Streptococcus macedonicus ACA-DC 198, a strain isolated from Greek Kasseri cheese, produces a food-grade lantibiotic named macedocin. Macedocin has a molecular mass of 2,794.76 ± 0.42 Da, as determined by electrospray mass spectrometry. Partial N-terminal sequence analysis revealed 22 amino acid residues that correspond with the amino acid sequence of the lantibiotics SA-FF22 and SA-M49, both of which were isolated from the pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes. Macedocin inhibits a broad spectrum of lactic acid bacteria, as well as several food spoilage and pathogenic bacteria, including Clostridium tyrobutyricum. It displays a bactericidal effect towards the most sensitive indicator strain, Lactobacillus sakei subsp. sakei LMG 13558T, while the producer strain itself displays autoinhibition when it is grown under conditions that do not favor bacteriocin production. Macedocin is active at pHs between 4.0 and 9.0, and it retains activity even after incubation for 20 min at 121°C with 1 atm of overpressure. Inhibition of macedocin by proteolytic enzymes is variable.
The objective of this study was to isolate, characterize, and identify lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from ripe mulberries collected in Taiwan. Ripe mulberry samples were collected at five mulberry farms, located in different counties of Taiwan. Eighty-eight acid-producing cultures were isolated from these samples, and isolates were divided into classes first by phenotype, then into groups by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and sequencing of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Phenotypic and biochemical characteristics led to identification of four bacterial groups (A to D). Weissella cibaria was the most abundant type of LAB distributed in four mulberry farms, and Lactobacillus plantarum was the most abundant LAB found in the remaining farm. Ten W. cibaria and one Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis isolate produced bacteriocins against the indicator strain Lactobacillus sakei JCM 1157T. These results suggest that various LAB are distributed in ripe mulberries and W. cibaria was the most abundant LAB found in this study.
lactic acid bacteria; mulberry; Weissella cibaria; bacteriocin; Taiwan
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from ovine milk and cheeses manufactured in the South Region of Brazil. Among 112 bacterial isolates investigated, 59 were chosen through a screening for LAB. Among these 59 strains of LAB, 21% showed antimicrobial, proteolytic and lipolytic activities. Based on this screening, Lactobacillus plantarum LCN 17 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus LCN 43 were selected and tested for the production of bacteriocin-like substances (BLS). The BLS produced by both isolates showed antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes, whereas that produced by L. plantarum LCN 17 presented higher stability to different temperature, pH and enzyme treatments. These strains present potential for production of BLS, and for use as starter cultures.
lactic acid bacteria; bacteriocin-like substances; ewe’s raw milk; Brazilian ovine cheese
The microorganisms intended for use as probiotics in aquaculture should exert antimicrobial activity and be regarded as safe not only for the aquatic hosts but also for their surrounding environments and humans. The objective of this work was to investigate the antimicrobial/bacteriocin activity against fish pathogens, the antibiotic susceptibility, and the prevalence of virulence factors and detrimental enzymatic activities in 99 Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) (59 enterococci and 40 non-enterococci) isolated from aquatic animals regarded as human food.
These LAB displayed a broad antimicrobial/bacteriocin activity against the main Gram-positive and Gram-negative fish pathogens. However, particular safety concerns based on antibiotic resistance and virulence factors were identified in the genus Enterococcus (86%) (Enterococcus faecalis, 100%; E. faecium, 79%). Antibiotic resistance was also found in the genera Weissella (60%), Pediococcus (44%), Lactobacillus (33%), but not in leuconostocs and lactococci. Antibiotic resistance genes were found in 7.5% of the non-enterococci, including the genera Pediococcus (12.5%) and Weissella (6.7%). One strain of both Pediococcus pentosaceus and Weissella cibaria carried the erythromycin resistance gene mef(A/E), and another two P. pentosaceus strains harboured lnu(A) conferring resistance to lincosamides. Gelatinase activity was found in E. faecalis and E. faecium (71 and 11%, respectively), while a low number of E. faecalis (5%) and none E. faecium exerted hemolytic activity. None enterococci and non-enterococci showed bile deconjugation and mucin degradation abilities, or other detrimental enzymatic activities.
