Total shoulder arthroplasty is commonly considered a good option for treatment of the rheumatoid shoulder. However, when the rotator cuff and glenoid bone stock are not preserved, the clinical outcome of arthroplasty in the rheumatoid patients remains unclear. Aim of the study is to explore the prognostic value of multiple preoperative and peroperative variables in total shoulder arthroplasty and shoulder hemiarthroplasty in rheumatoid patients. Clinical Hospital for Special Surgery Shoulder score was determined at different time points over a mean period of 6.5 years in 66 rheumatoid patients with total shoulder arthroplasty and 75 rheumatoid patients with shoulder hemiarthroplasty. Moreover, radiographic analysis was performed to assess the progression of humeral head migration and glenoid loosening. Advanced age and erosions or cysts at the AC joint at time of surgery were associated with a lower postoperative Clinical Hospital for Special Surgery Shoulder score. In total shoulder arthroplasty, status of the rotator cuff and its repair at surgery were predictive of postoperative improvement. Progression of proximal migration during the period after surgery was associated with a lower clinical score over time. However, in hemiarthroplasty, no relation was observed between the progression of proximal or medial migration during follow-up and the clinical score over time. Status of the AC joint and age at the time of surgery should be taken into account when considering shoulder arthroplasty in rheumatoid patients. Total shoulder arthroplasty in combination with good cuff repair yields comparable clinical results as total shoulder arthroplasty when the cuff is intact.
rheumatoid arthritis; rheumatoid shoulder; shoulder joint; prosthesis; shoulder prosthesis; shoulder arthroplasty; total shoulder prosthesis; humeral head prosthesis; hemiarthroplasty; glenoid component; loosening; outcome measurement; rotator cuff
The purpose of this study was to analyze pre-operative and intra-operative factors that affect the outcome of shoulder arthroplasty. We undertook a retrospective review of all shoulder arthroplasties performed at our institution between 1986 and 2003. Patients were contacted and outcomes were assessed using the Simple Shoulder Test and the Western Ontario Osteoarthritis of the Shoulder Index questionnaires. One hundred six patients (126 shoulders) participated in the study. The average length of follow-up was 6 years 9 months (range 2 to 20 years). Revision arthroplasty surgery and female gender were associated with worse outcomes. Age, the number of medical comorbidities, obesity, pre-operative range of motion, prior non-arthroplasty surgery, smoking, and alcohol abuse did not correlate with outcome. Patients who had shoulder arthroplasty for osteoarthritis had better outcome scores than those with rheumatoid arthritis. For intra-operative variables, significantly worse outcomes were found both with the use of hemiarthroplasty and in patients with a rotator cuff tear identified at the time of surgery. These findings may help to optimize patient and surgery selection in shoulder arthroplasty and assist in preoperative patient counseling.
Shoulder arthroplasty has been the subject of marked advances over the last few years. Modern implants provide a wide range of options, including resurfacing of the humeral head, anatomic hemiarthroplasty, total shoulder arthroplasty, reverse shoulder arthroplasty and trauma-specific implants for fractures and nonunions. Most humeral components achieve successful long-term fixation without bone cement. Cemented all-polyethylene glenoid components remain the standard for anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty. The results of shoulder arthroplasty vary depending on the underlying diagnosis, the condition of the soft-tissues, and the type of reconstruction. Total shoulder arthroplasty seems to provide the best outcome for patients with osteoarthritis and inflammatory arthropathy. The outcome of hemiarthroplasty for proximal humerus fractures is somewhat unpredictable, though it seems to have improved with the use of fracture-specific designs, more attention to tuberosity repair, and the selective use of reverse arthroplasty, as well as a shift in indications towards internal fixation. Reverse shoulder arthroplasty has become extremely popular for patients with cuff-tear arthropathy, and its indications have been expanded to the field of revision surgery. Overall, shoulder arthroplasty is a very successful procedure with predictable pain relief and substantial improvements in motion and function.
Arthroplasty; shoulder; osteoarthritis; shoulder fractures; cuff-tear arthropathy; reverse arthroplasty.
