 
Acta Orthopaedica  2012;83(6):566-571.
Background and purpose
Revision total hip arthroplasty (THA) due to recurrent dislocations is associated with a high risk of persistent instability. We hypothesized that the use of dual-mobility cups would reduce the risk of re-revision due to dislocation after revision THA.
Patients and methods
228 THA cup revisions (in 228 patients) performed due to recurrent dislocations and employing a specific dual-mobility cup (Avantage) were identified in the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed with re-revision due to dislocation as the primary endpoint and re-revision for any reason as the secondary endpoint. Cox regression models were fitted in order to calculate the influence of various covariates on the risk of re-revision.
Results
58 patients (25%) had been revised at least once prior to the index cup revision. The surgical approach at the index cup revision was lateral in 99 cases (44%) and posterior in 124 cases (56%). Median follow-up was 2 (0–6) years after the index cup revision, and by then 18 patients (8%) had been re-revised for any reason. Of these, 4 patients (2%) had been re-revised due to dislocation. Survival after 2 years with the endpoint revision of any component due to dislocation was 99% (95% CI: 97–100), and it was 93% (CI: 90–97) with the endpoint revision of any component for any reason. Risk factors for subsequent re-revision for any reason were age between 50–59 years at the time of the index cup revision (risk ratio (RR) = 5 when compared with age > 75, CI: 1–23) and previous revision surgery to the relevant joint (RR = 1.7 per previous revision, CI: 1–3).
Interpretation
The risk of re-revision due to dislocation after insertion of dual-mobility cups during revision THA performed for recurrent dislocations appears to be low in the short term. Since most dislocations occur early after revision THA, we believe that this device adequately addresses the problem of recurrent instability. Younger age and prior hip revision surgery are risk factors for further revision surgery. However, problems such as potentially increased liner wear and subsequent aseptic loosening may be associated with the use of such devices in the long term.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2012.742395
PMCID: PMC3555442  PMID: 23116439
2.  What Factors Affect Posterior Dislocation Distance in THA? 
Background
Dislocation remains common after total hip arthroplasty. Efforts have been made to identify and minimize risk factors. One such factor, jump distance, or the distance the femoral head must travel before dislocating, has been poorly characterized with respect to three-dimensional kinematics.
Questions/purposes
We therefore determined: (1) the three-dimensional stability of four different component designs; (2) whether the degree of abduction and anteversion affects the stability; (3) whether pelvic inclination angles affected stability; and (4) which combination of these three factors had the greatest stability.
Methods
We created a positionable three-dimensional model of a THA. Acetabular components were modeled in various abduction and anteversion angles and in two different pelvic inclinations which simulate standing and chair-rising activities.
Results
The posterior horizontal dislocation distance increased as inclination angle and femoral head size increased. The 48-mm resurfacing typically had lower jump distances and was at risk of posterior edge loading at 30° inclination. The highest jump distance for all positions and activities occurred with the dual-mobility bearing.
Conclusion
These findings suggest that monoblock cups require extremely accurate positioning for low dislocation risk and that pelvic orientation may increase dislocation risks.
Clinical Relevance
As a result of the dual-mobility designs having the greatest resistance to dislocation, these cups may be appropriate for patients who are at risk for dislocation in difficult primary situations and in revision hip arthroplasty procedures in which proper component orientation may be less likely to be achieved.
doi:10.1007/s11999-012-2559-1
PMCID: PMC3549146  PMID: 22956235
3.  Metal-on-Metal Total Hip Resurfacing Arthroplasty 
Executive Summary
Objective
The objective of this review was to assess the safety and effectiveness of metal on metal (MOM) hip resurfacing arthroplasty for young patients compared with that of total hip replacement (THR) in the same population.
Clinical Need
Total hip replacement has proved to be very effective for late middle-aged and elderly patients with severe degenerative diseases of the hips. As indications for THR began to include younger patients and those with a more active life style, the longevity of the implant became a concern. Evidence suggests that these patients experience relatively higher rates of early implant failure and the need for revision. The Swedish hip registry, for example, has demonstrated a survival rate in excess of 80% at 20 years for those aged over 65 years, whereas this figure was 33% by 16 years in those aged under 55 years.
Hip resurfacing arthroplasty is a bone-conserving alternative to THR that restores normal joint biomechanics and load transfer. The technique has been used around the world for more than 10 years, specifically in the United Kingdom and other European countries.
The Technology
Metal-on-metal hip resurfacing arthroplasty is an alternative procedure to conventional THR in younger patients. Hip resurfacing arthroplasty is less invasive than THR and addresses the problem of preserving femoral bone stock at the initial operation. This means that future hip revisions are possible with THR if the initial MOM arthroplasty becomes less effective with time in these younger patients. The procedure involves the removal and replacement of the surface of the femoral head with a hollow metal hemisphere, which fits into a metal acetabular cup.
Hip resurfacing arthroplasty is a technically more demanding procedure than is conventional THR. In hip resurfacing, the femoral head is retained, which makes it much more difficult to access the acetabular cup. However, hip resurfacing arthroplasty has several advantages over a conventional THR with a small (28 mm) ball. First, the large femoral head reduces the chance of dislocation, so that rates of dislocation are less than those with conventional THR. Second, the range of motion with hip resurfacing arthroplasty is higher than that achieved with conventional THR.
A variety of MOM hip resurfacing implants are used in clinical practice. Six MOM hip resurfacing implants have been issued licences in Canada.
Review Strategy
A search of electronic bibliographies (OVID Medline, Medline In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Embase, Cochrane CENTRAL and DSR, INAHTA) was undertaken to identify evidence published from Jan 1, 1997 to October 27, 2005. The search was limited to English-language articles and human studies. The literature search yielded 245 citations. Of these, 11 met inclusion criteria (9 for effectiveness, 2 for safety).
The result of the only reported randomized controlled trial on MOM hip resurfacing arthroplasty could not be included in this assessment, because it used a cemented acetabular component, whereas in the new generation of implants, a cementless acetabular component is used. After omitting this publication, only case series remained.
Summary of Findings
 
Health Outcomes
The Harris hip score and SF-12 are 2 measures commonly used to report health outcomes in MOM hip resurfacing arthroplasty studies. Other scales used are the Oxford hip score and the University of California Los Angeles hip score.
The case series showed that the mean revision rate of MOM hip resurfacing arthroplasty is 1.5% and the incidence of femoral neck fracture is 0.67%. Across all studies, 2 cases of osteonecrosis were reported. Four studies reported improvement in Harris hip scores. However, only 1 study reported a statistically significant improvement. Three studies reported improvement in SF-12 scores, of which 2 reported a significant improvement. One study reported significant improvement in UCLA hip score. Two studies reported postoperative Oxford hip scores, but no preoperative values were reported.
None of the reviewed studies reported procedure-related deaths. Four studies reported implant survival rates ranging from 94.4% to 99.7% for a follow-up period of 2.8 to 3.5 years. Three studies reported on the range of motion. One reported improvement in all motions including flexion, extension, abduction-adduction, and rotation, and another reported improvement in flexion. Yet another reported improvement in range of motion for flexion abduction-adduction and rotation arc. However, the author reported a decrease in the range of motion in the arc of flexion in patients with Brooker class III or IV heterotopic bone (all patients were men).
