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1.  Partner for Promotion: An Innovative Advanced Community Pharmacy Practice Experience 
Objectives
To implement the Partner for Promotion (PFP) program which was designed to enhance the skills and confidence of students and community pharmacy preceptors to deliver and expand advanced patient care services in community pharmacies and also to assess the program's impact.
Design
A 10-month longitudinal community advanced pharmacy practice experience was implemented that included faculty mentoring of students and preceptors via formal orientation; face-to-face training sessions; online monthly meetings; feedback on service development materials; and a web site offering resources and a discussion board. Pre- and post-APPE surveys of students and preceptors were used to evaluate perceptions of knowledge and skills.
Assessment
The skills survey results for the first 2 years of the PFP program suggest positive changes occurring from pre- to post-APPE survey in most areas for both students and preceptors. Four of the 7 pharmacies in 2005-2006 and 8 of the 14 pharmacies in 2006-2007 were able to develop an advanced patient care service and begin seeing patients prior to the conclusion of the APPE. As a result of the PFP program from 2005-2007, 14 new experiential sites entered into affiliation agreements with The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy.
Conclusion
The PFP program offers an innovative method for community pharmacy faculty members to work with students and preceptors in community pharmacies in developing patient care services.
PMCID: PMC2661166  PMID: 19325954
community pharmacy; pharmaceutical services; administration; advanced pharmacy practice experience
2.  Education, Training, and Academic Experience of Newly Hired, First-Time Pharmacy Faculty Members 
Objective. To describe the education, training, and academic experiences of newly hired faculty members at US colleges and schools of pharmacy during the 2012-2013 academic year.
Methods. A survey regarding education, training, and academic experiences was conducted of all first-time faculty members at US colleges and schools of pharmacy hired during the 2012-2013 academic year.
Results. Pharmacy practice faculty members accounted for the majority (68.2%) of new hires. Ambulatory care was the most common pharmacy specialty position (29.8%). Most new faculty members had a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) as their terminal degree (74.8%), and 88.3% of pharmacy practice faculty members completed a residency. Of new faculty members who responded to the survey, 102 (67.5%) had at least 3 prior academic teaching, precepting, or research experiences.
Conclusion. New faculty members were hired most frequently for clinical faculty positions at the assistant professor level and most frequently in the specialty of ambulatory care. Prior academic experience included precepting pharmacy students, facilitating small discussions, and guest lecturing.
doi:10.5688/ajpe78592
PMCID: PMC4064492  PMID: 24954932
faculty member; pharmacy education; training; hiring; survey
3.  Pharmacy Faculty Members' Perspectives on the Student/Faculty Relationship in Online Social Networks 
Objective
To describe pharmacy faculty members' use of the online social network Facebook and compare the perspectives of faculty members with and without Facebook profiles regarding student/faculty relationships.
Methods
An electronic survey instrument was sent to full-time faculty members (n = 183) at 4 colleges of pharmacy in Ohio seeking their opinions on student/faculty relationships on Facebook. If respondents answered “yes” to having a Facebook profile, they were asked 14 questions on aspects of being “friends” with students. If respondents answered “no,” they were asked 4 questions.
Results
Of the 95 respondents (52%) to the survey instrument, 44 faculty members (46%) had a Facebook profile, while 51 faculty members (54%) did not. Those who had a profile had been faculty members for an average of 8.6 years, versus 11.4 years for those who did not have a Facebook profile. Seventy-nine percent of faculty members who used Facebook were not “friends” with their students. The majority of respondents reported that they would decline/ignore a “friend” request from a student, or decline until after the student graduated. Although a limited number of faculty members had used Facebook for online discussions, teaching purposes, or student organizations, the majority of universities did not have policies on the use of social networking sites.
Conclusion
Online social network sites are used widely by students and faculty members, which may raise questions regarding professionalism and appropriate faculty/student relationships. Further research should address the student/preceptor relationship, other online social networking sites, and whether students are interested in using these sites within the classroom and/or professional organizations.
PMCID: PMC3058463  PMID: 21436929
online social networking; Facebook; relationships; technology; network
4.  Developing Preceptors through Virtual Communities and Networks: Experiences from a Pilot Project 
Background:
Supporting preceptors is critical to the expansion of experiential learning opportunities for the pharmacy profession. Informal learning opportunities within communities of practitioners are important for hospital preceptors. However, such communities may be limited by geographic separation of preceptors from peers, faculty members, and supports within the pharmacy services department.
