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1.  Increased risk of revision of acetabular cups coated with hydroxyapatite 
Acta Orthopaedica  2010;81(1):53-59.
Background
Hydroxyapatite (HA) is the main inorganic component of bone, and HA coating is widely used on acetabular cups in hip arthroplasty. It has been suggested that this surface finish improves cup survival.
Methods
All patients registered in the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register between 1992 and 2007 with an uncemented acetabular implant that was available either with or without HA coating were identified. 8,043 total hip arthroplasties (THAs) with the most common cup types (Harris-Galante, Romanus, and Trilogy) were investigated. A Cox regression model including type of coating, age, sex, primary diagnosis, cup type, and type of stem fixation was used to calculate adjusted risk ratios (RRs) for the risk of revision.
Results
HA coating was a risk factor for cup revision due to aseptic loosening (adjusted RR 1.7; 95% CI: 1.3–2). Age at primary arthroplasty of < 50 years, a diagnosis of pediatric hip disease, the use of a cemented stem, and the Romanus and Harris-Galante cup types were also associated with statistically significantly increased risk of cup revision due to aseptic loosening.
Interpretation
Our findings question the routine use of HA-coated cups in primary total hip arthroplasty. With some designs, this practice may even increase the risk of loosening—resulting in revision surgery.
doi:10.3109/17453670903413178
PMCID: PMC2856204  PMID: 19968603
2.  Survival of uncemented acetabular monoblock cups 
Acta Orthopaedica  2012;83(3):214-219.
Background and purpose
Monoblock acetabular cups represent a subtype of uncemented cups with the polyethylene liner molded into a metal shell, thus eliminating—or at least minimizing—potential backside wear. We hypothesized that the use of mono​block cups could reduce the incidence of osteolysis and aseptic loosening, and thus improve survival compared to modular designs.
Patients and methods
We identified all 210 primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) procedures in the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register that used uncemented monoblock cups during the period 1999–2010. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses with adjustment for age, sex, and other variables were used to calculate survival rates and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of the revision risk for any reason. 1,130 modular cups, inserted during the same time period, were used as a control group.
Results
There was a nearly equal sex distribution in both groups. Median age at the index operation was 47 years in the monoblock group and 56 years in the control group (p < 0.001). The cumulative 5-year survival with any revision as the endpoint was 95% (95% CI: 91–98) for monoblock cups and 97% (CI: 96–98) for modular cups (p = 0.6). The adjusted HR for revision of monoblock cups compared to modular cups was 2 (CI: 0.8–6; p = 0.1). The use of 28-mm prosthesis heads rather than 22-mm heads reduced the risk of cup revision (HR = 0.2, CI: 0.1–0.5; p = 0.001).
Interpretation
Both cups showed good medium-term survival rates. There was no statistically significant difference in revision risk between the cup designs. Further review of the current patient population is warranted to determine the long-term durability and risk of revision of monoblock cup designs.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2012.688726
PMCID: PMC3369144  PMID: 22574820
3.  Effects of hydroxyapatite coating on survival of an uncemented femoral stem 
Acta Orthopaedica  2011;82(4):399-404.
Background and purpose
Hydroxyapatite (HA) is widely used as a coating for uncemented total hip arthroplasty components. This has been suggested to improve implant ingrowth and long-term stability. However, the evidence behind the use of HA coating on femoral stems is ambiguous. We investigated survival of an uncemented, tapered titanium femoral stem that was available either with or without HA coating (Bi-Metric).
Patients and methods
The stem had been used in 4,772 total hip arthroplasties (THAs) in 4,169 patients registered in the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register between 1992 and 2009. 59% of the stems investigated were coated with HA and 41% were uncoated. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and a Cox regression model with adjustment for age, sex, primary diagnosis, and the type of cup fixation were used to calculate survival rates and adjusted risk ratios (RRs) of the risk of revision for various reasons.
Results
The 10-year survival rates of the HA-coated version and the uncoated version were about equal when we used revision for any reason as the endpoint: 98% (95% CI: 98–99) and 98% (CI: 97–99), respectively. A Cox regression model adjusting for the covariates mentioned above showed that the presence of HA coating did not have any influence on the risk of stem revision for any reason (RR = 1.0, 95% CI: 0.6–1.6) or due to aseptic loosening (RR = 0.5, CI: 0.2–1.5). There was no effect of HA coating on the risk of stem revision due to infection, dislocation, or fracture.
