Sonchus arvesis is traditionally reported in various human ailments including hepatotoxicity in Pakistan. Presently we designed to assess the protective effects of methanolic extract of Sonchus arvesis against carbon tetrachloride induced genotoxicity and DNA oxidative damages in hepatic tissues of experimental rats.
36 male Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly divided into 6 groups to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of Sonchus arvensis against CCl4 induced genotoxicity, DNA damages and antioxidant depletion. Rats of normal control group were given free access of food and water add labitum. Group II rats received 3 ml/kg of CCl4 (30% in olive oil v/v) via the intraperitoneal route twice a week for four weeks. Group III and IV received 1 ml of 100 mg/kg b.w. and 200 mg/kg b.w. SME via gavage after 48 h of CCl4 treatment whereas group V was given 1 ml of silymarin (100 mg/kg b.w.) after 48 h of CCl4 treatment. Group VI only received 200 mg/kg b.w. SME. Protective effects of SME were checked by measuring serum markers, activities of antioxidant enzymes, genotoxicity and DNA dmages.
Results of the present study showed that treatment of SME reversed the activities of serum marker enzymes and cholesterol profile as depleted with CCl4 treatment. Activities of endogenous antioxidant enzymes of liver tissue homogenate; catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSHpx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GSR) were reduced with administration of CCl4, which were returned to the control level with SME treatment. CCl4-induced hepatic cirrhosis decreased hepatic glutathione (GSH) and increased lipid peroxidative products (TBARS), were normalized by treatment with SME. Moreover, administration of CCl4 caused genotoxicity and DNA fragmentation which were significantly restored towards the normal level with SME.
These results reveal that treatment of SME may be useful in the prevention of hepatic stress.
Sonchus arvensis; Carbon tetrachloride; Liver cirrhosis; Lipids peroxidation
Sonchus asper is traditionally used in Pakistan for the treatment of reproductive dysfunction and oxidative stress. The present investigation was aimed to evaluate chloroform extract of Sonchus asper (SACE) against potassium bromate-induced reproductive stress in male rats.
20 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) potassium bromate (KBrO3) was induced in 36 rats for four weeks and checked the protective efficacy of SACE at various hormonal imbalances, alteration of antioxidant enzymes, and DNA fragmentation levels. High performance chromatography (HPLC) was used for determination of bioactive constituents responsible.
The level of hormonal secretion was significantly altered by potassium bromate. DNA fragmentation%, activity of antioxidant enzymes; catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and phase II metabolizing enzymes viz; glutathione reductase (GSR), glutathione peroxidase (GSHpx), glutathione-S-tansase (GST) and reduced glutathione (GSH) was decreased while hydrogen per oxide contents and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were increased with KBrO3 treatment. Treatment with SACE effectively ameliorated the alterations in the biochemical markers; hormonal and molecular levels while HPLC characterization revealed the presence of catechin, kaempferol, rutin and quercetin.
Protective effects of Sonchus asper vs. KBrO3 induced lipid peroxidation might be due to bioactive compound present in SACE.
Potassium bromate; Sonchus asper; Antioxidant; FSH; DNA fragmentation; TSH
Sonchus asper (SAME) is used as a folk medicine in hepatic disorders. In this study, the hepatoprotective effects of the methanol extract of SAME was evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injuries in rats.
To evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of SAME, 36 male Sprague–Dawley rats were equally divided into 6 groups. Rats of Group I (control) were given free access to approved feed and water. Rats of Group II were injected intraperitoneally with CCl4 (3 ml/kg) as a 30% solution in olive oil (v/v) twice a week for 4 weeks. Animals of Groups III (100 mg/kg) and IV (200 mg/kg) received SAME, whereas those of Group V were given silymarin via gavage (100 mg/kg) after 48 h of CCl4 treatment. Group VI received SAME (200 mg/kg) twice a week for 4 weeks without CCl4 treatment. Various parameters, such as the serum enzyme levels, serum biochemical marker levels, antioxidant enzyme activities, and liver histopathology were used to estimate the hepatoprotective efficacy of SAME.
The administration of SAME and silymarin significantly lowered the CCl4-induced serum levels of hepatic marker enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase), cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and triglycerides while elevating high-density lipoprotein levels. The hepatic contents of glutathione and activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase, and glutathione reductase were reduced. The levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances that were increased by CCl4 were brought back to control levels by the administration of SAME and silymarin. Liver histopathology showed that SAME reduced the incidence of hepatic lesions induced by CCl4 in rats.
SAME may protect the liver against CCl4-induced oxidative damage in rats.
Carbon tetrachloride; Sonchus asper; Liver histopathology; Antioxidant; Lipid peroxidation; Liver enzymes
Sonchus asper (SA) is traditionally used as a folk medicine to treat mental disorders in Pakistan. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of polyphenolic rich methanolic fraction of SA on cognitive performance, brain antioxidant activities and acetylcholinesterase activity in male rats.