To our knowledge, this is the first description of mef(A/E) in the genera Pediococcus and Weissella, and lnu(A) in the genus Pediococcus. The in vitro subtractive screening presented in this work constitutes a valuable strategy for the large-scale preliminary selection of putatively safe LAB intended for use as probiotics in aquaculture.
Lactic Acid Bacteria; Aquatic animals; Aquaculture probiotics; Anti-fish pathogens activity; Antibiotic resistance and virulence factors; Qualified Presumption of Safety
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are known to produce various types of bacteriocins, ribosomally synthesized polypeptides, which have antibacterial spectrum against many food borne pathogens. Listeria monocytogenes, a pathogenic bacterium, is of particular concern to the food industry because of its ability to grow even at refrigeration temperatures and its tolerance to preservative agents. Some of the bacteriocins of LAB are known to have anti-listerial property. In the present study, the bacteriocin produced by vancomycin sensitive Enterococcus faecium El and J4 isolated from idli batter samples was characterized. The isolates were found to tolerate high temperatures of 60°C for 15 and 30 min and 70°C for 15 min. The bacteriocin was found to be heat stable and had anti-listerial activity. The bacteriocin did not lost anti-listerial activity when treated at 100°C for 30 min or at 121°C for 15 min. The bacteriocin lost its antimicrobial activity after treating with trypsin, protinase-K, protease and peptidase.
Anti-listerial; Bacteriocin; Enterococcus; Identification; Heat stability
In the present study we investigated the incidence of bacteriocins produced by 236 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) food isolates against pathogenic or opportunistic pathogenic oral bacteria. This set of LAB contained several strains (≥17%) producing bacteriocins active against food-related bacteria. Interestingly only Streptococcus macedonicus ACA-DC 198 was able to inhibit the growth of Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus gordonii, while Lactobacillus fermentum ACA-DC 179 and Lactobacillus plantarun ACA-DC 269 produced bacteriocins solely against Streptococcus oralis. Thus, the percentage of strains that were found to produce bacteriocins against oral bacteria was ~1.3%. The rarity of bacteriocins active against oral LAB pathogens produced by food-related LAB was unexpected given their close phylogenetic relationship. Nevertheless, when tested in inhibition assays, the potency of the bacteriocin(s) of S. macedonicus ACA-DC 198 against the three oral streptococci was high. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy combined with principal component analysis revealed that exposure of the target cells to the antimicrobial compounds caused major alterations of key cellular constituents. Our findings indicate that bacteriocins produced by food-related LAB against oral LAB may be rare, but deserve further investigation since, when discovered, they can be effective antimicrobials.
lactic acid bacteria; food; oral; Streptococcus; bacteriocin; FT-IR
The use of bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria for improved food fermentation processes seems promising. However, lack of fundamental knowledge about the functionality of bacteriocin-producing strains under food fermentation conditions hampers their industrial use. Predictive microbiology or a mathematical estimation of microbial behavior in food ecosystems may help to overcome this problem. In this study, a combined model was developed that was able to estimate, from a given initial situation of temperature, pH, and nutrient availability, the growth and self-inhibition dynamics of a bacteriocin-producing Lactobacillus sakei CTC 494 culture in (modified) MRS broth. Moreover, the drop in pH induced by lactic acid production and the bacteriocin activity toward Listeria as an indicator organism were modeled. Self-inhibition was due to the depletion of nutrients as well as to the production of lactic acid. Lactic acid production resulted in a pH drop, an accumulation of toxic undissociated lactic acid molecules, and a shift in the dissociation degree of the growth-inhibiting buffer components. The model was validated experimentally.