Interpretation
The uncemented Bi-Metric stem showed excellent 10-year survival. Our findings do not support the use of HA coating on this stem to enhance implant survival.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2011.597699
PMCID: PMC3237027  PMID: 21751858
4.  A long-term follow-up study of the cementless THA with anatomic stem/HGPII cup with 22-mm head 
International Orthopaedics  2008;33(2):381-385.
The anatomic femoral component and Harris-Galante porous II (HGPII) cup were developed to provide more reliable bone ingrowth. We performed 20 cementless total hip arthroplasties (THAs) with anatomic stem/HGPII cup with 22-mm head in 14 consecutive patients, and evaluated the clinical and radiological results for a mean follow-up of 12.8 years. The all-anatomically designed stem provided excellent clinical and radiographic results. Four acetabular components underwent revision: three for fracture of the locking mechanism and wear of the polyethylene liner and one for the locking mechanism failure with dislocation of the HGPII cup. The abduction angles of the four revised acetabular components were apparently higher. The survivorship 13 years after surgery was 78%. Our findings show good long-term results using the anatomic femoral component, while the HGPII cup combined with 22-mm head seems to have poor durability due to locking mechanism failure.
doi:10.1007/s00264-007-0505-8
PMCID: PMC2899065  PMID: 18183396
5.  Dual-mobility cups for revision due to instability are associated with a low rate of re-revisions due to dislocation 
Acta Orthopaedica  2012;83(6):566-571.
Background and purpose
Revision total hip arthroplasty (THA) due to recurrent dislocations is associated with a high risk of persistent instability. We hypothesized that the use of dual-mobility cups would reduce the risk of re-revision due to dislocation after revision THA.
Patients and methods
228 THA cup revisions (in 228 patients) performed due to recurrent dislocations and employing a specific dual-mobility cup (Avantage) were identified in the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed with re-revision due to dislocation as the primary endpoint and re-revision for any reason as the secondary endpoint. Cox regression models were fitted in order to calculate the influence of various covariates on the risk of re-revision.
Results
58 patients (25%) had been revised at least once prior to the index cup revision. The surgical approach at the index cup revision was lateral in 99 cases (44%) and posterior in 124 cases (56%). Median follow-up was 2 (0–6) years after the index cup revision, and by then 18 patients (8%) had been re-revised for any reason. Of these, 4 patients (2%) had been re-revised due to dislocation. Survival after 2 years with the endpoint revision of any component due to dislocation was 99% (95% CI: 97–100), and it was 93% (CI: 90–97) with the endpoint revision of any component for any reason. Risk factors for subsequent re-revision for any reason were age between 50–59 years at the time of the index cup revision (risk ratio (RR) = 5 when compared with age > 75, CI: 1–23) and previous revision surgery to the relevant joint (RR = 1.7 per previous revision, CI: 1–3).
Interpretation
The risk of re-revision due to dislocation after insertion of dual-mobility cups during revision THA performed for recurrent dislocations appears to be low in the short term. Since most dislocations occur early after revision THA, we believe that this device adequately addresses the problem of recurrent instability. Younger age and prior hip revision surgery are risk factors for further revision surgery. However, problems such as potentially increased liner wear and subsequent aseptic loosening may be associated with the use of such devices in the long term.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2012.742395
PMCID: PMC3555442  PMID: 23116439
6.  The Bicontact cementless primary total hip arthroplasty: long-term results 
International Orthopaedics  2010;36(5):915-920.
We report on a prospective series of 201 primary uncemented total hip arthroplasties with a Bicontact prosthesis at a mean follow-up of 12.9 years. The mean Harris hip score improved from 41 before surgery to 89 at final follow-up. Two femoral stems, one each for infection and fracture, and 12 cups were revised. The mean number of years to revision post-primary surgery was 8.7 years (six months to 16 years). The cumulative survival of the prosthesis was 95.42% for any cause at ten years and 93.57% at 12 years. Survivorship for aseptic loosening of the femoral stem was 100%. In our series, the Bicontact uncemented total hip arthroplasty stem without hydroxyapatite coating showed excellent survival and the cup survival was comparable to other leading series.