Recognising that timely dissemination of information in the orthopaedic community was important and in the absence of any national guidelines for shoulder arthroplasty, the Scottish shoulder arthroplasty registry, a voluntary registry, was started in 1996. The goals of the registry were to assess contemporary practice, provide a benchmark against which surgeons could compare their practice, identify risk factors for a poor outcome, and to improve outcomes through continuous feedback to the participating surgeons.
PATIENTS AND METHODS
A standardised proforma was used to collect information on the diagnostic and demographic data, type of procedure performed, type of implant used, any associated procedures performed in conjunction with the arthroplasty, and peri-operative complications. Postoperative pain, activity and patient satisfaction were assessed annually using another standardised proforma.
Twenty surgeons have contributed to the register and 451 shoulder arthroplasties were registered over a 5-year period. Of patients, 23.2% were male and 76.8% female. The mean age was 65 years (range, 37–90 years). Shoulder arthroplasty was commonly performed for rheumatoid arthritis followed by trauma, osteoarthritis and avascular necrosis of the humeral head. Overall, 397 (88%) patients had a hemi-arthroplasty and 54 (12%) had a total shoulder replacement. Of the 54 cases that had a glenoid replacement, 28 were performed for inflammatory arthritis, 21 for osteoarthritis and 5 were for revisions. The humeral component was cemented in 204 (45%) cases, 160 of whom had a shoulder replacement for trauma. The glenoid component was cemented in 48 (89%) cases. Cross referencing our data with the figures of the actual number of shoulder arthroplasties performed, however, indicated that our registry at best collected only 53% of all the shoulder arthroplasties performed in Scotland annually.
The value of a joint registry is dependent on the accuracy and completeness of the data entered. Our registry, therefore, fails as an implant registry. We believe that compliance for data registration can only be ensured if dedicated data collection staff are employed to co-ordinate the data collection and collation process.
Shoulder arthroplasty; Voluntary registry; Poor compliance
Background and purpose
In January 2008, we established the Norwegian Register for Shoulder Instability Surgery. We report on the establishment, the baseline data, and the results at 1-year follow-up.
Primary and revision shoulder stabilization is reported by the surgeon on a 1-page paper form containing the patient's history of shoulder injury, clinical findings, and perioperative findings. The WOSI questionnaire for self-assessment of shoulder function is completed at baseline and at follow-up after 1, 2, and 5 years. To evaluate the completeness of registration, we compared our data with those in the Norwegian Patient Registry (NPR).
The NPR reported 39 hospitals performing shoulder stabilizations. 20 of these started to report to our register during 2009, and 464 procedures (404 primary, 59 revisions) were included up to December 31, 2009, which represented 54% of the procedures reported to NPR. Of the 404 primary procedures, 83% were operations due to anterior instability, 10% were operations due to posterior instability, and 7% were operations due to multidirectional instability. Arthroscopic soft tissue techniques were used in 88% of the patients treated for primary anterior instability and open coracoid transfer was used in 10% of such patients. At 1-year follow-up of 213 patients, we found a statistically significantly improved WOSI score in all types of instability. 10% of the patients treated with arthroscopic anterior labral repair and 16% treated with arthroscopic posterior labral repair reported recurrent instability. No statistically significant difference in functional improvement or rate of recurrence was found between these groups.
The functional results are in accordance with those in previous studies. However, the incidence of recurrent instability 1 year after arthroscopic labral repair is higher than expected.
Background and purpose Previous studies on shoulder arthroplasty have usually described small patient populations, and few articles have addressed the survival of shoulder implants. We describe the results of shoulder replacement in the Norwegian population (of 4.7 million) during a 12-year period. Trends in the use of shoulder arthroplasty during the study period were also investigated.
Patients and methods 1,531 hemiprostheses (HPs), 69 total shoulder replacements (Neer type TSR), and 225 reversed total shoulder replacement (reversed TSR) operations were reported to the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register between 1994 and 2005. Kaplan-Meier failure curves were drawn up for particular subgroups of patients, and revision rates were calculated using Cox regression analysis.