30 male Sprague–Dawley rats were equally divided into three groups in this study. Animals of group I (control) received saline (vehicle), group II received SA (50 mg/kg) body weight (b.w.), and group III treated with SA (100 mg/kg b.w.,) orally in dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) for 7 days. The effect of SA was checked on rat cognitive performance, brain antioxidatant and acetylcholinesterase activities. Evaluation of learning and memory was assessed by a step-through a passive avoidance test on day 6 after two habituation trials and an initial acquisition trial on day 5. Antioxidant potential was determined by measuring activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), contents of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH) in whole-brain homogenates. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was determined by the colorimetric method.
Results showed that 100 mg/kg b.w., SA treated rats exhibited a significant improvement in learning and memory (step-through latency time). SA administration reduced lipid peroxidation products and elevated glutathione levels in the SA100-treated group. Furthermore, salt and detergent soluble AChE activity was significantly decreased in both SA-treated groups. Short-term orally supplementation of SA showed significant cognitive enhancement as well as elevated brain antioxidant enzymes and inhibited AChE activity.
These findings stress the critical impact of Sonchus asper bioactive components on brain function.
Sonchus asper; Cognitive performance; Acetylcholinesterase activity; Antioxidant enzymes
Traditionally various human diseases of kidneys, hormonal imbalance and sexual diseases are treated with Launaea procumbens (L). In the present study protective effects of methanolic extract of Launaea procumbens (LPME) was evaluated against CCl4-induced oxidative damages in rat testis.
To examine the protective effects of Launaea procumbens on testis against oxidative stress of carbon tetrachloride in male rat, 30 male albino rats were equally divided into 5 groups (6 rats). First group was given standard diet and drinking water. Second group received CCl4 3 ml/kg intraperitoneally (30% in olive oil). Third and forth were given orally 100; 200 mg/kg b.w., in 99.8% dimethyl sulphooxide (DMSO), Launaea procumbens methanolic extracts (LPME) after 48 h of CCl4 treatment twice a week and sixth group received only LPME in DMSO at a dose of 200 mg/kg b.w., for four weeks. Protective effects of Launaea procumbens were observed on sperm concentration, motility and morphology, serum reproductive hormonal level, activity of antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and DNA damages.
Results of the present study revealed that treatment of CCl4 significantly (p < 0.01) reduced sperm concentration and motility comparatively to controls. Level of testosterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone, were depleted markedly (p <0.01) with treatment of CCl4. In addition, CCl4 induction in rats reduced activities of antioxidant enzymes while increased lipid peroxidation and DNA damages. Co-administration of LPME significantly (p <0.01) improved these alterations in improving of hormonal level, activities of antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation near to control rats.
From the results it is suggested that Launaea procumbens methanolic extract has the ability to protect testis against oxidative damages, possibly through antioxidant effects of its bioactive compounds.
Launaea procumbens; GSH; CCl4; Lipidperoxidation; DNA damages
Launaea procumbens (Asteraceae) is used as a folk medicine to treat hepatic disorders in Pakistan. The effect of a chloroform extract of Launaea procumbens (LPCE) was evaluated against carbon-tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage in rats.
To evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of LPCE, 36 male Sprague–Dawley rats were equally divided into six groups. Animals of group 1 (control) had free access to food and water. Group II received 3 ml/kg of CCl4 (30% in olive oil v/v) via the intraperitoneal route twice a week for 4 weeks. Group III received 1 ml of silymarin via gavage (100 mg/kg b.w.) after 48 h of CCl4 treatment whereas groups IV and V were given 1 ml of LPCE (100 and 200 mg/kg b.w., respectively) after 48 h of CCl4 treatment. Group VI received 1 ml of LPCE (200 mg/kg b.w.) twice a week for 4 weeks. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GSR), glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)) were measured in liver homogenates. DNA damage, argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs) counts and histopathology were studied in liver samples. Serum was analyzed for various biochemical parameters. Phytochemical composition in LPCE was determined through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).
LPCE inhibited lipid peroxidation, and reduced the activities of aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase in serum induced by CCl4. GSH contents were increased as were the activities of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, SOD, GST, GSR, GSH-Px) when altered due to CCl4 hepatotoxicity. Similarly, absolute liver weight, relative liver weight and the number of hepatic lesions were reduced with co-administration of LPCE. Phyochemical analyses of LPCE indicated that it contained catechin, kaempferol, rutin, hyperoside and myricetin.
These results indicated that Launaea procumbens efficiently protected against the hepatotoxicity induced by CCl4 in rats, possibly through the antioxidant effects of flavonoids present in LPCE.
Launaea procumbens; Hepatic injuries; Flavonoids; Antioxidant enzymes; Carbon tetrachloride
Sonchus asper possesses antioxidant capacity and is used in liver and kidney disorders. We have investigated the preventive effect of methanolic extract of Sonchus asper (SAME) on the gentamicin induced alterations in biochemical and morphological parameters in liver and kidneys of Sprague-Dawley male rat.
