Sonchus asper is traditionally used in Pakistan for the treatment of reproductive dysfunction and oxidative stress. The present investigation was aimed to evaluate chloroform extract of Sonchus asper (SACE) against potassium bromate-induced reproductive stress in male rats.
20 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) potassium bromate (KBrO3) was induced in 36 rats for four weeks and checked the protective efficacy of SACE at various hormonal imbalances, alteration of antioxidant enzymes, and DNA fragmentation levels. High performance chromatography (HPLC) was used for determination of bioactive constituents responsible.
The level of hormonal secretion was significantly altered by potassium bromate. DNA fragmentation%, activity of antioxidant enzymes; catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and phase II metabolizing enzymes viz; glutathione reductase (GSR), glutathione peroxidase (GSHpx), glutathione-S-tansase (GST) and reduced glutathione (GSH) was decreased while hydrogen per oxide contents and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were increased with KBrO3 treatment. Treatment with SACE effectively ameliorated the alterations in the biochemical markers; hormonal and molecular levels while HPLC characterization revealed the presence of catechin, kaempferol, rutin and quercetin.
Protective effects of Sonchus asper vs. KBrO3 induced lipid peroxidation might be due to bioactive compound present in SACE.
Potassium bromate; Sonchus asper; Antioxidant; FSH; DNA fragmentation; TSH
Sonchus asper (SAME) is used as a folk medicine in hepatic disorders. In this study, the hepatoprotective effects of the methanol extract of SAME was evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injuries in rats.
To evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of SAME, 36 male Sprague–Dawley rats were equally divided into 6 groups. Rats of Group I (control) were given free access to approved feed and water. Rats of Group II were injected intraperitoneally with CCl4 (3 ml/kg) as a 30% solution in olive oil (v/v) twice a week for 4 weeks. Animals of Groups III (100 mg/kg) and IV (200 mg/kg) received SAME, whereas those of Group V were given silymarin via gavage (100 mg/kg) after 48 h of CCl4 treatment. Group VI received SAME (200 mg/kg) twice a week for 4 weeks without CCl4 treatment. Various parameters, such as the serum enzyme levels, serum biochemical marker levels, antioxidant enzyme activities, and liver histopathology were used to estimate the hepatoprotective efficacy of SAME.
The administration of SAME and silymarin significantly lowered the CCl4-induced serum levels of hepatic marker enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase), cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and triglycerides while elevating high-density lipoprotein levels. The hepatic contents of glutathione and activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase, and glutathione reductase were reduced. The levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances that were increased by CCl4 were brought back to control levels by the administration of SAME and silymarin. Liver histopathology showed that SAME reduced the incidence of hepatic lesions induced by CCl4 in rats.
SAME may protect the liver against CCl4-induced oxidative damage in rats.
Carbon tetrachloride; Sonchus asper; Liver histopathology; Antioxidant; Lipid peroxidation; Liver enzymes
Carissa opaca leaves are traditionally used in the treatment of male dysfunction and hormonal disorder as well as in oxidative stress in Pakistan and Asia. The present study was designed to assess the protective effects of methanolic extract of Carissa opaca leaves (MLC) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced reproductive stress in male rats and bioactive constituents responsible for the activity.
CCl4 was induced in 42 male rats for eight weeks and checked the protective efficacy of methanolic extract of Carissa opaca leaves at various hormonal imbalances, alteration of antioxidant enzymes, DNA fragmentation levels and lipid peroxidation caused testicular fibrosis in testis while High performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) was used for detection of bioactive components.
HPLC characterization revealed the presence of isoquercitin , hyperoside , vitexin , myricetin and kaempherol. CCl4 caused significant alteration in the secretion of reproductive hormones. Activity of antioxidant enzymes viz; catalase, superoxide dimutase and phase II metabolizing enzymes including glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and reduced glutathione was decreased while DNA fragmentation, hydrogen per oxide contents and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were increased with CCl4 treatment. Co-administration of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg b.w. MLC effectively ameliorated the alterations in the biochemical markers; hormonal and molecular levels.
Protective effects of methanolic extract of Carissa opaca against CCl4−induced antioxidant and hormonal dysfunction which might be due to bioactive compound present in extract.