To determine the inhibitory capacity of lactic acid bacteria due to the action of antagonistic substances, we tested 474 isolates of Lactobacillus from the crop and cecum of chickens against gram-positive and gram-negative indicator microorganisms by the spot-on-the-lawn and well-diffusion antagonism methods. Of the 474 isolates, 265 demonstrated antimicrobial activity against the indicator microorganisms. Isolates identified as L. reuteri, L. salivarius, or Lactobacillus spp. inhibited Enterococcus faecalis, E. faecium, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella spp. but not L. casei, L. delbrueckii, L. fermentum, or L. helveticus by the well-diffusion simultaneous antagonism method under anaerobic incubation conditions. The antagonistic substances produced by some of the Lactobacillus isolates were inactivated after treatment by proteolytic enzymes, which suggested that the substances could be antimicrobial peptides or bacteriocins.
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can be isolated from traditional milk products. LAB that secrete substances that inhibit pathogenic bacteria and are resistant to acid, bile, and pepsin but not vancomycin may have potential in food applications.
LAB isolated from a range of traditional fermented products were screened for the production of bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances. A total of 222 LAB strains were isolated from fermented milk products in the form of fresh curds, dried curds, and ghara (a traditional flavor enhancer prepared from whey), and fermented cocoa bean. Eleven LAB isolates that produced antimicrobial substances were identified as Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Pediococcus acidilactici strains by biochemical methods and 16S rDNA gene sequencing. Of these, the cell-free supernatant of Kp10 (P. acidilactici) most strongly inhibited Listeria monocytogenes. Further analysis identified the antimicrobial substance produced by Kp10 as proteinaceous in nature and active over a wide pH range. Kp10 (P. acidilactici) was found to be catalase-negative, able to produce β-galactosidase, resistant to bile salts (0.3%) and acidic conditions (pH 3), and susceptible to most antibiotics.
Traditionally prepared fermented milk products are good sources of LAB with characteristics suitable for industrial applications. The isolate Kp10 (P. acidilactici) shows potential for the production of probiotic and functional foods.
Lactic acid bacteria; Pediococcus acidilactici; Bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance; Listeria monocytogenes; Fermentation; Identification
Hiracin JM79 (HirJM79), a Sec-dependent bacteriocin produced by Enterococcus hirae DCH5, was cloned and produced in Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus sakei, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, and Pichia pastoris. For heterologous production of HirJM79 in lactic acid bacteria (LAB), the HirJM79 structural gene (hirJM79), with or without the HirJM79 immunity gene (hiriJM79), was cloned into the plasmid pMG36c under the control of the constitutive promoter P32 and into the plasmid pNZ8048 under the control of the inducible PNisA promoter. For the production of HirJM79 in P. pastoris, the gene encoding the mature HirJM79 protein was cloned into the pPICZαA expression vector. The recombinant plasmids permitted the production of biologically active HirJM79 in the supernatants of L. lactis IL1403, L. lactis NZ9000, L. sakei Lb790, E. faecalis JH2-2, and P. pastoris X-33, the coproduction of HirJM79 and nisin A in L. lactis DPC5598, and the coproduction of HirJM79 and enterocin P in E. faecium L50/14-2. All recombinant LAB produced larger quantities of HirJM79 than E. hirae DCH5, although the antimicrobial activities of most transformants were lower than that predicted from their production of HirJM79. The synthesis, processing, and secretion of HirJM79 proceed efficiently in recombinant LAB strains and P. pastoris.