Results The 5- and 10-year failure rates of hemiprostheses were 6% (95% CI: 5–7) and 8% (95% CI: 6–10), and for reversed total shoulder replacements they were 10% (95% CI: 5–15) and 22% (95% CI: 10–33), respectively. For hemiprostheses, the risk of revision for patients who were 70 years or older was half that of those who were younger (RR = 0.47, CI: 0.28–0.77), while the risk of revision was highest for patients with sequelae after fracture compared to those with acute fractures (RR = 3.3, CI: 1.5–7.2). No differences in prosthesis survival were found between the different hemiprosthesis brands. The main reasons for revision of hemiprostheses were pain and luxation. For reversed total prostheses, the risk of revision was less for women than for men (RR = 0.26, CI: 0.11–0.63), and the main cause of revision was aseptic loosening of the glenoid component. During the study period, the incidence of shoulder arthroplasty increased for all diagnostic groups except inflammatory arthritis, for which a decrease was seen.
Interpretation We found good results in terms of 5-year prosthesis failure rate, with the use of hemiarthroplasty for patients with inflammatory arthritis, osteoarthritis, and acute fractures. Reversed total shoulder replacement was associated with a rather poor prognosis.
Transplantation Surgery has undergone a great development during the last thirty years and the survival of solid organ recipients has increased dramatically. Osteo-articular diseases such as osteoporosis, fractures, avascular bone necrosis and osteoarthritis are relatively common in these patients and joint arthroplasty may be required. The outcome of hip arthroplasty in patients with osteonecrosis of the femoral head after renal transplantation has been studied and documented by many researchers. However, the results of joint arthroplasties other than the hip in solid organs recipients were only infrequently reported in the literature. A systematic review of the English literature was conducted in order to investigate the outcome of joint arthroplasties other than the hip in kidney, liver or heart transplant recipients. Nine pertinent articles including 51 knee arthroplasties, 8 shoulder arthroplasties and 1 ankle arthroplasty were found. These articles reported well to excellent results with a complication rate and spectrum comparable with those reported in nontransplant patients.
Joint arthroplasty; solid organ transplant; immunosuppression; outcome; complication.
The stemless shoulder prosthesis is a new concept in shoulder arthroplasty. To date, only a few studies have investigated the results of this prosthesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and radiological midterm results of this implant in comparison with a standard anatomic stemmed shoulder prosthesis.
Materials and methods
The Constant score, the DASH score, the active range of motion (abduction, anteversion, external rotation), and the radiological results were examined in 82 patients with primary osteoarthritis of the shoulder treated with either the Total Evolutive Shoulder System® (Biomed, France) stemless shoulder prosthesis or the Affinis® (Mathys, Switzerland) stemmed shoulder prosthesis to detect possible differences in the functional outcome and to evaluate radiological properties of the implants. Patients were examined before and 32 ± 4 months after surgery.
There was no significant difference in the Constant scores of the groups treated with the stemless shoulder prosthesis (65.0 ± 11.0 points) and the stemmed shoulder prosthesis (73.2 ± 11.3 points; P = 0.162). The estimated blood loss (P = 0.026) and the mean operative time (P = 0.002) were significantly lower in the group with the stemless shoulder prosthesis.
The use of the stemless shoulder prosthesis yielded good results which, in a mid-term follow-up, were comparable with those provided by a standard anatomic shoulder prosthesis. Further investigations are needed regarding the long-term performance of this prosthesis.
Stemless shoulder prosthesis; Shoulder; Arthroplasty; Osteoarthritis
Background and Purpose:
The Stanmore Percentage of Normal Shoulder Assessment (SPONSA) is a patient-reported outcome measure (PROM). The score assesses pain, range of movement, strength, stability and function of the shoulder. The aim of this work was to formally validate the SPONSA.
Materials and Methods:
Validation of this score was carried out by measuring reproducibility, construct validity and sensitivity to change. Time to completion was also recorded. The Oxford Shoulder Score (OSS) and Constant Score (CS) were used for comparison. These assessments were performed with 61 individuals undergoing shoulder interventions.
There was excellent preoperative reproducibility in both intra- and inter-observer groups. The SPONSA had a 0.79 correlation with the OSS and 0.78 with the CS. The overall effect size of the SPONSA was 0.72, which was comparable to OSS (0.65) and greater than CS (0.34), implying equal or better sensitivity to change.