CCl4; Carissa opaca; TBARS; LH; DNA fragmentation
Sonchus asper possesses antioxidant capacity and is used in liver and kidney disorders. We have investigated the preventive effect of methanolic extract of Sonchus asper (SAME) on the gentamicin induced alterations in biochemical and morphological parameters in liver and kidneys of Sprague-Dawley male rat.
Acute oral toxicity studies were performed for selecting the therapeutic dose of SAME. 30 Sprague-Dawley male rats were equally divided into five groups with 06 animals in each. Group I received saline (0.5 ml/kg bw; 0.9% NaCl) while Group II administered with gentamicin 0.5 ml (100 mg/kg bw; i.p.) for ten days. Animals of Group III and Group IV received gentamicin and SAME 0.5 ml at a dose of 100 mg/kg bw and 200 mg/kg bw, respectively while Group V received only SAME at a dose of 200 mg/kg bw. Biochemical parameters including aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), γ-glutamyltransferase (γ-GT), total cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein, albumin, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), total bilirubin and direct bilirubin were determined in serum collected from various groups. Urinary out puts were measured in each group and also assessed for the level of protein and glucose. Lipid peroxides (TBARS), glutathione (GSH), DNA injuries and activities of antioxidant enzymes; catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were determined in liver and renal samples. Histopathological studies of liver and kidneys were also carried out.
On the basis of acute oral toxicity studies, 2000 mg/kg bw did not induce any toxicity in rats, 1/10th of the dose was selected for preventive treatment. Gentamicin increased the level of serum biomarkers; AST, ALT, ALP, LDH, γ-GT, total cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein, albumin, creatinine, BUN, total and direct bilirubin; as were the urinary level of protein, glucose, and urinary output. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and DNA injuries increased while GSH contents and activities of antioxidant enzymes; CAT, POD, SOD decreased with gentamicin in liver and kidney samples. SAME administration, dose dependently, prevented the alteration in biochemical parameters and were supported by low level of tubular and glomerular injuries induced with gentamicin.
These results suggested the preventive role of SAME for gentamicin induced toxicity that could be attributed by phytochemicals having antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties.
Sonchus asper (SA) is traditionally used as a folk medicine to treat mental disorders in Pakistan. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of polyphenolic rich methanolic fraction of SA on cognitive performance, brain antioxidant activities and acetylcholinesterase activity in male rats.
30 male Sprague–Dawley rats were equally divided into three groups in this study. Animals of group I (control) received saline (vehicle), group II received SA (50 mg/kg) body weight (b.w.), and group III treated with SA (100 mg/kg b.w.,) orally in dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) for 7 days. The effect of SA was checked on rat cognitive performance, brain antioxidatant and acetylcholinesterase activities. Evaluation of learning and memory was assessed by a step-through a passive avoidance test on day 6 after two habituation trials and an initial acquisition trial on day 5. Antioxidant potential was determined by measuring activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), contents of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH) in whole-brain homogenates. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was determined by the colorimetric method.
Results showed that 100 mg/kg b.w., SA treated rats exhibited a significant improvement in learning and memory (step-through latency time). SA administration reduced lipid peroxidation products and elevated glutathione levels in the SA100-treated group. Furthermore, salt and detergent soluble AChE activity was significantly decreased in both SA-treated groups. Short-term orally supplementation of SA showed significant cognitive enhancement as well as elevated brain antioxidant enzymes and inhibited AChE activity.
These findings stress the critical impact of Sonchus asper bioactive components on brain function.
Sonchus asper; Cognitive performance; Acetylcholinesterase activity; Antioxidant enzymes
The present study was undertaken to investigate the possible protective effect of Saudi Sidr honey (SSH) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced oxidative stress and liver and kidney damage in rat. Moreover, the antioxidant activity and the phenolic and flavonoidal contents were determined. The hepatorenal protective activity of the SSH was determined by assessing biochemical, hematological, and histological parameters. Serum transaminases, ALP, GGT, creatinine, bilirubin urea, uric acid, and MDA level in liver and kidney tissues were significantly elevated, and the antioxidant status of nonprotein sulfhydryls, albumin, and total protein levels in liver and kidney were declined significantly in CCl4 alone treated animals. Pretreatment with SSH and silymarin prior to the administration of CCl4 significantly prevented the increase of the serum levels of enzyme markers and reduced oxidative stress. SSH also exhibited a significant lipid-lowering effect and caused an HDL-C enhanced level in serum. The histopathological evaluation of the liver and kidney also revealed that honey protected incidence of both liver and kidney lesions. Moreover, SSH showed a strong antioxidant activity in DPPH and β-carotene-linoleic acid assays. SSH was found to contain phenolic compounds. Additionally, the SSH supplementation restored the hepatocytes viability against 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein (DCF) toxicity in ex vivo test.