doi:10.1007/s00264-010-1123-4
PMCID: PMC3337089  PMID: 20830472
Medicine & Public Health; Orthopedics
7.  Nine years follow-up of 100 ceramic-on-ceramic total hip arthroplasty 
International Orthopaedics  2010;35(11):1599-1604.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the first 100 cementless ceramic-on-ceramic total hip arthroplasty (THA) performed at our institution with more than nine years of follow-up. Clinical evaluation was performed using Harris hip score. Radiological evaluation was performed by two surgeons. Four patients were lost to follow-up. Harris hip score significantly improved at latest follow-up. Radiological analysis showed calcar osteolysis for 75 patients and one cup loosening. One patient required a revision five years postoperatively for cup loosening. Based on these results and the routine use of a navigation system to optimise positioning of the implants, we advocate the use of uncemented hydroxyapatite coated ceramic-on-ceramic THA in young and active patients in our current practice.
doi:10.1007/s00264-010-1185-3
PMCID: PMC3193970  PMID: 21174208
8.  Type III Acetabular Defect Revision With Bilobed Components 
Combined segmental and cavitary deficiencies of the acetabulum (American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Type III) are a difficult problem that revision arthroplasty surgeons must tackle with increasing frequency. Porous-coated bilobed acetabular components are a reconstruction option that allows for increased host bone-prosthesis contact with restoration of the anatomic hip center without the use of a structural bone graft. Eleven consecutive Type III acetabular defects in 11 patients were revised with a porous-coated bilobed cup without a structural bone graft between January 1999 and January 2001 and prospectively followed. Average Harris hip scores improved from 36 preoperatively to 85 postoperatively. Radiographic analysis showed improvement in the average vertical displacement of the hip center. Average leg length discrepancies decreased from 34 mm preoperatively to 7 mm postoperatively. There have been no revisions performed or planned. Porous-coated bilobed acetabular components can provide good clinical and radiographic results at intermediate followup for treatment of Type III acetabular deficiencies. Bilobed components offer a viable option for reconstruction of Type III defects without the use of a structural bone graft or cement while maximizing the host bone-implant contact and restoring the native hip center.
Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-007-0079-1
PMCID: PMC2505228  PMID: 18264858
9.  Functional outcome after acetabular revision with roof reinforcement rings 
Canadian Journal of Surgery  2000;43(4):276-282.
Objective
To evaluate the role for potential predictors of functional outcome after acetabular arthroplasty and to assess the results of revision with the use of a roof reinforcement ring.
Design
A retrospective case series.
Setting
A tertiary-care referral centre.
Patients
Twenty-four patients (average age 72.7 years) who had undergone acetabular revision with a roof reinforcement ring were followed up for an average of 2.8 years.
Interventions
Revision acetabular arthroplasty was performed using either the Mueller or Burch–Schneider roof reinforcement ring, bone grafting and a cemented polyethylene cup.
Outcome measures
A modified Harris hip score (range of motion omitted), the SF-36 health survey and the Western Ontario McMaster (WOMAC) osteoarthritis index measured outcome. Multivariate analysis was used to determine the effects of certain clinical factors (age, sex, time to revision from previous hip operation and number of previous revisions) on outcome.
Results
Patients reported disability both on hip-specific and general health measures. The time to revision from previous operation positively correlated with SF-36 mental component scores (p = 0.003), WOMAC function (p = 0.04) and WOMAC pain (p = 0.03). Age, gender and number of past revisions did not affect outcome.
Conclusions
Patients who undergo acetabular revision with a roof ring will continue to have some disability in the first 3 years after the procedure. A greater time between the previous operation and the revision operation is associated with a better outcome. Patients’ expectations of postoperative results should be realistic in the face of a challenging reconstructive procedure.
PMCID: PMC3695216  PMID: 10948688
10.  Cementless acetabular revision: past, present, and future  
International Orthopaedics  2011;35(2):289-298.
Background
Acetabular revision is probably the most difficult aspect of hip reconstructive surgery. Although the majority of acetabular revisions can be performed using an uncemented hemispherical acetabular device with ancillary fixation, patients with severe acetabular deficiencies and poor bone quality require more complex alternatives for revision. The limitations of traditional cementless acetabular implants has promoted the development of improved methods of fixation and revision techniques. Highly porous metals have been introduced for clinical use in arthroplasty surgery over the last decade. Their higher porosity and surface friction are ideal for acetabular revision, optimising biological fixation. The use of trabecular metal cups in acetabular revision has yielded excellent clinical results.