Acute oral toxicity studies were performed for selecting the therapeutic dose of SAME. 30 Sprague-Dawley male rats were equally divided into five groups with 06 animals in each. Group I received saline (0.5 ml/kg bw; 0.9% NaCl) while Group II administered with gentamicin 0.5 ml (100 mg/kg bw; i.p.) for ten days. Animals of Group III and Group IV received gentamicin and SAME 0.5 ml at a dose of 100 mg/kg bw and 200 mg/kg bw, respectively while Group V received only SAME at a dose of 200 mg/kg bw. Biochemical parameters including aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), γ-glutamyltransferase (γ-GT), total cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein, albumin, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), total bilirubin and direct bilirubin were determined in serum collected from various groups. Urinary out puts were measured in each group and also assessed for the level of protein and glucose. Lipid peroxides (TBARS), glutathione (GSH), DNA injuries and activities of antioxidant enzymes; catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were determined in liver and renal samples. Histopathological studies of liver and kidneys were also carried out.
On the basis of acute oral toxicity studies, 2000 mg/kg bw did not induce any toxicity in rats, 1/10th of the dose was selected for preventive treatment. Gentamicin increased the level of serum biomarkers; AST, ALT, ALP, LDH, γ-GT, total cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein, albumin, creatinine, BUN, total and direct bilirubin; as were the urinary level of protein, glucose, and urinary output. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and DNA injuries increased while GSH contents and activities of antioxidant enzymes; CAT, POD, SOD decreased with gentamicin in liver and kidney samples. SAME administration, dose dependently, prevented the alteration in biochemical parameters and were supported by low level of tubular and glomerular injuries induced with gentamicin.
These results suggested the preventive role of SAME for gentamicin induced toxicity that could be attributed by phytochemicals having antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties.
Carissa opaca leaves are traditionally used in the treatment of male dysfunction and hormonal disorder as well as in oxidative stress in Pakistan and Asia. The present study was designed to assess the protective effects of methanolic extract of Carissa opaca leaves (MLC) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced reproductive stress in male rats and bioactive constituents responsible for the activity.
CCl4 was induced in 42 male rats for eight weeks and checked the protective efficacy of methanolic extract of Carissa opaca leaves at various hormonal imbalances, alteration of antioxidant enzymes, DNA fragmentation levels and lipid peroxidation caused testicular fibrosis in testis while High performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) was used for detection of bioactive components.
HPLC characterization revealed the presence of isoquercitin , hyperoside , vitexin , myricetin and kaempherol. CCl4 caused significant alteration in the secretion of reproductive hormones. Activity of antioxidant enzymes viz; catalase, superoxide dimutase and phase II metabolizing enzymes including glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and reduced glutathione was decreased while DNA fragmentation, hydrogen per oxide contents and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were increased with CCl4 treatment. Co-administration of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg b.w. MLC effectively ameliorated the alterations in the biochemical markers; hormonal and molecular levels.
Protective effects of methanolic extract of Carissa opaca against CCl4−induced antioxidant and hormonal dysfunction which might be due to bioactive compound present in extract.
CCl4; Carissa opaca; TBARS; LH; DNA fragmentation
Launaea procumbens (L.) is traditionally used in the treatment of various human ailments including pulmonary damages. The present study was arranged to evaluate the role of Launaea procumbens methanol extract (LME) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced oxidative pulmonary damages in rat.
36 Sprague–Dawley male rats (170-180 g) were randomly divided into 06 groups. After a week of acclamization, group I was remained untreated while group II was given olive oil intraperitoneally (i.p.) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) orally, groups III, IV, V and VI were administered CCl4, 3 ml/kg body weight (30% in olive oil i.p.). Groups IV, V were treated with 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg of LME whereas group VI was administered with 50 mg/kg body weight of rutin (RT) after 48 h of CCl4 treatment for four weeks. Antioxidant profile in lungs were evaluated by estimating the activities of antioxidant enzymes; catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GSR), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), quinone reductase (QR) and reduced glutathione (GSH). CCl4-induced lipid peroxidation was determined by measuring the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) with conjugation of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damages, argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs) counts and histopathology.
Administration of CCl4 for 6 weeks significantly (p < 0.01) reduced the activities of antioxidant enzymes and GSH concentration while increased TBARS contents and DNA damages in lung samples. Co-treatment of LME and rutin restored the activities of antioxidant enzymes and GSH contents. Changes in TBARS concentration and DNA fragmentation were significantly (p < 0.01) decreased with the treatment of LME and rutin in lung. Changes induced with CCl4 in histopathology of lungs were significantly reduced with co-treatment of LME and rutin.
Results of present study revealed that LME could protect the lung tissues against CCl4-induced oxidative stress possibly by improving the antioxidant defence system.