Traditionally various human diseases of kidneys, hormonal imbalance and sexual diseases are treated with Launaea procumbens (L). In the present study protective effects of methanolic extract of Launaea procumbens (LPME) was evaluated against CCl4-induced oxidative damages in rat testis.
To examine the protective effects of Launaea procumbens on testis against oxidative stress of carbon tetrachloride in male rat, 30 male albino rats were equally divided into 5 groups (6 rats). First group was given standard diet and drinking water. Second group received CCl4 3 ml/kg intraperitoneally (30% in olive oil). Third and forth were given orally 100; 200 mg/kg b.w., in 99.8% dimethyl sulphooxide (DMSO), Launaea procumbens methanolic extracts (LPME) after 48 h of CCl4 treatment twice a week and sixth group received only LPME in DMSO at a dose of 200 mg/kg b.w., for four weeks. Protective effects of Launaea procumbens were observed on sperm concentration, motility and morphology, serum reproductive hormonal level, activity of antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and DNA damages.
Results of the present study revealed that treatment of CCl4 significantly (p < 0.01) reduced sperm concentration and motility comparatively to controls. Level of testosterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone, were depleted markedly (p <0.01) with treatment of CCl4. In addition, CCl4 induction in rats reduced activities of antioxidant enzymes while increased lipid peroxidation and DNA damages. Co-administration of LPME significantly (p <0.01) improved these alterations in improving of hormonal level, activities of antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation near to control rats.
From the results it is suggested that Launaea procumbens methanolic extract has the ability to protect testis against oxidative damages, possibly through antioxidant effects of its bioactive compounds.
Launaea procumbens; GSH; CCl4; Lipidperoxidation; DNA damages
The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effect of polysaccharides from Boschniakia rossica against hepatotoxicity induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Boschniakia rossica polysaccharides was administered intragastrically once daily for 7 days. One hour after the final treatment, mice were treated intraperitoneally with 80 mg/kg of CCl4. CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity was manifested by increased levels of serum marker enzymes and hepatic lipid peroxidation, and by decreased potential of hepatic antioxidative defense system. CCl4 challenge also resulted in elevated serum tumor necrosis factor-α and hepatic nitric oxide level, and up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 proteins of liver tissue. Pretreatment of mice with Boschniakia rossica polysaccharides reversed these altered parameters of mice with liver injury induced by CCl4. Furthermore, caspase-3 cleavage and activities, and DNA fragmentation of liver in mice treated with Boschniakia rossica polysaccharides were decreased than mice treated with CCl4 alone. Hepatoprotective effect of Boschniakia rossica polysaccharides was further demonstrated by histopathological examination of liver sections. The results indicate that Boschniakia rossica polysaccharides play a protective role in CCl4-induced acute liver injury and the hepatoprotective effect of Boschniakia rossica polysaccharides may be due to elevated antioxidative defense potentials, suppressed inflammatory responses and apoptosis of liver tissue.
Boschniakia rossica; polysaccharides; carbon tetrachloride; hepatotoxicity; mice
Launaea procumbens (Asteraceae) is used as a folk medicine to treat hepatic disorders in Pakistan. The effect of a chloroform extract of Launaea procumbens (LPCE) was evaluated against carbon-tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage in rats.
To evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of LPCE, 36 male Sprague–Dawley rats were equally divided into six groups. Animals of group 1 (control) had free access to food and water. Group II received 3 ml/kg of CCl4 (30% in olive oil v/v) via the intraperitoneal route twice a week for 4 weeks. Group III received 1 ml of silymarin via gavage (100 mg/kg b.w.) after 48 h of CCl4 treatment whereas groups IV and V were given 1 ml of LPCE (100 and 200 mg/kg b.w., respectively) after 48 h of CCl4 treatment. Group VI received 1 ml of LPCE (200 mg/kg b.w.) twice a week for 4 weeks. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GSR), glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)) were measured in liver homogenates. DNA damage, argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs) counts and histopathology were studied in liver samples. Serum was analyzed for various biochemical parameters. Phytochemical composition in LPCE was determined through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).