Purpose
This review focuses on the use of cementless implants for acetabular revision. The use of trabecular metal cups, augments, jumbo cups, oblong cups, cages, and structural grafting are also discussed.
doi:10.1007/s00264-010-1198-y
PMCID: PMC3032100  PMID: 21234562
11.  Clinical and radiological results of hydroxyapatite-coated acetabular cups 
International Orthopaedics  2004;28(6):362-365.
We prospectively studied a consecutive series of 60 primary total hip arthroplasties in 52 patients. All patients had a hydroxyapatite-coated hemispherical acetabular cup (OCTOFIT). Mean patient age was 52.5 (34–73) years. In 38 hips, a 28-mm and in 22 hips a 32-mm diameter cobalt-chrome femoral head was used. We could follow 53 hips for a mean of 81 (28–125) months. Four cups were revised because of osteolysis, and in another six cups, slight osteolysis without migration was seen. The average annual linear wear rate was 0.05 mm (±0.05) for 28-mm heads and 0.16 mm (±0.09) for 32-mm heads (p<0.0001). Survivorship analysis predicted a survival rate of 86±6.7% at 10 years.
doi:10.1007/s00264-004-0563-0
PMCID: PMC3456893  PMID: 15316676
12.  Clinical and radiographic results and wear performance in different generations of a cementless porous-coated acetabular cup 
International Orthopaedics  2007;32(2):181-187.
We compared clinical results and wear performance in two different generations of a cementless porous-coated cup, analysing the long-term results of 83 uncemented Harris-Galante I cups (32-mm femoral head) and 93 uncemented Harris-Galante II cups (28-mm femoral head). All polyethylene liners were gamma irradiated in air. Polyethylene linear wear was estimated using a software package. The minimum follow-up was 10 years. Nine Harris-Galante I cups and two Harris-Galante II cups were revised due to aseptic loosening or polyethylene problems. The mean femoral head penetration at 6 weeks after surgery was 0.15 ± 0.05 mm for the Harris-Galante I cups and 0.12 ± 0.03 for the Harris-Galante II cups (p < 0.001);but mean wear was 0.13 ± 0.23 mm per year for the Harris-Galante I cups and 0.11 ± 0.10 for the Harris-Galante II cups (p = 0.740). Most of the metallic shells in both groups showed stable fixation. The so-called second-generation cups had lower initial polyethylene wear that resulted in less polyethylene wear at the latest the follow-up, but the overall wear rate was similar in both groups despite the different femoral head sizes and the improved locking mechanism.
doi:10.1007/s00264-006-0305-6
PMCID: PMC2269018  PMID: 17265157
13.  Cavitary acetabular defects treated with morselized cancellous bone graft and cementless cups 
International Orthopaedics  2006;31(4):445-450.
The use of impacted morselized cancellous bone grafts in conjunction with cementless hemispherical acetabular cups for treatment of AAOS type II acetabular cavitary deficiencies was evaluated in a retrospective study of 23 primary and 24 revision total hip arthroplasties, at a mean follow-up of 7.9 and 8.1 years, respectively. All primary hips received autografts, while all revision hips received allografts. Modified Harris Hip Scores for primary and revision hip replacements increased from a pre-operative mean of 37 and 47 to a postoperative mean of 90 and 86, respectively. All 23 autografts and 23 out of 24 cancellous allografts were radiographically incorporated without evidence of resorption. There were no instances of infection, component migration, or cases requiring subsequent acetabular revision. We conclude that impacted morselized cancellous bone-graft augmentation of cementless cups is a viable surgical option for AAOS type II cavitary acetabular defects.
doi:10.1007/s00264-006-0220-x
PMCID: PMC2267649  PMID: 16988799
14.  Early proximal migration of cups is associated with late revision in THA 
Acta Orthopaedica  2012;83(6):583-591.
Background and purpose
The association between excessive early migration of acetabular cups and late aseptic revision has been scantily reported. We therefore performed 2 parallel systematic reviews and meta-analyses to determine the association between early migration of acetabular cups and late aseptic revision.