Objective:
To use computer-mediated conferencing to create a sense of community among preceptors, specifically by using this medium to provide initial development of and continuing support for preceptors, and to examine preceptors’ satisfaction with this approach.
Methods:
Thirty-nine preceptors who had completed a day-long face-to-face preceptor development workshop and who were supervising students in 1 of 2 specific rotation blocks were invited to participate in the study. The pharmacists used computer-mediated conferencing to meet for virtual networking about specific topics. They met once before the student rotation to receive instructions about the technology and to discuss student orientation and scheduling, and 3 times during the student rotation for open discussion of specific topics. Evaluation and feedback were solicited by means of an electronic survey and virtual (i.e., computer-based) feedback sessions with an independent facilitator.
Results:
The response rate was 66% (26/39) for the electronic survey, but only 15% (6/39) for the virtual feedback sessions. All of the respondents were experienced preceptors, but for 92% (22/24), this was their first experience with computer-mediated conferencing. Overall, the sessions had a positive reception, and participants found it useful to share information and experiences with other preceptors. The main challenges were related to the technology, perceived lack of support for their participation in the sessions, and inconvenience related to the timing of sessions.
Conclusion:
Computer-mediated conferencing allowed preceptors to learn from and to support each other despite geographic distance. The participants felt that these sessions encouraged them to serve as preceptors regularly. Such encouragement could contribute to the retention of preceptors, which is important to the expansion of experiential learning.
PMCID: PMC3242573  PMID: 22479095
preceptorship; computer-mediated conferencing; students; préceptorat; téléconférence assistée par ordinateur; étudiants
5.  Teaching Medication Adherence in US Colleges and Schools of Pharmacy 
Objective. To determine and describe the nature and extent of medication adherence education in US colleges and schools of pharmacy.
Methods. A mixed-methods research study was conducted that included a national survey of pharmacy faculty members, a national survey of pharmacy students, and phone interviews of 3 faculty members and 6 preceptors.
Results. The majority of faculty members and students agreed that background concepts in medication adherence are well covered in pharmacy curricula. Approximately 40% to 65% of the students sampled were not familiar with several adherence interventions. The 6 preceptors who were interviewed felt they were not well-informed on adherence interventions, unclear on what students knew about adherence, and challenged to provide adherence-related activities for students during practice experiences because of practice time constraints.
Conclusions. Intermediate and advanced concepts in medication adherence, such as conducting interventions, are not adequately covered in pharmacy curriculums; therefore stakeholders in pharmacy education must develop national standards and tools to ensure consistent and adequate medication adherence education.
doi:10.5688/ajpe76579
PMCID: PMC3386030  PMID: 22761520
medication adherence; curriculum; medication
6.  Use of Adjunct Faculty Members in Classroom Teaching in Departments of Pharmacy Practice 
Objective. To determine trends among departments of pharmacy practice regarding use of adjunct faculty members for classroom-based teaching and to assess departmental support provided to these faculty members.
Methods. Chairs of pharmacy practice departments in US colleges and school of pharmacy were contacted by e-mail and asked to complete an 11-item electronic survey instrument.
Results. Chair respondents reported an average of 5.7 adjunct faculty members hired to teach required courses and 1.8 adjunct faculty members hired to teach elective courses. Compensation averaged $108 per lecture hour and $1,257 per 1-credit-hour course. Twenty-five percent of the respondents expected to hire more adjunct faculty members to teach required courses in the upcoming year due to curricular changes, faculty hiring freezes, and the shortage of full-time faculty members. Only 7% of respondents reported that they provided a teaching mentor and 14% offered no support to their adjunct faculty members.
Conclusions. Departments of pharmacy practice commonly use adjunct faculty members to teach required and elective courses. Given the pharmacy faculty shortage, this trend is expected to increase and may be an area for future faculty development.
doi:10.5688/ajpe757129
PMCID: PMC3175648  PMID: 21969715
adjunct faculty; faculty; teaching
7.  A Collaborative and Reflective Academic Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience 
Objectives. To implement a co-precepted advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) focused on traditional pharmacy faculty and administrative responsibilities and reflection opportunities.
Design. A multi-faceted, reflection-infused academic APPE was designed that exposed students to activities related to teaching, curriculum revision, scholarly writing, committee service, faculty role-modeling, mentorship and development, and school-level administrative decision-making.