LPCE inhibited lipid peroxidation, and reduced the activities of aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase in serum induced by CCl4. GSH contents were increased as were the activities of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, SOD, GST, GSR, GSH-Px) when altered due to CCl4 hepatotoxicity. Similarly, absolute liver weight, relative liver weight and the number of hepatic lesions were reduced with co-administration of LPCE. Phyochemical analyses of LPCE indicated that it contained catechin, kaempferol, rutin, hyperoside and myricetin.
These results indicated that Launaea procumbens efficiently protected against the hepatotoxicity induced by CCl4 in rats, possibly through the antioxidant effects of flavonoids present in LPCE.
Launaea procumbens; Hepatic injuries; Flavonoids; Antioxidant enzymes; Carbon tetrachloride
CCl4 is a well-established hepatotoxin inducing liver injury by producing free radicals. Exposure to CCl4 also induces acute and chronic renal injuries. The present study was designed to establish the protective effect of hesperidin (HDN), a citrus bioflavonoid, on CCl4-induced oxidative stress and resultant dysfunction of rat liver and kidney.
Animals were pretreated with HDN (100 and 200 mg/kg orally) for one week and then challenged with CCl4 (2 ml/kg/s.c.) in olive oil. Rats were sacrificed by carotid bleeding under ether anesthesia. Liver enzymes, urea and creatinine were estimated in serum. Oxidative stress in liver and kidney tissue was estimated using Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), glutathione (GSH) content, superoxide dismutase(SOD), and Catalase (CAT)
CCl4 caused a marked rise in serum levels of ALT and AST (P < 0.05). TBARS levels were significantly increased whereas GSH, SOD and CAT levels decreased in the liver and kidney homogenates of CCl4 treated rats. HDN (200 mg/kg) successfully attenuated these effects of CCl4
In conclusion, our study demonstrated a protective effect of HDN in CCl4 induced oxidative stress in rat liver and kidney. This protective effect of HDN can be correlated to its direct antioxidant effect.
The protective activity of the total saponins from Actinidia valvata Dunn root (TSAV) was studied against carbon-tetrachloride- (CCl4-) induced acute liver injury in mice. Mice were orally administered TSAV (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) for five days and then given CCl4. TSAV pretreatment significantly prevented the CCl4-induced hepatic damage as indicated by the serum marker enzymes (AST, ALT, and ALP). Parallel to these changes, TSAV also prevented CCl4-induced oxidative stress by inhibiting lipid peroxidation (MDA) and restoring the levels of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GR, and GPX), GSH and GSSG. In addition, TSAV attenuated the serum TNF-α and IL-6 levels and inhibited the serum iNOS and NO levels. Liver histopathology indicated that TSAV alleviated CCl4-induced inflammatory infiltration and focal necrosis. TSAV (200 mg/kg) also significantly decreased Bak, Bax mRNA and Fas, FasL, p53, and NF-κB p65 protein expressions and increased Bcl-2 mRNA and protein expressions. Meanwhile, TSAV significantly downregulated caspase-3 and caspase-8 activities and prevented CCl4-induced hepatic cell apoptosis. In addition, TSAV exhibited antioxidant activity through scavenging hydroxyl and DPPH free radicals in vitro. These results indicated that TSAV could protect mice against CCl4-induced acute liver damage possibly through antioxidant, anti-inflammatory activities and regulating apoptotic-related genes.
Effect of methanolic extract of Rumex hastatus roots (MRR) and its derived fractions, n-hexane (HRR), ethyl acetate (ERR), chloroform (CRR), butanol (BRR), and aqueous extract (ARR), was studied against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepato and testicular toxicity in rats. Intraperitoneal dose of 20 percent CCl4 (0.5 ml/kg bw) was administered twice a week for eight weeks to a group of rats. Other groups were given CCl4 and various fractions of R. hastatus roots (200 mg/kg bw). CCl4 treatment depleted glutathione contents and activities of antioxidant enzymes while increased the concentration of lipid peroxides (TBARS) along with corresponding DNA injuries and histopathological damages. Supplementation with various fractions of R. hastatus roots (200 mg/kg body weight) attenuated the toxicity of CCl4 in liver and testis tissues through improvement in the serological, enzymatic, and histological parameters towards the normal. Posttreatment of R. hastatus roots (200 mg/kg body weight) also reversed the alteration in reproductive hormonal secretions and DNA damages in CCl4 treated rats. The results clearly demonstrated that R. hastatus treatment augments the antioxidants defense mechanism and provides the evidence that it may have a therapeutic role in free radical mediated diseases.