Methods
One review covered early migration data from radiostereometric analysis (RSA) studies, while the other focused on revision rates for aseptic loosening from long-term survival studies. Thresholds for acceptable and unacceptable migration were classified according the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register and the Australian National Joint Replacement Registry: < 5% revision at 10 years.
Results
Following an elaborate literature search, 26 studies (involving 700 cups) were included in the RSA review and 49 studies (involving 38,013 cups) were included in the survival review. For every mm increase in 2-year proximal migration, there was a 10% increase in revision rate, which remained after correction for age, sex, diagnosis, hospital type, continent, and study quality. Consequently, proximal migration of up to 0.2 mm was considered acceptable and proximal migration of 1.0 mm or more was considered unacceptable. Cups with proximal migration of between 0.2 and 1.0 mm were considered to be at risk of having revision rates higher than 5% at 10 years.
Interpretation
There was a clinically relevant association between early migration of acetabular cups and late revision due to loosening. The proposed migration thresholds can be implemented in a phased evidence-based introduction, since they allow early detection of high-risk cups while exposing a small number of patients.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2012.745353
PMCID: PMC3555453  PMID: 23126575
15.  Isolated Polyethylene Exchange versus Acetabular Revision for Polyethylene Wear 
Polyethylene wear and osteolysis are not uncommon in THA mid- and long-term. In asymptomatic patients the dilemma faced by the orthopaedic surgeon is whether to revise the cup and risk damage to the supporting columns and even pelvic discontinuity or to perform isolated polyethylene exchange and risk a high rate of postoperative recurrent instability and dislocation that will necessitate further surgery. We retrospectively reviewed 62 patients (67 hips) who underwent revision arthroplasty for polywear and osteolysis. Thirty-six hips had isolated polyethylene exchange, while 31 had full acetabular revision. The minimum followup was 2 years (mean, 2.8 years; range, 2–5 years). Three of 36 hips with a retained cup grafted through the cup holes failed within 5 years due to acetabular loosening. One of 31 hips with full revision underwent re-revision for aseptic cup loosening at 5 months postoperatively. Although we do not recommend prophylactic revision of all cups for polywear and osteolysis, the patient may be warned of the possibility of an approximate 10% failure rate when retaining the acetabular component. We do, however, advocate cup extraction in the following situations: damage to the locking mechanism, erosion of the femoral head through the liner and into the cup damaging the metal, and a malpositioned component that may jeopardize the stability of the revision.
Level of Evidence: Level II, prognostic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-008-0533-8
PMCID: PMC2600972  PMID: 18846409
16.  Long-term results of the threaded Weill cup in primary total hip arthroplasty  
International Orthopaedics  2009;34(7):943-948.
Uncemented, threaded acetabular components with smooth surface treatment were widely used in continental Europe in the 1970s and 1980s for primary total hip arthroplasty (THA). Previously published studies showed high failure rates in the mid-term. In a consecutive series of 116 patients, 127 threaded cups with smooth surface treatment (Weill cup; Zimmer, Winterthur, Switzerland) were implanted in combination with one type of uncemented stem. Patients were followed up clinically and radiographically. Mean time of follow-up was 17 years (range 15–20). At the time of follow-up, the acetabular component had been revised or was awaiting revision in 30 hips (24%). Two hips were revised for infection and 23 for aseptic loosening. Four polyethylene liners were exchanged because of excessive wear. One hip was awaiting revision. The survival rate for all acetabular revisions including one hip awaiting revision was 75% (95%CI: 65–85%) at 17 years. These results support the view that smooth, threaded acetabular components do not provide satisfactory long-term fixation and should be abandoned. It is important to closely monitor patients with these components as the failure rate remains high in the long-term.
doi:10.1007/s00264-009-0844-8
PMCID: PMC2989035  PMID: 19629480
17.  No superior performance of hydroxyapatite-coated acetabular cups over porous-coated cups 
Acta Orthopaedica  2013;84(6):544-548.
Background and purpose
Hydroxyapatite (HA) coating is believed to improve bone-implant ingrowth and long-term survival of prostheses. Recent studies, however, have challenged this view. Furthermore, HA particles may produce third-body wear and initiate aseptic loosening of implants. We report the performance of HA- and porous-coated acetabular cups in a prospective randomized trial.
