PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-25 (905501)

Clipboard (0)
None

Related Articles

1.  Selection of housekeeping genes for use in quantitative reverse transcription PCR assays on the murine cornea 
Molecular Vision  2010;16:1076-1086.
Purpose
To evaluate the suitability of common housekeeping genes (HKGs) for use in quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT–PCR) assays of the cornea in various murine disease models.
Methods
Corneal disease models studied were: 1) corneal neovascularization (CorNV) induced by suture or chemical burn, 2) corneal infection with Candida albicans or Aspergillus fumigatus by intrastromal injection of live spores, and 3) perforating corneal injury (PCI) in Balb/c mice or C57BL/6 mice. Expression of 8 HKGs (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase [GAPDH], beta-actin [ACTB], lactate dehydrogenase A [LDHA], ribosomal protein L5 [RPL5], ubiquitin C [UBC], peptidylprolyl isomerase A [PPIA], TATA-box binding protein [TBP1], and hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase [HPRT1]) in the cornea were measured at various time points by microarray hybridization or qRT–PCR and the data analyzed using geNorm and NormFinder.
Results
Microarray results showed that under the CorNV condition the expression stability of the 8 HKGs decreased in order of PPIA>RPL5>HPRT1>ACTB>UBC>TBP1>GAPDH>LDHA. qRT–PCR analyses demonstrated that expression of none of the 8 HKGs remained stable under all conditions, while GAPDH and ACTB were among the least stably expressed markers under most conditions. Both geNorm and NormFinder analyses proposed best HKGs or HKG combinations that differ between the various models. NormFinder proposed PPIA as best HKG for three CorNV models and PCI model, as well as UBC for two fungal keratitis models. geNorm analysis demonstrated that a similar model in different mice strains or caused by different stimuli may require different HKGs or HKG pairs for the best normalization. Namely, geNorm proposed PPIA and HRPT1 and PPIA and RPL5 pairs for chemical burn-induced CorNV in Balb/c and C57BL/6 mice, respectively, while UBC and HPRT1 and UBC and LDHA were best for Candida and Aspergillus induced keratitis in Balb/c mice, respectively.
Conclusions
When qRT–PCR is designed for studies of gene expression in murine cornea, preselection of situation-specific reference genes is recommended. In the absence of knowledge about situation-specific HKGs, PPIA and UBC, either alone or in combination with HPRT1 or RPL5, can be employed.
PMCID: PMC2893048  PMID: 20596249
2.  Selection of Suitable Housekeeping Genes for Real-Time Quantitative PCR in CD4+ Lymphocytes from Asthmatics with or without Depression 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(10):e48367.
Objective
No optimal housekeeping genes (HKGs) have been identified for CD4+ T cells from non-depressive asthmatic and depressive asthmatic adults for normalizing quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assays. The aim of present study was to select appropriate HKGs for gene expression analysis in purified CD4+ T cells from these asthmatics.
Methods
Three groups of subjects (Non-depressive asthmatic, NDA, n = 10, Depressive asthmatic, DA, n = 11, and Healthy control, HC, n = 10 respectively) were studied. qPCR for 9 potential HKGs, namely RNA, 28S ribosomal 1 (RN28S1), ribosomal protein, large, P0 (RPLP0), actin, beta (ACTB), cyclophilin A (PPIA), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1), beta-2-microglobulin (B2M), glucuronidase, beta (GUSB) and ribosomal protein L13a (RPL13A), was performed. Then the data were analyzed with three different applications namely BestKeeper, geNorm, and NormFinder.
Results
The analysis of gene expression data identified B2M and RPLP0 as the most stable reference genes and showed that the level of PPIA was significantly different among subjects of three groups when the two best HKGs identified were applied. Post-hoc analysis by Student-Newman-Keuls correction shows that depressive asthmatics and non-depressive asthmatics exhibited lower expression level of PPIA than healthy controls (p<0.05).
Conclusions
B2M and RPLP0 were identified as the most optimal HKGs in gene expression studies involving human blood CD4+ T cells derived from normal, depressive asthmatics and non-depressive asthmatics. The suitability of using the PPIA gene as the HKG for such studies was questioned due to its low expression in asthmatics.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048367
PMCID: PMC3480507  PMID: 23110234
3.  Evaluation of suitable reference genes for gene expression studies in porcine PBMCs in response to LPS and LTA 
BMC Research Notes  2013;6:56.
Background
As an in vitro model porcine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) is frequently used as for immunogenetic research with the stimulation of bacterial antigens. To investigate the immunocompetence of PBMCs for recognition of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and in order to dissect the pathogenesis of diseases, gene expression assay is most commonly used. The gene expressions are required to normalize for reference genes which have tremendous effect on the results of expression study. The reference genes should be stably expressed between different cells under a variety of experimental conditions, but recent influx of data showed that expression stability of reference genes are varied under different experimental conditions. But data regarding the expression stability of reference genes in porcine PBMCs are limited. Therefore, this study was aimed to know whether the expression stability of commonly used reference genes in PBMCs is affected by various bacterial antigens under different experimental conditions in pigs.
Results
The mRNA expression stability of nine commonly used reference genes (B2M, BLM, GAPDH, HPRT1, PPIA, RPL4, SDHA, TBP and YWHAZ) was determined by RT-qPCR in PBMCs that were stimulated by LPS and LTA in vitro as well as cells un-stimulated control and non-cultured were also consider for this experiment. mRNA expression levels of all genes were found to be affected by the type of stimulation and duration of the stimulation (P < 0.05). geNorm software revealed that in case of irrespective of stimulation (without considering the type of stimulation), RPL4, PPIA and B2M were the most stable reference genes in PBMCs; in case of the control group, PPIA, BLM and GAPDH were the most stable reference genes. PPIA, B2M and RPL4 were the most stable reference genes in LPS stimulated PBMCs; and YWHAZ, RPL4 and PPIA were the most stably expressed reference genes in the case of LTA stimulated PBMCs. When LPS was used combined with LTA for the stimulation, YWHAZ, B2M and SDHA remained the most stable genes. PPIA, BLM and GAPDH were found to be most stably expressed reference genes when PBMCs were not cultured. NormFinder revealed different sets of stably expressed reference genes in PBMCs under different experimental conditions. Moreover, geNorm software suggested that the geometric mean of the three most stable genes would be the suitable combination for accurate normalization of gene expression study.