Safety of Metal-on-Metal Hip Resurfacing Arthroplasty
There is a concern about metal wear debris and its systemic distribution throughout the body. Detectable metal concentrations in the serum and urine of patients with metal hip implants have been described as early as the 1970s, and this issue is still controversial after 35 years.
Several studies have reported high concentration of cobalt and chromium in serum and/or urine of the patients with metal hip implants. Potential toxicological effects of the elevated metal ions have heightened concerns about safety of MOM bearings. This is of particular concern in young and active patients in whom life expectancy after implantation is long.
Since 1997, 15 studies, including 1 randomized clinical trial, have reported high levels of metal ions after THR with metal implants. Some of these studies have reported higher metal levels in patients with loose implants.
Adverse Biological Effects of Cobalt and Chromium
Because patients who receive a MOM hip arthroplasty are shown to be exposed to high concentrations of metallic ions, the Medical Advisory Secretariat searched the literature for reports of adverse biological effects of cobalt and chromium. Cobalt and chromium make up the major part of the metal articulations; therefore, they are a focus of concern.
Risk of Cancer
To date, only one study has examined the incidence of cancer after MOM and polyethylene on metal total hip arthroplasties. The results were compared to that of general population in Finland. The mean duration of follow-up for MOM arthroplasty was 15.7 years; for polyethylene arthroplasty, it was 12.5 years. The standardized incidence ratio for all cancers in the MOM group was 0.95 (95% CI, 0.79–1.13). In the polyethylene on metal group it was 0.76 (95% CI, 0.68–0.86). The combined standardized incidence ratio for lymphoma and leukemia in the patients who had MOM THR was 1.59 (95% CI, 0.82–2.77). It was 0.59 (95% CI, 0.29–1.05) for the patients who had polyethylene on metal THR. Patients with MOM THR had a significantly higher risk of leukemia. All patients who had leukemia were aged over than 60 years.
Cobalt Cardiotoxicity
 
Epidemiological Studies of Myocardiopathy of Beer Drinkers
An unusual type of myocardiopathy, characterized by pericardial effusion, elevated hemoglobin concentrations, and congestive heart failure, occurred as an epidemic affecting 48 habitual beer drinkers in Quebec City between 1965 and 1966. This epidemic was directly related the consumption of a popular beer containing cobalt sulfate. The epidemic appeared 1 month after cobalt sulfate was added to the specific brewery, and no further cases were seen a month after this specific chemical was no longer used in making this beer. A beer of the same name is made in Montreal, and the only difference at that time was that the Quebec brand of beer contained about 10 times more cobalt sulphate. Cobalt has been added to some Canadian beers since 1965 to improve the stability of the foam but it has been added in larger breweries only to draught beer. However, in small breweries, such as those in Quebec City, separate batches were not brewed for bottle and draught beer; therefore, cobalt was added to all of the beer processed in this brewery.
In March 1966, a committee was appointed under the chairmanship of the Deputy Minister of Health for Quebec that included members of the department of forensic medicine of Quebec’s Ministry of Justice, epidemiologists, members of Food and Drug Directorate of Ottawa, toxicologists, biomedical researchers, pathologists, and members of provincial police. Epidemiological studies were carried out by the Provincial Ministry of Health and the Quebec City Health Department.
The association between the development of myocardiopathy and the consumption of the particular brand of beer was proven. The mortality rate of this epidemic was 46.1% and those who survived were desperately ill, and recovered only after a struggle for their lives.
Similar cases were seen in Omaha (Nebraska). The epidemic started after a cobalt additive was used in 1 of the beers marketed in Nebraska. Sixty-four patients with the clinical diagnosis of alcoholic myocardiopathy were seen during an 18-month period (1964–1965). Thirty of these patients died. The first patient became ill within 1 month after cobalt was added to the beer, and the last patient was seen within 1 month of withdrawal of cobalt.
A similar epidemic occurred in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Between 1964 and 1967, 42 patients with acute heart failure were admitted to a hospital in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Twenty of these patients were drinking 6 to 30 bottles per day of a particular brand of beer exclusively. The other 14 patients also drank the same brand of beer, but not exclusively. The mortality rate from the acute illness was 18%, but late deaths accounted for a total mortality rate of 43%. Examination of the tissue from these patients revealed markedly abnormal changes in myofibrils (heart muscles), mitochondria, and sarcoplasmic reticulum.
In Belgium, a similar epidemic was reported in 1966, in which, cobalt was used in some Belgian beers. There was a difference in mortality between the Canadian or American epidemic and this series. Only 1 of 24 patients died, 1.5 years after the diagnosis. In March 1965, at an international meeting in Brussels, a new heart disease in chronic beer drinkers was described. This disease consists of massive pericardial effusion, low cardiac output, raised venous pressure, and polycythemia in some cases. This syndrome was thought to be different from the 2 other forms of alcoholic heart disease (beriberi and a form characterized by myocardial fibrosis).
The mystery of the above epidemics as stated by investigators is that the amount of cobalt added to the beer was below the therapeutic doses used for anemia. For example, 24 pints of Quebec brand of beer in Quebec would contain 8 mg of cobalt chloride, whereas an intake of 50 to 100 mg of cobalt as an antianemic agent has been well tolerated. Thus, greater cobalt intake alone does not explain the occurrence of myocardiopathy. It seems that there are individual differences in cobalt toxicity. Other features, like subclinical alcoholic heart disease, deficient diet, and electrolyte imbalance could have been precipitating factors that made these patients susceptible to cobalt’s toxic effects.
In the Omaha epidemic, 60% of the patients had weight loss, anorexia, and occasional vomiting and diarrhea 2 to 6 months before the onset of cardiac symptoms. In the Quebec epidemic, patients lost their appetite 3 to 6 months before the diagnosis of myocardiopathy and developed nausea in the weeks before hospital admission. In the Belgium epidemic, anorexia was one of the most predominant symptoms at the time of diagnosis, and the quality and quantity of food intake was poor. Alcohol has been shown to increase the uptake of intracoronary injected cobalt by 47%. When cobalt enters the cells, calcium exits; this shifts the cobalt to calcium ratio. The increased uptake of cobalt in alcoholic patients may explain the high incidence of cardiomyopathies in beer drinkers’ epidemics.
As all of the above suggest, it may be that prior chronic exposure to alcohol and/or a nutritionally deficient diet may have a marked synergistic effect with the cardiotoxicity of cobalt.
Conclusions
MOM hip resurfacing arthroplasty has been shown to be an effective arthroplasty procedure as tested in younger patients.
However, evidence for effectiveness is based only on 7 case series with short duration of follow-up (2.8–3.5 years). There are no RCTs or other well-controlled studies that compare MOM hip resurfacing with THR.
