Exosome secretion is a notable feature of malignancy owing to the roles of these nanoparticles in cancer growth, immune suppression, tumor angiogenesis and therapeutic resistance. Exosomes are 30–100 nm membrane vesicles released by many cells types during normal physiological processes. Tumors aberrantly secrete large quantities of exosomes that transport oncoproteins and immune suppressive molecules to support tumor growth and metastasis. The role of exosomes in intercellular signaling is exemplified by human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2) over-expressing breast cancer, where exosomes with the HER2 oncoprotein stimulate tumor growth and interfere with the activity of the therapeutic antibody Herceptin®. Since numerous observations from experimental model systems point toward an important clinical impact of exosomes in cancer, several pharmacological strategies have been proposed for targeting their malignant activities. We also propose a novel device strategy involving extracorporeal hemofiltration of exosomes from the entire circulatory system using an affinity plasmapheresis platform known as the Aethlon ADAPT™ (adaptive dialysis-like affinity platform technology) system, which would overcome the risks of toxicity and drug interactions posed by pharmacological approaches. This technology allows affinity agents, including exosome-binding lectins and antibodies, to be immobilized in the outer-capillary space of plasma filtration membranes that integrate into existing kidney dialysis systems. Device therapies that evolve from this platform allow rapid extracorporeal capture and selective retention of target particles < 200 nm from the entire circulatory system. This strategy is supported by clinical experience in hepatitis C virus-infected patients using an ADAPT™ device, the Hemopurifier®, to reduce the systemic load of virions having similar sizes and glycosylated surfaces as cancer exosomes. This review discusses the possible therapeutic approaches for targeting immune suppressive exosomes in cancer patients, and the anticipated significance of these strategies for reversing immune dysfunction and improving responses to standard of care treatments.
Exosomes; Cancer; Immune suppression; Metastasis; Affinity agents; Plasmapheresis cartridges; Dialysis; Lectin; Antibodies
Cancers utilize a nanoscale messenger system known as exosomes to communicate with surrounding tissues and immune cells. However, the functional relationship between tumor exosomes, endothelial signaling, angiogenesis, and metastasis is poorly understood. Herein, we describe a standardized approach for defining the angiogenic potential of isolated exosomes. We created a powerful technique to rapidly and efficiently isolate and track exosomes for study using dynamic light scattering in conjunction with fluorescent exosome labeling. With these methods, melanoma exosomes were observed to interact with and influence endothelial tubule morphology as well as move between endothelial tubule cells by means of tunneling nanotube structures. Melanoma exosomes also were observed to rapidly stimulate the production of endothelial spheroids and endothelial sprouts in a dose-dependent manner. In concert, tumor exosomes simultaneously elicited paracrine endothelial signaling by regulation of certain inflammatory cytokines. These data suggest that, tumor exosomes can promote endothelial angiogenic responses, which could contribute to tumor metastatic potential.
exosomes; angiogenesis; tumor; cancer; endothelial; 3D assay; cytokines
Exosomes are small (30 to 100 nm) membrane-bound particles that are released from normal, diseased, and neoplastic cells and are present in blood and other bodily fluids. Exosomes contain a variety of molecules including signal peptides, mRNA, microRNA, and lipids. Exosomes can function to export from cells unneeded endogenous molecules and therapeutic drugs. When exosomes are taken up by specific cells, they may act locally to provide autocrine or paracrine signals or, at a distance, as a newly described nanoparticle-based endocrine system. Specifically, mRNA transferred to cells by exosomes can result in the production of new proteins. In cancer, signals via exosomes affect the immune system by inhibiting the functions of T cells and normal killer (NK) cells and by inhibiting the differentiation of precursors to mature antigen-presenting cells. Also, exosomes increase the number and/or activity of immune suppressor cells, including myeloid-derived suppressor cells, T-regulatory cells, and CD14+, HLA-DR–/low cells. The effects of exosomes on the development and progression of cancers, with an emphasis on suppression of immune surveillance, is described. Also discussed are potential uses of exosomes clinically, in the development of vaccines, in targeting tumors, and in diagnosis and/or early detection.