Conclusion
There was discrepancy in the ranking order of reference genes obtained by different analysing algorithms (geNorm and NormFinder). In conclusion, the geometric mean of the RPL4, B2M and PPIA seemed to be the most appropriate combination of reference genes for accurate normalization of gene expression data in porcine PBMCs without knowing the type of bacterial pathogenic status of the animals and in the case of mixed infection with Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. In case of PBMCs without any stimulation, PPIA, BLM and GAPDH could be suggested as suitable reference genes.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-6-56
PMCID: PMC3584940  PMID: 23394600
Reference genes; PBMC; LPS; LTA; Pigs
4.  Selection of reliable reference genes for gene expression studies in peach using real-time PCR 
BMC Molecular Biology  2009;10:71.
Background
RT-qPCR is a preferred method for rapid and reliable quantification of gene expression studies. Appropriate application of RT-qPCR in such studies requires the use of reference gene(s) as an internal control to normalize mRNA levels between different samples for an exact comparison of gene expression level. However, recent studies have shown that no single reference gene is universal for all experiments. Thus, the identification of high quality reference gene(s) is of paramount importance for the interpretation of data generated by RT-qPCR. Only a few studies on reference genes have been done in plants and none in peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch). Therefore, the present study was conducted to identify suitable reference gene(s) for normalization of gene expression in peach.
Results
In this work, eleven reference genes were investigated in different peach samples using RT-qPCR with SYBR green. These genes are: actin 2/7 (ACT), cyclophilin (CYP2), RNA polymerase II (RP II), phospholipase A2 (PLA2), ribosomal protein L13 (RPL13), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA), tubblin beta (TUB), tubblin alpha (TUA), translation elongation factor 2 (TEF2) and ubiquitin 10 (UBQ10). All eleven reference genes displayed a wide range of Cq values in all samples, indicating that they expressed variably. The stability of these genes except for RPL13 was determined by three different descriptive statistics, geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper, which produced highly comparable results.
Conclusion
Our study demonstrates that expression stability varied greatly between genes studied in peach. Based on the results from geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper analyses, for all the sample pools analyzed, TEF2, UBQ10 and RP II were found to be the most suitable reference genes with a very high statistical reliability, and TEF2 and RP II for the other sample series, while 18S rRNA, RPL13 and PLA2 were unsuitable as internal controls. GAPDH and ACT also performed poorly and were less stable in our analysis. To achieve accurate comparison of levels of gene expression, two or more reference genes must be used for data normalization. The combinations of TEF2/UBQ10/RP II and TEF2/RP II were suggested for use in all samples and subsets, respectively.
doi:10.1186/1471-2199-10-71
PMCID: PMC3224724  PMID: 19619301
5.  Validation of reference genes for quantitative expression analysis by real-time RT-PCR in Saccharomyces cerevisiae 
BMC Molecular Biology  2009;10:99.
Background
Real-time RT-PCR is the recommended method for quantitative gene expression analysis. A compulsory step is the selection of good reference genes for normalization. A few genes often referred to as HouseKeeping Genes (HSK), such as ACT1, RDN18 or PDA1 are among the most commonly used, as their expression is assumed to remain unchanged over a wide range of conditions. Since this assumption is very unlikely, a geometric averaging of multiple, carefully selected internal control genes is now strongly recommended for normalization to avoid this problem of expression variation of single reference genes. The aim of this work was to search for a set of reference genes for reliable gene expression analysis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Results
From public microarray datasets, we selected potential reference genes whose expression remained apparently invariable during long-term growth on glucose. Using the algorithm geNorm, ALG9, TAF10, TFC1 and UBC6 turned out to be genes whose expression remained stable, independent of the growth conditions and the strain backgrounds tested in this study. We then showed that the geometric averaging of any subset of three genes among the six most stable genes resulted in very similar normalized data, which contrasted with inconsistent results among various biological samples when the normalization was performed with ACT1. Normalization with multiple selected genes was therefore applied to transcriptional analysis of genes involved in glycogen metabolism. We determined an induction ratio of 100-fold for GPH1 and 20-fold for GSY2 between the exponential phase and the diauxic shift on glucose. There was no induction of these two genes at this transition phase on galactose, although in both cases, the kinetics of glycogen accumulation was similar. In contrast, SGA1 expression was independent of the carbon source and increased by 3-fold in stationary phase.
Conclusion
In this work, we provided a set of genes that are suitable reference genes for quantitative gene expression analysis by real-time RT-PCR in yeast biological samples covering a large panel of physiological states. In contrast, we invalidated and discourage the use of ACT1 as well as other commonly used reference genes (PDA1, TDH3, RDN18, etc) as internal controls for quantitative gene expression analysis in yeast.
doi:10.1186/1471-2199-10-99
PMCID: PMC2776018  PMID: 19874630
6.  Validation of internal control for gene expression study in soybean by quantitative real-time PCR 
Background
Normalizing to housekeeping gene (HKG) can make results from quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) more reliable. Recent studies have shown that no single HKG is universal for all experiments. Thus, a suitable HKG should be selected before its use. Only a few studies on HKGs have been done in plants, and none in soybean, an economically important crop. Therefore, the present study was conducted to identify suitable HKG(s) for normalization of gene expression in soybean.