Revision rates reported in the MOM studies using implants currently licensed in Canada (hybrid systems, uncemented acetabular, and cemented femoral) range from 0.3% to 3.6% for a mean follow-up ranging from 2.8 to 3.5 years.
Fracture of femoral neck is not very common; it occurs in 0.4% to 2.2% of cases (as observed in a short follow-up period).
All the studies that measured health outcomes have reported improvement in Harris Hip and SF-12 scores; 1 study reported significant reduction in pain and improvement in function, and 2 studies reported significant improvement in SF-12 scores. One study reported significant improvement in UCLA Hip scores.
Concerns remain on the potential adverse effects of metal ions. Longer-term follow-up data will help to resolve the inconsistency of findings on adverse effects, including toxicity and carcinogenicity.
Ontario-Based Economic Analysis
The device cost for MOM ranges from $4,300 to $6,000 (Cdn). Traditional hip replacement devices cost about $2,000 (Cdn). Using Ontario Case Costing Initiative data, the total estimated costs for hip resurfacing surgery including physician fees, device fees, follow-up consultation, and postsurgery rehabilitation is about $15,000 (Cdn).
Cost of Total Hip Replacement Surgery in Ontario
MOM hip arthroplasty is generally recommended for patients aged under 55 years because its bone-conserving advantage enables patients to “buy time” and hence helps THRs to last over the lifetime of the patient. In 2004/2005, 15.9% of patients who received THRs were aged 55 years and younger. It is estimated that there are from 600 to 1,000 annual MOM hip arthroplasty surgeries in Canada with an estimated 100 to 150 surgeries in Ontario. Given the increased public awareness of this device, it is forecasted that demand for MOM hip arthroplasty will steadily increase with a conservative estimate of demand rising to 1,400 cases by 2010 (Figure 10). The net budget impact over a 5-year period could be $500,000 to $4.7 million, mainly because of the increasing cost of the device.
Projected Number of Metal-on-Metal Hip Arthroplasty Surgeries in Ontario: to 2010
PMCID: PMC3379532  PMID: 23074495
4.  Head size and dislocation rate in primary total hip arthroplasty 
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics  2013;47(5):443-448.
Background:
Dislocation after total hip arthroplasty (THA) has a multifactorial etiology with variables such as surgical approach, component orientation and position, type of cup, stem and head size. Review of the literature regarding the relationship of head size and dislocation rate in THA is suggestive that large femoral head size is associated with lower dislocation rate after THA. However, limited data is available as a proof of this hypothesis. The purpose of this study was to determine that the use of large head size would lead to a decreased incidence of dislocations following THA.
Materials and Methods:
317 primary THAs were performed using the posterolateral approach with posterior soft-tissue repair between January 2006 and December 2009. Cases were divided into two groups (A and B). Femoral head diameter size 36 mm was used in 163 THA in group A and 28 mm in 154 THA in group B. Average period of followup being 2 years (6 month to 4 years). Patients were routinely followed at definite intervals and were specifically assessed for dislocation.
Results:
One or more dislocations occurred in 11 out of 317 hips with the overall rate of dislocation being 3.47%. Dislocation rate was 0.6% in 36 mm head size and 6.49% with 28 mm head size (P value is 0.0107). Keeping the stem design variable as a constant, the difference in the rate of dislocation between the two groups was again found to be statistically significant for both un-cemented and cemented stem.
Conclusion:
Dislocation rate decreased significantly as the size of the head increased in primary THA. However, longer followup is necessary as rate of dislocation or in vivo highly cross linked poly failure or fracture may increase in future affecting the rate of dislocations in primary THA.
doi:10.4103/0019-5413.118198
PMCID: PMC3796915  PMID: 24133302
Dislocation; head size; primary total hip arthroplasty; revision
5.  Effect of femoral head size on risk of revision for dislocation after total hip arthroplasty 
Acta Orthopaedica  2013;84(4):342-347.
Background and purpose
Previous population-based registry studies have shown that larger femoral head size is associated with reduced risk of revision for dislocation. However, the previous data have not included large numbers of hip resurfacing arthroplasties or large metal-on-metal (> 36-mm) femoral head arthroplasties. We evaluated the association between femoral component head size and the risk of revision for dislocation after THA by using Finnish Arthroplasty Register data.
Patients and methods
42,379 patients who were operated during 1996–2010 fulfilled our criteria. 18 different cup/stem combinations were included. The head-size groups studied (numbers of cases) were 28 mm (23,800), 32 mm (4,815), 36 mm (3,320), and > 36 mm (10,444). Other risk factors studied were sex, age group (18–49 years, 50–59 years, 60–69 years, 70–79 years, and > 80 years), and time period of operation (1996–2000, 2001–2005, 2006–2010).
Results
The adjusted risk ratio in the Cox model for a revision operation due to dislocation was 0.40 (95% CI: 0.26–0.62) for 32-mm head size, 0.41 (0.24–0.70) for 36-mm head size, and 0.09 (0.05–0.17) for > 36-mm head size compared to implants with a head size of 28 mm.
Interpretation
Larger femoral heads clearly reduce the risk of dislocation. The difference in using heads of > 36 mm as opposed to 28-mm heads for the overall revision rate at 10 years follow-up is about 2%. Thus, although attractive from a mechanical point of view, based on recent less favorable clinical outcome data on these large heads, consisting mainly of metal-on-metal prostheses, one should be cautious using these implants.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2013.810518
PMCID: PMC3768031  PMID: 23799348
6.  Is there added risk in resurfacing a femoral head with cysts? 
Background
Femoral head cysts have been identified as a risk factor for early femoral failures after metal-on-metal hip resurfacing arthroplasty (HRA) based on limited scientific data. However, we routinely performed HRA if less than 1/3 of the femoral head appeared destroyed by cysts on the preoperative radiograph. This study was undertaken to analyze whether there was an added risk of early femoral failures in HRA when femoral head cysts were present.
Methods
This retrospective case-control study included 939 MOM HRAs operated by a single surgeon with use of the posterior minimally invasive surgical (MIS) approach between November 2005 and January 2009. Patients with all diagnoses except osteonecrosis were included. Among them, 117 HRAs had femoral head cysts ≥ 1 cm identified in surgery. All cysts were treated with bone grafting using acetabular reamings packed into the cavitary defect (instead of filling the cysts with cement). The control group, which had no cyst observed at the time of surgery, was randomly selected from our database using computer algorithms to match those cases in the study group for the parameters of surgical date, age, gender, body mass index, diagnosis, femoral fixation method, and the size of the femoral component.
Results
The minimum follow-up was 24 months for both groups. The early femoral failure rate in the study group was 3/117 (2.6%) and 0/117 in the control group; there was no statistical difference between these two groups (P = 0.08). In the study group, there were two femoral neck fractures (revised): both occurred in patients having a cyst size of 1 cm3; and there was one femoral component loosening at 3-year follow up in a patient having a cyst size of 2 cm3.