The likelihood that products prepared from raw meat and milk may act as vehicles for antibiotic-resistant bacteria is currently of great concern in food safety issues. In this study, a collection of 94 tetracycline-resistant (Tcr) lactic acid bacteria recovered from nine different fermented dry sausage types were subjected to a polyphasic molecular study with the aim of characterizing the host organisms and the tet genes, conferring tetracycline resistance, that they carry. With the (GTG)5-PCR DNA fingerprinting technique, the Tcr lactic acid bacterial isolates were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, L. sakei subsp. carnosus, L. sakei subsp. sakei, L. curvatus, and L. alimentarius and typed to the intraspecies level. For a selection of 24 Tcr lactic acid bacterial isolates displaying unique (GTG)5-PCR fingerprints, tet genes were determined by means of PCR, and only tet(M) was detected. Restriction enzyme analysis with AccI and ScaI revealed two different tet(M) allele types. This grouping was confirmed by partial sequencing of the tet(M) open reading frame, which indicated that the two allele types displayed high sequence similarities (>99.6%) with tet(M) genes previously reported in Staphylococcus aureus MRSA 101 and in Neisseria meningitidis, respectively. Southern hybridization with plasmid profiles revealed that the isolates contained tet(M)-carrying plasmids. In addition to the tet(M) gene, one isolate also contained an erm(B) gene on a different plasmid from the one encoding the tetracycline resistance. Furthermore, it was also shown by PCR that the tet(M) genes were not located on transposons of the Tn916/Tn1545 family. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed molecular study demonstrating that taxonomically and genotypically diverse Lactobacillus strains from different types of fermented meat products can be a host for plasmid-borne tet genes.
Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (Lb. bulgaricus) is an important species of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) used for cheese and yogurt fermentation. The genome of Lb. bulgaricus 2038, an industrial strain mainly used for yogurt production, was completely sequenced and compared against the other two ATCC collection strains of the same subspecies. Specific physiological properties of strain 2038, such as lysine biosynthesis, formate production, aspartate-related carbon-skeleton intermediate metabolism, unique EPS synthesis and efficient DNA restriction/modification systems, are all different from those of the collection strains that might benefit the industrial production of yogurt. Other common features shared by Lb. bulgaricus strains, such as efficient protocooperation with Streptococcus thermophilus and lactate production as well as well-equipped stress tolerance mechanisms may account for it being selected originally for yogurt fermentation industry. Multiple lines of evidence suggested that Lb. bulgaricus 2038 was genetically closer to the common ancestor of the subspecies than the other two sequenced collection strains, probably due to a strict industrial maintenance process for strain 2038 that might have halted its genome decay and sustained a gene network suitable for large scale yogurt production.
More than 120 isolates of lactic acid bacteria obtained from Kimchi was screened for antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus. Approximately 10% of the isolates showed inhibitory activity and only 4.16% (five isolates) exhibited strong activity against the indicator fungus A. fumigatus. The five isolates showed a wide rang of antifungal activity against A. flavus, Fusarium moniliforme, Penicillium commune, and Rhizopus oryzae. They were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing as Lactobacillus cruvatus, L. lactis subsp. lactis, L. casei, L. pentosus, and L. sakei. The effect of Lactobacillus on mycelial growth and fungal biomass as well as its ability to produce toxic compounds were determined. The results indicate that the three species, Lactobacillus casei, L. lactis subsp. lactis, and L. pentosus, are active against A. fumigatus.