Results
All ten HKGs displayed a wide range of Ct values in 21 sample pools, confirming that they were variably expressed. GeNorm was used to determine the expression stability of the HGKs in seven series sets. For all the sample pools analyzed, the stability rank was ELF1B, CYP2 > ACT11 > TUA > ELF1A > UBC2 > ACT2/7 > TUB > G6PD > UBQ10. For different tissues under the same developmental stage, the rank was ELF1B, CYP2 > ACT2/7 > UBC2 > TUA > ELF1A > ACT11 > TUB > G6PD > UBQ10. For the developmental stage series, the stability rank was ACT2/7, TUA > ELF1A > UBC2 > ELF1B > TUB > CYP2 > ACT11 > G6PD > UBQ10. For photoperiodic treatments, the rank was ACT11, ELF1B > CYP2 > TUA > ELF1A > UBC2 > ACT2/7 > TUB > G6PD > UBQ10. For different times of the day, the rank was ELF1A, TUA > ELF1B > G6PD > CYP2 > ACT11 > ACT2/7 > TUB > UBC2 > UBQ10. For different cultivars and leaves on different nodes of the main stem, the ten HKGs' stability did not differ significantly. ΔCt approach and 'Stability index' were also used to analyze the expression stability in all 21 sample pools. Results from ΔCt approach and geNorm indicated that ELF1B and CYP2 were the most stable HKGs, and UBQ10 and G6PD the most variable ones. Results from 'Stability index' analysis were different, with ACT11 and CYP2 being the most stable HKGs, and ELF1A and TUA the most variable ones.
Conclusion
Our data suggests that HKGs are expressed variably in soybean. Based on the results from geNorm and ΔCt analysis, ELF1B and CYP2 could be used as internal controls to normalize gene expression in soybean, while UBQ10 and G6PD should be avoided. To achieve accurate results, some conditions may require more than one HKG to be used for normalization.
doi:10.1186/1471-2199-9-59
PMCID: PMC2443375  PMID: 18573215
7.  Importance of Suitable Reference Gene Selection for Quantitative RT-PCR during ATDC5 Cells Chondrocyte Differentiation 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(5):e64786.
Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is an efficient and accurate method to detect and compare patterns of gene expression. The reliability of qPCR is highly dependent on the selection of appropriate reference genes used for normalization. By analyzing 16 potential candidates of reference genes (GAPDH, Actb, 18 s, PGK1, Hprt, Tbp, Rpl5, B2M, Gusb, Ppia, UBC, Sdha, Eef1a1, H2afz, Tkt and Ldha) through geNorm, we identified Ppia, Tbp, Hprt and Eef1a1 as the most stable reference genes while UBC, B2M, Gusb as the least stable ones during the chondrocyte differentiation of ATDC5 cells. Considering the low expression of Eef1a1 and Tbp would cause divergent results for they failed to provide accurate normalization for RNA extraction and reverse transcription efficiency, we recommended the use of Ppia and Hprt as the most suitable genes to normalize qPCR. In addition, although GAPDH, Actb and 18 s were usually adopted in most of studies using ATDC5 cells, they were found unstable and then were not ideal reference genes for qPCR assay in ATDC5 cells chondrocyte differentiation. Also, we further confirmed that the Ppia and Hprt worked well during chondrocyte differentiation of mouse mesenchymal cells.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0064786
PMCID: PMC3660368  PMID: 23705012
8.  Selection of Reference Genes for Gene Expression Studies in Siberian Apricot (Prunus sibirica L.) Germplasm Using Quantitative Real-Time PCR 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(8):e103900.
Quantitative real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction has been applied in a vast range of studies of gene expression analysis. However, real-time PCR data must be normalized with one or more reference genes. In this study, eleven putative consistently expressed genes (ACT, TUA, TUB, CYP, DNAj, ELFA, F-box27, RPL12, GAPDH, UBC and UBQ) in nine Siberian Apricot Germplasms (including much variability) were evaluated for their potential as references for the normalization of gene expression by NormFinder and geNorm programs. From our studies, ACT, UBC, CYP, UBQ and RPL12 as suitable for normalization were identified by geNorm, while UBC and CYP as the best pair by NormFinder. Moreover, UBC was selected as the most stably expressed gene by both algorithms in different Siberian Apricot seed samples. We also detected that a set of three genes (ACT, CYP and UBC) by geNorm as control for normalization could lead to accurate results. Furthermore, the expression levels of oleosin gene were analyzed to validate the suitability of the selected reference genes. These obtained experimental results could make an important contribution to normalize real-time PCR data for gene expression analysis in Siberian Apricot Germplasm.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0103900
PMCID: PMC4126684  PMID: 25105495
9.  Evaluation of suitable reference genes for gene expression studies in porcine alveolar macrophages in response to LPS and LTA 
BMC Research Notes  2012;5:107.
Background
To obtain reliable quantitative real-time PCR data, normalization relative to stable housekeeping genes (HKGs) is required. However, in practice, expression levels of 'typical' housekeeping genes have been found to vary between tissues and under different experimental conditions. To date, validation studies of reference genes in pigs are relatively rare and have never been performed in porcine alveolar macrophages (AMs). In this study, expression stability of putative housekeeping genes were identified in the porcine AMs in response to the stimulation with two pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA). Three different algorithms (geNorm, Normfinder and BestKeeper) were applied to assess the stability of HKGs.
Results
The mRNA expression stability of nine commonly used reference genes (B2M, BLM, GAPDH, HPRT1, PPIA, RPL4, SDHA, TBP and YWHAZ) was determined by qRT-PCR in AMs that were stimulated by LPS and LTA in vitro. mRNA expression levels of all genes were found to be affected by the type of stimulation and duration of the stimulation (P < 0.0001). geNorm software revealed that SDHA, B2M and RPL4 showed a high expression stability in the irrespective to the stimulation group, while SDHA, YWHAZ and RPL4 showed high stability in non-stimulated control group. In all cases, GAPDH showed the least stability in geNorm. NormFinder revealed that SDHA was the most stable gene in all the groups. Moreover, geNorm software suggested that the geometric mean of the three most stable genes would be the suitable combination for accurate normalization of gene expression study.