Dendritic and lymphoid ‘exosomes' regulate immune activation. Tumours release membranous material mimicking these ‘exosomes,' resulting in deletion of reactive lymphocytes. Tumour-derived ‘exosomes' have recently been explored as vaccines, without analysis of their immunologic consequences. This investigation examines the composition of tumour-derived ‘exosomes' and their effects on T lymphocytes. Membranous materials were isolated from ascites of ovarian cancer patients (n=6) and Western immunoblotting was performed for markers associated with ‘exosomes.' Using cultured T cells, ‘exosomes' were evaluated for suppression of CD3-ζ and JAK 3 expressions and induction of apoptosis, measured by DNA fragmentation. ‘Exosome' components mediating suppression of CD3-ζ were isolated by continuous eluting electrophoresis and examined by Western immunoblotting. ‘Exosomes' were shown to be identical with previously characterised shed membrane vesicles by protein staining and TSG101 expression. ‘Exosomes' expressed class I MHC, placental alkaline phosphatase, B23/nucleophosmin, and FasL. ‘Exosomes' suppressed expression of T-cell activation signalling components, CD3-ζ and JAK 3 and induced apoptosis. CD3-ζ suppression was mediated by two components: 26 and 42 kDa. Only the 42 kDa component reacted with anti-FasL antibody. These results indicate that, while ‘exosomes' express tumour antigens, leading to their proposed utility as tumour vaccines, they also can suppress T-cell signalling molecules and induce apoptosis.
exosomes; activation signaling; membrane vesicles; T lymphocytes; ovarian cancer
Autocrine, paracrine and juxtacrine are recognized modes of action for mammalian EGFR ligands that include EGF, TGF-α (TGFα), amphiregulin (AREG), heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF), betacellulin, epiregulin and epigen. We identify a new mode of EGFR ligand signaling via exosomes. Human breast and colorectal cancer cells release exosomes containing full-length, signaling-competent EGFR ligands. Exosomes isolated from MDCK cells expressing individual full-length EGFR ligands displayed differential activities; AREG exosomes increased invasiveness of recipient breast cancer cells four-fold over TGFα or HB-EGF exosomes and five-fold over equivalent amounts of recombinant AREG. Exosomal AREG displayed significantly greater membrane stability than TGFα or HB-EGF. An average of 24 AREG molecules are packaged within an individual exosome, and AREG exosomes are rapidly internalized by recipient cells. Whether the composition and behavior of exosomes differ between non-transformed and transformed cells is unknown. We show that exosomes from DLD-1 colon cancer cells with a mutant KRAS allele exhibited both higher AREG levels and greater invasive potential than exosomes from isogenically matched, non-transformed cells in which mutant KRAS was eliminated by homologous recombination. We speculate that EGFR ligand signaling via exosomes may contribute to diverse cancer phenomena such as field effect and priming the metastatic niche.
Exosomes; EGF Receptor; amphiregulin; TGF-α; HB-EGF
Exosomes are small extracellular nanovesicles of endocytic origin that mediate different signals between cells, by surface interactions and by shuttling functional RNA from one cell to another. Exosomes are released by many cells including mast cells, dendritic cells, macrophages, epithelial cells and tumour cells. Exosomes differ compared to their donor cells, not only in size, but also in their RNA, protein and lipid composition.
In this study, we show that exosomes, released by mouse mast cells exposed to oxidative stress, differ in their mRNA content. Also, we show that these exosomes can influence the response of other cells to oxidative stress by providing recipient cells with a resistance against oxidative stress, observed as an attenuated loss of cell viability. Furthermore, Affymetrix microarray analysis revealed that the exosomal mRNA content not only differs between exosomes and donor cells, but also between exosomes derived from cells grown under different conditions; oxidative stress and normal conditions. Finally, we also show that exposure to UV-light affects the biological functions associated with exosomes released under oxidative stress.
These results argue that the exosomal shuttle of RNA is involved in cell-to-cell communication, by influencing the response of recipient cells to an external stress stimulus.
Exosomes are membranous nanovesicles released by most cell types from multi-vesicular endosomes. They are speculated to transfer molecules to neighboring or distant cells and modulate many physiological and pathological procedures. Exosomes released from the gastrointestinal epithelium to the basolateral side have been implicated in antigen presentation. Here, we report that luminal release of exosomes from the biliary and intestinal epithelium is increased following infection by the protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum. Release of exosomes involves activation of TLR4/IKK2 signaling through promoting the SNAP23-associated vesicular exocytotic process. Downregulation of let-7 family miRNAs by activation of TLR4 signaling increases SNAP23 expression, coordinating exosome release in response to C. parvum infection. Intriguingly, exosomes carry antimicrobial peptides of epithelial cell origin, including cathelicidin-37 and beta-defensin 2. Activation of TLR4 signaling enhances exosomal shuttle of epithelial antimicrobial peptides. Exposure of C. parvum sporozoites to released exosomes decreases their viability and infectivity both in vitro and ex vivo. Direct binding to the C. parvum sporozoite surface is required for the anti-C. parvum activity of released exosomes. Biliary epithelial cells also increase exosomal release and display exosome-associated anti-C. parvum activity following LPS stimulation. Our data indicate that TLR4 signaling regulates luminal exosome release and shuttling of antimicrobial peptides from the gastrointestinal epithelium, revealing a new arm of mucosal immunity relevant to antimicrobial defense.