Assessment. Two students completed the APPE in the first 2 semesters it was offered (1 in spring 2010 and 1 in fall 2010). Formative and summative evaluations confirmed that the students achieved the APPE goals and viewed the experience as valuable, informative, and enjoyable as expressed both in reflective journal submissions and survey comments.
Conclusion. Co-precepting by pharmacy faculty members primarily engaged in traditional faculty- and administration-related responsibilities can provide students with a robust learning experience that surpasses that which could be achieved by a single mentor.
doi:10.5688/ajpe756120
PMCID: PMC3175684  PMID: 21931458
advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE); experiential learning; academic APPE
8.  An Association Between Paying Physician-teachers for their Teaching Efforts and an Improved Educational Experience for Learners 
Journal of General Internal Medicine  2007;22(10):1393-1397.
Background
Medical schools often rely on faculty volunteerism to address clinical teaching needs for students. Increasing time pressures on physicians has made it difficult to secure commitments for clinical instruction. In the 2005–2006 academic year, the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (JHUSOM) launched the Colleges Program, recruiting 24 salary-supported physician-faculty to serve as advisors to students as well as teachers of the second year course, ‘clinical skills’. We hypothesized that compensating physician educators would have a measurable positive impact on the students’ experiences in this course.
Materials and Methods
Students’ assessments of paid colleges faculty (CF) preceptors from the 2005–2006 year were compared to those of volunteer preceptors from the two prior years (2003–2005 academic years) along six different teaching parameters linked to the course’s objectives. Multivariable regression analysis was used to identify the factors independently associated with higher preceptor scores.
Results
Fifty-eight preceptors taught clinical skills over the 3-year study period. The overall response rate for preceptor evaluations by medical learners was 77% (277/359). CF, more likely than volunteer preceptors to have a full-time academic appointment (100 vs 63%, p < .01), have an additional advanced degree (48 vs 15%, p < .01) and prior faculty development training (52 vs 17%, p < .01). Scores for all six evaluation domains were higher for CF compared to those from the two previous years combined (all p < .001). In the fully adjusted regression model, only CF status was independently associated with high preceptor evaluation scores (Odds Ratio 4.3, 95% CI 1.01–18.20).
Conclusions
Salary support for teaching efforts in the time-intensive CS course coupled with the prestige of being appointed to the CF was associated with higher student evaluations.
doi:10.1007/s11606-007-0285-2
PMCID: PMC2305849  PMID: 17653809
teaching; medical education; medical students; economics
9.  Journal publications by pharmacy practice faculty evaluated by institution and region of the United States (2001-2003) 
Pharmacy Practice  2007;5(4):151-156.
Objective
To compare the quantity of manuscripts published in journals by departments of pharmacy practice at schools and colleges of pharmacy in the United States for the years 2001-2003.
Methods
We utilized the Web of Science bibliographic database to identify publication citations for the years 2001 to 2003 which were then evaluated in a number of different ways. Faculty were identified via American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy rosters for 2000-2001, 2001-2002, and 2002-2003 academic years.
Results
Rankings were done based on the number of publications per institution and average number of publications per faculty member at an institution. Upon linear regression analysis, a relationship exists between an institution’s faculty size and the total number of publications but not for tenure/nontenure-track faculty ratio. Rating highest in overall publication number did not guarantee high rankings in the average number of publications per faculty member at an institution assessment. Midwestern schools were responsible for more publications per institution than other regions. Many schools only generated minimal scholarship over this evaluative period.
Conclusion
While many schools have pharmacy practice faculty that strongly contributed to the biomedical literature, other schools have not. Pharmacy practice faculty in the Midwest publish more journal manuscripts than faculty in other regions of the country. More pharmacy schools need to engage their faculty in scholarly endeavors by providing support and incentives.
PMCID: PMC4147793  PMID: 25170351
Bibliometrics; Faculty; Pharmacy Schools; United States
10.  Capacity of Hospitals to Partner with Academia to Meet Experiential Education Requirements for Pharmacy Students 
Purpose
Current hospital and health-system participation in and the future capacity for experiential education for pharmacy students was investigated.
Methods
An online survey of ASHP members identified as U.S. pharmacy directors was conducted to assess their current and future involvement in partnering with colleges and schools to meet the experiential education requirements for doctor of pharmacy students and the current status of the student learning experiences. Questionnaire items examined the factors on which expanded involvement in experiential education would depend, the nature of support provided by colleges and schools, the types of experiences available for students, respondents' perceptions of factors influencing the quality of experiential education, the value of experiential education to the sites, respondents' challenges and concerns about experiential education, and respondents' current capacity and projections for introductory and advanced experiences through 2012.