Conclusions
There was discrepancy in the ranking order of reference genes obtained by different analysing algorithms. In conclusion, the geometric mean of the SDHA, YWHAZ and RPL4 seemed to be the most appropriate combination of HKGs for accurate normalization of gene expression data in porcine AMs without knowing the type of bacterial pathogenic status of the animals.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-5-107
PMCID: PMC3306271  PMID: 22340302
Candidate reference genes; Alveolar macrophage; LPS; LTA; Pigs
10.  Validation of Reference Genes for Quantitative Expression Analysis by Real-Time RT-PCR in Four Lepidopteran Insects 
Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is an efficient and widely used technique to monitor gene expression. Housekeeping genes (HKGs) are often empirically selected as the reference genes for data normalization. However, the suitability of HKGs used as the reference genes has been seldom validated. Here, six HKGs were chosen (actin A3, actin A1, GAPDH, G3PDH, E2F, rp49) in four lepidopteran insects Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), Plutella xylostella L. (Plutellidae), Chilo suppressalis Walker (Crambidae), and Spodoptera exigua Hübner (Noctuidae) to study their expression stability. The algorithms of geNorm, NormFinder, stability index, and ΔCt analysis were used to evaluate these HKGs. Across different developmental stages, actin A1 was the most stable in P. xylostella and C. suppressalis, but it was the least stable in B. mori and S. exigua. Rp49 and GAPDH were the most stable in B. mori and S. exigua, respectively. In different tissues, GAPDH, E2F, and Rp49 were the most stable in B. mori, S. exigua, and C. suppressalis, respectively. The relative abundances of Siwi genes estimated by 2-ΔΔCt method were tested with different HKGs as the reference gene, proving the importance of internal controls in qPCR data analysis. The results not only presented a list of suitable reference genes in four lepidopteran insects, but also proved that the expression stabilities of HKGs were different among evolutionarily close species. There was no single universal reference gene that could be used in all situations. It is indispensable to validate the expression of HKGs before using them as the internal control in qPCR.
doi:10.1673/031.012.6001
PMCID: PMC3481461  PMID: 22938136
expression stability; housekeeping gene; qPCR; reference gene
11.  Selection of suitable reference genes for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in human meningiomas and arachnoidea 
BMC Research Notes  2011;4:275.
Findings
At first 32 housekeeping genes were analyzed in six randomly chosen meningiomas, brain and dura mater using geNorm, NormFinder, Bestkeeper-1 software and the comparative ΔCt method. Reference genes were ranked according to an integration tool for analyzing reference genes expression based on those four algorithms. Eight highest ranked reference genes (CASC3, EIF2B1, IPO8, MRPL19, PGK1, POP4, PPIA, and RPL37A) plus GAPDH and ACTB were then analyzed in 35 meningiomas, arachnoidea, dura mater and normal brain. NormFinder and Bestkeeper-1 identified RPL37A as the most stable expressed gene in meningiomas and their normal control tissue. NormFinder also determined the best combination of genes: RPL37A and EIF2B1. Commonly used reference genes GAPDH and ACTB were considered least stable genes. The critical influence of reference genes on qPCR data analysis is shown for VEGFA transcription patterns.
Background
In meningiomas quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is most frequently used for accurate determination of gene expression using various reference genes. Although meningiomas are a heterogeneous group of tissue, no data have been reported to validate reference genes for meningiomas and their control tissues.
Conclusions
RPL37A is the optimal single reference gene for normalization of gene expression in meningiomas and their control tissues, although the use of the combination of RPL37A and EIF2B1 would provide more stable results.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-4-275
PMCID: PMC3166272  PMID: 21806841
12.  Age-related changes in relative expression stability of commonly used housekeeping genes in selected porcine tissues 
BMC Research Notes  2011;4:441.
Background
Gene expression analysis using real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) is increasingly important in biological research due to the high-throughput and accuracy of qRT-PCR. For accurate and reliable gene expression analysis, normalization of gene expression data against housekeeping genes or internal control genes is required. The stability of reference genes has a tremendous effect on the results of relative quantification of gene expression by qRT-PCR. The expression stability of reference genes could vary according to tissues, age of individuals and experimental conditions. In the pig however, very little information is available on the expression stability of reference genes. The aim of this research was therefore to develop a new set of reference genes which can be used for normalization of mRNA expression data of genes expressed in varieties of porcine tissues at different ages.
Results
The mRNA expression stability of nine commonly used reference genes (B2M, BLM, GAPDH, HPRT1, PPIA, RPL4, SDHA, TBP and YWHAZ) was determined in varieties of tissues collected from newborn, young and adult pigs. geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper software were used to rank the genes according to their stability. geNorm software revealed that RPL4, PPIA and YWHAZ showed high stability in newborn and adult pigs, while B2M, YWHAZ and SDHA showed high stability in young pigs. In all cases, GAPDH showed the least stability in geNorm. NormFinder revealed that TBP was the most stable gene in newborn and young pigs, while PPIA was most stable in adult pigs. Moreover, geNorm software suggested that the geometric mean of three most stable gene would be the suitable combination for accurate normalization of gene expression study.