Launaea procumbens; Lungs; CCl4; Antioxidant enzymes; TBARS; GSH
The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant properties of aqueous extract of Podophyllum hexandrum. The antioxidant potential of the plant extract under in vitro situations was evaluated by using two separate methods, inhibition of superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide radical. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a well known toxicant and exposure to this chemical is known to induce oxidative stress and causes tissue damage by the formation of free radicals.
36 albino rats were divided into six groups of 6 animals each, all animals were allowed food and water ad libitum. Group I (control) was given olive oil, while the rest groups were injected intraperitoneally with a single dose of CCl4 (1 ml/kg) as a 50% (v/v) solution in olive oil. Group II received CCl4 only. Group III animals received vitamin E at a concentration of 50 mg/kg body weight and animals of groups IV, V and VI were given extract of Podophyllum hexandrum at concentration dose of 20, 30 and 50 mg/kg body weight. Antioxidant status in both kidney and lung tissues were estimated by determining the activities of antioxidative enzymes, glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and superoxide dismutase (SOD); as well as by determining the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). In addition, superoxide and hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activity of the extract was also determined.
Results showed that the extract possessed strong superoxide and hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activity comparable to that of known antioxidant butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT). Our results also showed that CCl4 caused a marked increase in TBARS levels whereas GSH, SOD, GR, GPX and GST levels were decreased in kidney and lung tissue homogenates of CCl4 treated rats. Aqueous extract of Podophyllum hexandrum successfully prevented the alterations of these effects in the experimental animals.
Our study demonstrated that the aqueous extract of Podophyllum hexandrum could protect the kidney and lung tissue against CCl4 induced oxidative stress probably by increasing antioxidant defense activities.
Ucche (Momordica charantia L. var. muricata (Willd.) Chakravarty) has been reported to possess many benefits and medicinal properties. However, the protective effect of ucche against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatotoxicity have not been clarified fully yet. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of ucche on oxidative stress and inflammation in liver of CCl4 treated rats.
Female Long Evans rats were administered with CCl4 orally (1 ml/kg) twice a week for 2 weeks and were supplemented with freshly prepared crashed ucche (10% wt/wt of diet) with powdered chaw food. Both plasma and liver tissues were analyzed for AST, ALT and ALP activities. Oxidative stress parameters were measure by determining malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), advanced protein oxidation product (APOP), and reduced glutathione (GSH) concentrations and catalase activities in plasma and liver tissues. Moreover, inflammation and tissue fibrosis were confirmed by histological staining of liver tissue sections.
Our data suggest that ucche significantly prevented CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity, indicated by both diagnostic indicators of liver damage (serum transferases activities) and histopathological analysis. Moreover, CCl4 administration induced profound elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and oxidative stress, as evidenced by increasing lipid peroxidation level and depletion of antioxidant enzymes in liver. Fresh ucche supplementation prevented the oxidative stresses and improved antioxidant enzyme function. Furthermore, fresh ucche supplementation reduced hepatic inflammatory cell infiltration, iron deposition and fibrosis in liver of CCl4 treated rats.
In conclusion, these results suggested that the inhibition of CCl4-induced inflammation by ucche is due at least in part to its anti-oxidant activity and its ability to modulate the inflammation and fibrosis in liver.
Momordica charantia; Fibrosis; Inflammation; Reactive oxygen species; Oxidative stress; Aminotransferases
Pomegranate fruit has been extensively used as a natural medicine in many cultures. The present study was aimed at evaluating the protective effects of pomegranate (Punica granatum) juice against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced oxidative stress and testes injury in adult Wistar rats.
Twenty eight Wistar albino male rats were divided equally into 4 groups for the assessment of protective potential of pomegranate juice. Rats of group I (control) received only vehicles and had free access to food and water. Rats of groups II and IV were treated with CCl4 (2 ml/kg bwt) via the intraperitoneal route once a week for ten weeks. The pomegranate juice was supplemented via drinking water 2 weeks before and concurrent with CCl4 treatment to group IV. Group III was supplemented with pomegranate juice for twelve weeks. The protective effects of pomegranate on serum sex hormones, oxidative markers, activities of antioxidant enzymes and histopathology of testes were determined in CCl4-induced reproductive toxicity in rats.
Pomegranate juice showed significant elevation in testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) those depleted by the injection of CCl4. Activity levels of endogenous testesticular antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione (GSH) contents were increased while lipid peroxidation (LPO) and nitric oxide (NO) were decreased with pomegranate juice. Moreover, degeneration of germ and Leydig cells along with deformities in spermatogenesis induced after CCl4 injections were restored with the treatment of pomegranate juice.
The results clearly demonstrated that pomegranate juice augments the antioxidant defense mechanism against carbon tetrachloride-induced reproductive toxicity and provides evidence that it may have a therapeutic role in free radical mediated diseases.
Punica granatum; Carbon tetrachloride; Oxidative stress; Testes; Rats
AIM: To explore the antioxidant and free radical scavenger properties of mistletoe alkali (MA).