Conclusion
Although the risk of early femoral failures among the group with cysts appeared higher than the group without cysts, we could not demonstrate a significant statistical difference between the two groups. It is possible that bone grafting cysts rather than cementing them may account for the low failure rate, and that this technique may minimize the risk of resurfacing a femoral head with cysts.
doi:10.1186/1749-799X-6-55
PMCID: PMC3216843  PMID: 22004681
7.  Minimum Ten-Year Follow-Up of Cemented Total Hip Replacement in Patients with Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head 
Between November 1970 and September 1984 the senior author performed fifty-three consecutive total hip arthroplasties with cement in forty-one patients with the diagnosis of osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Five hips in three patients with failed renal transplants requiring chronic hemodialysis were excluded. At the time of final review, a minimum of ten years after the procedure, twenty-one patients (twenty-eight hips) were living, fifteen patients (eighteen hips) had died, and two patients (two hips) were lost to followup. A minimum ten-year follow-up radiograph was obtained on twenty-two (79%) of the hips in surviving patients.
During the follow-up period 17.4% of hips (eight hips) required revision: 3.0% (six hips) for aseptic loosening, 2.2% (one hip) for sepsis, and 2.2% (one hip) for recurrent dislocation. All eight revisions occurred in patients living at time of final review, giving a revision prevalence of 22.9% (17.1% for aseptic loosening, 2.9% for sepsis, and 2.9% for recurrent dislocation) in patients surviving ten years.
The prevalence of revision of the femoral component for aseptic loosening was 6.5% (three hips) for all hips and 9.1% (three hips) in patients surviving at least ten years. The prevalence of femoral aseptic loosening, defined as those components revised for aseptic loosening and those that demonstrated definite or probable radiographic loosening, was 13.0% (six hips) for all hips and 28.6% (six hips) for hips with at least ten-year radiographic follow-up. The prevalence of revision of the acetabular component for aseptic loosening was 13.0% (six hips) for all hips and 18.2% (six hips) in patients surviving at least ten years. The prevalence of acetabular aseptic loosening was 15.2% (seven hips) for all hips and 29.2% (seven hips) for hips with at least ten-year radiographic follow-up.
In patients with osteonecrosis of the femoral head survivorship was significantly inferior to that in the senior author's overall patient population with regard to revision for aseptic loosening (p=0.019), revision for acetabular loosening (p=0.01), revision for femoral loosening (p=0.008), and aseptic femoral loosening (p=0.004). Survivorship to aseptic acetabular loosening was not significantly different (p=0.32). Young age at the time of surgery significantly increased the risk of subsequent component loosening (p<0.008) and revision due to aseptic loosening (p<0.002).
These findings demonstrate the relatively poor durability of cemented total hip arthroplasty in patients with osteonecrosis of the femoral head as compared to patients with other diagnoses and suggest that the younger age in this patient population compromises results.
PMCID: PMC1888371  PMID: 12180617
8.  The direct anterior approach: initial experience of a minimally invasive technique for total hip arthroplasty 
Background
Less invasive approaches for hip arthroplasty have been developed in order to decrease traumatisation of soft tissue and shorten hospital stay. However, the benefits with a new technique can be at the expense of a new panorama of problems. This manuscript describes, with emphasis on postoperative complications, our experience from the first 200 cases of unilateral hip replacement using the direct anterior minimally invasive (MIS) approach.
Methods
A straight incision in front of the greater trochanter was used and the tensor muscle was approached subfascially and retracted laterally. The joint was opened and the femoral head was removed. Usually excellent acetabular exposure was obtained. In order to get access to the proximal femur, the hip capsule was released posterolaterally so that the femur could be lifted using a special retractor behind the tip of the trochanter. After insertion of the prostheses, the wound was closed using running sutures in the fascia overlying the tensor, sub- and intracutaneously.
Results
There was a small influence of BMI on the duration of surgery, and obese patients tended to have the cup positioned at a higher degree of deviation. There were in total 17 complications of which 5 necessitated revision surgery; 3 peroperative femoral fractures and 2 dislocations. Another 4 dislocations were treated with closed reduction and did not recur. 3 cases of nerve injury were noted, all resolved within 12 months. Three cases of DVT were diagnosed as well as 2 cases of postoperative infection; none of these led to chronic disability.
Conclusions
The technique is perhaps more technically demanding than the lateral approaches used today due to the somewhat limited surgical exposure. Morbidly obese or very muscular patients as well as patients with a short femoral neck or acetabular protrusion can represent particular problems. Our results indicate that there are certain risks when adopting this procedure but the complications noted are avoidable.
doi:10.1186/1749-799X-7-17
PMCID: PMC3419665  PMID: 22533964
MIS arthroplasty; Anterior incision; Complication; THR
9.  Risk factors for revision of primary total hip arthroplasty: a systematic review 
Background
Numerous papers have been published examining risk factors for revision of primary total hip arthroplasty (THA), but there have been no comprehensive systematic literature reviews that summarize the most recent findings across a broad range of potential predictors.
Methods
We performed a PubMed search for papers published between January, 2000 and November, 2010 that provided data on risk factors for revision of primary THA. We collected data on revision for any reason, as well as on revision for aseptic loosening, infection, or dislocation. For each risk factor that was examined in at least three papers, we summarize the number and direction of statistically significant associations reported.
Results
Eighty-six papers were included in our review. Factors found to be associated with revision included younger age, greater comorbidity, a diagnosis of avascular necrosis (AVN) as compared to osteoarthritis (OA), low surgeon volume, and larger femoral head size. Male sex was associated with revision due to aseptic loosening and infection. Longer operating time was associated with revision due to infection. Smaller femoral head size was associated with revision due to dislocation.
Conclusions
This systematic review of literature published between 2000 and 2010 identified a range of demographic, clinical, surgical, implant, and provider variables associated with the risk of revision following primary THA. These findings can inform discussions between surgeons and patients relating to the risks and benefits of undergoing total hip arthroplasty.
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-13-251
PMCID: PMC3541060  PMID: 23241396
Total hip arthroplasty; Revision; Failure; Risk factor; Aseptic loosening; Infection; Dislocation; Systematic review
10.  Risk Factors for Dislocation After Revision Total Hip Arthroplasty 
Background
Despite dislocation being the most frequent complication after revision THA, risk factors for its occurrence are not completely understood.
Questions/purposes
We therefore (1) determined the overall risk of dislocation after revision THA in a large series of revision THAs using contemporary revision techniques, (2) identified patient-related risk factors predicting dislocation, and (3) identified surgical variables predicting dislocation.
Methods
We performed 1211 revision THAs between June 2004 and October 2010 in 576 women and 415 men who had a mean age of 64.7 years (range, 25–95 years) at time of surgery. Forty-six (4%) were lost to followup and 13 died (1%), leaving 1152 hips followed for a minimum of 90 days (mean, 2 years; range, 90 days to 7.1 years). Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify risk factors for dislocation. The model was also tested on patients followed for a minimum 1 year to assess any difference in longer followup.