Conclusions
Although, there was discrepancy in the ranking order of reference genes obtained by different analysing software methods, the geometric mean of the RPL4, PPIA and YWHAZ seems to be the most appropriate combination of housekeeping genes for accurate normalization of gene expression data in different porcine tissues at different ages.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-4-441
PMCID: PMC3219825  PMID: 22023805
13.  Validation of suitable reference genes for gene expression analysis in the halophyte Salicornia europaea by real-time quantitative PCR 
Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), a reliable technique for quantifying gene expression, requires stable reference genes to normalize its data. Salicornia europaea, a stem succulent halophyte with remarkable salt resistance and high capacity for ion accumulation, has not been investigated with regards to the selection of appropriate reference genes for RT-qPCR. In this study, the expression of 11 candidate reference genes, GAPDH (Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase), Actin, α-Tub (α-tubulin), β-Tub (β-tubulin), EF1-α (Elongation factor 1-α), UBC (Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme), UBQ (Polyubiquitin), CYP (Cyclophilin), TIP41 (TIP41-like protein), CAC (Clathrin adaptor complexes), and DNAJ (DnaJ-like protein), was analyzed in S. europaea samples, which were classified into groups according to various abiotic stresses (NaCl, nitrogen, drought, cold and heat), tissues and ages. Three commonly used software programs (geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper) were applied to evaluate the stability of gene expression, and comprehensive ranks of stability were generated by aggregate analysis. The results show that the relatively stable genes for each group are the following: (1) CAC and UBC for whole samples; (2) CAC and UBC for NaCl stress; (3) Actin and α-Tub for nitrogen treatment; (4) Actin and GAPDH for drought stress; (5) α-Tub and UBC for cold stress; (6) TIP41 and DNAJ for heat stress; (7) UBC and UBQ for different tissues; and (8) UBC and Actin for various developmental stages. These genes were validated by comparing transcriptome profiles. Using two stable reference genes was recommended in the normalization of RT-qPCR data. This study identifies optimal reference genes for RT-qPCR in S. europaea, which will benefit gene expression analysis under these conditions.
doi:10.3389/fpls.2014.00788
PMCID: PMC4300904  PMID: 25653658
RT-qPCR data normalization; gene quantification; housekeeping gene; halophyte; salt stress; drought stress; nitrogen stress; temperature stress
14.  UBC and YWHAZ as suitable reference genes for accurate normalisation of gene expression using MCF7, HCT116 and HepG2 cell lines 
Cytotechnology  2011;63(6):645-654.
Relative quantification of in vitro gene expression using real-time PCR requires stably expressed reference gene for normalisation. In this study, total RNA from MCF7, HCT116 and HepG2 cells were extracted and converted to cDNA using commercially available kit, and real-time PCR was then performed to analyse the expression levels of twelve reference genes to select the most ideal reference gene for accurate normalisation in gene expression study. geNorm and NormFinder software were used to analyse the stabilities of the reference genes, which showed a wide range of Ct values. The geNorm analysis showed the following ranking for stability of genes: UBC, YWHAZ > RPLP > TBP > ACTB > HPRT1 > PPIA > GAPDH > GUSB > B2M > TUBB > RRN18S. A similar ranking of reference genes was obtained by NormFinder, and the four most stable reference genes were identical using both approaches. UBC and YWHAZ were proposed to be the two most suitable reference genes based on the above analyses. To further assess the stabilities of the UBC and YWHAZ in a formal experiment, MCF7, HCT116 and HepG2 cell lines were subjected to treatments with 5-aza-dC and TSA. Both UBC and YWHAZ exhibited stable expression levels across control and treatment groups. Therefore, we propose that UBC and YWHAZ are the two most suitable reference genes for our gene expression studies using MCF7, HCT116 and HepG2 cell lines.
doi:10.1007/s10616-011-9383-4
PMCID: PMC3217073  PMID: 21850463
Gene expression; Normalisation; Reference gene; Expression level; Expression stability; Real-time PCR
15.  Identification of Optimal Reference Genes for Gene Expression Normalization in a Wide Cohort of Endometrioid Endometrial Carcinoma Tissues 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(12):e113781.
Accurate normalization is a primary component of a reliable gene expression analysis based on qRT-PCR technique. While the use of one or more reference genes as internal controls is commonly accepted as the most appropriate normalization strategy, many qPCR-based published studies still contain data poorly normalized and reference genes arbitrarily chosen irrespective of the particular tissue and the specific experimental design. To date, no validated reference genes have been identified for endometrial cancer tissues. In this study, 10 normalization genes (GAPDH, B2M, ACTB, POLR2A, UBC, PPIA, HPRT1, GUSB, TBP, H3F3A) belonging to different functional and abundance classes in various tissues and used in different studies, were analyzed to determine their applicability. In total, 100 endometrioid endometrial cancer samples, which were carefully balanced according to their tumor grade, and 29 normal endometrial tissues were examined using SYBR Green Real-Time RT-PCR. The expression stability of candidate reference genes was determined and compared by means of geNorm and NormFinder softwares. Both algorithms were in agreement in identifying GAPDH, H3F3A, PPIA, and HPRT1 as the most stably expressed genes, only differing in their ranking order. Analysis performed on the expression levels of all candidate genes confirm HPRT1 and PPIA as the most stably expressed in the study groups regardless of sample type, to be used alone or better in combination. As the stable expression of HPRT1 and PPIA between normal and tumor endometrial samples fulfill the basic requirement of a reference gene to be used for normalization purposes, HPRT1 expression showed significant differences between samples from low-grade and high-grade tumors. In conclusion, our results recommend the use of PPIA as a single reference gene to be considered for improved reliability of normalization in gene expression studies involving endometrial tumor samples at different tumor degrees.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0113781
PMCID: PMC4256201  PMID: 25473950
16.  Evaluation of potential reference genes for real time RT-PCR studies in Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus Hippoglossus L.); during development, in tissues of healthy and NNV-injected fish, and in anterior kidney leucocytes 
BMC Molecular Biology  2010;11:36.
Background
Real time RT-PCR has become an important tool for analyzing gene expression in fish. Although several housekeeping genes have been evaluated in Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus Hippoglossus L.), appropriate reference genes for low copy mRNA transcripts at the earliest developmental stages have not been identified. No attempts have been reported to identify suitable reference genes in halibut infected with NNV or in stimulated halibut leucocytes. In this study, β-actin1 (ACTB1), elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1A1), hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase 1 (HPRT1), ribosomal protein L7 (RPL7), tubulin beta 2C (Tubb2C), and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (UbcE) were evaluated as reference genes for normalization of real time RT-PCR data during Atlantic halibut development, in tissue of healthy and NNV-infected fish, and in in vivo and in vitro stimulated anterior kidney leucocytes.