Methods
This was an 8-year follow-up study of our previously published prospective randomized study to compare clinical outcomes, survival, periprosthetic bone mineral density, migration, and wear rates of HA- and porous-coated acetabular cups. Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and Ein Bild Roentgen Analyse (EBRA) measurements were used. 100 patients who underwent unilateral cementless total hip arthroplasty were randomized to either porous-coated cups or HA-coated cups. Patients were examined preoperatively and at 3, 6, and 9 months, and also 1, 3, and 8 years after surgery. 81 patients were available for 8-year follow-up, 40 with porous-coated cups and 41 with HA-coated cups.
Results
Age, sex, bone mineral density, and clinical results (Harris hip score) were similar in the 2 groups. The survival, wear, and migration patterns of the cups were also similar in both groups. The results of periprosthetic bone mineral density scans in region of interest 2 was in favor of the porous-coated cups, but there were no differences between the 2 groups in all the remaining regions of interest.
Interpretation
HA coating had no statistically significant effect on clinical results, survival, wear, or migration at the 8-year follow-up.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2013.854665
PMCID: PMC3851667  PMID: 24171680
18.  Does Smoking Affect Implant Survivorship in Total Hip Arthroplasty? 
This retrospective study aimed to explore the effects of smoking on hip implant survivorship. The study included 147 patients (165 hips) from 1985 to 1991 who underwent total hip arthroplasty (THA) with a particular uncemented cup, and either a cemented or uncemented femoral component of the same design. Thirty-one patients (34 hips, 21 percent of study group) smoked at the time of surgery. Of 13 components (seven cups, five cemented and one cementless stem) revised for aseptic loosening, eight (8/68, 11.8 percent) were revised in six smokers, and five (5/262, 1.9 percent) were revised in four nonsmokers (p=0.0012). Multivariate covariate analysis revealed a 4.5 times greater risk of implant loosening in smokers (p=0.0662). Based on this preliminary study, further larger studies should be performed to determine the extent that smoking may contribute to THA survivorship.
PMCID: PMC1888760  PMID: 16089066
19.  Long-term follow-up (11 years plus) results of JRI (Furlong) total hip arthroplasty in young patients: cause for concern regarding acetabular cup? 
International Orthopaedics  2006;30(5):375-380.
We describe the clinical and radiological long-term outcomes of 77 primary total hip replacements in 69 patients using the fully hydroxyapatite-coated JRI (Furlong) total hip replacement. The total cases followed up were 77 hips, performed at a mean duration of 11 years and 2 months. Twelve hips could not be followed up for various reasons, which are discussed in the results section. The mean Harris hip score was 89. Seventeen acetabular cups were revised for aseptic loosening. Only one femoral stem was revised, for fracture. By Engh’s criteria there were a further two unstable cups with no symptoms, and all femoral stems were stable. Kaplan–Meier survivorship analysis revealed a survival of 98.8% for the femoral stem, 78.7% for the acetabular cup, and a combined survival of 77.8% for both components. Our findings suggest that the JRI (Furlong) hip gives a durable femoral stem implant fixation, whereas the prosthesis–bone interface achieved with the acetabular component is questionable.
doi:10.1007/s00264-006-0083-1
PMCID: PMC3172764  PMID: 16761147
20.  Do Tantalum and Titanium Cups Show Similar Results in Revision Hip Arthroplasty? 
Porous surfaces are intended to enhance osteointegration of cementless implants. Tantalum has been introduced in an effort to enhance osseointegration potential of uncemented components. We therefore compared the clinical outcome of acetabular components with two different porous surfaces. We retrospectively reviewed 283 patients (295 hips) who underwent cementless revision hip arthroplasty with either an HA-coated titanium cup (207 patients, 214 hips) or porous tantalum cup (79 patients, 81 hips). The minimum followup was 24 months in both groups (titanium: average 51.8 months, range, 24–98 months; tantalum: average, 35.4 months, range, 24–63 months). The titanium and tantalum groups had a mechanical failure rate (clinical plus radiographic) of 8% and 6%, respectively. In hips with minor bone deficiency (type 1, 2A, 2B using the classification of Paprosky et al.), 6% of titanium cups and 4% of tantalum cups failed. In hips with major bone deficiency (type 2C, 3), 24% of titanium cups and 12% of tantalum cups developed failure. In the major bone deficiency group, the tantalum cups had fewer numbers of lucent zones around the cup. Eighty-two percent of titanium cups that failed did so at 6 months postoperatively or later, whereas 80% of tantalum cups that failed did so in less than 6 months. Radiographically in the major group, tantalum cups yielded better fixation.