Results
One hundred thirteen patients dislocated over the followup period (9.8%). Factors that were different between patients who dislocated and those who remained stable included a history of at least one previous dislocation (odds ratio [OR] = 2.673), abductor deficiency (OR = 2.672), and Paprosky acetabulum class (OR = 1.522). Use of a constrained liner (OR = 0.503) and increased femoral head size (OR = 0.942) were protective against dislocation, while with longer followup a constrained liner was no longer significant.
Conclusions
Dislocation remains a common problem after revision THA. Identifying these risk factors can assist in patient education and surgical planning. Recognition of these risk factors in both patient type and surgical strategy is important for the surgeon performing revision THA and for minimizing these risks.
Level of Evidence
Level IV, therapeutic study. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-012-2561-7
PMCID: PMC3549187  PMID: 22956236
11.  Dislocation of total hip replacement in patients with fractures of the femoral neck 
Acta Orthopaedica  2009;80(2):184-189.
Background Total hip replacement is increasingly used in active, relatively healthy elderly patients with fractures of the femoral neck. Dislocation of the prosthesis is a severe complication, and there is still controversy regarding the optimal surgical approach and its influence on stability. We analyzed factors influencing the stability of the total hip replacement, paying special attention to the surgical approach.
Patients and methods We included 713 consecutive hips in a series of 698 patients (573 females) who had undergone a primary total hip replacement (n = 311) for a non-pathological, displaced femoral neck fracture (Garden III or IV) or a secondary total hip replacement (n = 402) due to a fracture-healing complication after a femoral neck fracture. We used Cox regression to evaluate factors associated with prosthetic dislocation after the operation. Age, sex, indication for surgery, the surgeon’s experience, femoral head size, and surgical approach were tested as independent factors in the model.
Results The overall dislocation rate was 6%. The anterolateral surgical approach was associated with a lower risk of dislocation than the posterolateral approach with or without posterior repair (2%, 12%, and 14%, respectively (p < 0.001)). The posterolateral approach was the only factor associated with a significantly increased risk of dislocation, with a hazards ratio (HR) of 6 (2–14) for the posterolateral approach with posterior repair and of 6 (2–16) without posterior repair.
Interpretation In order to minimize the risk of dislocation, we recommend the use of the anterolateral approach for total hip replacement in patients with femoral neck fractures.
doi:10.3109/17453670902930024
PMCID: PMC2823165  PMID: 19404800
12.  Dislocation after total hip arthroplasty with 28 and 32-mm femoral head 
Background
Dislocation after primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) is a significant complication that occurs in 2–5% of patients. It has been postulated that increasing the femoral head diameter may reduce the risk of dislocation. The purpose of this paper is to report our experiences with a change from a 28 to a 32-mm femoral head.
Materials and methods
The retrospective cohort study includes 2572 primary THA performed with a 28 or 32 mm diameter femoral head in the period February 2002 to July 2009. All patients were operated with a posterolateral approach, and all except 18 were operated because of osteoarthritis. Cemented stems were used in 1991 cases and uncemented stems in 581 cases. Cemented cups were used in 2,230 cases and uncemented cups in 342 cases. The patients have been routinely followed for 1–8 years in the 28-mm femoral head group and from 0.5–7.5 years in the 32 femoral head group. We defined a dislocation as an event in which the hip required reduction by a physician.
Results
Dislocation occurred in 49 hips with a 28-mm femoral head and in 4 hips with a 32-mm femoral head with an odds ratio of 6.06 (95% CI = 2.05–17.8) (P < 0.001). Otherwise, there were no significant associations between sex, age, diagnosis and type of prosthesis.
Conclusions
Multivariate analyses of patients operated at our hospital indicate a significant association between femoral head diameter and dislocation after THA. There were no significant associations between dislocation and sex, age, diagnosis, or type of prosthesis.
doi:10.1007/s10195-010-0097-8
PMCID: PMC2896574  PMID: 20505973
Dislocation; Head size; Hip arthroplasty; Prosthesis
13.  Dislocation after total hip arthroplasty with 28 and 32-mm femoral head 
Background
Dislocation after primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) is a significant complication that occurs in 2–5% of patients. It has been postulated that increasing the femoral head diameter may reduce the risk of dislocation. The purpose of this paper is to report our experiences with a change from a 28 to a 32-mm femoral head.
Materials and methods
The retrospective cohort study includes 2572 primary THA performed with a 28 or 32 mm diameter femoral head in the period February 2002 to July 2009. All patients were operated with a posterolateral approach, and all except 18 were operated because of osteoarthritis. Cemented stems were used in 1991 cases and uncemented stems in 581 cases. Cemented cups were used in 2,230 cases and uncemented cups in 342 cases. The patients have been routinely followed for 1–8 years in the 28-mm femoral head group and from 0.5–7.5 years in the 32 femoral head group. We defined a dislocation as an event in which the hip required reduction by a physician.
Results
Dislocation occurred in 49 hips with a 28-mm femoral head and in 4 hips with a 32-mm femoral head with an odds ratio of 6.06 (95% CI = 2.05–17.8) (P < 0.001). Otherwise, there were no significant associations between sex, age, diagnosis and type of prosthesis.
Conclusions
Multivariate analyses of patients operated at our hospital indicate a significant association between femoral head diameter and dislocation after THA. There were no significant associations between dislocation and sex, age, diagnosis, or type of prosthesis.
doi:10.1007/s10195-010-0097-8
PMCID: PMC2896574  PMID: 20505973
Dislocation; Head size; Hip arthroplasty; Prosthesis
14.  Risk factor analysis for early femoral failure in metal-on-metal hip resurfacing arthroplasty: the effect of bone density and body mass index 
Background
The importance of appropriately selecting patients based on factors such as bone mineral density, body mass index, age, gender, and femoral component size has been demonstrated in many studies as an aid in decreasing the rate of revisions and improving the outcomes for patients after hip resurfacing arthroplasty (HRA); however, there are few published studies quantitatively specifying the potential risk factors that affect early femoral component failures. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the specific causes of early femoral component failures in hip resurfacing separately and more carefully in order to develop strategies to prevent these failures, rather than excluding groups of patients from this surgical procedure.
Methods
This retrospective study included 373 metal-on-metal HRAs performed by a single surgeon using the vascular sparing posterior minimally invasive surgical approach. The average length of follow-up was 30 ± 6 months. In order to understand the causes of early femoral failure rate, a multivariable logistic regression model was generated in order to analyze the effects of bone mineral density (T-score), gender, diagnosis, body mass index, femoral implant fixation type, age, and femoral component size.
Results
The average post-operative Harris hip score was 92 ± 11 points and the average post-operative UCLA score was 7 ± 2 points. There were three revisions due to femoral neck fracture and two for femoral component loosening. These occurred in two female and three male patients. In the multi-variable regression model, only T-score and body mass index showed significant effects on the failure rate of femoral components. Patients with a lower T-score and a higher body mass index had a significantly increased risk of early femoral component failure.