In this study antioxidant activity of methanol extract of rhizomes ofCurculigo orchioides (MEC) was investigated using carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-intoxicated rat liver as the experimental model. The hepatotoxic rats were administered MEC for 90 days (daily, orally at the dose of 70 mg per kg body weight). Lipid peroxidation (LPO) in CCl4-intoxicated rats was evidenced by a marked increment in the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and diene conjugates (CD), and also a distinct diminution in glutathione (GSH) content in the liver. In CCl4+MEC—treated rats these biochemical parameters attained an almost normal level. The decreased activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione reductase (GRD) in CCl4—intoxicated rats, and its retrieval towards near normalcy in CCl4+MEC—administered rats revealed the efficacy of MEC in combating oxidative stress due to hepatic damage. Elevated level of glutathione transferase(GTS) observed in hepatotoxic rats too showed signs of retuming towards normalcy in MEC co-administered animals, thus corroborating the antioxidant efficacy of MEC. The findings provide a rationale for further studies on isolation of active principles and its pharmacological evaluation.
Antioxidant enzymes; Carbon tetrachloride; Curculigo orchioides; Lipid peroxidation
The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that the acetonic and methanolic extracts of H. inuloides prevent carbon tetrachloride-(CCl4) induced oxidative stress in vital tissues. Pretreatment with both H. inuloides extracts or quercetin attenuated the increase in serum activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin (BB), creatinine (CRE), and creatine kinase (CK), and impeded the decrease of γ-globulin (γ-GLOB) and albumin (ALB) observed in CCl4-induced tissue injury. The protective effect was confirmed by histological analysis with hematoxylin-eosin and periodic acid/Schiff's reagent. Level of lipid peroxidation was higher in the organs of rats exposed to CCl4 than in those of the animals treated with Heterohteca extracts or quercetin, and these showed levels similar to the untreated group. Pretreatment of animals with either of the extracts or quercetin also prevented the increase of 4-hydroxynonenal and 3-nitrotyrosine. Pretreatment with the plant extracts or quercetin attenuated CCl4 toxic effects on the activity of several antioxidant enzymes. The present results strongly suggest that the chemopreventive effect of the extracts used and quercetin, against CCl4 toxicity, is associated with their antioxidant properties and corroborated previous results obtained in liver tissue.
The antioxidant potency of the hydroethanolic extract of Ormenis Africana (HEOA), Asteraceae was evaluated with regards to total polyphenol, flavonoid and anthocyanins content. Antioxidant activity has been assessed chemically and biologically. First, the free radical scavenging ability of HEOA was evaluated using two commonly in vitro tests: ABTS and DPPH radicals. Then, the protection effect of this extract against oxidative stress was conducted in HeLa cells treated with Fe2+ or H2O2. Oxidative stress was evaluated by measuring the lipid peroxidation levels (TBARs and DC) and the antioxidant enzymes activities (catalase and Superoxide dismutase). Cytotoxic effect of HEOA was prealably determined against HeLa cell line by MTT assay.
HEOA contain considerable levels of antioxidant compound as evidenced by high amount of polyphenols (312.07 mg GAE/g dray matter), flavonoids (73.72 ± 1.98 mg QE/g dray matterl) and anthocyanins (0.28 ± 0.09 mg Cy-3-glu E/g dray matter). DPPH and ABTS assays showed a high antioxidant activity (IC50 = 24 μg/ml; TEAC = 2.137 mM) which was comparable to BHT.
In biological system, HEOA exhibited a 50% cytotoxic concentration evaluated as 16.52 μg/ml. Incubation of HeLa cell line with no cytotoxic concentrations resulted in a remarkable protection from oxidative stress induced by Fe2+ or H2O2 which was evidenced by a decrease of MDA and CD levels as well as a diminution of antioxidant enzymes activities (Catalase and SOD) as compared to cells treated with Fe2+ or H2O2 alone.
The hydroethanolic extract of O. Africana could thus be considered as a source of potential antioxidants. The results of this study will promote the reasonable usage of this plant in food and pharmacy industries as well as in alternative medicine and natural therapy.
