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1.  Pain and function in eight hundred and fifty nine patients comparing shoulder hemiprostheses, resurfacing prostheses, reversed total and conventional total prostheses 
International Orthopaedics  2012;37(1):59-66.
Functional results of reversed total prostheses (RTP) have—to a very limited degree—been compared with those of other shoulder prosthesis types. The aim of our study was to compare results of four different types of shoulder prostheses in terms of function, pain, and quality of life (QoL).
Questionnaires were completed by 859 patients with shoulder prostheses registered in the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register. Patients with osteoarthritis (OA), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), or fracture sequela (FS) were included. Symptoms and function were assessed using the Oxford Shoulder Score (OSS, scale 0–48), and the EuroQoL-5D (EQ-5D) was used to assess QoL.
Best functional results were obtained using conventional total prostheses (TPs) and RTPs —mean OSS improvement 18 and 16 units, respectively, vs 11 with hemiprostheses (HPs). For patients with OA, TPs performed best; for those with RA and FS, RTPs performed best; and those with HPs had the worst results in all diagnostic groups. The greatest improvement in QoL was seen in patients with TPs and RTPs.
Conventional TPs provide the best improvement in pain, function and QoL in OA patients; RTPs are superior in patients with RA and FS.
PMCID: PMC3532636  PMID: 23229798
The purpose of this study was to analyze pre-operative and intra-operative factors that affect the outcome of shoulder arthroplasty. We undertook a retrospective review of all shoulder arthroplasties performed at our institution between 1986 and 2003. Patients were contacted and outcomes were assessed using the Simple Shoulder Test and the Western Ontario Osteoarthritis of the Shoulder Index questionnaires. One hundred six patients (126 shoulders) participated in the study. The average length of follow-up was 6 years 9 months (range 2 to 20 years). Revision arthroplasty surgery and female gender were associated with worse outcomes. Age, the number of medical comorbidities, obesity, pre-operative range of motion, prior non-arthroplasty surgery, smoking, and alcohol abuse did not correlate with outcome. Patients who had shoulder arthroplasty for osteoarthritis had better outcome scores than those with rheumatoid arthritis. For intra-operative variables, significantly worse outcomes were found both with the use of hemiarthroplasty and in patients with a rotator cuff tear identified at the time of surgery. These findings may help to optimize patient and surgery selection in shoulder arthroplasty and assist in preoperative patient counseling.
PMCID: PMC2723694  PMID: 19742087
3.  Stemless shoulder prosthesis versus conventional anatomic shoulder prosthesis in patients with osteoarthritis 
The stemless shoulder prosthesis is a new concept in shoulder arthroplasty. To date, only a few studies have investigated the results of this prosthesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and radiological midterm results of this implant in comparison with a standard anatomic stemmed shoulder prosthesis.
Materials and methods
The Constant score, the DASH score, the active range of motion (abduction, anteversion, external rotation), and the radiological results were examined in 82 patients with primary osteoarthritis of the shoulder treated with either the Total Evolutive Shoulder System® (Biomed, France) stemless shoulder prosthesis or the Affinis® (Mathys, Switzerland) stemmed shoulder prosthesis to detect possible differences in the functional outcome and to evaluate radiological properties of the implants. Patients were examined before and 32 ± 4 months after surgery.
There was no significant difference in the Constant scores of the groups treated with the stemless shoulder prosthesis (65.0 ± 11.0 points) and the stemmed shoulder prosthesis (73.2 ± 11.3 points; P = 0.162). The estimated blood loss (P = 0.026) and the mean operative time (P = 0.002) were significantly lower in the group with the stemless shoulder prosthesis.
The use of the stemless shoulder prosthesis yielded good results which, in a mid-term follow-up, were comparable with those provided by a standard anatomic shoulder prosthesis. Further investigations are needed regarding the long-term performance of this prosthesis.
PMCID: PMC3586071  PMID: 23138538
Stemless shoulder prosthesis; Shoulder; Arthroplasty; Osteoarthritis
4.  Effect of Pulsed Radiofrequency Neuromodulation on Clinical Improvements in the Patients of Chronic Intractable Shoulder Pain 
The aim of this study was to evaluate effect of pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) neuromodulation of suprascpaular nerve (SSN) in patients with chronic shoulder pain due to adhesive capsulitis and/or rotator cuff tear.
The study included 11 patients suffering from chronic shoulder pain for at least 6 months who were diagnosed with adhesive capsulitis (n=4), rotator cuff tear (n=5), or adhesive capsulitis+rotator cuff tear (n=2) using shoulder magnetic resonance imaging or extremity ultrasonography. After a favorable response to a diagnostic suprascapular nerve block twice a week (pain improvement >50%), PRF neuromodulation was performed. Shoulder pain and quality of life were assessed using a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and the Oxford Shoulder Score (OSS) before the diagnostic block and every month after PRF neuromodulation over a 9-month period.