METHODS: The antioxidant effect of mistletoe alkali on the oxidative stress induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rats was investigated. The rats were divided into four groups (n = 8): CCl4-treated group (1 mL/kg body weight), MA -treated group (90 mg/kg), CCl4+MA-treated group and normal control group. After 4 wk of treatment, the level of malondialdehyde (MDA), a lipid peroxidation product (LPO) was measured in serum and homogenates of liver and kidney. Also, the level of glutathione (GSH), and activities of glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GSPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in liver and kidney were determined. Scavenging effects on hydroxyl free radicals produced in vitro by Fenton reaction were studied by ESR methods using 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO) as a spin trap reagent and H2O2/UV as the OH· source. Urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was determined by competitive ELISA.
RESULTS: In CCl4-treated group, the level of LPO in serum of liver and kidney was significantly increased compared to controls. The levels of GSH and enzyme activities of SOD, GSPx and GR in liver and kidney were significantly decreased in comparison with controls. In CCl4+MA-treated group, the changes in the levels of LPO in serum of liver and kidney were not statistically significant compared to controls. The levels of SOD, GSPx and GR in liver and kidney were significantly increased in comparison with controls. There was a significant difference in urinary excretion of 8-OHdG between the CCl4-treated and MA-treated groups.
CONCLUSION: Oxidative stress may be a major mechanism for the toxicity of CCl4. MA has a protective effect against CCl4 toxicity by inhibiting the oxidative damage and stimulating GST activities. Thus, clinical application of MA should be considered in cases with carbon tetrachloride-induced injury.
Mistletoe alkali; Inhibition of peroxidation; Free radical; Liver and kidney
Carissa opaca is a Pakistani fruit, traditionally used in the treatment of various human ailments including asthma and pulmonary damage. The present study investigated the protective effects of Carissa opaca against CCl4-induced oxidative stress in rat lungs.
To assess the protective effects of Carissa opaca, 42 Sprague–Dawley male rats (170–180 g) were randomly divided into 7 groups. Group I was untreated and group II received olive oil intraperitoneally (i.p.) and dimethyl sulfoxide orally. Groups III, IV, V, VI and VII were administered CCl4, 3 ml/kg bodyweight (30% in olive oil i.p.). Group IV was administered 50 mg/kg bodyweight silymarin whereas groups V, VI and VII were treated with 200 mg/kg of various fractions of Carissa opaca after 48 h of CCl4 treatment for eight weeks. Antioxidant profiles in lungs were evaluated by estimating the activities of antioxidant enzymes: catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, quinone reductase and reduced glutathione. CCl4-induced lipid peroxidation was determined by measuring the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) with conjugation of DNA damage and histopathology.
Administration of CCl4 for 8 weeks significantly reduced (p < 0.05) the activities of antioxidant enzymes and GSH concentration while increasing TBARS content and DNA damage. Co-treatment of various fractions of Carissa opaca and silymarin restored the activities of antioxidant enzymes and glutathione content. Changes in TBARS concentration and DNA fragmentation was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) following Carissa opaca and silymarin treatment in lung.
Histopathological changes in rat lungs induced by CCl4 were significantly restored by co-treatment with Carissa opaca and silymarin.
Carissa opaca; Lungs; CCl4; Antioxidant enzymes; TBARS; DNA
To study the protective effects of the ethanolic extract of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. longifolia) leaves against the toxicity caused by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in reproductive system of rats.
Lettuce leaves were dried and extracted with ethanol (plant: solvent, 1:10, w/v). The extract was filtered and evaporated to yield dried lettuce extract. Animals were divided into seven groups and treated with CCl4 and different concentrations of lettuce extract. At the end of the experimental period, the animals were sacrificed and blood was collected and centrifuged for serum separation. Body weights, testis size, histopathology of testis and liver, catalase (CAT) activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, peroxidase (POD) activity, reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase activity (GSH-Px), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), nitrite level, and serum hormones were determined.
Oxidative stress induced by CCl4 (2 mL/kg body weight) in rat decreases the increase in body weight and relative testis weight. It also markedly increases the level of TBARS and nitrites along with corresponding decrease in reduced glutathione and various antioxidant enzymes in testis (i.e., CAT, POD, SOD and GSH-Px). Serum level of testosterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone was decreased while estradiol and prolactin were increased during CCl4 treatment. Histopathology of CCl4-treated rats indicated the partial degeneration of germ and leydig cells along with deformities in spermatogenesis. Supplementation of lettuce extract (100, 150, 200 mg/kg body weight orally) once a week for 10 weeks results in decrease of TBARS and nitrite, while increase in antioxidant enzymes; CAT, POD, SOD, GSH-Px and GSH contents. Serum level of testosterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, estradiol, prolactin, histology, body weight and relative testis weight was also concomitantly restored to near normal level by lettuce extract supplementation to CCl4-intoxicated rat.