Results
Data from 549 respondents were analyzed. Most respondents indicated that they had conducted advanced experiences for their 2007 graduates and anticipated that they would continue to do so. Among the top challenges identified regarding advanced experiences were concerns about time to serve and be trained as preceptors and a lack of standardization and coordination among colleges and schools. Hospitals forecasting their future capacity to accommodate students indicated that their projections were highly dependent on the number of pharmacists at their hospitals. Many respondents noted that their capacity projections were tied to their ability to expand clinical services at their hospitals.
Conclusion
A survey of pharmacy directors suggested an ability of U.S. hospitals to conduct advanced experiential education opportunities for pharmacy students through 2012 and to expand introductory experiences.
PMCID: PMC2630142  PMID: 19214271
curriculum; data collection; education; pharmaceutical; pharmacy; institutional; hospital; pharmacy
11.  A Needs Assessment Study of Hospital Pharmacy Residency Preceptors 
Background:
Canadian pharmacy residency programs rely on preceptors to support the growing demand of graduates wishing to pursue hospital residencies. Understanding the educational needs of these preceptors is important to ensure that they are well prepared to deliver successful programs.
Objective:
To determine what new and experienced residency preceptors self-identify as learning needs in order to become more effective preceptors for pharmacy residents.
Methods:
A needs assessment of preceptors from the 31 accredited Canadian general hospital pharmacy residency programs was conducted. The study had 4 key components: interviews and focus group discussions with key informants, a pilot study, an online survey, and member checking (seeking clarification and further explanation from study participants). The residency coordinators and a convenience sample of 5 preceptors from each program were invited to participate in the survey component.
Results:
Of a possible 186 participants, 132 (71%) responded to the survey. Of these, 128 (97%) were confident that they met the 2010 standards of the Canadian Hospital Pharmacy Residency Board (CHPRB). Preceptors ranked communication skills, giving effective feedback, and clinical knowledge as the most important elements of being an effective preceptor. Managing workload, performing evaluations, and dealing with difficult residents were commonly reported challenges. Preceptors expressed a preference for interactive workshops and mentorship programs with experienced colleagues when first becoming preceptors, followed by 1-day training sessions or online learning modules every other year for ongoing educational support. The most beneficial support topics selected were providing constructive feedback, practical assessment strategies, small-group teaching strategies, effective communication skills, and setting goals and objectives.
Conclusions:
This study identified several learning needs of hospital residency preceptors and showed that preceptors would appreciate educational support. Utilization of these results by residency program administrators, the CHPRB, and faculties of pharmacy could be beneficial for residency programs across Canada.
PMCID: PMC3379827  PMID: 22783031
hospital pharmacy residency; preceptor; preceptor development; pharmacy education; résidence en pharmacie d’hôpital; précepteur; perfectionnement des précepteurs; enseignement de la pharmacie
12.  Engaging External Senior Faculty Members as Faculty Mentors 
A small nonprofit private college with limited resources and a high proportion of junior faculty developed a nontraditional external faculty mentor program in the summer of 2011 in response to the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) faculty survey data regarding the professional development needs of pharmacy faculty members. Experienced faculty members with national reputations from other colleges and schools of pharmacy were hired as consultants to serve as mentors for assigned faculty members. Program goals were to provide directed, individual mentorship for pharmacy practice and basic science faculty members, expand peer review of faculty teaching prowess, and enhance monthly faculty development programming. The latter was based upon the specific needs assessment of the faculty. Program outcomes reported will include faculty satisfaction (AACP faculty survey data) changes over time, achievement of board certification for clinical faculty members and other credentialing, and other benchmarks, eg, publications, grant funding, service engagement (site development, professional organizations), after the implementation of the nontraditional faculty-mentoring program.
doi:10.5688/ajpe785101
PMCID: PMC4064478  PMID: 24954941
13.  Identifying Perceptions of Professionalism in Pharmacy Using a Four-Frame Leadership Model 
Objectives
To determine whether professionalism in pharmacy education is addressed from Bolman and Deal's four-frame leadership model.