The mean VAS score of 11 patients before PRF was 6.4±1.49, and the scores at 6-month and 9 month follow-up were 1.0±0.73 and 1.5±1.23, respectively. A significant pain reduction (p<0.001) was observed. The mean OSS score of 11 patients before PRF was 22.7±8.1, and the scores at 6-month and 9 month follow-up were 41.5±6.65 and 41.0±6.67, respectively. A significant OSS improvement (p<0.001) was observed.
PRF neuromodulation of the suprascapular nerve is an effective treatment for chronic shoulder pain, and the effect was sustained over a relatively long period in patients with medically intractable shoulder pain.
PMCID: PMC3921279  PMID: 24527194
Chronic pain; Failed back surgery syndrome; Spinal surgery; Spinal cord stimulation
5.  Total Shoulder Arthroplasty 
Shoulder arthroplasty has been the subject of marked advances over the last few years. Modern implants provide a wide range of options, including resurfacing of the humeral head, anatomic hemiarthroplasty, total shoulder arthroplasty, reverse shoulder arthroplasty and trauma-specific implants for fractures and nonunions. Most humeral components achieve successful long-term fixation without bone cement. Cemented all-polyethylene glenoid components remain the standard for anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty. The results of shoulder arthroplasty vary depending on the underlying diagnosis, the condition of the soft-tissues, and the type of reconstruction. Total shoulder arthroplasty seems to provide the best outcome for patients with osteoarthritis and inflammatory arthropathy. The outcome of hemiarthroplasty for proximal humerus fractures is somewhat unpredictable, though it seems to have improved with the use of fracture-specific designs, more attention to tuberosity repair, and the selective use of reverse arthroplasty, as well as a shift in indications towards internal fixation. Reverse shoulder arthroplasty has become extremely popular for patients with cuff-tear arthropathy, and its indications have been expanded to the field of revision surgery. Overall, shoulder arthroplasty is a very successful procedure with predictable pain relief and substantial improvements in motion and function.
PMCID: PMC3093753  PMID: 21584206
Arthroplasty; shoulder; osteoarthritis; shoulder fractures; cuff-tear arthropathy; reverse arthroplasty.
6.  Validation of the Stanmore percentage of normal shoulder assessment 
Background and Purpose:
The Stanmore Percentage of Normal Shoulder Assessment (SPONSA) is a patient-reported outcome measure (PROM). The score assesses pain, range of movement, strength, stability and function of the shoulder. The aim of this work was to formally validate the SPONSA.
Materials and Methods:
Validation of this score was carried out by measuring reproducibility, construct validity and sensitivity to change. Time to completion was also recorded. The Oxford Shoulder Score (OSS) and Constant Score (CS) were used for comparison. These assessments were performed with 61 individuals undergoing shoulder interventions.
There was excellent preoperative reproducibility in both intra- and inter-observer groups. The SPONSA had a 0.79 correlation with the OSS and 0.78 with the CS. The overall effect size of the SPONSA was 0.72, which was comparable to OSS (0.65) and greater than CS (0.34), implying equal or better sensitivity to change.
The SPONSA is practical and quick to perform and also a reproducible and a sensitive instrument. This simple PROM is a commendable addition to the existing validated scoring methods for the shoulder.
Level of Evidence:
I; testing of previously developed diagnostic criteria on consecutive patients (with universally applied reference “gold” standard).
PMCID: PMC3326753  PMID: 22518074
Assessment; outcome; score; shoulder; validation
7.  Prognostic Factors in Arthroplasty in the Rheumatoid Shoulder 
HSS Journal  2010;7(1):29-36.
Total shoulder arthroplasty is commonly considered a good option for treatment of the rheumatoid shoulder. However, when the rotator cuff and glenoid bone stock are not preserved, the clinical outcome of arthroplasty in the rheumatoid patients remains unclear. Aim of the study is to explore the prognostic value of multiple preoperative and peroperative variables in total shoulder arthroplasty and shoulder hemiarthroplasty in rheumatoid patients. Clinical Hospital for Special Surgery Shoulder score was determined at different time points over a mean period of 6.5 years in 66 rheumatoid patients with total shoulder arthroplasty and 75 rheumatoid patients with shoulder hemiarthroplasty. Moreover, radiographic analysis was performed to assess the progression of humeral head migration and glenoid loosening. Advanced age and erosions or cysts at the AC joint at time of surgery were associated with a lower postoperative Clinical Hospital for Special Surgery Shoulder score. In total shoulder arthroplasty, status of the rotator cuff and its repair at surgery were predictive of postoperative improvement. Progression of proximal migration during the period after surgery was associated with a lower clinical score over time. However, in hemiarthroplasty, no relation was observed between the progression of proximal or medial migration during follow-up and the clinical score over time. Status of the AC joint and age at the time of surgery should be taken into account when considering shoulder arthroplasty in rheumatoid patients. Total shoulder arthroplasty in combination with good cuff repair yields comparable clinical results as total shoulder arthroplasty when the cuff is intact.