The SPONSA is practical and quick to perform and also a reproducible and a sensitive instrument. This simple PROM is a commendable addition to the existing validated scoring methods for the shoulder.
Level of Evidence:
I; testing of previously developed diagnostic criteria on consecutive patients (with universally applied reference “gold” standard).
Assessment; outcome; score; shoulder; validation
Background and purpose
Pediatric hip diseases account for 9% of all primary hip arthroplasties in the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register. We wanted to validate the diagnosis as reported to the register and to assess the quality of life of these patients after hip replacement.
Patients and methods
540 patients accepted to participate in this follow-up study (634 hips). All were less than 40 years of age and had been reported to the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register as having undergone a primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) between 1987 and 2007. The underlying diagnosis, age at diagnosis, and type of treatment given prior to the hip replacement were recorded from the original hospital notes.
The diagnoses reported to the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register were confirmed to be correct in 91% of all cases (538/592). For the 94 hips that had been treated due to Perthes' disease or slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE), the diagnosis was verified in 95% of cases (89/94). The corresponding proportion for inflammatory hip disease was 98% (137/140) and it was only 61% for primary osteoarthritis (19/31). The self reported quality of life (EQ-5D) was poorer for these young patients with THA than for persons in age-matched cohorts from Great Britain and Sweden, except for those with an underlying SCFE.
The diagnoses reported to the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register as the underlying cause of THA were correct in 91% of cases. Individuals who undergo THA before the age of 40 have a reduced quality of life, except for those requiring a hip replacement because of SCFE.
Objective measures can be impractical in some settings, because they are time consuming and require face-to-face contact. More recently, there is an increasing trend towards the use of subjective outcome measures. Hence, in this article, five common subjective shoulder outcome measures are critically appraised in terms of their development, validity, relia-lity, responsiveness and clinical application.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Following an extensive literature search, five common shoulder patient-based scores were identified: Disability of Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH), Oxford Shoulder Score (OSS), Shoulder Disability Questionnaire (SDQ-UK), Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI), and the Shoulder Rating Questionnaire (SRQ). These questionnaires were then critically appraised in terms of their development process, validity, reliability, responsiveness, and clinical application.
The SDQ-UK has shown good construct validity but there is no data available regarding internal consistency, reliability and responsiveness. The SPADI has good internal consistency, fair reliability with adequate criterion and construct validity. The DASH has shown to have good construct validity, excellent test–re-test reliability and responsiveness to change. The OSS has good sensitivity, validity and responsiveness. Though SRQ has good internal consistency, its reproducibility and responsiveness are poor.
Based on this critical appraisal, the DASH received the best ratings for its clinimetric properties followed by the OSS.
Shoulder; Disability; Subjective; Outcome measure
Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) as a treatment for end-stage osteoarthritis of the knee shows good results in terms of patient satisfaction. For the assessment of outcome and revision rate after total joint arthroplasty, there are two major data sources: clinical studies and national arthroplasty registers. The purpose of this study was to analyse the outcome of Anatomic Graduated Component (AGC) TKA reported in clinical studies and to perform a comparison with the outcome reported by national arthroplasty registers.
A systematic literature review was performed using standardised methodology in order to determine the outcome and revision rate of AGC TKA. In a comprehensive meta-analysis of clinical studies and worldwide register results we examined the quality of the basic data and the occurrence and influence of potential bias factors. Confidence intervals were calculated to determine the statistical significance of differences.
We found significant differences as regards the revision rate measured in revisions per 100 observed component years. Compared to worldwide register data it turned out to be significantly lower in clinical studies published by the implant development team. Actually, they reported a revision rate of 0.18 revisions per 100 observed component years, whereas annual reports of national arthroplasty registers report 0.74 revisions per 100 observed component years. A comparison of the results from national arthroplasty registers of different countries revealed a significantly higher revision rate for Denmark in relation to worldwide register data.
A conventional meta-analysis of clinical studies is affected by the influence of the development team and therefore subject to bias. For the assessment of outcome arthroplasty register data should be rated as superior and, being used as reference data for the detection of potential bias factors in the clinical literature, could make an essential contribution to the quality of scientific meta-analysis.