Results
The expression of all six genes was relatively stable from the unfertilized egg until 12 day degrees post fertilization (ddpf). However, none of the selected genes were found to be stably expressed throughout halibut development. The mRNA levels of the six genes increased from 18 ddpf, when zygotic transcription is likely to be activated, and stabilized at different time points. The Excel-based software programs BestKeeper, geNorm, and NormFinder ranked EF1A1 and UbcE as the best candidate reference genes before activation of zygotic transcription, and RPL7 and EF1A1 as the best candidates after hatching. EF1A1 and RPL7 were also listed as the best reference genes when exploring the expression levels of the six genes in various halibut organs, both in non-injected fish and in mock- and NNV-injected fish. None of the reference genes were found optimal for normalization of real time RT-PCR data from in vitro stimulated anterior kidney leucocytes.
Conclusion
Generally, it was found that EF1A1 and RPL7 were the genes that showed least variation, with HPRT1 and UbcE as intermediate genes, and ACTB1 and Tubb2C as the least stable ones. None of the six reference genes can be recommended as reference gene candidates in ConA-PMA stimulated leucocytes. However, UbcE can be a good candidate in other experimental setups. This study emphasizes the need for reference gene evaluation, as universal reference genes have not been identified.
doi:10.1186/1471-2199-11-36
PMCID: PMC2882370  PMID: 20459764
17.  Validation of internal reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR in a non-model organism, the yellow-necked mouse, Apodemus flavicollis 
BMC Research Notes  2009;2:264.
Background
Reference genes are used as internal standards to normalize mRNA abundance in quantitative real-time PCR and thereby allow a direct comparison between samples. So far most of these expression studies used human or classical laboratory model species whereas studies on non-model organism under in-situ conditions are quite rare. However, only studies in free-ranging populations can reveal the effects of natural selection on the expression levels of functional important genes. In order to test the feasibility of gene expression studies in wildlife samples we transferred and validated potential reference genes that were developed for lab mice (Mus musculus) to samples of wild yellow-necked mice, Apodemus flavicollis. The stability and suitability of eight potential reference genes was accessed by the programs BestKeeper, NormFinder and geNorm.
Findings
Although the three programs used different algorithms the ranking order of reference genes was significantly concordant and geNorm differed in only one, NormFinder in two positions compared to BestKeeper. The genes ordered by their mean rank from the most to the least stable gene were: Rps18, Sdha, Canx, Actg1, Pgk1, Ubc, Rpl13a and Actb. Analyses of the normalization factor revealed best results when the five most stable genes were included for normalization.
Discussion
We established a SYBR green qPCR assay for liver samples of wild A. flavicollis and conclude that five genes should be used for appropriate normalization. Our study provides the basis to investigate differential expression of genes under selection under natural selection conditions in liver samples of A. flavicollis. This approach might also be applicable to other non-model organisms.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-2-264
PMCID: PMC2804578  PMID: 20030847
18.  Identification of valid reference genes for gene expression studies of human stomach cancer by reverse transcription-qPCR 
BMC Cancer  2010;10:240.
Background
Reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a powerful method for the analysis of gene expression. Target gene expression levels are usually normalized to a consistently expressed reference gene also known as internal standard, in the same sample. However, much effort has not been expended thus far in the search for reference genes suitable for the study of stomach cancer using RT-qPCR, although selection of optimal reference genes is critical for interpretation of results.
Methods
We assessed the suitability of six possible reference genes, beta-actin (ACTB), glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase 1 (HPRT1), beta-2-microglobulin (B2M), ribosomal subunit L29 (RPL29) and 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) in 20 normal and tumor stomach tissue pairs of stomach cancer patients and 6 stomach cancer cell lines, by RT-qPCR. Employing expression stability analyses using NormFinder and geNorm algorithms we determined the order of performance of these reference genes and their variation values.
Results
This RT-qPCR study showed that there are statistically significant (p < 0.05) differences in the expression levels of HPRT1 and 18S rRNA in 'normal-' versus 'tumor stomach tissues'. The stability analyses by geNorm suggest B2M-GAPDH, as best reference gene combination for 'stomach cancer cell lines'; RPL29-HPRT1, for 'all stomach tissues'; and ACTB-18S rRNA, for 'all stomach cell lines and tissues'. NormFinder also identified B2M as the best reference gene for 'stomach cancer cell lines', RPL29-B2M for 'all stomach tissues', and 18S rRNA-ACTB for 'all stomach cell lines and tissues'. The comparisons of normalized expression of the target gene, GPNMB, showed different interpretation of target gene expression depend on best single reference gene or combination.
Conclusion
This study validated RPL29 and RPL29-B2M as the best single reference genes and combination, for RT-qPCR analysis of 'all stomach tissues', and B2M and B2M-GAPDH as the best single reference gene and combination, for 'stomach cancer cell lines'. Use of these validated reference genes should provide more exact interpretation of differential gene expressions at transcription level in stomach cancer.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-10-240
PMCID: PMC2887403  PMID: 20507635
19.  The Use of Laser Microdissection in the Identification of Suitable Reference Genes for Normalization of Quantitative Real-Time PCR in Human FFPE Epithelial Ovarian Tissue Samples 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(4):e95974.
Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is a powerful and reproducible method of gene expression analysis in which expression levels are quantified by normalization against reference genes. Therefore, to investigate the potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for epithelial ovarian cancer by qPCR, it is critical to identify stable reference genes. In this study, twelve housekeeping genes (ACTB, GAPDH, 18S rRNA, GUSB, PPIA, PBGD, PUM1, TBP, HRPT1, RPLP0, RPL13A, and B2M) were analyzed in 50 ovarian samples from normal, benign, borderline, and malignant tissues. For reliable results, laser microdissection (LMD), an effective technique used to prepare homogeneous starting material, was utilized to precisely excise target tissues or cells. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and nonparametric (Kruskal-Wallis) tests were used to compare the expression differences. NormFinder and geNorm software were employed to further validate the suitability and stability of the candidate genes. Results showed that epithelial cells occupied a small percentage of the normal ovary indeed. The expression of ACTB, PPIA, RPL13A, RPLP0, and TBP were stable independent of the disease progression. In addition, NormFinder and geNorm identified the most stable combination (ACTB, PPIA, RPLP0, and TBP) and the relatively unstable reference gene GAPDH from the twelve commonly used housekeeping genes. Our results highlight the use of homogeneous ovarian tissues and multiple-reference normalization strategy, e.g. the combination of ACTB, PPIA, RPLP0, and TBP, for qPCR in epithelial ovarian tissues, whereas GAPDH, the most commonly used reference gene, is not recommended, especially as a single reference gene.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0095974
PMCID: PMC4002476  PMID: 24776823
20.  Selection of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR studies in striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) skin biopsies 
Background
Odontocete cetaceans occupy the top position of the marine food-web and are particularly sensitive to the bioaccumulation of lipophilic contaminants. The effects of environmental pollution on these species are highly debated and various ecotoxicological studies have addressed the impact of xenobiotic compounds on marine mammals, raising conservational concerns. Despite its sensitivity, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) has never been used to quantify gene induction caused by exposure of cetaceans to contaminants. A limitation for the application of qRT-PCR is the need for appropriate reference genes which allow the correct quantification of gene expression. A systematic evaluation of potential reference genes in cetacean skin biopsies is presented, in order to validate future qRT-PCR studies aiming at using the expression of selected genes as non-lethal biomarkers.
Results
Ten commonly used housekeeping genes (HKGs) were partially sequenced in the striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) and, for each gene, PCR primer pairs were specifically designed and tested in qRT-PCR assays. The expression of these potential control genes was examined in 30 striped dolphin skin biopsy samples, obtained from specimens sampled in the north-western Mediterranean Sea. The stability of selected control genes was determined using three different specific VBA applets (geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper) which produce highly comparable results. Glyceraldehyde-3P-dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and tyrosine 3-monooxygenase (YWHAZ) always rank as the two most stably expressed HKGs according to the analysis with geNorm and Normfinder, and are defined as optimal control genes by BestKepeer. Ribosomal protein L4 (RPL4) and S18 (RPS18) also exhibit a remarkable stability of their expression levels. On the other hand, transferrin receptor (TFRC), phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1), hypoxanthine ribosyltransferase (HPRT1) and β-2-microglobin (B2M) show variable expression among the studied samples and appear as less suitable reference genes for data normalization.
Conclusion
In this work, we have provided essential background information for the selection of control genes in qRT-PCR studies of cetacean skin biopsies, as a molecular technique to investigate ecotoxicological hazard in marine mammals. Of 10 HKGs tested, those encoding for YWHAZ and GAPDH appear as the most reliable control genes for the normalization of qRT-PCR data in the analysis of striped dolphin skin biopsies. Potentially useful reference genes are also those encoding for ribosomal proteins L4 and S18.
doi:10.1186/1471-2199-7-32
PMCID: PMC1599742  PMID: 16984641
21.  Selection of internal reference genes for SYBR green qRT-PCR studies of rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) tissues 
Background
The rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) is a valuable and widely used model animal for biomedical research. However, quantitative analyses of rhesus gene expression profiles under diverse experimental conditions are limited by a shortage of suitable internal controls for the normalization of mRNA levels. In this study, we used a systematic approach for the selection of potential reference genes in the rhesus monkey and compared their suitability to that of the corresponding genes in humans.
Results
Eight housekeeping genes (HKGs) (GAPDH, SDHA, ACTB, RPL13A, RPL32, UBA52, PGK1Y, and YWHAZ) from rhesus monkeys and humans were selected to test for normalization of expression levels in six different tissue types (brain, colon, kidney, liver, lung, and stomach). Their stability and suitability as reference genes were validated by geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper programs. Intriguingly, RPL13A and RPL32 were selected as ideal reference genes only in rhesus monkeys.
Conclusion
The results clearly indicated the necessity of using different reference genes for normalization of expression levels between rhesus monkeys and humans in various tissues.
doi:10.1186/1471-2199-9-78
PMCID: PMC2561044  PMID: 18782457
22.  Selection and validation of a set of reliable reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR studies in the brain of the Cephalopod Mollusc Octopus vulgaris 
BMC Molecular Biology  2009;10:70.
Background
Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is valuable for studying the molecular events underlying physiological and behavioral phenomena. Normalization of real-time PCR data is critical for a reliable mRNA quantification. Here we identify reference genes to be utilized in RT-qPCR experiments to normalize and monitor the expression of target genes in the brain of the cephalopod mollusc Octopus vulgaris, an invertebrate. Such an approach is novel for this taxon and of advantage in future experiments given the complexity of the behavioral repertoire of this species when compared with its relatively simple neural organization.
Results
We chose 16S, and 18S rRNA, actB, EEF1A, tubA and ubi as candidate reference genes (housekeeping genes, HKG). The expression of 16S and 18S was highly variable and did not meet the requirements of candidate HKG. The expression of the other genes was almost stable and uniform among samples. We analyzed the expression of HKG into two different set of animals using tissues taken from the central nervous system (brain parts) and mantle (here considered as control tissue) by BestKeeper, geNorm and NormFinder. We found that HKG expressions differed considerably with respect to brain area and octopus samples in an HKG-specific manner. However, when the mantle is treated as control tissue and the entire central nervous system is considered, NormFinder revealed tubA and ubi as the most suitable HKG pair. These two genes were utilized to evaluate the relative expression of the genes FoxP, creb, dat and TH in O. vulgaris.