PMCID: PMC3026101  PMID: 21423883
rheumatoid arthritis; rheumatoid shoulder; shoulder joint; prosthesis; shoulder prosthesis; shoulder arthroplasty; total shoulder prosthesis; humeral head prosthesis; hemiarthroplasty; glenoid component; loosening; outcome measurement; rotator cuff
8.  Is Reverse Shoulder Arthroplasty a Reasonable Alternative for Revision Arthroplasty? 
Reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) improves function in selected patients with complex shoulder problems. However, we presume patient function would vary if performed primarily or for revision and would vary with other patient-specific factors.
We compared (1) the shoulder scores and (2) complications in patients with RSA for revision arthroplasty with patients who had RSA as a primary procedure; and (3) identified patient-specific factors that affect (1) and (2).
Patients and Methods
We retrospectively compared 28 RSAs for failed arthroplasty with a control group consisting of 28 primary RSAs. We determined the Penn Shoulder (PENN), American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES), and Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE) scores. Followup for shoulder outcome measures averaged 17.4 (range, 4.1–34) and 20.8 months (range, 7.3–34.9) for the study and control groups, respectively.
All scores were higher in primary RSA than in revision RSA (PENN score, 79.5 versus 57.1; ASES score, 81.4 versus 56.3; SANE score, 73.8% versus 48.8%), and ROM was better (122.7° versus 83.75°). Both groups experienced increases in active forward flexion. Ten of the 28 study RSAs (35.7%) versus five of the 28 control RSAs (17.8%) had complications. No patient-specific factors other than reason for surgery correlated with scores.
Revision RSA is associated with lower function compared with primary RSA. However, we believe it a reasonable alternative and patients undergoing RSA for revision arthroplasty can expect improvements in function and shoulder scores to a mean of 50% of normal shoulders but must also accept a high complication rate.
Level of Evidence
Level III, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
PMCID: PMC3148363  PMID: 21116757
9.  Total shoulder arthroplasty in dislocation arthropathy 
International Orthopaedics  2009;34(8):1219-1225.
Follow-up examinations of 45 patients who received shoulder arthroplasty for osteoarthritis following shoulder instability were conducted after 44 months. The goal of this study was to describe the clinical findings associated with advanced glenohumeral arthritis due to shoulder instability and instability repairs and to present the clinical results and complications of treating this with shoulder arthroplasty. The weighted average Constant score increased significantly from 49.4 to 81.3 points. There was no significant difference in the type of arthroplasty with 35 cases of total shoulder replacements and ten cases of hemiarthoplasty. The rate of complications was 40% (18/45 patients) with 20% (9/45 patients) requiring an operative revision. Patients with arthritis after instability repair showed great improvement in all qualities of the Constant score. Nonetheless, further analyses are required to determine why such a relatively young group of patients showed high complication rates.
PMCID: PMC2989060  PMID: 20041242
10.  Shoulder instability surgery in Norway 
Acta Orthopaedica  2012;83(2):165-170.
Background and purpose
In January 2008, we established the Norwegian Register for Shoulder Instability Surgery. We report on the establishment, the baseline data, and the results at 1-year follow-up.
Primary and revision shoulder stabilization is reported by the surgeon on a 1-page paper form containing the patient's history of shoulder injury, clinical findings, and perioperative findings. The WOSI questionnaire for self-assessment of shoulder function is completed at baseline and at follow-up after 1, 2, and 5 years. To evaluate the completeness of registration, we compared our data with those in the Norwegian Patient Registry (NPR).
The NPR reported 39 hospitals performing shoulder stabilizations. 20 of these started to report to our register during 2009, and 464 procedures (404 primary, 59 revisions) were included up to December 31, 2009, which represented 54% of the procedures reported to NPR. Of the 404 primary procedures, 83% were operations due to anterior instability, 10% were operations due to posterior instability, and 7% were operations due to multidirectional instability. Arthroscopic soft tissue techniques were used in 88% of the patients treated for primary anterior instability and open coracoid transfer was used in 10% of such patients. At 1-year follow-up of 213 patients, we found a statistically significantly improved WOSI score in all types of instability. 10% of the patients treated with arthroscopic anterior labral repair and 16% treated with arthroscopic posterior labral repair reported recurrent instability. No statistically significant difference in functional improvement or rate of recurrence was found between these groups.