Exosomes are secreted membranous nanovesicles produced by a variety of cells. Exosomes shuttle various molecules to transfer them to neighboring or distant cells, and have been implicated as mediators in cell-cell communications to modulate physiological and pathological procedures. Here, we report that luminal release of exosomal vesicles is an important component of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-associated gastrointestinal epithelial defense against infection by Cryptosporidium parvum, an obligate intracellular protozoan that infects gastrointestinal epithelial cells. Activation of TLR4 signaling in host epithelial cells following C. parvum infection promotes luminal release of epithelial exosomes and exosomal shuttling of antimicrobial peptides from the epithelium. By direct binding to the C. parvum surface, exosomal vesicles reveal anti-C. parvum activity. Activation of TLR4 signaling in epithelial cells after LPS stimulation also increases exosomal release and exosome-associated anti-C. parvum activity. Therefore, we speculate that TLR4-mediated exosome release may be relevant to innate mucosal immunity in general, representing a new target for therapeutic intervention for infectious diseases at the mucosal surface.
Exosomes are endosome-derived, 30–100 nm small membrane vesicles released by most cell types including tumor cells. They are enriched in a selective repertoire of proteins and nucleic acids from parental cells and are thought to be actively involved in conferring intercellular signals. Tumor-derived exosomes have been viewed as a source of tumor antigens that can be used to induce antitumor immune responses. However, tumor-derived exosomes also have been found to possess immunosuppressive properties and are able to facilitate tumor growth, metastasis, and the development of drug resistance. These different effects of tumor-derived exosomes contribute to the pathogenesis of cancer. This review will discuss the roles of tumor-derived exosomes in cancer pathogenesis, therapy, and diagnostics.
Background: Exosome vesicles can transfer molecular information previously shown to stimulate tumor development; however, the mechanism of exosome uptake is unknown.
Results: Mammalian cells internalize exosomes through lipid raft-mediated endocytosis negatively regulated by caveolin-1.
Conclusion: Our findings provide novel insights into cellular uptake of exosomes.
Significance: Our data provide potential strategies for how the exosome uptake pathway may be targeted.
The role of exosomes in cancer can be inferred from the observation that they transfer tumor cell derived genetic material and signaling proteins, resulting in e.g. increased tumor angiogenesis and metastasis. However, the membrane transport mechanisms and the signaling events involved in the uptake of these virus-like particles remain ill-defined. We now report that internalization of exosomes derived from glioblastoma (GBM) cells involves nonclassical, lipid raft-dependent endocytosis. Importantly, we show that the lipid raft-associated protein caveolin-1 (CAV1), in analogy with its previously described role in virus uptake, negatively regulates the uptake of exosomes. We find that exosomes induce the phosphorylation of several downstream targets known to associate with lipid rafts as signaling and sorting platforms, such as extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 (ERK1/2) and heat shock protein 27 (HSP27). Interestingly, exosome uptake appears dependent on unperturbed ERK1/2-HSP27 signaling, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation is under negative influence by CAV1 during internalization of exosomes. These findings significantly advance our general understanding of exosome-mediated uptake and offer potential strategies for how this pathway may be targeted through modulation of CAV1 expression and ERK1/2 signaling.
Caveolin; Endocytosis; Exosomes; Glioblastoma; Vesicles; Microvesicles
Cancer is a complex organ whose behavior is not only influenced by genetic and epigenetic changes in cancer cells but also by stromal cells, local extracellular matrix and specific tissue architecture. Intercellular communications within the cancer microenvironment are critical to coordinate the assembly of multiple cell types for an amalgamated form and function of a cancer. Exosomes are small membrane vesicles with an endosome origin that are released by cells into the extracellular environment. They carry a cargo of proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids and transfer their cargo to recipient cells and altering the recipient cells’ biochemical composition, signaling pathways, and gene regulation. Exosomes can thus serve as extracellular messengers mediating cell-cell communication. Both cancer cells and stromal cells release exosomes not only into the cancer microenvironment but also into the circulation. In this review, we summarize the research done so far on cancer-derived exosomes and assess their roles as extracellular messengers facilitating cancer progression and metastasis.