Methods
Students (N = 624), faculty (N = 57), preceptors (N = 56), and academic administrators (N = 8) at 6 colleges and schools of pharmacy were surveyed to assess professionalism. Using grounded theory methodology and a constant comparative process, common themes were identified for each question in each group. Themes were assigned to the four-frame model and the data were compared.
Results
Mechanisms of addressing professionalism consistent with all 4 frames of the Bolman and Deal's model were identified. Faculty assessment of student professionalism was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than the student group, preceptors, and administrators.
Conclusions
Mechanisms of addressing professionalism in pharmacy education span all four frames of Bolman and Deal's leadership model. The values students bring into a pharmacy program may play an important role in the process of professional socialization. Faculty members have a tremendous opportunity to enhance student professionalism with their daily verbal and nonverbal interactions with students.
PMCID: PMC2576429  PMID: 19002288
leadership; professionalism; qualitative research; pharmacy students; faculty
14.  Teaching Evaluation Practices in Colleges and Schools of Pharmacy 
Objective
To document teaching evaluation practices in colleges and schools of pharmacy.
Methods
A 51-item questionnaire was developed based on the instrument used in a previous study with modifications made to address changes in pharmacy education. An online survey service was used to distribute the electronic questionnaire to the deans of 98 colleges and schools of pharmacy in the United States.
Results
Completed surveys were received from 89 colleges and schools of pharmacy. All colleges/schools administered student evaluations of classroom and experiential teaching. Faculty peer evaluation of classroom teaching was used by 66% of colleges/schools. Use of other evaluation methods had increased over the previous decade, including use of formalized self-appraisal of teaching, review of teaching portfolios, interviews with samples of students, and review by teaching experts. While the majority (55%) of colleges/schools administered classroom teaching evaluations at or near the conclusion of a course, 38% administered them at the midpoint and/or conclusion of a faculty member's teaching within a team-taught course. Completion of an online evaluation form was the most common method used for evaluation of classroom (54%) and experiential teaching (72%).
Conclusion
Teaching evaluation methods used in colleges and schools of pharmacy expanded from 1996 to 2007 to include more evaluation of experiential teaching, review by peers, formalized self-appraisal of teaching, review of teaching portfolios, interviews with samples of students, review by teaching experts, and evaluation by alumni. Procedures for conducting student evaluations of teaching have adapted to address changes in curriculum delivery and technology.
PMCID: PMC2769525  PMID: 19885072
teaching; evaluation; assessment; survey
15.  Learning Bridge Tool to Improve Student Learning, Preceptor Training, and Faculty Teamwork 
Objectives
To implement a Learning Bridge tool to improve educational outcomes for pharmacy students as well as for preceptors and faculty members.
Design
Pharmacy faculty members collaborated to write 9 case-based assignments that first-year pharmacy (P1) students worked with preceptors to complete while at experiential sites.
Assessment
Students, faculty members, and preceptors were surveyed about their perceptions of the Learning Bridge process. As in our pilot study,1 the Learning Bridge process promoted student learning. Additionally, the Learning Bridge assignments familiarized preceptors with the school's P1 curriculum and its content. Faculty teamwork also was increased through collaborating on the assignments.
Conclusions
The Learning Bridge assignments provided a compelling learning environment and benefited students, preceptors, and faculty members.
PMCID: PMC3109800  PMID: 21655400
learning; preceptor training; faculty; introductory pharmacy practice experience
16.  A Train-the-Trainer Approach to a Shared Pharmacogenomics Curriculum for US Colleges and Schools of Pharmacy 
Objective. To assess pharmacy faculty trainers’ perceptions of a Web-based train-the-trainer program for PharmGenEd, a shared pharmacogenomics curriculum for health professional students and licensed clinicians.
Methods. Pharmacy faculty trainers (n=58, representing 39 colleges and schools of pharmacy in the United States and 1 school from Canada) participated in a train-the-trainer program consisting of up to 9 pharmacogenomics topics. Posttraining survey instruments assessed faculty trainers’ perceptions toward the training program and the likelihood of their adopting the educational materials as part of their institution’s curriculum.
Results. Fifty-five percent of faculty trainers reported no prior formal training in pharmacogenomics. There was a significant increase (p<0.001) in self-reported ability to teach pharmacogenomics to pharmacy students after participants viewed the webinar and obtained educational materials. Nearly two-thirds (64%) indicated at least a “good” likelihood of adopting PharmGenEd materials at their institution during the upcoming academic year. More than two-thirds of respondents indicated interest in using PharmGenEd materials to train licensed health professionals, and 95% indicated that they would recommend the program to other pharmacy faculty members.