The results clearly demonstrate that lettuce extract treatment augments the antioxidants defense mechanism against CCl4-induced toxicity and provides evidence that it may have a therapeutic role in free radical mediated diseases.
Lettuce; Lactuca sativa; CCl4, Superoxide dismutase; TBARS; Testosterone; Estradiol; Rats
Oxidative damage is implicated in the pathogenesis of kidney injury. Cornus mas is used for in renal aliments traditionally in Iran. The present study was aimed to investigate the antioxidant activity of C. mas fruit extract (CMFE) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) treated oxidative stress in Wistar albino rats. Forty two male albino rats were divided into seven groups. Group I served as a sham; Group II served as a normal control; Group III served as a toxic control, with CCl4 (1 ml/kg body weight; 80% in olive oil); Groups IV and V received CMFE at doses of 300 and 700 mg/kg before CCl4 injection; Groups VI and VII received extract at same doses orally at 2, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h after CCl4 intoxication. CCl4 injection produced a significant rise in serum markers of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde along with the reduction of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismuta, catalase and glutathion peroxidase. Serum creatinine, urea and uric acid concentrations were increased whereas level of protein and albumin were reduced. Treatment of rats with different doses of fruit extract (300 and 700 mg/kg) significantly (P < 0.05) ameliorated the alterations induced with CCl4 in lipid peroxidation, antioxidant defenses, biochemical and renal lesions. Based on these results, we conclude that CMFE protects kidney from oxidative stress induced by CCl4.
Carbon tetrachloride; Cornus mas; lipid paroxidation; nephrotoxicity; oxidative stress
Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a well-known hepatotoxin and exposure to this chemical is known to induce oxidative stress and causes liver injury by the formation of free radicals. Acute and chronic renal damage are also very common pathophysiologic disturbances caused by CCl4. The present study has been conducted to evaluate the protective role of the aqueous extract of the bark of Termnalia arjuna (TA), an important Indian medicinal plant widely used in the preparation of ayurvedic formulations, on CCl4 induced oxidative stress and resultant dysfunction in the livers and kidneys of mice.
Animals were pretreated with the aqueous extract of TA (50 mg/kg body weight) for one week and then challenged with CCl4 (1 ml/kg body weight) in liquid paraffin (1:1, v/v) for 2 days. Serum marker enzymes, namely, glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were estimated in the sera of all study groups. Antioxidant status in both the liver and kidney tissues were estimated by determining the activities of the antioxidative enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST); as well as by determining the levels of thiobarbutaric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH). In addition, free radical scavenging activity of the extract was determined from its DPPH radical quenching ability.
Results showed that CCl4 caused a marked rise in serum levels of GPT and ALP. TBARS level was also increased significantly whereas GSH, SOD, CAT and GST levels were decreased in the liver and kidney tissue homogenates of CCl4 treated mice. Aqueous extract of TA successfully prevented the alterations of these effects in the experimental animals. Data also showed that the extract possessed strong free radical scavenging activity comparable to that of vitamin C.
Our study demonstrated that the aqueous extract of the bark of TA could protect the liver and kidney tissues against CCl4-induced oxidative stress probably by increasing antioxidative defense activities.
Trifolium alexandrinum is traditionally used in various human ailments, including renal dysfunctions. The present experiment was designed to investigate antioxidant and nephroprotective effect of T. alexandrinum methanolic extract (TAME) against CCl4-induced oxidative stress in albino rats. Results of in vitro study revealed significant (P < 0.05) antioxidant effects. The ameliorative role of TAME was also examined by investigating the level of antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), nonenzymatic antioxidant viz; reduced glutathione contents (GSH) and lipid peroxidation products (TBARS) in the renal tissue homogenate in CCl4-treated rats. The intraperitoneal injection of 1 mL/kg b.w. CCl4 caused a significant depletion in the activity antioxidant enzymes and increased the TBARS contents. Supplementation of TAME at 200 mg/kg b.w. for 2 weeks significantly improved activities of antioxidant enzymes and reduced TBARS formation. Co-treatment of TAME also presented significant protection in maintaining renal urine and serum markers. Antioxidant and nephroprotective effects of TAME are associated with its polyphenolic constituents.
CCl4; kidney; lipid peroxidation; oxidative stress; Trifolium alexandrinum
Sida cordata, a member of Family Malvaceae is used in folk medicine for various ailments including liver diseases. In this study we investigated, its flavonoid constituents, in vitro antioxidant potential against different free radicals and hepatoprotection against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage in rat.