Level of Evidence: Level III, retrospective comparative study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-009-1090-5
PMCID: PMC2807006  PMID: 19809857
21.  Surgical procedures in the treatment of 784 infected THAs reported to the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register 
Acta Orthopaedica  2011;82(5):530-537.
Background and purpose
Controversies still exist regarding the best surgical procedure in the treatment of periprosthetic infection after total hip arthroplasty (THA). Based on data in the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register (NAR), we have compared the risk of re-revision after 4 different surgical procedures: 2-stage with exchange of the whole prosthesis, 1-stage with exchange of the whole prosthesis, major partial 1-stage with exchange of stem or cup, and minor partial 1-stage with exchange of femoral head and/or acetabular liner.
Methods
Between 1987 and 2009, 124,759 primary THAs were reported to the NAR, of which 906 (0.7%) were revised due to infection. Included in this study were the 784 revisions that had been performed by 1 of the 4 different surgical procedures. Cox-estimated survival and relative revision risks are presented with adjustment for differences among groups regarding gender, type of fixation, type of prosthesis, and age at revision.
Results
2-stage procedures were used in 283 revisions (36%), 1-stage in 192 revisions (25%), major partial in 129 revisions (17%), and minor partial in 180 revisions (23%). 2-year Kaplan-Meier survival for all revisions was 83%; it was 92% for those re-revised by 2-stage exchange procedure, 88% for those re-revised by 1-stage exchange procedure, 66% for those re-revised by major partial exchange procedure, and it was 76% for those re-revised by minor partial exchange. Compared to the 2-stage procedure and with any reason for revision as endpoint (180 re-revisions), the risk of re-revision increased 1.4 times for 1-stage (p = 0.2), 4.1 times for major partial exchange (p < 0.001), and 1.5 times for minor partial exchange (p = 0.1). With infection as the endpoint (108 re-revisions), the risk of re-revision increased 2.0 times for 1-stage exchange (p = 0.04), 6.0 times for major partial exchange (p < 0.001), and 2.3 times for minor partial exchange (p = 0.02). Similar results were found when the analyses were restricted to the period 2002–2009.
Interpretation
In the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register, the survival after revision of infected primary THA with 2-stage implant exchange was slightly superior to that for 1-stage exchange of the whole prosthesis. This result is noteworthy, since 2-stage procedures are often used with the most severe infections. However, debridement with exchange of head and/or liner but with retention of the fixed implant (minor revision) meant that there was a 76% chance of not being re-revised within 2 years.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2011.623572
PMCID: PMC3242948  PMID: 21992085
22.  The risk of revision due to dislocation after total hip arthroplasty depends on surgical approach, femoral head size, sex, and primary diagnosis 
Acta Orthopaedica  2012;83(5):442-448.
Background and purpose
The effects of patient-related and technical factors on the risk of revision due to dislocation after primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) are only partly understood. We hypothesized that increasing the femoral head size can reduce this risk, that the lateral surgical approach is associated with a lower risk than the posterior and minimally invasive approaches, and that gender and diagnosis influence the risk of revision due to dislocation.
Patients and methods
Data on 78,098 THAs in 61,743 patients performed between 2005 and 2010 were extracted from the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register. Inclusion criteria were a head size of 22, 28, 32, or 36 mm, or the use of a dual-mobility cup. The covariates age, sex, primary diagnosis, type of surgical approach, and head size were entered into Cox proportional hazards models in order to calculate the adjusted relative risk (RR) of revision due to dislocation, with 95% confidence intervals (CI).