Antifungal activity; Aspergillus fumigatus; Lactic acid bacteria
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) associated with gaseous spoilage of modified-atmosphere-packaged, raw, tomato-marinated broiler meat strips were identified on the basis of a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) (ribotyping) database containing DNAs coding for 16S and 23S rRNAs (rDNAs). A mixed LAB population dominated by a Leuconostoc species resembling Leuconostoc gelidum caused the spoilage of the product. Lactobacillus sakei, Lactobacillus curvatus, and a gram-positive rod phenotypically similar to heterofermentative Lactobacillus species were the other main organisms detected. An increase in pH together with the extreme bulging of packages suggested a rare LAB spoilage type called “protein swell.” This spoilage is characterized by excessive production of gas due to amino acid decarboxylation, and the rise in pH is attributed to the subsequent deamination of amino acids. Protein swell has not previously been associated with any kind of meat product. A polyphasic approach, including classical phenotyping, whole-cell protein electrophoresis, 16 and 23S rDNA RFLP, 16S rDNA sequence analysis, and DNA-DNA reassociation analysis, was used for the identification of the dominant Leuconostoc species. In addition to the RFLP analysis, phenotyping, whole-cell protein analysis, and 16S rDNA sequence homology indicated that L. gelidum was most similar to the spoilage-associated species. The two spoilage strains studied possessed 98.8 and 99.0% 16S rDNA sequence homology with the L. gelidum type strain. DNA-DNA reassociation, however, clearly distinguished the two species. The same strains showed only 22 and 34% hybridization with the L. gelidum type strain. These results warrant a separate species status, and we propose the name Leuconostoc gasicomitatum sp. nov. for this spoilage-associated Leuconostoc species.
Lactobacillus plantarum LMG P-26358 isolated from a soft French artisanal cheese produces a potent class IIa bacteriocin with 100% homology to plantaricin 423 and bacteriocidal activity against Listeria innocua and Listeria monocytogenes. The bacteriocin was found to be highly stable at temperatures as high as 100°C and pH ranges from 1-10. While this relatively narrow spectrum bacteriocin also exhibited antimicrobial activity against species of enterococci, it did not inhibit dairy starters including lactococci and lactobacilli when tested by well diffusion assay (WDA). In order to test the suitability of Lb. plantarum LMG P-26358 as an anti-listerial adjunct with nisin-producing lactococci, laboratory-scale cheeses were manufactured. Results indicated that combining Lb. plantarum LMG P-26358 (at 108 colony forming units (cfu)/ml) with a nisin producer is an effective strategy to eliminate the biological indicator strain, L. innocua. Moreover, industrial-scale cheeses also demonstrated that Lb. plantarum LMG P-26358 was much more effective than the nisin producer alone for protection against the indicator. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry confirmed the presence of plantaricin 423 and nisin in the appropriate cheeses over an 18 week ripening period. A spray-dried fermentate of Lb. plantarum LMG P-26358 also demonstrated potent anti-listerial activity in vitro using L. innocua. Overall, the results suggest that Lb. plantarum LMG P-26358 is a suitable adjunct for use with nisin-producing cultures to improve the safety and quality of dairy products.
Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of DNA fragments generated by PCR with 16S ribosomal DNA-targeted group-specific primers was used to detect lactic acid bacteria (LAB) of the genera Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Leuconostoc, and Weissella in human feces. Analysis of fecal samples of four subjects revealed individual profiles of DNA fragments originating not only from species that have been described as intestinal inhabitants but also from characteristically food-associated bacteria such as Lactobacillus sakei, Lactobacillus curvatus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, and Pediococcus pentosaceus. Comparison of PCR-DGGE results with those of bacteriological culture showed that the food-associated species could not be cultured from the fecal samples by plating on Rogosa agar. On the other hand, all of the LAB species cultured from feces were detected in the DGGE profile. We also detected changes in the types of LAB present in human feces during consumption of a milk product containing the probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus DR20. The analysis of fecal samples from two subjects taken before, during, and after administration of the probiotic revealed that L. rhamnosus was detectable by PCR-DGGE during the test period in the feces of both subjects, whereas it was detectable by culture in only one of the subjects.