The Danish Shoulder Arthroplasty Registry (DSR) was established in 2004. Data are reported electronically by the surgeons. Patient-reported outcome is collected 10–14 months postoperatively using the Western Ontario osteoarthritis of the shoulder index (WOOS). 2,137 primary shoulder arthroplasties (70% women) were reported to the registry between January 2006 and December 2008. Mean age at surgery was 69 years (SD 12). The most common indications were a displaced proximal humeral fracture (54%) or osteoarthritis (30%). 61% were stemmed hemiarthroplasties, 28% resurfacing hemiarthroplasties, 8% reverse shoulder arthroplasties, and 3% total arthroplasties. Median WOOS was 59% (IQR: 37–82). 5% had been revised by the end of June 2010. The most frequent indications for revision were dislocation or glenoid attrition.
Background and purpose
Dysplasia of the hip increases the risk of secondary degenerative change and subsequent total hip replacement. Here we report on age at diagnosis of dysplasia, previous treatment, and quality of life for patients born after 1967 and registered with a total hip replacement due to dysplasia in the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register. We also used the medical records to validate the diagnosis reported by the orthopedic surgeon to the register.
Subjects born after January 1, 1967 and registered with a primary total hip replacement in the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register during the period 1987–2007 (n = 713) were included in the study. Data on hip symptoms and quality of life (EQ-5D) were collected through questionnaires. Elaborating information was retrieved from the medical records.
540 of 713 patients (76%) (corresponding to 634 hips) returned the questionnaires and consented for additional information to be retrieved from their medical records. Hip dysplasia accounted for 163 of 634 hip replacements (26%), 134 of which were in females (82%). Median age at time of diagnosis was 7.8 (0–39) years: 4.4 years for females and 22 years for males. After reviewing accessible medical records, the diagnosis of hip dysplasia was confirmed in 132 of 150 hips (88%).
One quarter of hip replacements performed in patients aged 40 or younger were due to an underlying hip dysplasia, which, in most cases, was diagnosed during late childhood. The dysplasia diagnosis reported to the register was correct for 88% of the hips.
Self-report questionnaires play an important role as outcome measures in shoulder research. Having an estimate of the measurement error of these questionnaires is of importance when assessing follow-up results after treatment and when planning intervention studies. The aim of this study was to cross-culturally adapt the Norwegian version of the OSS and WORC questionnaire and examine and compare agreement, reliability and construct validity of the disease-specific shoulder questionnaire WORC with two commonly used shoulder questionnaires, SPADI and OSS, in patients with rotator cuff disease.
74 patients with rotator cuff disease were recruited from the outpatient clinic of the Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Department at Ullevaal University Hospital in Oslo, Norway. A test-retest design was used, and the questionnaires were filled out by the patients at the clinic, with a one week interval between test administrations. Agreement (repeatability coefficient), reliability (ICC) and construct validity were examined and compared for WORC, SPADI and OSS.
Reliability analysis was restricted to the 55 patients (51 ± 10 yrs) who reported no change between test administrations according to scoring on a global scale. The agreement, reliability and construct validity was moderate for all three questionnaires with ICC ranging from 0.83 to 0.85, repeatability coefficient from 16.1 to 19.7 and Spearman rank correlations between total scores from r = 0.57 to 0.69. There was a lower degree of floor and ceiling effects in SPADI compared to WORC and OSS.
We conclude that the agreement and reliability of the three shoulder questionnaires examined, WORC index, SPADI and OSS are acceptable and that differences between scores were small. The Norwegian version of the questionnaires is acceptable for assessing Norwegian-speaking patients with rotator cuff disease. The moderate agreement and construct validity should be taken into consideration when assessing follow-up results after treatment and in the planning of prospective studies.
Reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) improves function in selected patients with complex shoulder problems. However, we presume patient function would vary if performed primarily or for revision and would vary with other patient-specific factors.
We compared (1) the shoulder scores and (2) complications in patients with RSA for revision arthroplasty with patients who had RSA as a primary procedure; and (3) identified patient-specific factors that affect (1) and (2).
Patients and Methods
We retrospectively compared 28 RSAs for failed arthroplasty with a control group consisting of 28 primary RSAs. We determined the Penn Shoulder (PENN), American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES), and Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE) scores. Followup for shoulder outcome measures averaged 17.4 (range, 4.1–34) and 20.8 months (range, 7.3–34.9) for the study and control groups, respectively.