Dried powder of S. cordata whole plant was extracted with methanol and the resultant (SCME) obtained was fractionated with escalating polarity to obtain n-hexane fraction (SCHE), ethyl acetate fraction (SCEE), n-butanol fraction (SCBE) and the remaining soluble portion as aqueous fraction (SCAE). Diverse in vitro antioxidants assays such as DPPH, H2O2, •OH, ABTS, β-carotene bleaching assay, superoxide radical, lipid peroxidation, reducing power, and total antioxidant capacity were studied to assess scavenging potential of methanol extract and its derived fractions. On account of marked scavenging activity SCEE was selected to investigate the hepatoprotective potential against CCl4 induced toxicity in Sprague–Dawley male rats by assessing the level of serum markers (alkaline phosphatase, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, bilirubin, and γ-glutamyltransferase) and of liver antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), glutathione-S-transfers (GST), glutathione reductase (GSR), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and reduced glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation (TBARS). Histology of the liver was performed to study alteration in histoarchitecture. Existence of active flavonoids was established by thin layer chromatographic studies.
Considerable amount of flavonoid and phenolic contents were recorded in the methanol extract and its derived fractions. Although the extract and all its derived fractions exhibited good antioxidant activities however, the most distinguished scavenging potential was observed for SCEE. Treatment of SCEE decreased the elevated level of serum marker enzymes induced with CCl4 administration whereas increased the activity of hepatic antioxidant enzymes (CAT, SOD, POD, GST, GSR and GSH-Px). Hepatic concentration of GSH was increased while lipid peroxidation was decreased with SCEE administration in CCl4 intoxicated rats. Presence of apigenin with some unknown compounds was observed in SCEE by using thin layer chromatography.
These results revealed the presence of some bioactive compound in the ethyl acetate fraction, confirming the utility of S. cordata against liver diseases in folk medicine.
Sida cordata; Phytochemistry; Antioxidant assays; CCl4; Liver toxicity
Objectives. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of rutin in carbon tetrachloride- (CCl4-) induced liver injuries in rat model. Methods. Forty male Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups. Group I was the control group and received dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) and olive oil. Group II received rutin. Groups III was treated with CCl4. Group IV was administered rutin after 48 h of CCl4 treatment. Liver enzymes level, lipid profile, lipid peroxidation, and hydrogen peroxide were measured. The genes expression levels were monitored by real time RT-PCR and western blot techniques. Results. CCl4 group showed significant increase in alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBAR), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and lipid profile and a significant decrease in glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), paraoxonase-1 (PON-1), paraoxonase-3 (PON-3), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor delta (PPAR-δ), and ATP-binding cassette transporter 1 (ABAC1) genes expression levels. Interestingly, rutin supplementation completely reversed the biochemical and gene expression levels induced by CCl4 to control values. Conclusion. CCl4 administration causes aberration of genes expression levels in oxidative stress pathway resulting in DNA damage and hepatotoxicity. Rutin causes hepatoprotective effect through enhancing the antioxidant genes.
Rutin is a polyphenolic natural flavonoid which possesses antioxidant and anticancer activity. In the present study the hepatoprotective effect of rutin was evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injuries in rats.
Methods and materials
24 Sprague–Dawley male rats were equally divided into 4 groups for the assessment of hepatoprotective potential of rutin. Rats of group I (control) received only vehicles; 1 ml/kg bw of saline (0.85%) and olive oil (3 ml/kg) and had free access to food and water. Rats of group II, III and IV were treated with CCl4 (30% in olive oil, 3 ml/kg bw) via the intraperitoneal route twice a week for four weeks. The rutin at the doses of 50 and 70 mg/kg were administered intragastrically after 48 h of CCl4 treatment to group III and IV, respectively. Protective effect of rutin on serum enzyme level, lipid profile, activities of antioxidant enzymes and molecular markers were calculated in CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rat.
Rutin showed significant protection with the depletion of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GT) in serum as was raised by the induction of CCl4. Concentration of serum triglycerides, total cholesterol and low density lipoproteins was increased while high-density lipoprotein was decreased with rutin in a dose dependent manner. Activity level of endogenous liver antioxidant enzymes; catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSHpx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GSR) and glutathione (GSH) contents were increased while lipid peroxidation (TBARS) was decreased dose dependently with rutin. Moreover, increase in DNA fragmentation and oxo8dG damages while decrease in p53 and CYP 2E1 expression induced with CCl4 was restored with the treatment of rutin.
From these results, it is suggested that rutin possesses hepatoprotective properties.
Hepatotoxicity; Rutin; p53; CYP 2E1; Antioxidant enzymes
Carissa opaca are used traditionally in Pakistan for the treatment of various human ailments. Therefore, the study is arranged out to assess the cardio protective potential of different fractions of Carissa opaca leaves on CCl4-induced oxidative trauma in kidney.
The parameters studied in this respect were the cardiac function test (CK (U/l), CKMB (U/l), genotoxicity (% DNA fragmentation), characteristic morphological findings and antioxidant enzymatic level of cardiac tissue homogenate.
The protective effects of various fractions of Carissa opaca (C. opaca) leaves extract against CCl4 administration was reviewed by rat cardiac functions alterations. Chronic toxicity caused by eight week treatment of CCl4 to the rats significantly changed the cardiac function test, decreased the activities of antioxidant enzymes and glutathione contents whereas significant increase was found in lipid peroxidation comparative to control group. Administration of various fractions of C. opaca leaves extract with CCl4 showed protective ability against CCl4 intoxication by restoring the cardiac functions alterations, activities of antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation in rat. CCl4 induction in rats also caused DNA fragmentation and histopathalogical abnormalities which were restored by co-admistration of various fraction of C. opaca leaves extract.