Hepatoprotective activity of the roots of Decalepis hamiltonii (Wight and Arn) was studied using carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver injury model in albino rats. The hepatotoxicity produced by acute CCl4 administration was found to be inhibited by pretreating the rats with crude methanolic extract of the roots of D. hamiltonii (Dh) prior to CCl4 induction. Hepatotoxic inhibition was measured with the decreased levels of hepatic serum marker enzymes (glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (GPT), glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and lipid peroxide formation. Imbalance level of glutathione (GSH) and antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase were normalized in rats pretreated with Dh extract followed by CCl4 administration. Pathological changes of hepatic lesions caused by CCl4 were also improved by pretreatment with the Dh root extract. The results of this study indicate that roots of D. hamiltonii could afford a significant protective action in the alleviation of CCl4-induced hepatic damage in rats.
Antioxidant activity; CCl4; Decalepis hamiltonii; hepatoprotective
To study the protective effects and underlying molecular mechanisms of SAMC on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute hepatotoxicity in the mouse model.
Mice were intraperitoneally injected with CCl4 (50 μl/kg; single dose) to induce acute hepatotoxicity with or without a 2-h pre-treatment of SAMC intraperitoneal injection (200 mg/kg; single dose). After 8 h, the blood serum and liver samples of mice were collected and subjected to measurements of histological and molecular parameters of hepatotoxicity.
SAMC reduced CCl4-triggered cellular necrosis and inflammation in the liver under histological analysis. Since co-treatment of SAMC and CCl4 enhanced the expressions of antioxidant enzymes, reduced the nitric oxide (NO)-dependent oxidative stress, and inhibited lipid peroxidation induced by CCl4. SAMC played an essential antioxidative role during CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. Administration of SAMC also ameliorated hepatic inflammation induced by CCl4 via inhibiting the activity of NF-κB subunits p50 and p65, thus reducing the expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines, mediators, and chemokines, as well as promoting pro-regenerative factors at both transcriptional and translational levels.
Our results indicate that SAMC mitigates cellular damage, oxidative stress, and inflammation in CCl4-induced acute hepatotoxicity mouse model through regulation of NF-κB. Garlic or garlic derivatives may therefore be a potential food supplement in the prevention of liver damage.
Liver injury; S-allylmercaptocysteine; Carbon tetrachloride; Oxidative stress; Necroinflammation; Nuclear factor κB
Carbon tetra chloride (CCl4), an industrial solvent, is a hepatotoxic agent and it is the well established animal model for free radical-induced liver injury. The present investigation was carried out to establish the protective effect of natansnin, a novel dibenzoyl glycoside from Salvinia natans against CCl4 induced oxidative stress and cellular degeneration in rat liver.
CCl4 significantly increased the levels of lipid peroxides, oxidized glutathione and decreased the levels of reduced glutathione, SOD and CAT. CCl4 induce marked histopathological changes and increase in the levels of apoptotic proteins. CCl4 treatment significantly increased the levels of apoptotic proteins such as caspases-3, PARP, Bax, Bid and cytochrome C and also increased the levels of inflammatory mediators iNos and Cox-2. Natansnin treatment significantly decreased the levels of CCl4 induced apoptotic proteins and inflammatory mediators. Further natansinin treatment significantly inhibited the CCl4 induced apoptosis which was evident form the reduced TUNEL positive cells.
In conclusion, our study demonstrated the protective effect of natansnin against CCl4 induced oxidative stress and cellular degeneration in rat liver tissue. This protective effect of natansnin can be correlated to its direct antioxidant effect.
This study investigated the protective effects of melatonin and folic acid against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic injury in rats. Oxidative stress, liver function, liver histopathology and serum lipid levels were evaluated. The levels of protein kinase B (Akt1), interferon gamma (IFN-γ), programmed cell death-receptor (Fas) and Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) mRNA expression were analyzed. CCl4 significantly elevated the levels of lipid peroxidation (MDA), cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides, bilirubin and urea. In addition, CCl4 was found to significantly suppress the activity of both catalase and glutathione (GSH) and decrease the levels of serum total protein and HDL-cholesterol. All of these parameters were restored to their normal levels by treatment with melatonin, folic acid or their combination. An improvement of the general hepatic architecture was observed in rats that were treated with the combination of melatonin and folic acid along with CCl4. Furthermore, the CCl4-induced upregulation of TNF-α and Fas mRNA expression was significantly restored by the three treatments. Melatonin, folic acid or their combination also restored the baseline levels of IFN-γ and Akt1 mRNA expression. The combination of melatonin and folic acid exhibited ability to reduce the markers of liver injury induced by CCl4 and restore the oxidative stability, the level of inflammatory cytokines, the lipid profile and the cell survival Akt1 signals.