For studying the microbiota of four Danish surface-ripened cheeses produced at three farmhouses and one industrial dairy, both a culture-dependent and culture-independent approach were used. After dereplication of the initial set of 433 isolates by (GTG)5-PCR fingerprinting, 217 bacterial and 25 yeast isolates were identified by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene or the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene, respectively. At the end of ripening, the cheese core microbiota of the farmhouse cheeses consisted of the mesophilic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) starter cultures Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Leuconostoc mesenteorides as well as non-starter LAB including different Lactobacillus spp. The cheese from the industrial dairy was almost exclusively dominated by Lb. paracasei. The surface bacterial microbiota of all four cheeses were dominated by Corynebacterium spp. and/or Brachybacterium spp. Brevibacterium spp. was found to be subdominant compared to other bacteria on the farmhouse cheeses, and no Brevibacterium spp. was found on the cheese from the industrial dairy, even though B. linens was used as surface-ripening culture. Moreover, Gram-negative bacteria identified as Alcalignes faecalis and Proteus vulgaris were found on one of the farmhouse cheeses. The surface yeast microbiota consisted primarily of one dominating species for each cheese. For the farmhouse cheeses, the dominant yeast species were Yarrowia lipolytica, Geotrichum spp. and Debaryomyces hansenii, respectively, and for the cheese from the industrial dairy, D. hansenii was the dominant yeast species. Additionally, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis revealed that Streptococcus thermophilus was present in the farmhouse raw milk cheese analysed in this study. Furthermore, DGGE bands corresponding to Vagococcus carniphilus, Psychrobacter spp. and Lb. curvatus on the cheese surfaces indicated that these bacterial species may play a role in cheese ripening.
A challenge for food industry today is to produce minimally processed food, without use of chemical preservatives and little compromise on nutritional status. Lactobacillus acidophilus NCDC 291 can be directly added to food where it enhances shelf life by competing with other microflora (both bacterial and fungal) for food and also by production of antimicrobial metabolites as bacteriocins. Comprehensive studies have demonstrated the in vitro activity of bacteriocins. However their role in preventing fresh food spoilage needs more elucidation. The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the whole cells of this organism as biopreservative agent against fungi. Four most commonly occurring spoilage fungi were isolated and were identified as Fusarium, Alternaria, Penicillium and Aspergillus. Growth of all of them was inhibited in in vitro studies, (approximately 33–43% decrease in mycelial dry weight basis between test and control). In situ biopreservation of Indian cheese and raw poultry meat was attempted and the colony count of Alternaria was significantly (p < 0.05, Bonferroni Holm) reduced in presence of L. acidophilus. Dip and Keep approach of preservation for Mangifera and Momordica were carried out in which microbial spoilage was not observed up to 6 days.
Lactobacillus acidophilus; Biopreservation; Spoilage fungi; Mangifera; Momordica; Hurdle technology
A potentially novel antimicrobial compound producing Pediococcus acidilactici LAB 5 was isolated from vacuum-packed fermented meat product. This compound was found active against some species of Enterococcus, Leuconostoc, Staphylococcus and Listeria, many of which are associated with food spoilage and food related health hazards. The strain was found to be a paired cocci which can utilize a broad range of carbohydrates and produce acid identical to the P. acidilactici and P. pentoseus. Since the antimicrobial agent was sensitive to proteolytic enzymes but quite resistant to heat, it was identified as a bacteriocin and was designated as Pediocin NV 5. The molecular weight of the bacteriocin was 10.3 kDa and the bacterium possessed a 5 kbp plasmid responsible for bacteriocin production and also for vancomycin resistance phenotype.