Results revealed that various fraction of C. opaca are helpful in cardiac dysfunctions.
DNA damages; Lipid peroxidation; Histopathalogical; CCl4
Liver steatosis is characterized by lipid dysregulation and fat accumulation in the liver and can lead to oxidative stress in liver. Since proanthocyanidins are present in plant-based foods and have powerful antioxidant properties, we investigated whether proanthocyanidins can prevent oxidative stress and subsequent liver injury. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) treatment can cause steatosis in rats that models both alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in humans. We pre-treated rats by oral administration of proanthocyanidins extracted from grape seeds 7 days prior to intragastrically administering CCl4. Proanthocyanidin treatment continued for an additional 2 weeks, after which time liver and serum were harvested, and mediators of liver injury, oxidative stress, and histological features were evaluated. CCl4-treated rats exhibited significant increases in the following parameters as compared to non-treated rats: fat droplets in the liver, liver injury (ALT, AST), and DNA damage (8-OHdG). Additionally, CCl4 treatment decreased antioxidant enzymes SOD, GSH, GPX, and CAT in the liver due to their rapid depletion after battling against oxidative stress. Compared to CCl4-treated rats, treatment with proanthocyanidins effectively suppressed lipid accumulation, liver injury, DNA damage, as well as restored antioxidant enzyme levels. Further investigation revealed that proanthocyanidins treatment also inhibited expression of CYP2E1 in liver, which prevented the initial step of generating free radicals from CCl4. The data presented here show that treatment with orally administered proanthocyanidins prevented liver injury in the CCl4-induced steatosis model, likely through exerting antioxidant actions to suppress oxidative stress and inhibiting the free radical–generating CYP2E1 enzyme.
CYP2E1; fatty liver; grape seed extracts; hepatotoxicity; oxidative stress
Reactive oxygen species are implicated in many human diseases and aging process. Much of the evidence is based on experimental data indicating increasing rates of lipid peroxidation in disease states and the ameliorating effects of antioxidants. It is becoming increasingly evident that the natural antioxidants, which have basically a phenolic structure, play an important role in protecting tissues against free radical damage. Eugenol (4-allyl-2 methoxyphenol), is one among such naturally occurring phenolic compounds. The antioxidant activity of eugenol is evaluated by the extent of protection offered against free radical mediated lipid peroxidation using both in vitro and in vivo studies. The in vitro lipid peroxidation is induced in mitochondria by (Fe(II)-ascorbate) or (Fe(II) + H2O2). The lipid peroxidation is assessed colorimetrically by measuring the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) following the reaction of oxidized lipids with TBA. Eugenol inhibits both iron and Fenton reagent mediated lipid peroxidation. The inhibitory activity of eugenol is about five fold higher than α-tocopherol and about ten fold less than the synthetic antioxidant, BHT. The in vivo antioxidant activity of eugenol is evaluated by the determination of certain biochemical parameters (SGOT, Cyt.P450, glucose-6-phosphatase), peroxidation products and histopathological examination of •CCl3 radical induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Eugenol significantly inhibits the rise in SGOT activity and cell necrosis without protecting the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) damage as assessed by its failure to prevent a decrease in glucose-6-phosphatase activity. The protective action of eugenol has been found to be due to interception of secondary radicals derived from ER lipids rather than interfering with primary radicals of CCl4 (•CCl3/CCl3OO•).
reactive oxygen species; antioxidants; eugenol; lipid peroxidation; TBARS; carbon tetrachloride
Effect of methanolic extract of Rumex hastatus roots (MRR) and its derived fractions, n-hexane (HRR), ethyl acetate (ERR), chloroform (CRR), butanol (BRR), and aqueous extract (ARR), was studied against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepato and testicular toxicity in rats. Intraperitoneal dose of 20 percent CCl4 (0.5 ml/kg bw) was administered twice a week for eight weeks to a group of rats. Other groups were given CCl4 and various fractions of R. hastatus roots (200 mg/kg bw). CCl4 treatment depleted glutathione contents and activities of antioxidant enzymes while increased the concentration of lipid peroxides (TBARS) along with corresponding DNA injuries and histopathological damages. Supplementation with various fractions of R. hastatus roots (200 mg/kg body weight) attenuated the toxicity of CCl4 in liver and testis tissues through improvement in the serological, enzymatic, and histological parameters towards the normal. Posttreatment of R. hastatus roots (200 mg/kg body weight) also reversed the alteration in reproductive hormonal secretions and DNA damages in CCl4 treated rats. The results clearly demonstrated that R. hastatus treatment augments the antioxidants defense mechanism and provides the evidence that it may have a therapeutic role in free radical mediated diseases.