The functional results are in accordance with those in previous studies. However, the incidence of recurrent instability 1 year after arthroscopic labral repair is higher than expected.
PMCID: PMC3339531  PMID: 22112155
11.  Registry of Shoulder Arthroplasty – The Scottish Experience 
Recognising that timely dissemination of information in the orthopaedic community was important and in the absence of any national guidelines for shoulder arthroplasty, the Scottish shoulder arthroplasty registry, a voluntary registry, was started in 1996. The goals of the registry were to assess contemporary practice, provide a benchmark against which surgeons could compare their practice, identify risk factors for a poor outcome, and to improve outcomes through continuous feedback to the participating surgeons.
A standardised proforma was used to collect information on the diagnostic and demographic data, type of procedure performed, type of implant used, any associated procedures performed in conjunction with the arthroplasty, and peri-operative complications. Postoperative pain, activity and patient satisfaction were assessed annually using another standardised proforma.
Twenty surgeons have contributed to the register and 451 shoulder arthroplasties were registered over a 5-year period. Of patients, 23.2% were male and 76.8% female. The mean age was 65 years (range, 37–90 years). Shoulder arthroplasty was commonly performed for rheumatoid arthritis followed by trauma, osteoarthritis and avascular necrosis of the humeral head. Overall, 397 (88%) patients had a hemi-arthroplasty and 54 (12%) had a total shoulder replacement. Of the 54 cases that had a glenoid replacement, 28 were performed for inflammatory arthritis, 21 for osteoarthritis and 5 were for revisions. The humeral component was cemented in 204 (45%) cases, 160 of whom had a shoulder replacement for trauma. The glenoid component was cemented in 48 (89%) cases. Cross referencing our data with the figures of the actual number of shoulder arthroplasties performed, however, indicated that our registry at best collected only 53% of all the shoulder arthroplasties performed in Scotland annually.
The value of a joint registry is dependent on the accuracy and completeness of the data entered. Our registry, therefore, fails as an implant registry. We believe that compliance for data registration can only be ensured if dedicated data collection staff are employed to co-ordinate the data collection and collation process.
PMCID: PMC1964086  PMID: 16551397
Shoulder arthroplasty; Voluntary registry; Poor compliance
12.  Risk factors for revision after shoulder arthroplasty 
Acta Orthopaedica  2009;80(1):83-91.
Background and purpose Previous studies on shoulder arthroplasty have usually described small patient populations, and few articles have addressed the survival of shoulder implants. We describe the results of shoulder replacement in the Norwegian population (of 4.7 million) during a 12-year period. Trends in the use of shoulder arthroplasty during the study period were also investigated.
Patients and methods 1,531 hemiprostheses (HPs), 69 total shoulder replacements (Neer type TSR), and 225 reversed total shoulder replacement (reversed TSR) operations were reported to the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register between 1994 and 2005. Kaplan-Meier failure curves were drawn up for particular subgroups of patients, and revision rates were calculated using Cox regression analysis.
Results The 5- and 10-year failure rates of hemiprostheses were 6% (95% CI: 5–7) and 8% (95% CI: 6–10), and for reversed total shoulder replacements they were 10% (95% CI: 5–15) and 22% (95% CI: 10–33), respectively. For hemiprostheses, the risk of revision for patients who were 70 years or older was half that of those who were younger (RR = 0.47, CI: 0.28–0.77), while the risk of revision was highest for patients with sequelae after fracture compared to those with acute fractures (RR = 3.3, CI: 1.5–7.2). No differences in prosthesis survival were found between the different hemiprosthesis brands. The main reasons for revision of hemiprostheses were pain and luxation. For reversed total prostheses, the risk of revision was less for women than for men (RR = 0.26, CI: 0.11–0.63), and the main cause of revision was aseptic loosening of the glenoid component. During the study period, the incidence of shoulder arthroplasty increased for all diagnostic groups except inflammatory arthritis, for which a decrease was seen.
Interpretation We found good results in terms of 5-year prosthesis failure rate, with the use of hemiarthroplasty for patients with inflammatory arthritis, osteoarthritis, and acute fractures. Reversed total shoulder replacement was associated with a rather poor prognosis.
PMCID: PMC2823234  PMID: 19297791
13.  Joint Arthroplasties other than the Hip in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients 
Transplantation Surgery has undergone a great development during the last thirty years and the survival of solid organ recipients has increased dramatically. Osteo-articular diseases such as osteoporosis, fractures, avascular bone necrosis and osteoarthritis are relatively common in these patients and joint arthroplasty may be required. The outcome of hip arthroplasty in patients with osteonecrosis of the femoral head after renal transplantation has been studied and documented by many researchers. However, the results of joint arthroplasties other than the hip in solid organs recipients were only infrequently reported in the literature. A systematic review of the English literature was conducted in order to investigate the outcome of joint arthroplasties other than the hip in kidney, liver or heart transplant recipients. Nine pertinent articles including 51 knee arthroplasties, 8 shoulder arthroplasties and 1 ankle arthroplasty were found. These articles reported well to excellent results with a complication rate and spectrum comparable with those reported in nontransplant patients.