All scores were higher in primary RSA than in revision RSA (PENN score, 79.5 versus 57.1; ASES score, 81.4 versus 56.3; SANE score, 73.8% versus 48.8%), and ROM was better (122.7° versus 83.75°). Both groups experienced increases in active forward flexion. Ten of the 28 study RSAs (35.7%) versus five of the 28 control RSAs (17.8%) had complications. No patient-specific factors other than reason for surgery correlated with scores.
Revision RSA is associated with lower function compared with primary RSA. However, we believe it a reasonable alternative and patients undergoing RSA for revision arthroplasty can expect improvements in function and shoulder scores to a mean of 50% of normal shoulders but must also accept a high complication rate.
Level of Evidence
Level III, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Scapular notching is a unique complication of Grammont-style reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. While reverse total shoulder arthroplasty has revolutionized the treatment of pseudoparalysis secondary to cuff tear arthropathy, the implications of scapular notching with regard to patient function and implant stability remain unclear.
We reviewed literature to determine the etiology and incidence, radiographic progression and effect on implant stability, relationship with postoperative function, and risk factors for the development of scapular notching.
We reviewed PubMed, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and EMBASE with the terms “reverse total shoulder arthroplasty” and “scapular notching.” Inclusion criteria were a level of evidence of IV (or better). Twenty-four articles were selected after manual review.
Scapular notching after reverse total shoulder arthroplasty is due to repetitive contact between the polyethylene of the humeral component and the inferior scapular neck during adduction, leading to erosion of the scapular neck, polyethylene wear, joint inflammation, and potential implant loosening. Scapular notching appears between 6 and 14 months postoperatively, with an incidence of 44% to 96%. Radiographic progression and effect on patient function remain controversial. Predictors of scapular notching include surgical approach, glenoid wear, preoperative diagnosis, infraspinatus muscle quality, cranial–caudal positioning, and tilt of the glenosphere.
Improved understanding of the etiology and risk factors for scapular notching will lead to refinement in implant technology and surgical technique that may translate into improved patient function and implant longevity for Grammont-style reverse total shoulder arthroplasty.
Follow-up examinations of 45 patients who received shoulder arthroplasty for osteoarthritis following shoulder instability were conducted after 44 months. The goal of this study was to describe the clinical findings associated with advanced glenohumeral arthritis due to shoulder instability and instability repairs and to present the clinical results and complications of treating this with shoulder arthroplasty. The weighted average Constant score increased significantly from 49.4 to 81.3 points. There was no significant difference in the type of arthroplasty with 35 cases of total shoulder replacements and ten cases of hemiarthoplasty. The rate of complications was 40% (18/45 patients) with 20% (9/45 patients) requiring an operative revision. Patients with arthritis after instability repair showed great improvement in all qualities of the Constant score. Nonetheless, further analyses are required to determine why such a relatively young group of patients showed high complication rates.
Background and purpose
Resurfacing of the patella during primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is often recommended based on higher revision rates in non-resurfaced knees. As many of these revisions are insertions of a patella component due to pain, and since only patients with a non-resurfaced patella have the option of secondary resurfacing, we do not really know whether these patients have more pain and poorer function. The main purpose of the present paper was therefore to assess pain and function at least 2 years after surgery for unrevised primary non-resurfaced and resurfaced TKA, and secondary among prosthesis brands.
Information needed to calculate subscales from the knee injury and osteoarthritis outcome score (KOOS) was collected in a questionnaire given to 972 osteoarthritis patients with intact primary TKAs that had been reported to the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register. Pain and satisfaction on visual analog scales and improvement in EQ-5D index score ΔEQ-5D) were also used as outcomes. Outcomes were measured on a scale from 0 to 100 units (worst to best). To estimate differences in mean scores, we used multiple linear regression with adjustment for possible confounders.
We did not observe any differences between resurfacing and non-resurfacing in any outcome, with estimated differences of ≤ 1.4 units and p-values of > 0.4. There was, however, a tendency of better results for the NexGen implant as compared to the reference brand AGC for symptoms (difference = 4.9, p = 0.05), pain (VAS) (difference = 8.3, p = 0.004), and satisfaction (VAS) (difference = 7.9, p = 0.02). However, none of these differences reached the stated level of minimal perceptible clinical difference.