Conclusion. As a result of participating in the train-the-trainer program in pharmacogenomics, faculty member participants gained confidence in teaching pharmacogenomics to their students, and the majority of participants indicated a high likelihood of adopting the program at their institution. A Web-based train-the-trainer model appears to be a feasible strategy for training pharmacy faculty in pharmacogenomics.
doi:10.5688/ajpe7610193
PMCID: PMC3530055  PMID: 23275658
pharmacogenomics; curriculum; pharmacy colleges and schools; faculty development; train-the-trainer
17.  Establishment of a Multi-State Experiential Pharmacy Program Consortium 
In 2002, a regional consortium was created for schools and colleges of pharmacy in Georgia and Alabama to assist experiential education faculty and staff members in streamlining administrative processes, providing required preceptor development, establishing a professional network, and conducting scholarly endeavors. Five schools and colleges of pharmacy with many shared experiential practice sites formed a consortium to help experiential faculty and staff members identify, discuss, and solve common experience program issues and challenges. During its 5 years in existence, the Southeastern Pharmacy Experiential Education Consortium has coordinated experiential schedules, developed and implemented uniform evaluation tools, coordinated site and preceptor development activities, established a work group for educational research and scholarship, and provided opportunities for networking and professional development. Several consortium members have received national recognition for their individual experiential education accomplishments. Through the activities of a regional consortium, members have successfully developed programs and initiatives that have streamlined administrative processes and have the potential to improve overall quality of experiential education programs. Professionally, consortium activities have resulted in 5 national presentations.
PMCID: PMC2508716  PMID: 18698386
experiential education; consortium; introductory pharmacy practice experience; advanced pharmacy practice experience
18.  Status of Pharmacy Practice Experience Education Programs 
Objective. To assess financial, personnel, and curricular characteristics of US pharmacy practice experiential education programs and follow-up on results of a similar survey conducted in 2001.
Methods. Experiential education directors at 118 accredited US pharmacy colleges and schools were invited to participate in a blinded, Web-based survey in 2011. Aggregate responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics and combined with data obtained from the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy to assess program demographics, faculty and administrative organizational structure, and financial support.
Results. The number of advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) sites had increased by 24% for medium, 50% for large, and 55% for very large colleges and schools. Introductory pharmacy practice experience (IPPE) sites outnumbered APPEs twofold. The average experiential education team included an assistant/associate dean (0.4 full-time equivalent [FTE]), a director (1.0 FTE), assistant/associate director (0.5 FTE), coordinator (0.9 FTE), and multiple administrative assistants (1.3 FTE). Most faculty members (63%-75%) were nontenure track and most coordinators (66%) were staff members. Estimated costs to operate an experiential education program represented a small percentage of the overall expense budget of pharmacy colleges and schools.
Conclusion. To match enrollment growth, pharmacy practice experiential education administrators have expanded their teams, reorganized responsibilities, and found methods to improve cost efficiency. These benchmarks will assist experiential education administrators to plan strategically for future changes.
doi:10.5688/ajpe78472
PMCID: PMC4028581  PMID: 24850934
experiential learning; experiential education; advanced pharmacy practice experiences; introductory pharmacy practice experiences; pharmacy faculty; faculty development; administration; organizational structure; financial support; salary; budget
19.  An Introductory Pharmacy Practice Experience Providing Pharmaceutical Care to Elderly Patients 
Objective. To develop, integrate, and assess an introductory pharmacy practice experience (IPPE) in providing pharmaceutical care to patients at senior centers (Silver Scripts).
Design. First-year pharmacy students learned and practiced the pharmaceutical care process in the classroom to prepare for participation in the Silver Scripts program, in which the students, under faculty mentorship, conducted comprehensive medication reviews for senior citizens attending senior centers in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Assessment. Students, preceptors, and senior center staff members indicated the experience was positive. Specifically, first-year students felt they gained benefit both from an educational standpoint and in their own personal growth and development, while staff contacts indicated the patients appreciated the interaction with the students.