PMCID: PMC2703995  PMID: 19572036
Joint arthroplasty; solid organ transplant; immunosuppression; outcome; complication.
14.  Total hip arthroplasty in young adults, with focus on Perthes' disease and slipped capital femoral epiphysis 
Acta Orthopaedica  2012;83(2):159-164.
Background and purpose
Pediatric hip diseases account for 9% of all primary hip arthroplasties in the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register. We wanted to validate the diagnosis as reported to the register and to assess the quality of life of these patients after hip replacement.
Patients and methods
540 patients accepted to participate in this follow-up study (634 hips). All were less than 40 years of age and had been reported to the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register as having undergone a primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) between 1987 and 2007. The underlying diagnosis, age at diagnosis, and type of treatment given prior to the hip replacement were recorded from the original hospital notes.
The diagnoses reported to the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register were confirmed to be correct in 91% of all cases (538/592). For the 94 hips that had been treated due to Perthes' disease or slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE), the diagnosis was verified in 95% of cases (89/94). The corresponding proportion for inflammatory hip disease was 98% (137/140) and it was only 61% for primary osteoarthritis (19/31). The self reported quality of life (EQ-5D) was poorer for these young patients with THA than for persons in age-matched cohorts from Great Britain and Sweden, except for those with an underlying SCFE.
The diagnoses reported to the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register as the underlying cause of THA were correct in 91% of cases. Individuals who undergo THA before the age of 40 have a reduced quality of life, except for those requiring a hip replacement because of SCFE.
PMCID: PMC3339530  PMID: 22112152
15.  Proprioception in total, hemi- and reverse shoulder arthroplasty in 3D motion analyses: a prospective study 
International Orthopaedics  2008;33(6):1641-1647.
The aim of the study was to assess proprioception after shoulder arthroplasty. Twenty-six patients were enrolled who underwent total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) (n = 13) or hemi-arthroplasty (n = 8) for shoulder osteoarthritis or reversed arthroplasty (n = 5) for cuff tear arthropathy. All patients were examined before the operation and then again six months thereafter in a motion analysis study with an active angle-reproduction (AAR) test. In all groups the AAR deteriorated at 60° flexion (from 5.5° [SD 2.8] to 7.6° [SD 2.7]; p = 0.007) and at 30° external rotation (ER) (from 6.5° [SD 3.6] to 7.3° [SD 4.8°]; p = 0.023) six months after surgery. In the subgroup of TSA, there was deterioration at 30° ER (p = 0.036). Otherwise, there were no significant changes within or among the subgroups. Proprioception, assessed by the AAR test, remained unchanged or deteriorated six months after shoulder arthroplasty. This might be related to the reduced pain or to the relatively short follow-up period.
PMCID: PMC2899181  PMID: 18956186
16.  Critical appraisal of subjective outcome measures used in the assessment of shoulder disability 
Objective measures can be impractical in some settings, because they are time consuming and require face-to-face contact. More recently, there is an increasing trend towards the use of subjective outcome measures. Hence, in this article, five common subjective shoulder outcome measures are critically appraised in terms of their development, validity, relia-lity, responsiveness and clinical application.
Following an extensive literature search, five common shoulder patient-based scores were identified: Disability of Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH), Oxford Shoulder Score (OSS), Shoulder Disability Questionnaire (SDQ-UK), Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI), and the Shoulder Rating Questionnaire (SRQ). These questionnaires were then critically appraised in terms of their development process, validity, reliability, responsiveness, and clinical application.
The SDQ-UK has shown good construct validity but there is no data available regarding internal consistency, reliability and responsiveness. The SPADI has good internal consistency, fair reliability with adequate criterion and construct validity. The DASH has shown to have good construct validity, excellent test–re-test reliability and responsiveness to change. The OSS has good sensitivity, validity and responsiveness. Though SRQ has good internal consistency, its reproducibility and responsiveness are poor.
Based on this critical appraisal, the DASH received the best ratings for its clinimetric properties followed by the OSS.
PMCID: PMC3024607  PMID: 20056048
Shoulder; Disability; Subjective; Outcome measure
17.  Validity of published outcome data concerning Anatomic Graduated Component total knee arthroplasty: a structured literature review including arthroplasty register data 
International Orthopaedics  2011;36(1):51-56.
Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) as a treatment for end-stage osteoarthritis of the knee shows good results in terms of patient satisfaction. For the assessment of outcome and revision rate after total joint arthroplasty, there are two major data sources: clinical studies and national arthroplasty registers. The purpose of this study was to analyse the outcome of Anatomic Graduated Component (AGC) TKA reported in clinical studies and to perform a comparison with the outcome reported by national arthroplasty registers.
A systematic literature review was performed using standardised methodology in order to determine the outcome and revision rate of AGC TKA. In a comprehensive meta-analysis of clinical studies and worldwide register results we examined the quality of the basic data and the occurrence and influence of potential bias factors. Confidence intervals were calculated to determine the statistical significance of differences.
We found significant differences as regards the revision rate measured in revisions per 100 observed component years. Compared to worldwide register data it turned out to be significantly lower in clinical studies published by the implant development team. Actually, they reported a revision rate of 0.18 revisions per 100 observed component years, whereas annual reports of national arthroplasty registers report 0.74 revisions per 100 observed component years. A comparison of the results from national arthroplasty registers of different countries revealed a significantly higher revision rate for Denmark in relation to worldwide register data.
A conventional meta-analysis of clinical studies is affected by the influence of the development team and therefore subject to bias. For the assessment of outcome arthroplasty register data should be rated as superior and, being used as reference data for the detection of potential bias factors in the clinical literature, could make an essential contribution to the quality of scientific meta-analysis.
PMCID: PMC3251669  PMID: 21487670
18.  Total hip replacement in young adults with hip dysplasia 
Acta Orthopaedica  2011;82(2):149-154.
Background and purpose
Dysplasia of the hip increases the risk of secondary degenerative change and subsequent total hip replacement. Here we report on age at diagnosis of dysplasia, previous treatment, and quality of life for patients born after 1967 and registered with a total hip replacement due to dysplasia in the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register. We also used the medical records to validate the diagnosis reported by the orthopedic surgeon to the register.
Subjects born after January 1, 1967 and registered with a primary total hip replacement in the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register during the period 1987–2007 (n = 713) were included in the study. Data on hip symptoms and quality of life (EQ-5D) were collected through questionnaires. Elaborating information was retrieved from the medical records.
540 of 713 patients (76%) (corresponding to 634 hips) returned the questionnaires and consented for additional information to be retrieved from their medical records. Hip dysplasia accounted for 163 of 634 hip replacements (26%), 134 of which were in females (82%). Median age at time of diagnosis was 7.8 (0–39) years: 4.4 years for females and 22 years for males. After reviewing accessible medical records, the diagnosis of hip dysplasia was confirmed in 132 of 150 hips (88%).
One quarter of hip replacements performed in patients aged 40 or younger were due to an underlying hip dysplasia, which, in most cases, was diagnosed during late childhood. The dysplasia diagnosis reported to the register was correct for 88% of the hips.
PMCID: PMC3235283  PMID: 21434808
19.  The Danish Shoulder Arthroplasty Registry: clinical outcome and short-term survival of 2,137 primary shoulder replacements 
Acta Orthopaedica  2012;83(2):171-173.
The Danish Shoulder Arthroplasty Registry (DSR) was established in 2004. Data are reported electronically by the surgeons. Patient-reported outcome is collected 10–14 months postoperatively using the Western Ontario osteoarthritis of the shoulder index (WOOS). 2,137 primary shoulder arthroplasties (70% women) were reported to the registry between January 2006 and December 2008. Mean age at surgery was 69 years (SD 12). The most common indications were a displaced proximal humeral fracture (54%) or osteoarthritis (30%). 61% were stemmed hemiarthroplasties, 28% resurfacing hemiarthroplasties, 8% reverse shoulder arthroplasties, and 3% total arthroplasties. Median WOOS was 59% (IQR: 37–82). 5% had been revised by the end of June 2010. The most frequent indications for revision were dislocation or glenoid attrition.
PMCID: PMC3339532  PMID: 22329671
20.  Agreement, reliability and validity in 3 shoulder questionnaires in patients with rotator cuff disease 
Self-report questionnaires play an important role as outcome measures in shoulder research. Having an estimate of the measurement error of these questionnaires is of importance when assessing follow-up results after treatment and when planning intervention studies. The aim of this study was to cross-culturally adapt the Norwegian version of the OSS and WORC questionnaire and examine and compare agreement, reliability and construct validity of the disease-specific shoulder questionnaire WORC with two commonly used shoulder questionnaires, SPADI and OSS, in patients with rotator cuff disease.
74 patients with rotator cuff disease were recruited from the outpatient clinic of the Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Department at Ullevaal University Hospital in Oslo, Norway. A test-retest design was used, and the questionnaires were filled out by the patients at the clinic, with a one week interval between test administrations. Agreement (repeatability coefficient), reliability (ICC) and construct validity were examined and compared for WORC, SPADI and OSS.