Hepatic injury-markers; Melatonin; Folic acid; Akt1; Oxidative stress; Anti-inflammatory effects
The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant properties of aqueous extract of Podophyllum hexandrum. The antioxidant potential of the plant extract under in vitro situations was evaluated by using two separate methods, inhibition of superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide radical. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a well known toxicant and exposure to this chemical is known to induce oxidative stress and causes tissue damage by the formation of free radicals.
36 albino rats were divided into six groups of 6 animals each, all animals were allowed food and water ad libitum. Group I (control) was given olive oil, while the rest groups were injected intraperitoneally with a single dose of CCl4 (1 ml/kg) as a 50% (v/v) solution in olive oil. Group II received CCl4 only. Group III animals received vitamin E at a concentration of 50 mg/kg body weight and animals of groups IV, V and VI were given extract of Podophyllum hexandrum at concentration dose of 20, 30 and 50 mg/kg body weight. Antioxidant status in both kidney and lung tissues were estimated by determining the activities of antioxidative enzymes, glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and superoxide dismutase (SOD); as well as by determining the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). In addition, superoxide and hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activity of the extract was also determined.
Results showed that the extract possessed strong superoxide and hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activity comparable to that of known antioxidant butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT). Our results also showed that CCl4 caused a marked increase in TBARS levels whereas GSH, SOD, GR, GPX and GST levels were decreased in kidney and lung tissue homogenates of CCl4 treated rats. Aqueous extract of Podophyllum hexandrum successfully prevented the alterations of these effects in the experimental animals.
Our study demonstrated that the aqueous extract of Podophyllum hexandrum could protect the kidney and lung tissue against CCl4 induced oxidative stress probably by increasing antioxidant defense activities.
Injection of mice with a sublethal dose of endotoxin 2 hr after administration of 0.1 ml of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) killed 75% of the animals. CCl4 alone killed no controls. Significant protection against this effect was afforded by 5 mg of cortisone and by 5 mg of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). With a larger dose of endotoxin, cortisone did not give protection. Liver tryptophan pyrrolase activity was lowered 2 hr after CCl4 injection and reached a minimum after 17 hr. Induction of tryptophan pyrrolase by cortisone, followed by administration of CCl4, resulted in rapid loss of activity. A significant induction of tyrosine-α-ketoglutarate transaminase was observed in CCl4-treated mice. The induction of this enzyme by cortisone was somewhat impaired when CCl4 was administered concurrently with the hormone. CCl4 did not lower tryptophan pyrrolase in endotoxin-tolerant mice after 4 hr, but at 17 hr the activity was decreased as much as in control mice. Oxidized pyridine nucleotides were decreased 17 hr after administration of CCl4. This loss was prevented by administration of NAD (5 mg) or by cortisone (5 mg). Carbon clearance from blood was reduced after treatment with CCl4. These results indicate a degree of similarity between the metabolic effects of endotoxin and CCl4 in that both depress tryptophan pyrrolase and prevent its induction by cortisone, and both induce tyrosine transaminase in intact mice. Both substances appear to exert these effects through some type of mediated reaction.
AIM: To evaluate the protective effect of 2'-p-hydroxybenzoylmussaenosidic acid [negundoside (NG), against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced toxicity in HuH-7 cells.
METHODS: CCl4 is a well characterized hepatotoxin, and inducer of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1)-mediated oxidative stress. In addition, lipid peroxidation and accumulation of intracellular calcium are important steps in the pathway involved in CCl4 toxicity. Liver cells (HuH-7) were treated with CCl4, and the mechanism of the cytoprotective effect of NG was assessed. Silymarin, a known hepatoprotective drug, was used as control.