Conclusion
We analyzed the expression profiles of some genes here identified for O. vulgaris by applying RT-qPCR analysis for the first time in cephalopods. We validated candidate reference genes and found the expression of ubi and tubA to be the most appropriate to evaluate the expression of target genes in the brain of different octopuses. Our results also underline the importance of choosing a proper normalization strategy when analyzing gene expression by qPCR taking into appropriate account the experimental setting and variability of the sample of animals (and tissues), thus providing a set of HGK which expression appears to be unaffected by the experimental factor(s).
doi:10.1186/1471-2199-10-70
PMCID: PMC2722649  PMID: 19602224
23.  Identification and Evaluation of Suitable Reference Genes for Gene Expression Studies in the Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Asia I) by Reverse Transcription Quantitative Real-Time PCR 
This study presents a reliable method for performing reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) to measure gene expression in the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Asia I) (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), utilising suitable reference genes for data normalisation. We identified orthologs of commonly used reference genes (actin (ACT), cyclophilin 1 (CYP1), elongation factor 1α (EF1A), glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), ribosomal protein L13a (RPL13A), and α-tubulin (TUB1A)), measured the levels of their transcripts by RT-qPCR during development and in response to thermal stress, and evaluated their suitability as endogenous controls using geNorm, BestKeeper, and NormFinder programs. Overall, TUB1A, RPL13A, and CYP1 were the most stable reference genes during B. tabaci development, and TUB1A, GAPDH, and RPL13A were the most stable reference genes in the context of thermal stress. An analysis of the effects of reference gene choice on the transcript profile of a developmentally-regulated gene encoding vitellogenin demonstrated the importance of selecting the correct endogenous controls for RT-qPCR studies. We propose the use of TUB1A, RPL13A, and CYP1 as endogenous controls for transcript profiling studies of B. tabaci development, whereas the combination of TUB1A, GAPDH, and RPL13A should be employed for studies into thermal stress. The data presented here will assist future transcript profiling studies in whiteflies.
doi:10.1673/031.014.63
PMCID: PMC4207516  PMID: 25373210
24.  Reference gene alternatives to Gapdh in rodent and human heart failure gene expression studies 
BMC Molecular Biology  2010;11:22.
Background
Quantitative real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) is a highly sensitive method for mRNA quantification, but requires invariant expression of the chosen reference gene(s). In pathological myocardium, there is limited information on suitable reference genes other than the commonly used Gapdh mRNA and 18S ribosomal RNA. Our aim was to evaluate and identify suitable reference genes in human failing myocardium, in rat and mouse post-myocardial infarction (post-MI) heart failure and across developmental stages in fetal and neonatal rat myocardium.
Results
The abundance of Arbp, Rpl32, Rpl4, Tbp, Polr2a, Hprt1, Pgk1, Ppia and Gapdh mRNA and 18S ribosomal RNA in myocardial samples was quantified by RT-qPCR. The expression variability of these transcripts was evaluated by the geNorm and Normfinder algorithms and by a variance component analysis method. Biological variability was a greater contributor to sample variability than either repeated reverse transcription or PCR reactions.
Conclusions
The most stable reference genes were Rpl32, Gapdh and Polr2a in mouse post-infarction heart failure, Polr2a, Rpl32 and Tbp in rat post-infarction heart failure and Rpl32 and Pgk1 in human heart failure (ischemic disease and cardiomyopathy). The overall most stable reference genes across all three species was Rpl32 and Polr2a. In rat myocardium, all reference genes tested showed substantial variation with developmental stage, with Rpl4 as was most stable among the tested genes.
doi:10.1186/1471-2199-11-22
PMCID: PMC2907514  PMID: 20331858
25.  Normalizing to GADPH jeopardises correct quantification of gene expression in ovarian tumours – IPO8 and RPL4 are reliable reference genes 
Background
To ensure a correct interpretation of results obtained with quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), it is critical to normalize to a reference gene with stable mRNA expression in the tissue of interest. GADPH is widely used as a reference gene in ovarian tumour studies, although lacking tissue-specific stability. The aim of this study was to identify alternative suitable reference genes for RT-qPCR studies on benign, borderline, and malignant ovarian tumours.
Methods
We assayed mRNA levels for 13 potential reference genes – ABL1, ACTB, CDKN1A, GADPH, GUSB, HPRT1, HSP90AB, IPO8, PPIA, RPL30, RPL4, RPLPO, and TBP –with RT-qPCR in 42 primary ovarian tumours, using commercially pre-designed RT-qPCR probes. Expression stability was subsequently analysed with four different statistical programs (GeNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and the Equivalence test).
Results
Expression of IPO8, RPL4, TBP, RPLPO, and ACTB had the least variation in expression across the tumour samples according to GeNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper. The Equivalence test found variation in expression within a 3-fold expression change between tumour groups for: IPO8, RPL40, RPL30, GUSB, TBP, RPLPO, ACTB, ABL1, and CDKN1A. However, only IPO8 satisfied at a 2-fold change as a cut-off. Overall, IPO8 and RPL4 had the highest, whereas GADPH and HPRT1 the lowest expression stability. Employment of suitable reference genes (IPO8, RPL4) in comparison with unsuitable ones (GADPH, HPRT1), demonstrated divergent influence on the mRNA expression pattern of our target genes − GPER and uPAR.
Conclusions
We found IPO8 and RPL4 to be suitable reference genes for normalization of target gene expression in benign, borderline, and malignant ovarian tumours. Moreover, IPO8 can be recommended as a single reference gene. Neither GADPH nor HPRT1 should be used as reference genes in studies on ovarian tumour tissue.
doi:10.1186/1757-2215-6-60
PMCID: PMC3766134  PMID: 24001041

Results 1-25 (905501)