Exosome; Cancer microenvironment; Extracellular messenger; Stroma
BM mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) support multiple myeloma (MM) cell growth, but little is known about the putative mechanisms by which the BM microenvironment plays an oncogenic role in this disease. Cell-cell communication is mediated by exosomes. In this study, we showed that MM BM-MSCs release exosomes that are transferred to MM cells, thereby resulting in modulation of tumor growth in vivo. Exosomal microRNA (miR) content differed between MM and normal BM-MSCs, with a lower content of the tumor suppressor miR-15a. In addition, MM BM-MSC–derived exosomes had higher levels of oncogenic proteins, cytokines, and adhesion molecules compared with exosomes from the cells of origin. Importantly, whereas MM BM-MSC–derived exosomes promoted MM tumor growth, normal BM-MSC exosomes inhibited the growth of MM cells. In summary, these in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated that exosome transfer from BM-MSCs to clonal plasma cells represents a previously undescribed and unique mechanism that highlights the contribution of BM-MSCs to MM disease progression.
Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extracranial solid tumor in childhood, with grim prognosis in a half of patients. Exosomes are nanometer-sized membrane vesicles derived from the multivesicular bodies (MVBs) of the endocytic pathway and released by normal and neoplastic cells. Tumor-derived exosomes have been shown in different model systems to carry molecules that promote cancer growth and dissemination. In this respect, we have here performed the first characterization and proteomic analysis of exosomes isolated from human NB cell lines by filtration and ultracentrifugation. Electron microscopy demonstrated that NB-derived exosomes exhibited the characteristic cup-shaped morphology. Dynamic light scattering studies showed a bell-shaped curve and a polydispersity factor consistent with those of exosomes. Zeta potential values suggested a good nanoparticle stability. We performed proteomic analysis of NB-derived exosomes by two dimension liquid chromatography separation and mass spectrometry analyses using the multidimensional protein identification technology strategy. We found that the large majority of the proteins identified in NB derived exosomes are present in Exocarta database including tetraspanins, fibronectin, heat shock proteins, MVB proteins, cytoskeleton-related proteins, prominin-1 (CD133), basigin (CD147) and B7-H3 (CD276). Expression of the CD9, CD63 and CD81 tetraspanins, fibronectin, CD133, CD147 and CD276 was validated by flow cytometry. Noteworthy, flow cytometric analysis showed that NB-derived exosomes expressed the GD2 disialoganglioside, the most specific marker of NB. In conclusion, this study shows that NB-derived exosomes express a discrete set of molecules involved in defense response, cell differentiation, cell proliferation and regulation of other important biological process. Thus, NB-derived exosomes may play an important role in the modulation of tumor microenvironment and represent potential tumor biomarkers.
Exosomes are membraneous nanovesicles of endocytic origin released by most cell types from diverse organisms; they play a critical role in cell–cell communication. ExoCarta (http://www.exocarta.org) is a manually curated database of exosomal proteins, RNA and lipids. The database catalogs information from both published and unpublished exosomal studies. The mode of exosomal purification and characterization, the biophysical and molecular properties are listed in the database aiding biomedical scientists in assessing the quality of the exosomal preparation and the corresponding data obtained. Currently, ExoCarta (Version 3.1) contains information on 11 261 protein entries, 2375 mRNA entries and 764 miRNA entries that were obtained from 134 exosomal studies. In addition to the data update, as a new feature, lipids identified in exosomes are added to ExoCarta. We believe that this free web-based community resource will aid researchers in identifying molecular signatures (proteins/RNA/lipids) that are specific to certain tissue/cell type derived exosomes and trigger new exosomal studies.
Background: Contribution of exosomal microRNAs to cancer metastasis remains unknown.
Results: Exosomal angiogenic microRNAs secreted by metastatic cancer cells promote the metastasis through the activation of endothelial cells.
Conclusion: Horizontal transfer of exosomal miRNAs from cancer cells can dictate the microenviromental niche for the benefit of the cancer cell.
Significance: This is the first to connect cancer metastasis to the exosomal microRNA in vivo.
The release of humoral factors between cancer cells and the microenvironmental cells is critical for metastasis; however, the roles of secreted miRNAs in non-cell autonomous cancer progression against microenvironmental cells remain largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the neutral sphyngomyelinase 2 (nSMase2) regulates exosomal microRNA (miRNA) secretion and promotes angiogenesis within the tumor microenvironment as well as metastasis. We demonstrate a requirement for nSMase2-mediated cancer cell exosomal miRNAs in the regulation of metastasis through the induction of angiogenesis in inoculated tumors. In addition, miR-210, released by metastatic cancer cells, was shown to transport to endothelial cells and suppress the expression of specific target genes, which resulted in enhanced angiogenesis. These findings suggest that the horizontal transfer of exosomal miRNAs from cancer cells can dictate the microenviromental niche for the benefit of the cancer cell, like “on demand system” for cancer cells.