Reliability analysis was restricted to the 55 patients (51 ± 10 yrs) who reported no change between test administrations according to scoring on a global scale. The agreement, reliability and construct validity was moderate for all three questionnaires with ICC ranging from 0.83 to 0.85, repeatability coefficient from 16.1 to 19.7 and Spearman rank correlations between total scores from r = 0.57 to 0.69. There was a lower degree of floor and ceiling effects in SPADI compared to WORC and OSS.
We conclude that the agreement and reliability of the three shoulder questionnaires examined, WORC index, SPADI and OSS are acceptable and that differences between scores were small. The Norwegian version of the questionnaires is acceptable for assessing Norwegian-speaking patients with rotator cuff disease. The moderate agreement and construct validity should be taken into consideration when assessing follow-up results after treatment and in the planning of prospective studies.
PMCID: PMC2409321  PMID: 18482438
21.  Reverse shoulder arthroplasty in revision of failed shoulder arthroplasty—outcome and follow-up 
International Orthopaedics  2012;37(1):67-75.
The number of shoulder arthroplasties has increased over the last decade, which can partly be explained by the increasing use of the reverse total shoulder arthroplasty technique. However, the options for revision surgery after primary arthroplasty are limited in cases of irreparable rotator cuff deficiency, and tuberosity malunion, nonunion, or resorption. Often, conversion to a reverse design is the only suitable solution. We analysed the functional outcome, complication rate and patient satisfaction after the revision of primary shoulder arthroplasty using an inverse design.
Over a ten-year period 57 patients underwent revision surgery for failed primary shoulder arthroplasty using a reverse design. Of the 57 patients, 50 (mean age, 64.2 years) were available after an average follow-up of 51 months. Clinical evaluation included the Constant Murley Score, the UCLA score, and the Simple Shoulder Test, whereas radiological evaluation included plain radiographs in standard projections. Patients were also requested to rate their subjective satisfaction of the final outcome as excellent, good, satisfied or dissatisfied.
Compared to the preoperative status, the overall functional outcome measurements based on standardised outcome shoulder scores improved significantly at follow-up. The overall mean Constant Murley score improved from 18.5 to 49.3 points, the mean UCLA score improved from 7.1 to 21.6 points, and the mean simple shoulder test improved from 1.2 to 5.6 points. The average degree of abduction improved from 40 to 93° (p < 0.0001), and the average degree of anterior flexion improved from 47 to 98° (p < 0.0001). The median VAS pain score decreased from 7 to 1. Complications occurred in 12 cases (24 %).A total of 32 (64 %) patients rated their result as good or excellent, six (12 %) as satisfactory and 12 (24 %) as dissatisfied.
In revision shoulder arthroplasty after failed primary shoulder arthroplasty an inverse design can improve the functional outcome, and patient satisfaction is usually high. However, the complication rate of this procedure is also high, and patient selection and other treatment options should be carefully considered.
PMCID: PMC3532649  PMID: 23238604
22.  Shoulder arthroplasty in osteoarthritis: correlation between function and radiographic parameters 
Acta Ortopedica Brasileira  2013;21(2):98-102.
To evaluate the correlation between radiographic parameters and functional assessments of patients with osteoarthritis of the shoulder who underwent shoulder arthroplasty and to describe the functional outcomes of this procedure in our institution.
We evaluated 21 patients (22 shoulders) who underwent shoulder arthroplasty between 1998 and 2010 and with a minimum follow-up of 12 months. Clinical evaluation was performed using the Constant-Murley scale, UCLA, EVA and by measuring the active motion. We analysed preoperative (distance between the top of the head and the humerus and the acromion, superior migration, neck angulation, medial "offset", subluxation, glenoid erosion) and postoperative radiographic parameters (rod inclination, migration of components and loosening).
Patients showed significant improvement in all parameters: flexion (p = 0.0083), abduction (p = 0.0266), external rotation (p = 0.0062), Constant-Murley (p = 0.0001 ), UCLA (p <0.0001) and VAS (p = 0.0002). The superior migration of the humerus showed a significant correlation with UCLA and Constant-Murley scores (p = 0.0480 and p = 0.0110, respectively). The other radiographic parameters showed no correlation with the clinical outcomes.
The superior migration of the humerus is related to worse clinical scores. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series.
PMCID: PMC3861969  PMID: 24453651
Osteoarthritis; Glenohumeral joint; Arthroplasty
23.  Scapular Notching: Recognition and Strategies to Minimize Clinical Impact 
Scapular notching is a unique complication of Grammont-style reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. While reverse total shoulder arthroplasty has revolutionized the treatment of pseudoparalysis secondary to cuff tear arthropathy, the implications of scapular notching with regard to patient function and implant stability remain unclear.