Conclusion
We recommend that dual energy x-ray absorptiometry scan T-score tests should be routinely performed on all hip resurfacing patients pre-operatively. If a patient has a low T-score (≤ -1.5), consideration should be given to additional precautions or treatments to alleviate his or her risk, especially when the patient has a higher body mass index (≥ 29 kg/m2).
doi:10.1186/1749-799X-7-1
PMCID: PMC3284462  PMID: 22233783
15.  Minimally Invasive Surgical Approaches and Traditional Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Meta-Analysis of Radiological and Complications Outcomes 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(5):e37947.
Background
Minimally invasive total hip arthroplasty (MITHA) remains considerably controversial. Limited visibility and prosthesis malposition increase the risk of post-surgical complications compared to those of the traditional method.
Methods
A meta-analysis was undertaken of all published databases up to May 2011. The studies were divided into four subgroups according to the surgical approach taken. The radiological outcomes and complications of minimally invasive surgery were compared to traditional total hip arthroplasty (TTHA) using risk ratio, mean difference, and standardized mean difference statistics.
Results
In five studies involving the posterolateral approach, no significant differences were found between the MITHA groups and the TTHA groups in the acetabular cup abduction angle (p = 0.41), acetabular anteversion (p = 0.96), and femoral prosthesis position (p = 0.83). However, the femoral offset was significantly increased (WMD = 3.00; 95% CI, 0.40–5.60; p = 0.02). Additionally, there were no significant differences among the complications in both the groups (dislocations, nerve injury, infection, deep vein thrombosis, proximal femoral fracture) and revision rate (p>0.05). In three studies involving the posterior approach, there were no significant differences in radiological outcomes or all other complications between MITHA or TTHA groups (p>0.05). Three studies involved anterolateral approach, while 2 studies used the lateral approach. However, the information from imaging and complications was not adequate for statistical analysis.
Conclusions
Posterior MITHA seems to be a safe surgical procedure, without the increased risk of post-operative complication rates and component malposition rates. The posterolateral approach THA may lead to increased femoral offset. The current data are not enough to reach a positive conclusion that lateral and anterolateral approaches will result in increased risks of adverse effects and complications at the prosthesis site.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0037947
PMCID: PMC3360020  PMID: 22655086
16.  Direction of hip arthroplasty dislocation in patients with femoral neck fractures 
International Orthopaedics  2010;34(5):641-647.
In order to prevent hip arthroplasty dislocations, information regarding the direction of the dislocation is important for accurate implant positioning and for optimising the postoperative regimens in relation to the surgical approach used. The aim of this study was to analyse the influence of the surgical approach on the direction of the dislocation in patients treated by a hemiarthroplasty (HA) or total hip arthroplasty (THA) after a femoral neck fracture. Fracture patients have a high risk for dislocations, and this issue has not been previously studied in a selected group of patients with a femoral neck fracture. We analysed the radiographs of the primary dislocation in 74 patients who had sustained a dislocation of their HA (n = 42) or THA (n = 32). In 42 patients an anterolateral (AL) surgical approach was used and in 32 a posterolateral (PL). The surgical approach significantly influenced the direction of dislocation in patients treated with HA (p < 0.001), while no such correlation was found after THA (p = 0.388). For THA patients there was a correlation between the mean angle of anteversion of the acetabular component and the direction of dislocation when comparing patients with anterior and posterior dislocations (p = 0.027). These results suggest that the surgical approach of a HA has an influence on the direction of dislocation, in contrast to THA where the position of the acetabular component seems to be of importance for the direction of dislocation in patients with femoral neck fractures.
doi:10.1007/s00264-009-0943-6
PMCID: PMC2903178  PMID: 20091307
17.  Effects of hydroxyapatite coating of cups used in hip revision arthroplasty 
Acta Orthopaedica  2012;83(5):427-435.
Background and purpose
Coating of acetabular revision implants with hydroxyapatite (HA) has been proposed to improve ingrowth and stability. We investigated whether HA coating of revision cups can reduce the risk of any subsequent re-revision.
Methods
We studied uncemented cups either with or without HA coating that were used at a primary acetabular revision and registered in the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register (SHAR). 2 such cup designs were identified: Harris-Galante and Trilogy, both available either with or without HA coating. These cups had been used as revision components in 1,780 revisions of total hip arthroplasties (THA) between 1986 and 2009. A Cox proportional hazards model including the type of coating, age at index revision, sex, cause of cup revision, cup design, the use of bone graft at the revision procedure, and the type of cup fixation at primary THA were used to calculate adjusted risk ratios (RRs with 95% CI) for re-revision for any reason or due to aseptic loosening.
Results
71% of the cups were coated with HA and 29% were uncoated. At a mean follow-up time of 6.9 (0–24) years, 159 (9%) of all 1,780 cups had been re-revised, mostly due to aseptic loosening (5%), dislocation (2%), or deep infection (1%). HA coating had no significant influence on the risk of re-revision of the cup for any reason (RR = 1.4, CI: 0.9–2.0) or due to aseptic loosening (RR = 1.1, 0.6–1.9). In contrast, HA coating was found to be a risk factor for isolated liner re-revision for any reason (RR = 1.8, CI: 1.01–3.3). Age below 60 years at the index cup revision, dislocation as the cause of the index cup revision, uncemented cup fixation at primary THA, and use of the Harris-Galante cup also increased the risk of re-revision of the cup. In separate analyses in which isolated liner revisions were excluded, bone grafting was found to be a risk factor for re-revision of the metal shell due to aseptic loosening (RR = 2.1, CI: 1.05–4.2).
Interpretation
We found no evidence to support the notion that HA coating improves the performance of the 2 studied cup designs in revision arthroplasty. In contrast, patient-related factors such as younger age and dislocation as the reason for cup revision, and technical factors such as the choice of revision cup were found to influence the risk of subsequent re-revision of the cup. The reason for inferior results after revision of uncemented cups is not known, but it is possible that these hips more often had pronounced bone loss at the index cup revision.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2012.720117
PMCID: PMC3488167  PMID: 22937978
18.  Recurrence of Dislocation Following Total Hip Arthroplasty Revision Using Dual Mobility Cups Was Rare in 180 Hips Followed Over 7 Years 
HSS Journal  2012;8(3):251-256.
Background
Dual mobility (DM) cups of mobile polyethylene were introduced to prevent total hip arthroplasty (THA) dislocation, but no large series with this design to treat recurrent instability have been reported.
Purpose
Our retrospective investigation ascertained the efficiency of DM cups in correction of recurrent dislocation and assessed any adverse effects.
Methods
One hundred eighty THAs with recurrent instability were revised to DM cups in 180 patients (mean age, 67.4 ± 11.7 years; range, 19 to 92 years). Thirty-one patients (17.2%) underwent at least one earlier THA revision, and 15 (10.3%) incurred non-union of the greater trochanter. Of the initial group in 2009, 145 patients had completed evaluations which included assessment of the Harris Hip Score and a radiographic assessment at a mean follow-up of 7.7 ± 2.2 years (range, 4 to 14 years). The rate of survival was calculated considering any reason for revision as failure.