Resurfacing of the patella has no clinical effect on pain and function after TKA. Differences between the brands investigated were small and they were assumed to be of minor importance.
The treatment of comminuted proximal humerus fractures in older patients is challenging. Variable values of functional outcomes scores, ROMs, patient satisfaction, and bony healing have been reported with conventional techniques, including open reduction and internal fixation, percutaneous pinning, and hemiarthroplasty. Another alternative is reverse total shoulder arthroplasty, although it is unclear whether this provides better ROM or function.
We (1) evaluated ROM, pain level, and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores of patients who had a reverse total shoulder arthroplasty for displaced three- and four-part proximal humerus fracture and (2) identified clinical and radiographic complications from the procedure.
Patients and Methods
We retrospectively reviewed 30 patients in three institutions who had undergone a primary reverse total shoulder arthroplasty for displaced three- or four-part proximal humerus fractures. Mean age was 77 years (range, 65–94 years). Minimum followup was 12 months (mean, 23 months; range, 12–36 months).
Mean postoperative American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score was 78 (range, 36–98), mean active forward flexion was 139° (range, 90°–180°), and mean active external rotation was 27° (range, 0°–45°). Mean American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons pain score was 0.7 (range, 0–5) and mean visual analog scale pain score was 1.1 (range, 0–5). Complications were identified in three of 30 patients (10%).
At short term, reverse total shoulder arthroplasty relieved pain and improved function. The complication rate compared favorably with those reported for other treatment alternatives.
Level of Evidence
Level IV, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
There is a need for better interpretation of orthopedic treatment effects. Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are already commonly used for patient evaluation. PROMs can be used to determine treatment effects in research as well as in clinical settings by calculating change scores, with pre- and post-treatment evaluation. The smallest detectable change (SDC) and minimal important change (MIC) are two important benchmarks for interpreting these change scores. The purpose was to determine the SDC and the MIC for four commonly used shoulder-related PROMs: Simple Shoulder Test (SST), Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH and QuickDASH), and the Oxford Shoulder Score (OSS).
A cohort of 164 consecutive patients with shoulder problems visiting an orthopedic outpatient clinic completed the SST, DASH, and the OSS at their first visit and 6 months after operative or non-operative treatment. The SDC was calculated with a test re-test protocol (0–2 weeks). For the MIC, change scores (0–6 months of evaluation) were calculated in seven subgroups of patients, according to an additional self-administered ranking of change over time (anchor-based mean change technique). The MIC is defined as the average score of the ‘slightly improved’ group according to the anchor. The QuickDASH was computed from the DASH.
The SDC of the SST was 2.8, DASH 16.3, QuickDASH 17.1, and OSS 6.0. The MIC change score for the SST was 2.2, DASH 12.4, QuickDASH 13.4, and OSS 6.0.
This study shows that on an individual patient-based level, when taking into account SDC and MIC, the change score should exceed 2.8 points for the SST, 16.3 points for the DASH, 17.1 points for the QuickDASH, and 6.0 points for the OSS to have a clinically relevant change on a PROM, which is not due to measurement error.
Shoulder; PROM; Interpretation; MIC; SDC; DASH; Simple shoulder test; Oxford shoulder score
It is increasingly important for surgeons to monitor the outcome of their practice for the purpose of audit. The main difficulty has been the lack of appropriate methods of assessing outcome. Outcome has traditionally been assessed by clinical means which can be inaccurate, irreproducible and subject to surgeon bias. In addition, the perspective of the patient and surgeon may differ with respect to outcome and interest has grown in patient-based scoring systems. The Oxford Shoulder Score (OSS) is one such patient-based scoring system. The main aim of this study was to assess whether a patient-based questionnaire, in this case the OSS, could be effectively used to audit outcome from shoulder surgery. A secondary aim was to assess the value of gathering outcome information by post.