We reviewed literature to determine the etiology and incidence, radiographic progression and effect on implant stability, relationship with postoperative function, and risk factors for the development of scapular notching.
We reviewed PubMed, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and EMBASE with the terms “reverse total shoulder arthroplasty” and “scapular notching.” Inclusion criteria were a level of evidence of IV (or better). Twenty-four articles were selected after manual review.
Scapular notching after reverse total shoulder arthroplasty is due to repetitive contact between the polyethylene of the humeral component and the inferior scapular neck during adduction, leading to erosion of the scapular neck, polyethylene wear, joint inflammation, and potential implant loosening. Scapular notching appears between 6 and 14 months postoperatively, with an incidence of 44% to 96%. Radiographic progression and effect on patient function remain controversial. Predictors of scapular notching include surgical approach, glenoid wear, preoperative diagnosis, infraspinatus muscle quality, cranial–caudal positioning, and tilt of the glenosphere.
Improved understanding of the etiology and risk factors for scapular notching will lead to refinement in implant technology and surgical technique that may translate into improved patient function and implant longevity for Grammont-style reverse total shoulder arthroplasty.
PMCID: PMC3148378  PMID: 21128030
24.  Does patella resurfacing really matter? Pain and function in 972 patients after primary total knee arthroplasty 
Acta Orthopaedica  2010;81(1):99-107.
Background and purpose
Resurfacing of the patella during primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is often recommended based on higher revision rates in non-resurfaced knees. As many of these revisions are insertions of a patella component due to pain, and since only patients with a non-resurfaced patella have the option of secondary resurfacing, we do not really know whether these patients have more pain and poorer function. The main purpose of the present paper was therefore to assess pain and function at least 2 years after surgery for unrevised primary non-resurfaced and resurfaced TKA, and secondary among prosthesis brands.
Information needed to calculate subscales from the knee injury and osteoarthritis outcome score (KOOS) was collected in a questionnaire given to 972 osteoarthritis patients with intact primary TKAs that had been reported to the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register. Pain and satisfaction on visual analog scales and improvement in EQ-5D index score ΔEQ-5D) were also used as outcomes. Outcomes were measured on a scale from 0 to 100 units (worst to best). To estimate differences in mean scores, we used multiple linear regression with adjustment for possible confounders.
We did not observe any differences between resurfacing and non-resurfacing in any outcome, with estimated differences of ≤ 1.4 units and p-values of > 0.4. There was, however, a tendency of better results for the NexGen implant as compared to the reference brand AGC for symptoms (difference = 4.9, p = 0.05), pain (VAS) (difference = 8.3, p = 0.004), and satisfaction (VAS) (difference = 7.9, p = 0.02). However, none of these differences reached the stated level of minimal perceptible clinical difference.
Resurfacing of the patella has no clinical effect on pain and function after TKA. Differences between the brands investigated were small and they were assumed to be of minor importance.
PMCID: PMC2856212  PMID: 20158405
25.  Total Hip Arthroplasty is Less Painful at 12 Months Compared with Hemiarthroplasty in Treatment of Displaced Femoral Neck Fracture 
HSS Journal  2007;4(1):48-54.
The Displaced Femoral (neck fracture) Arthroplasty Consortium for Treatment and Outcomes (DFACTO) study compared total hip arthroplasty (THA) to hemiarthroplasty in the treatment of displaced femoral neck fractures.
This study was designed as a prospective, randomized clinical trial.
The study was conducted in five US academic and private medical centers.
Patients were composed of independent, mentally competent individuals, >50 years old who suffered a displaced femoral neck fracture without existing arthritis at the hip. Forty-one patients were enrolled.
Main outcome measures
Functional outcomes and quality of life were assessed at 6 and 12 months post-fracture using the SF-36, Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), the Harris Hip Score, and the Timed “Up & Go” Test (TUG test).
Groups were equivalent at baseline in terms of age, comorbid conditions, and functional status. At 6 months, there were no significant differences between the groups using the outcome measures or overall rates of complications. There was one dislocation in the THA group (5.8% of patients). At 12 months, the THA group reported significantly less pain (53.2 ± 10.2) than the hemiarthroplasty group (42.4 ± 11.5) using the SF-36 (p = 0.02). Using the TUG Test, we observed a greater proportion of THA patients remain functionally independent 1 year after surgery compared the hemiarthroplasty group (p = 0.08, controlling for age and sex).
These differences in pain and functional outcomes suggest THA is a viable treatment option for the active elderly displaced femoral neck fracture population.
PMCID: PMC2504272  PMID: 18751862
displaced femoral neck fracture; total hip arthroplasty; hemiarthroplasty; pain; functional outcomes

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