Antimicrobial spectrum; Bacteriocin; Paired cocci; Plasmid; Pediocin
Non-starter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB) were isolated from 12 Italian ewe cheeses representing six different types of cheese, which in several cases were produced by different manufacturers. A total of 400 presumptive Lactobacillus isolates were obtained, and 123 isolates and 10 type strains were subjected to phenotypic, genetic, and cell wall protein characterization analyses. Phenotypically, the cheese isolates included 32% Lactobacillus plantarum isolates, 15% L. brevis isolates, 12% L. paracasei subsp. paracasei isolates, 9% L. curvatus isolates, 6% L. fermentum isolates, 6% L. casei subsp. casei isolates, 5% L. pentosus isolates, 3% L. casei subsp. pseudoplantarum isolates, and 1% L. rhamnosus isolates. Eleven percent of the isolates were not phenotypically identified. Although a randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis based on three primers and clustering by the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA) was useful for partially differentiating the 10 type strains, it did not provide a species-specific DNA band or a combination of bands which permitted complete separation of all the species considered. In contrast, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis cell wall protein profiles clustered by UPGMA were species specific and resolved the NSLAB. The only exceptions were isolates phenotypically identified as L. plantarum and L. pentosus or as L. casei subsp. casei and L. paracasei subsp. paracasei, which were grouped together. Based on protein profiles, Italian ewe cheeses frequently contained four different species and 3 to 16 strains. In general, the cheeses produced from raw ewe milk contained a larger number of more diverse strains than the cheeses produced from pasteurized milk. The same cheese produced in different factories contained different species, as well as strains that belonged to the same species but grouped in different RAPD clusters.
Twenty-one Lactobacillus isolates from “Sha’a” (a maize – based fermented beverage) and “Kossam” (traditionally fermented cow milk) were selected in accordance with their antagonistic activities and tested for their bacteriocinogenic potential as well as safety properties. These isolates were preliminarily identified as Lactobacillus plantarum (62%), Lactobacillus rhamnosus (24%), Lactobacillus fermentum (10%) and Lactobacillus coprophilus (4%) based on phenotypic characteristics and rep-PCR genomic fingerprinting. Twelve (57.1%) out of the 21 strains tested were found to be bacteriocin producers, as revealed by the sensitivity of their antimicrobial substances to proteolytic enzymes (Trypsin, Proteinase K) and inhibition of other Lactobacillus spp. These bacteriocinogenic strains showed no positive haemolytic and gelatinase activities and proved to be sensitive to penicillin G, ampicillin, tetracycline, erythromycin, amoxicillin, chloramphenicol, co-trimoxazole and doxycyclin, but resistant to ciprofloxacin and gentamicin. The bacteriocins showed a broad inhibitory activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria, several of which are classified as especially dangerous by the World Health Organization, as well as Multidrug-resistant strains. These include Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovare Typhi, Bacillus cereus, Streptococcus mutans, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Shigella flexneri. These Lactobacillus strains are promising candidates for use as protective cultures in food fermentation.
Sha’a; Kossam; Lactobacillus spp.; Rep-PCR; Safety properties; Antimicrobial activity
Lactobacillus sakei is an important food-associated lactic acid bacterium commonly used as starter culture for industrial meat fermentation, and with great potential as a biopreservative in meat and fish products. Understanding the metabolic mechanisms underlying the growth performance of a strain to be used for food fermentations is important for obtaining high-quality and safe products. Proteomic analysis was used to study the primary metabolism in ten food isolates after growth on glucose and ribose, the main sugars available for L. sakei in meat and fish.
Proteins, the expression of which varied depending on the carbon source were identified, such as a ribokinase and a D-ribose pyranase directly involved in ribose catabolism, and enzymes involved in the phosphoketolase and glycolytic pathways. Expression of enzymes involved in pyruvate and glycerol/glycerolipid metabolism were also affected by the change of carbon source. Interestingly, a commercial starter culture and a protective culture strain down-regulated the glycolytic pathway more efficiently than the rest of the strains when grown on ribose. The overall two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) protein expression pattern was similar for the different strains, though distinct differences were seen between the two subspecies (sakei and carnosus), and a variation of about 20% in the number of spots in the 2-DE gels was observed between strains. A strain isolated from fermented fish showed a higher expression of stress related proteins growing on both carbon sources.
It is obvious from the data obtained in this study that the proteomic approach efficiently identifies differentially expressed proteins caused by the change of carbon source. Despite the basic similarity in the strains metabolic routes when they ferment glucose and ribose, there were also interesting differences. From the application point of view, an understanding of regulatory mechanisms, actions of catabolic enzymes and proteins, and preference of carbon source is of great importance.