PATIENTS AND METHODS
A total of 24 patients (14 male; median age 59 years; age range, 43–73 years) who had completed a pre-operative OSS questionnaire and had undergone rotator cuff repair were included in the study. Participants were assessed postoperatively at regular intervals using the OSS at hospital visits and by postal questionnaire.
The completion level for the OSS was 97% and the response rate to the postal questionnaire was 96%. At 3 months' post-surgery, 21 of 24 patients had improved; at final review (16–37 months), 23 patients had improved following surgery. The OSS was observed to be a robust tool for the quantitative assessment and tracking of patient outcomes after surgery.
This study shows the value of using a postal questionnaire to follow-up patients after surgery and demonstrates the successful use of a patient-based questionnaire to audit the outcome from shoulder surgery.
Oxford Shoulder Score; Outcome assessment (healthcare); Shoulder; Surgery
Isolated unicompartmental osteoarthritis in the young patient is a difficult problem to treat; they may be too young to consider total knee arthroplasty due to difficulties with inevitable future revision. Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty is one possible solution as it is perceived by some as being a smaller surgical insult than total knee arthroplasty, with easier revision to total knee arthroplasty than a revision total knee arthroplasty. A total knee arthroplasty performed as a revision unicondylar knee arthroplasty is thought by some authors to have equivalent functional outcomes to a primary total knee replacement.
However, there have been several studies suggesting that revision is not as simple as suggested, and that function is not as good as primary total knee arthroplasty.
We performed a systematic review of the literature regarding outcomes after revision of a unicondylar knee arthroplasty.
Although there are many studies proposing selective use of the unicondylar knee arthroplasty, there are a number of studies highlighting difficulties with revision and poorer outcomes, and, therefore, the unicondylar knee arthroplasty cannot be considered a small procedure that will 'buy time' for the patient, and have results equal to a primary knee arthroplasty when revised. Further controlled studies, ideally randomised, are required before final conclusions can be drawn.
Knee arthroplasty; revision knee; total knee arthroplasty; unicompartmental; unicondylar.
Normal function of the upper limb is seldom restored after limb-sparing surgery for tumors of the proximal humerus. The literature suggests superior shoulder function is achieved in the short term with reverse total shoulder arthroplasty compared to other techniques when performed for conditions with rotator cuff deficiency. It is unclear whether this superiority is maintained when reverse total shoulder arthroplasty is performed for tumors.
When performed for tumors, we determined whether reverse total shoulder arthroplasty restores function and improves motion, the complications associated with the surgery, and whether reverse total shoulder arthroplasty with autologous grafting is associated with bone resorption.
Patients and Methods
We retrospectively reviewed 14 patients who had undergone reverse total shoulder arthroplasty for tumors of the proximal humerus. Four patients died, leaving nine patients for review. The surviving patients were evaluated clinically and radiographically. The minimum followup was 0.6 years (mean, 7.7 years; range, 0.6–12 years).
At last followup, mean active abduction was 157° and mean functional Constant-Murley score was 76%. One patient had a deep infection and one developed a loose prosthesis; both were treated with single-stage exchange. At last followup, both patients had reasonable function without evidence of infection or loosening. Radiographic graft resorption was seen in all but one patient.
Our observations suggest, at medium-term followup, reverse total shoulder arthroplasty is a reasonable option for tumors of the proximal humerus. It has low morbidity, restores a mean active abduction of 157°, and limits the impairment of activities of daily living.
Level of Evidence
Level IV, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Total shoulder arthroplasty and shoulder hemiarthroplasty have been the traditional method for treating a variety of shoulder conditions, including arthritis, cuff tear arthropathy, and some fracture types. However, these procedures did not provide consistently good results for patients with torn rotator cuffs. The development of the reverse prosthesis by Grammont in the late 20th century revolutionized the treatment of the rotator-cuff-deficient shoulder with arthritis. The main indication for the reverse prosthesis remains the patient with cuff tear arthropathy who has pain and loss of motion. Because the reverse total shoulder arthroplasty produced such good results in these patients, the indications for the reverse prosthesis have expanded to include other shoulder conditions that have previously been difficult to treat successfully and predictably. This review discusses and critically reviews these newer indications for the reverse total shoulder arthroplasty.
Shoulder; Arthroplasty; Arthritis; Fractures; Surgery