Results
After a mean follow-up of 2.7 (0–6) years, 399 hips (0.5%) had been revised due to dislocation. The use of 22-mm femoral heads resulted in a higher risk of revision than the use of 28-mm heads (RR = 2.0, CI: 1.2–3.3). Only 1 of 287 dual-mobility cups had been revised due to dislocation. Compared with the direct lateral approach, minimally invasive approaches were associated with a higher risk of revision due to dislocation (RR = 4.2, CI: 2.3–7.7), as were posterior approaches (RR = 1.3, CI: 1.1–1.7). An increased risk of revision due to dislocation was found for the diagnoses femoral neck fracture (RR = 3.9, CI: 3.1–5.0) and osteonecrosis of the femoral head (RR = 3.7, CI: 2.5–5.5), whereas women were at lower risk than men (RR = 0.8, CI: 0.7–1.0). Restriction of the analysis to the first 6 months after the index procedure gave similar risk estimates.
Interpretation
Patients with femoral neck fracture or osteonecrosis of the femoral head are at higher risk of dislocation. Use of the minimally invasive and posterior approaches also increases this risk, and we raise the question of whether patients belonging to risk groups should be operated using lateral approaches. The use of femoral head diameters above 28 mm or of dual-mobility cups reduced this risk in a clinically relevant manner, but this observation was not statistically significant.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2012.733919
PMCID: PMC3488169  PMID: 23039167
23.  Cementless total hip arthroplasty in Paget’s disease of bone: a retrospective review 
International Orthopaedics  2009;34(8):1103-1109.
Paget’s disease of bone (PDB) is a localised chronic osteopathy leading to bone deformities, bone hypervascularity, structural weakness and altered joint biomechanics. The pelvis and upper femur are frequently involved, resulting in disabling hip disease, and total hip arthroplasty (THA) may be required. We performed a retrospective study on the management and the outcome of 39 uncemented hydroxyapatite fully-coated THA in patients with PDB of the hip. The follow-up averaged 79.4 months (range 24–194). Functional scores improved significantly and, using the Harris hip score, 84% of patients had an excellent clinical outcome at the latest follow-up. Despite one case of an uncemented acetabular component with probable loosening, no implant revision had been required at our latest follow-up. Signs of implant loosening were found to be significantly more frequent in patients with active disease. For this reason, we advocate the use of pre-operative medication with bisphosphonates to reduce disease activity. Another benefit of this treatment is the significant decrease of intra-operative blood loss. Provided the control of disease activity in the pre-operative period with bisphosphonates is achieved, good outcome of cementless THAs can be expected. Bisphosphonates reduced the risk of implant loosening and excessive intra-operative blood loss.
doi:10.1007/s00264-009-0853-7
PMCID: PMC2989071  PMID: 19669762
24.  A technique to remove a well-fixed titanium-coated rm acetabular cup in revision hip arthroplasty 
A major concern during revision hip arthroplasty is acetabular bone loss and bleeding during the extraction of well-fixed cementless acetabular cup, because no interface exists between the host bone and the cup. Forceful removal of such component using curved gouges and osteotomes often leads to extended bone loss and compromises reimplantation of a new socket.
In the following case report, we removed a well-fixed polyethylene titanium-coated RM acetabular cup with 20 years of follow-up, by significant wear of the polyethylene layer. The isoelastic femoral stem was also removed by mechanical failure.
We report a technique for removal of the cementless acetabular cup using powered acetabular reamers. The RM cup was sequentially reamed and when the polyethylene layer was thin enough, the remaining cup was removed easily by hand tools. The acetabular bone stock is preserved and the risks of bone fractures and bleeding are minimized. To our knowledge, these principles were applied only in cemented cups.
We have used this technique in 10 cases with excellent results and no complications were noted. This is a simple, reproducible, non-costly, non-timing consuming, safe and successful technique to remove well-fixed titanium-coated RM acetabular cups.
doi:10.1186/1749-799X-6-31
PMCID: PMC3141564  PMID: 21689456
25.  Cementless cup supporter for protrusio acetabuli in patients with rheumatoid arthritis 
International Orthopaedics  2000;24(1):15-18.
Abstract 
The MC cup supporter is an acetabular reinforcement ring for the Harris-Galante (HG) cementless porous-coated socket. This supporting ring has been used with autogenous bone graft since 1991 in the management of protrusio acetabuli in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We have reviewed 15 hips in 13 patients at an average of 53.6 months (range 24–84 months) after operation. The clinical results of total hip arthroplasty (THA) in protrusio acetabuli using this ring were satisfactory. All grafts appeared to have united radiologically with no radiolucent lines between graft and acetabulum.
doi:10.1007/s002640050004
PMCID: PMC3619865  PMID: 10774855

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