Results
At follow-up, Harris hip score was 83.9 ± 16.1 (range, 21 to 100). Dislocation of the large articulation occurred in seven hips (4.8%), and only two recurred (1.4%) (one requiring additional revision). In addition, two intra-prosthetic dislocations of the small articulation (1.4%) were observed and needed revision surgery. The large number of earlier surgeries and non-union of the greater trochanter were related to recurrent instability. Two cups (1.4%) showed signs of definite loosening; six (4.1%) presented signs of possible loosening. Twenty-nine hips manifested femoral or acetabular osteolysis (20%), but only three were severe. Eight-year survival rate considering revision for any reason was 92.6% (95% CI, 85.5–96.4%).
Conclusions
This series indicates that DM cups are a viable option to treat recurrent THA instability. Their design provides a low risk of recurrent instability without increasing mechanical complications.
doi:10.1007/s11420-012-9301-0
PMCID: PMC3470678  PMID: 23144637
hip arthroplasty; instability; dual mobility; revision; bearing; wear; polyethylene
19.  Subcapital Correction Osteotomy for Malunited Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis 
Journal of pediatric orthopedics  2013;33(4):345-352.
Background
Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE), causing posterior and inferior displacement and retroversion of the femoral head, is a well-recognized etiology for femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and can lead to premature arthritis in the young adult. The treatment of malunited SCFE remains controversial. Surgical dislocation and subcapital correction osteotomy (SCO) has been described as a powerful method to correct the proximal femoral deformity.
Methods
Between January 2003 and January 2010, 11 patients (12 hips) with closed femoral physes and symptomatic FAI from malunited SCFE were treated with surgical dislocation and SCO. We performed a retrospective review of patient histories, physical exams, operative findings, and pre and postoperative anteroposterior (AP) and groin lateral (GLat) radiographs. Mean follow-up was 61 months.
Results
There were 4 female and 7 male patients with an average age of 15 years at the time of SCO. On the AP radiograph the mean inferior femoral head displacement (AP epiphyseal-neck angle) was significantly improved (-26° to -6°, p<0.001). On the groin lateral radiograph the mean posterior femoral head displacement (Lateral epiphyseal-neck angle) was significantly improved (-45° to -3°, p<0.001). The mean alpha angle was also significantly improved on both views (AP: 85° to 56°, P<0.001; GLat: 85° to 46°, p<0.001). Operative findings included one femoral osteochondral defect, 8 Outerbridge grade 3-4 acetabular cartilage lesions, and 10 labral lesions. Significant improvement of the mean Harris hip score (HHS) was seen at latest follow-up (54 to 77, p=0.016). Complications occurred in 4 of the 12 cases with AVN in two patients, a worse postoperative HHS in one patient, and failure of fixation treated successfully with revision open reduction internal fixation in one patient.
Conclusions
Subcapital correction osteotomy as an adjunct to surgical dislocation and osteochondroplasty can be used to correct the deformity of the proximal femur associated with malunited SCFE. Normalization of proximal femoral anatomy may postpone progression to severe osteoarthritis and thus delay the need for arthroplasty in this young patient population. However, surgeons and patients should be aware that the risks of this procedure in this population are significant.
doi:10.1097/BPO.0b013e31827d7e06
PMCID: PMC3648794  PMID: 23653020
20.  The risk of dislocation after total hip arthroplasty for fractures is decreased with retentive cups 
International Orthopaedics  2013;37(7):1219-1223.
Purpose
Total hip arthroplasty (THA) has been efficacious for treating hip fractures in healthy older patients. However, in those patients with fractures a widely variable prevalence of dislocation has been reported, partly because of varying durations of follow up for this specific end-point. The purpose of the present study was to determine the cumulative risk of dislocation in these patients with fractures and to investigate if retentive cups decrease the risk of dislocation.
Methods
Between 2000 and 2005, 325 patients with neck fracture underwent primary THA using a retentive (325 hips) cup. The results of these 325 acetabular cups were compared to 180 THA without retentive cups performed for neck fractures in the same hospital between 1995 and 2000 by the same surgical team. The mean age of the 505 patients was 75 years (range 65–85). All patients were followed for a minimum of five years for radiographic evidence of implant failure. The patients were followed at routine intervals and were specifically queried about dislocation. The cumulative risk of dislocation and recurrent dislocation was calculated with use of the Kaplan–Meier method.
Results
For patients without retentive cups, the cumulative risk of a first-time dislocation was 5 % at one month and 12 % at one year and then rose at a constant rate of approximately 1 % every year to 16 % at five years. For patients with retentive cups, the cumulative risk of a first-time dislocation was 1 % at one month, 2 % at one year and then did not changed at five years. There were no differences in the mortality rates or in loosening rates among the treatment groups. The rate of secondary surgery was highest in the group without retentive (10 % for recurrent dislocation) compared with 1 % in the group treated with retentive cups. In absence of retentive cups, multivariate analysis revealed that the relative risk of dislocation for female patients (as compared with male patients) was 2.1 and that the relative risk for patients who were 80 years old or more (as compared with those who were less than 80 years old) was 1.5. Two underlying diagnoses occurring during follow up—cognitively impaired patients or neurologic disease—were also associated with a significantly greater risk of dislocation in absence of retentive cup. For these patients the risk was also decreased with a retentive cup.
Conclusion
With standard cups the incidence of dislocation is highest in the first year after arthroplasty and then continues at a relatively constant rate for the life of the arthroplasty. Patients at highest risk are old female patients and those with a diagnosis of neurologic disease. Retentive cups in these patients are an effective technique to prevent post-operative hip dislocation.
doi:10.1007/s00264-013-1911-8
PMCID: PMC3685674  PMID: 23665654
21.  Surgical Technique: The Capsular Arthroplasty: A Useful But Abandoned Procedure for Young Patients With Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip 
Background
Codivilla in 1901, Hey Groves in 1926, and Colonna in 1932 described similar capsular arthroplasties—wrapping the capsule around the femoral head and reducing into the true acetabulum—to treat completely dislocated hips in children with dysplastic hips. However, these procedures were associated with relatively high rates of necrosis, joint stiffness, and subsequent revision procedures, and with the introduction of THA, the procedure vanished despite some hips with high functional scores over periods of up to 20 years. Dislocated or subluxated hips nonetheless continue to be seen in adolescents and young adults, and survival curves of THA decrease faster for young patients than for patients older than 60 years. Therefore, joint preservation with capsular arthroplasty may be preferable if function can be restored and complication rates reduced.
Description of Technique
We describe a one-stage procedure performed with a surgical hip dislocation and capsular arthroplasty. Various additional joint preservation procedures included relative neck lengthening for improved motion clearance and head size reduction, roof augmentation, and femoral shortening/derotation for containment and congruency.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed nine patients (one male, eight female; age range, 13–25 years) who had such procedures between 1977 and 2010. Function was assessed by the Harris hip score (HHS). Minimum followup was 1 year (median, 2 years; mean, 7.5 years; range, 1–27 years).
Results
At latest followup, the mean HHS was 84 (n = 7) (range, 78–94). One patient underwent THA after 27 years. Complications included one deep vein thrombosis and one successfully treated neck fracture.