The effect of high-pressure (HP) treatments combined with bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) produced in situ on the survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in cheese was investigated. Cheeses were manufactured from raw milk inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 at approximately 105 CFU/ml. Seven different bacteriocin-producing LAB were added at approximately 106 CFU/ml as adjuncts to the starter. Cheeses were pressurized on day 2 or 50 at 300 MPa for 10 min or 500 MPa for 5 min, at 10°C in both cases. After 60 days, E. coli O157:H7 counts in cheeses manufactured without bacteriocin-producing LAB and not pressurized were 5.1 log CFU/g. A higher inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 was achieved in cheeses without bacteriocin-producing LAB when 300 MPa was applied on day 50 (3.8-log-unit reduction) than if applied on day 2 (1.3-log-unit reduction). Application of 500 MPa eliminated E. coli O157:H7 in 60-day-old cheeses. Cheeses made with bacteriocin-producing LAB and not pressurized showed a slight reduction of the pathogen. Pressurization at 300 MPa on day 2 and addition of lacticin 481-, nisin A-, bacteriocin TAB 57-, or enterocin AS-48-producing LAB were synergistic and reduced E. coli O157:H7 counts to levels below 2 log units in 60-day-old cheeses. Pressurization at 300 MPa on day 50 and addition of nisin A-, bacteriocin TAB 57-, enterocin I-, or enterocin AS-48-producing LAB completely inactivated E. coli O157:H7 in 60-day-old cheeses. The application of reduced pressures combined with bacteriocin-producing LAB is a feasible procedure to improve cheese safety.
In the present study, the antibacterial effect of 20 lactic acid bacteria isolates from a traditional cheese was investigated. 6 isolates showed antibacterial effect against Gram positive bacteria. Streptococcus thermophilus T2 strain showed the wide inhibitory spectrum against the Gram positive bacteria. Growth and bacteriocin production profiles showed that the maximal bacteriocin production, by S. thermophilus T2 cells, was measured by the end of the late-log phase (90 AU ml−1) with a bacteriocine production rate of 9.3 (AU ml−1) h−1. In addition, our findings showed that the bacteriocin, produced by S. thermophilus T2, was stable over a wide pH range (4–8); this indicates that such bacteriocin may be useful in acidic as well as nonacidic food. This preliminarily work shows the potential application of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria to improve safety of traditional fermented food.
The antimicrobial effect obtained upon combining the prokaryotic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs; more commonly referred to as bacteriocins) pediocin PA-1, sakacin P, and curvacin A (all produced by lactic acid bacteria [LAB]) with the eukaryotic AMP pleurocidin (from fish) has been investigated. The three LAB AMPs alone were active against gram-positive Listeria ivanovii bacteria at nanomolar concentrations, whereas they were inactive against gram-negative Escherichia coli bacteria. Pleurocidin alone was active against both of these types of bacteria at micromolar concentrations. Little if any synergy between the LAB AMPs and pleurocidin against the gram-positive L. ivanovii strain was obtained. In contrast, the LAB AMPs and pleurocidin acted highly synergistically against the gram-negative E. coli strain. Nanomolar concentrations of LAB AMPs increased the growth inhibitory potency of pleurocidin by about fourfold. When micromolar concentrations of LAB AMPs were combined with 2 μg of pleurocidin/ml, 100% growth inhibition was attained, whereas pleurocidin alone at a concentration of 2 μg/ml gave no growth inhibition. Most noteworthy, when high concentrations (128 μg/ml) of pleurocidin in the absence of LAB AMPs were used over a long period of incubation (1 week), some growth of E. coli was observed, whereas 16 μg of pleurocidin/ml completely abolished growth in the presence of 64 to 128 ng of LAB AMPs/ml over the same period of time. The results clearly demonstrate that combining eukaryotic and prokaryotic AMPs can greatly increase the specific activity and broaden the target-cell range of these peptides.