RESULTS: NG protected HuH-7 cells against CCl4 toxicity and loss of viability without modulating CYP2E1 activity. Prevention of CCl4 toxicity was associated with a reduction in oxidative damage as reflected by decreased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), a decrease in lipid peroxidation and accumulation of intracellular Ca2+ levels and maintenance of intracellular glutathione homeostasis. Decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), induction of caspases mediated DNA fragmentation and cell cycle arrest, as a result of CCl4 treatment, were also blocked by NG. The protection afforded by NG seemed to be mediated by activation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) synthesis and inhibition of phospholipases (cPLA2).
CONCLUSION: NG exerts a protective effect on CYP2E1-dependent CCl4 toxicity via inhibition of lipid peroxidation, followed by an improved intracellular calcium homeostasis and inhibition of Ca2+-dependent proteases.
Negundoside; Silymarin; HuH-7; Carbon tetrachloride; CYP 2E1; Oxidative stress; Calcium; Toxicity
The purpose of this study was to investigate the pharmacological effects of calcium alginate on carbon tetrachloride (CCL4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The study included two experiments. In the first experiment the animals were given daily CCL4 through gavage for 7 days and then 10, 50, or 250 mg/kg b.w. of calcium alginate for 21 days. The increased bilirubin level, enhanced alanine and aspartate aminotransferase activity in plasma and reduced liver glycogen content induced by CCL4 were partly normalized by alginate administration in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, alginate significantly improved CCL4-induced alterations of pro-oxidant and antioxidant biochemical parameters in liver and plasma compared to those of rats administered CCL4. In the second experiment the animals were given daily 10, 50 or 250 mg/kg b.w. of calcium alginate for 21 days before 7-day administration of CCL4. Pretreatment with alginate before CCL4 administration resulted in significantly inhibited increase of the blood enzymatic activities of alanine and aspartate aminotransferases and bilirubin level in a dose-dependent manner. Also, preliminary administration of alginate prevented elevation of lipid peroxidation products and reduction of liver glutathione content in rats given CCL4. These results suggest that calcium alginate exerts healing and preventive effects on CCL4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.
calcium alginate; liver injury; carbon tetrachloride; hepatoprotective activity rats
Sonchus asper (SA) is traditionally used for the treatment of various ailments associated with liver, lungs and kidneys. This study was aimed to investigate the therapeutic potential of nonpolar (hexane, SAHE; ethyl acetate, SAEE and chloroform, SACE) and polar (methanol, SAME) crude extracts of the whole plant.
To achieve these goals, several parameters including free-radical (DPPH•, ABTS•+, H2O2 and •OH) scavenging, iron chelating activity, scavenging of superoxide radicals, total flavonoids and total phenolic content (TPC) were examined.
The SA extracts presented a remarkable capacity to scavenge all the tested reactive species with IC50 values being found at the μg ⁄ ml level. The SAME was shown to have the highest TPCs while lowest IC50 values for the DPPH•, ABTS•+ radical scavenging capacities and iron chelating scavenging efficiency, moreover, SAME had best activities in scavenging of superoxide radicals and hydrogen peroxide as well as potently scavenged the hydroxyl radicals.
These results suggest the potential of S. asper as a medicine against free-radical-associated oxidative damage.
Sonchus asper; Antioxidant activities; Solvent extraction; Phenolics
Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a well-known hepatotoxicant, and its exposure induces hepatorenal injury via oxidative stress and biochemical alterations. This study had been conducted to confirm the protective role of propolis extract on CCl4-induced hepatorenal oxidative stress and resultant injury. Propolis extracts collected from Gwalior district and 24 female Sprague Dawley rats were used for experiment. Animals were exposed to CCl4 (0.15 mL/kg, i.p.) for 12 weeks (5 days/week) followed by treatment with propolis extract (200 mg/kg, p.o.) for consecutive 2 weeks. CCl4 exposure significantly depleted blood sugar and hemoglobin level and raised the level of transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, protein, urea, albumin, bilirubin, creatinine, triglycerides, and cholesterol in serum. Lipid peroxidation was enhanced, whereas GSH was decreased significantly in liver and kidney in CCl4-intoxicated group. Ethanolic extract of propolis successfully prevented these alterations in experimental animals. Activities of catalase, adenosine triphosphatase, glucose-6-phosphatase, acid, and alkaline phosphatase were also maintained towards normal with propolis therapy. Light microscopical studies showed considerable protection in liver and kidney with propolis treatment, thus, substantiated biochemical observations. This study confirmed hepatoprotective potential of propolis extract against chronic injury induced by CCl4 by regulating antioxidative defense activities.