Conclusion. The Silver Scripts experience is a model for linking classroom experiences and experiential learning. The cycle of experiencing, reflecting, and learning has provided not only a meaningful experience for our P1 students but also a worthwhile focused review of seniors’ medication use. This experience could be used as a model for other colleges and schools of pharmacy and their communities.
doi:10.5688/ajpe758159
PMCID: PMC3220340  PMID: 22102749
experiential education; introductory pharmacy practice experience; community outreach; pharmacy student; professionalism; pharmaceutical care
20.  Physician and Pharmacist Collaboration: The University of Hawai‘i at Hilo College of Pharmacy - JABSOM Experience 
Hawaii Medical Journal  2010;69(6 Suppl 3):42-44.
The purpose of this article is to describe the experiential program created at the newly formed University of Hawai‘i at Hilo College of Pharmacy (UHH CoP). The Introductory Pharmacy Practice Experience (IPPE) rotations were developed to prepare student pharmacists for their final year of Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience (APPE) rotations by improving clinical skills and patient interactions. In partnership with the John A. Burns School of Medicine (JABSOM) Department of Family Practice, physician and pharmacist teams collaborate to deliver patient care for chronic diseases and elevate educational opportunities provided by UHH CoP. Another goal of the experiential program is to determine whether the investment of pharmacist faculty and adjunct physician/nurse preceptors prepares students for the final year of APPE rotations. A survey was administered to non-faculty pharmacist preceptors who taught the third IPPE rotation during the summer of 2009. Twenty-nine surveys were received from six facilities on O‘ahu and the Big Island. Initial survey results revealed an overall rating average of 3.72 (Likert scale: 1-lowest to 5-highest), an average of 4.14 for professionalism, an average of 3.41 for overall clinical skills, and an average of 3.45 for overall readiness for experiential rotations. Average ratings when compared with fourth-year students from several mainland colleges ranged from 1.7 to 2.2 (1-worse than, 2-same, 3-better). This data demonstrates that UHH CoP is investing faculty and preceptor resources wisely to enhance the preparation of students for APPE rotations.
PMCID: PMC3123145  PMID: 20540001
21.  An Automated Competency-based Student Performance Assessment Program for Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiential Programs 
Objectives
To describe the development and preliminary outcomes of the System of Universal Clinical Competency Evaluation in the Sunshine State (SUCCESS) for preceptors to assess students' clinical performance in advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs).
Design
An Internet-based APPE assessment tool was developed by faculty members from colleges of pharmacy in Florida and implemented.
Assessment
Numeric scores and grades derived from the SUCCESS algorithm were similar to preceptors' comparison grades. The average SUCCESS GPA was slightly higher compared to preceptors' scores (0.02 grade points).
Conclusions
The SUCCESS program met its goals, including establishing a common set of forms, standardized assessment criteria, an objective document that is accessible on the Internet, and standardized grading, and reducing pressure on preceptors from students concerning their grades.
PMCID: PMC2690914  PMID: 19503710
assessment; APPE; competency; Internet
22.  A demonstration study comparing “role-emergent” versus “role-established” pharmacy clinical placement experiences in long-term care facilities 
BMC Medical Education  2013;13:104.
Background
Increasing challenges to recruit hospital sites with full-time on-site pharmacy preceptors for institutional-based Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences (APPE) has made it necessary to consider alternate experiential models. Sites with on-site discipline specific preceptors to supervise students have typically been referred to in the literature as “role-established” sites. In British Columbia, long-term care (LTC) facilities offered a unique opportunity to address placement capacity issues. However, since the majority of these facilities are serviced by off-site community pharmacists, this study was undertaken to explore the viability of supervising pharmacy students remotely – a model referred to in the literature as “role-emergent” placements. This paper’s objectives are to discuss pharmacy preceptors’ and LTC non-pharmacist staff experiences with this model.
Methods
The study consisted of three phases: (1) the development phase which included delivery of a training program to create a pool of potential LTC preceptors, (2) an evaluation phase to test the viability of the LTC role-emergent model with seven pharmacists (two role-established and five role-emergent) together with their LTC staff, and (3) expansion of LTC role-emergent sites to build capacity. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used to obtain feedback from pharmacists and staff and t-tests and Mann–Whitney U tests were used to examine equivalency of survey outcomes from staff representing both models.
Results
The 76 pharmacists who completed the training program survey rated the modules as “largely” meeting their learning needs. All five role-emergent pharmacists and 29 LTC participating staff reported positive experiences with the pharmacy preceptor-student-staff collaboration. Preceptors reported that having students work side-by-side with facility staff promoted inter-professional collaboration. The staff viewed students’ presence as a mutually beneficial experience, suggesting that the students’ presence had enabled them to deliver better care to the residents. As a direct result of the study findings, the annual role-emergent placement capacity was increased to over 45 by the end of the study.