Conclusions
Our data in these nine patients suggest capsular arthroplasty performed with a surgical hip dislocation and other appropriate adjunctive procedures is useful to treat dislocated hips in young patients with few complications. It may postpone THA.
Level of Evidence
Level IV, therapeutic study. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-012-2444-y
PMCID: PMC3462879  PMID: 22733187
22.  Is a Cementless Dual Mobility Socket in Primary THA a Reasonable Option? 
Background
Dislocation after THA continues to be relatively common. Dual mobility sockets have been associated with low dislocation rates, but it remains unclear whether their use in primary THA would not introduce additional complications.
Questions/Purposes
We therefore asked whether a current cementless dual mobility socket (1) reduced the dislocation rate after primary THA, (2) provided a pain-free and mobile hip, and (3) provided durable radiographic fixation of the acetabular component without any unique modes of failure.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed 168 patients who underwent primary THA using a dual mobility socket between January 2000 and June 2002. The average age at surgery was 67 years. We assessed the rate of dislocation, hip function, and acetabular fixation on serial radiographs. Of the 168 patients, 119 (71%) had clinical and radiographic evaluation at a minimum of 5 years (mean, 6 years; range, 5–8 years).
Results
A long-neck option left the base of the Morse taper uncovered in 53 hips. Four patients underwent revision for dislocation between the femoral head and the mobile insert (intraprosthetic dislocation) at a mean 6 years; all four revisions occurred among the 53 hips with an incompletely covered Morse taper.
Conclusions
A current cementless dual mobility socket was associated with a pain-free and mobile hip and durable acetabular fixation without dislocations if the long-neck option was not used. However, intraprosthetic dislocation related to contact at the femoral neck to mobile insert articulation required revision in four hips. Surgeons should be aware of this specific complication.
Level of Evidence
Level IV, therapeutic study. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-012-2395-3
PMCID: PMC3462877  PMID: 22639330
23.  The unstable total hip replacement 
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics  2008;42(3):252-259.
Background:
Dislocation is one of the most common complications of total hip arthroplasty with a reported dislocation rate of 3.2%. Despite increased experience with hip replacement, the overall rate has not yet changed. The aim of this paper is to review the most recent literature published on this topic and indexed in Medline, in order to clarify the main risk factors, and to standardize a treatment protocol of such an important complication of prosthetic surgery.
Materials and Methods:
Medline database was searched using key words: “hip dislocation”, “hip instability” from 1980-2007. Studies were eligible for review and included if they met the following criteria: (1) publication in English, (2) clinical trials (3) review papers.
Results:
The risk of first-time dislocation as a function of time after the surgery is not well understood. Most, but not all, series have demonstrated that the risk of dislocation is highest during the first few months after hip arthroplasty; however, first-time late dislocation can also occur many years after the procedure. Several risk factors were described, including the surgical approach, the diameter of the head, impingement, component malposition, insufficient abductor musculature. In addition, there are also many treatment options, such as long-term bracing after closed reduction, component reorientation, capsulorraphy, trochanteric advancement, increasing offset, exchange of the modular head and the polyethylene liner, insertion of constrained liner.
Conclusion:
Preventing hip dislocation is obviously the best strategy. Surgeons must take into account patient and surgical risk factors. For patients at high risk for dislocation the surgeon should accurately restore leg length and femoral offset; the use of larger femoral heads, posterior transosseous repair of the capsulotendinous envelope if posterior approach is chosen or the use of a lateral approach should be considered. Proper patient education and postoperative care are very important.
doi:10.4103/0019-5413.39667
PMCID: PMC2739467  PMID: 19753149
Dislocation; hip arthroplasty; revision
24.  Low Early and Late Dislocation Rates with 36- and 40-mm Heads in Patients at High Risk for Dislocation 
Background
Large (36- and 40-mm) femoral heads with highly crosslinked polyethylene liners were introduced to reduce the risk of dislocation after primary total hip arthroplasty (THA), but it is unclear whether the risk is reduced and whether there is osteolysis or liner fracture.
Questions/Purposes
We therefore determined (1) the incidence of early and late (> 5 years) dislocation; (2) the rate of femoral and acetabular component loosening and revision; and (3) the rate of liner fracture and pelvic osteolysis.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed 112 patients presumed at high risk for dislocation who had 122 primary THAs: 108 with 36-mm and 14 with 40-mm femoral heads. The risk factors were: age > 75 years (80 hips); proximal femur fracture (18); history of contralateral dislocation (two); history of alcohol abuse (two); large acetabulum > 60 mm (six); and other (14). Patients were evaluated for early (< 1 year) and late (> 5 years) dislocation; rate of reoperation; clinical result with Harris hip score; and standard radiographic analysis for radiolucent lines and osteolysis.
Results
The rate of early dislocation was 4% (five of 122 hips), all with a 36-mm head. There were no late dislocations in 74 hips followed for 5 to 10 years, no revision for acetabular or femoral loosening, and no liner fractured. There were no hips with pelvic osteolysis and seven hips with an acetabular radiolucent line.
Conclusions
The 36- and 40-mm femoral heads were associated with a low risk of dislocation in high-risk patients undergoing primary THA with no osteolysis or liner fracture.
Level of Evidence
Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of level of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-012-2379-3
PMCID: PMC3549174  PMID: 22576929
25.  Low Rate of Dislocation of Dual-mobility Cups in Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty 
Background
Dual-mobility (DM) cups were introduced to minimize the risk of THA dislocation. The overall rate of dislocation of DM cups (including both large and small articulations) is controversial and ranges from 0% to 5% in previous studies.
Questions/purposes
We therefore recorded (1) the dislocation rate, (2) loosening and osteolysis, and (3) subsequent related revisions with DM cups.
Methods
Between 1998 and 2003, 2480 primary THAs with DM cups were undertaken in 2179 patients. The mean age was 69 years (range, 19–94 years). This group underwent specific clinical and radiographic evaluation at a minimum followup of 0.17 years (mean, 7 years; range, 0.17–11 years) to assess dislocation, reoperation, osteolysis, and cup fixation.
Results
There were 22 dislocations (0.88%): 15 dislocations of large articulations (0.6%), with two (0.08%) recurring but only one requiring revision (0.04%), and seven intraprosthetic small articulation dislocations (0.28%), all needing revision surgery. At last followup, mean Harris hip score was 91 (range, 60–100); 2439 cups (98%) showed no signs of loosening; and 141 patients (145 hips) had osteolysis (6%). Osteolysis and cup loosening were more frequent in patients younger than 50 years at the time of surgery. The 10-year survivorship considering revision for any reason was 93% (95% CI, 91%–95%).
Conclusions
DM cups had a low dislocation rate in primary THA, with a limited frequency of adverse effects. We recommend DM cups to minimize dislocation in populations at high risk for instability, but they should be avoided in younger, active patients at higher risk for osteolysis.
Level of Evidence
Level IV, therapeutic study. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-013-2929-3
PMCID: PMC3825881  PMID: 23516032

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