Conclusions
This study demonstrated that role-emergent LTC facilities were not only viable for quality institutional APPEs but also provided more available sites, greater student placement capacity, and more trained pharmacy preceptors than could be achieved in role-established facilities.
doi:10.1186/1472-6920-13-104
PMCID: PMC3737056  PMID: 23915080
Residential care; Long-term care; Pharmacy; Clerkship; Clinical education; Clinical practice; Non-traditional clinical placements; Role-emergent; Role-emerging; Institutional; Experiential
23.  Pharmacy Students' Participation in a Research Experience Culminating in Journal Publication 
Objectives
To examine factors that influenced doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students to collaborate with faculty members, preceptors, or others on scholarly activities that resulted in publication of an article in a pharmacy journal, and whether this experience influenced their consideration of a career in academic pharmacy.
Methods
A 17-question survey instrument was e-mailed to student authors of papers published between 2004 and 2008 in 6 pharmacy journals. Responses were analyzed to determine factors influencing student participation in research and whether the experience led them to consider a career in academic pharmacy.
Results
Factors about their participation in the scholarly activity that respondents found valuable included personal fulfillment and making a contribution to the literature. Respondents indicated they were more interested in a career in academic pharmacy after their participation in the scholarly experience (p < 0.001).
Conclusions
Participation in scholarly activities and student authorship of a peer-reviewed journal manuscript during pharmacy school may lead to increased interest in a career in academic pharmacy.
PMCID: PMC2865413  PMID: 20498740
pharmacy student; publication; scholarship; faculty recruitment; journal
24.  Alcohol attitudes and behaviors among faculty at U.S. schools and colleges of pharmacy 
Pharmacy Practice  2011;9(4):236-241.
Despite attempts to control college-aged drinking, binge and underage drinking continues at colleges and universities. Although often underutilized, faculty have the potential to influence students’ behaviors and attitudes towards drinking. Little information is available pertaining to college faculty drinking patterns, views on drinking, or their influence on college drinking. What little information is available predates the economic crisis, mandates for increased alcohol education, and the American Pharmacists Association’s call for increased alcohol awareness in pharmacists.
Objective
This study was designed to determine alcohol use patterns and viewpoints among faculty at U.S. colleges of pharmacy, in particular, to identify alcohol practices among faculty, use of alcohol with their students, mentioning alcohol in classroom as a social norm, and perceived drinking norms within their colleagues.
Methods
Following Institution Review Board approval, 2809 invitations were emailed to U.S. pharmacy faculty for this survey-based study. The survey consisted of demographic questions, the World Health Organization Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and questions pertaining to personal and institution attitudes on drinking and on drinking with students.
Results
More than 96% of 753 respondents had a total AUDIT score <8. Males and preceptors were more likely to have higher AUDIT scores. More than 75% of faculty reported never drinking with students.
Conclusions
In order to help pharmacy students address the extent of their alcohol use and misuse, pharmacy faculty must address their own use, along with their own and their institutions attitudes and behaviors towards alcohol use.
PMCID: PMC3818740  PMID: 24198862
Alcohol Drinking; Schools, Pharmacy; United States
25.  Faculty Awards at US Colleges and Schools of Pharmacy 
Objectives
To determine recognition given for outstanding teaching, service, and scholarship at US colleges and schools of pharmacy, the types of awards given, and the process used to select the recipients.
Methods
A self-administered questionnaire was made available online in 2006 to deans at 89 colleges and schools of pharmacy.
Results
Sixty-four usable responses (72%) were obtained. An award to acknowledge teaching excellence was most commonly reported (92%), followed by an award for adjunct/volunteer faculty/preceptors (79%). The majority of the institutions (31 out of 58) reported offering 1 teaching award annually. The 2 most common methods for selecting the recipient of the teaching award were by student vote and by college/school committee vote following nominations. Twenty-four of the 63 respondents indicated that their institution provided an award for research/scholarship and 18 offered an award for outstanding service.
Conclusions
Teaching excellence was recognized and rewarded at most US colleges and schools of pharmacy; however, research/scholarship and service were formally recognized less frequently.
PMCID: PMC2576424  PMID: 19009732
faculty awards; faculty retention; preceptor awards; awards

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