Angiogenesis; Cell Biology; Cell-cell Interaction; Exosomes; Metastasis; MicroRNA; Tumor Microenvironment; Extracellular Vesicles; Cell-cell Communication; miR-210
Exosomes, microvesicles of endocytic origin released by normal and tumor cells, play an important role in cell-to-cell communication. Angiogenesis has been shown to regulate progression of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). The mechanism through which this happens has not been elucidated. We isolated and characterized exosomes from K562 CML cells and evaluated their effects on human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVECs). Fluorescent-labeled exosomes were internalized by HUVECs during tubular differentiation on Matrigel. Exosome localization was perinuclear early in differentiation, moving peripherally in cells undergoing elongation and connection. Exosomes move within and between nanotubular structures connecting the remodeling endothelial cells. They stimulated angiotube formation over a serum/growth factor-limited medium control, doubling total cumulative tube length (P = 0.003). Treatment of K562 cells with two clinically active tyrosine kinase inhibitors, imatinib and dasatinib, reduced their total exosome release (P <0.009); equivalent concentrations of drug-treated exosomes induced a similar extent of tubular differentiation. However, dasatinib treatment of HUVECs markedly inhibited HUVEC response to drug control CML exosomes (P <0.002). In an in vivo mouse Matrigel plug model angiogenesis was induced by K562 exosomes and abrogated by oral dasatinib treatment (P <0.01). K562 exosomes induced dasatinib-sensitive Src phosphorylation and activation of downstream Src pathway proteins in HUVECs. Imatinib was minimally active against exosome stimulation of HUVEC cell differentiation and signaling. Thus, CML cell-derived exosomes induce angiogenic activity in HUVEC cells. The inhibitory effect of dasatinib on exosome production and vascular differentiation and signaling reveals a key role for Src in both the leukemia and its microenvironment.
Exosomes; Nanotubes; Chronic myeloid leukemia; Endothelial cells; Tyrosine kinase inhibitors
Exosomes are nano-vesicles secreted by a wide range of mammalian cell types. These vesicles are abundant in serum and other extracellular fluids and contain a large repertoire of proteins, mRNA and microRNA. Exosomes have been implicated in cell to cell communication, the transfer of infectious agents, and neurodegenerative diseases as well as tumor progression. However, the precise mechanisms by which they are internalized and/or secreted remain poorly understood. In order to follow their release and uptake in breast tumor cells in real time, cell-derived exosomes were tagged with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-CD63 while human serum exosomes were rhodamine isothiocynate-labeled. We show that detachment of adherent cells from various substrata induces a rapid and substantial secretion of exosomes, which then concentrate on the cell surfaces and mediate adhesion to various extracellular matrix proteins. We also demonstrate that disruption of lipid rafts with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MβCD) inhibits the internalization of exosomes and that annexins are essential for the exosomal uptake mechanisms. Taken together, these data suggest that cellular detachment is accompanied by significant release of exosomes while cellular adhesion and spreading are enhanced by rapid uptake and disposition of exosomes on the cell surface.
Survivin is expressed in prostate cancer (PCa), and its downregulation sensitizes PCa cells to chemotherapeutic agents in vitro and in vivo. Small membrane-bound vesicles called exosomes, secreted from the endosomal membrane compartment, contain RNA and protein that they readily transport via exosome internalization into recipient cells. Recent progress has shown that tumor-derived exosomes play multiple roles in tumor growth and metastasis and may produce these functions via immune escape, tumor invasion and angiogenesis. Furthermore, exosome analysis may provide novel biomarkers to diagnose or monitor PCa treatment.
Exosomes were purified from the plasma and serum from 39 PCa patients, 20 BPH patients, 8 prostate cancer recurrent and 16 healthy controls using ultracentrifugation and their quantities and qualities were quantified and visualized from both the plasma and the purified exosomes using ELISA and Western blotting, respectively.
Survivin was significantly increased in the tumor-derived samples, compared to those from BPH and controls with virtually no difference in the quantity of Survivin detected in exosomes collected from newly diagnosed patients exhibiting low (six) or high (nine) Gleason scores. Exosome Survivin levels were also higher in patients that had relapsed on chemotherapy compared to controls.
These studies demonstrate that Survivin exists in plasma exosomes from both normal, BPH and PCa subjects. The relative amounts of exosomal Survivin in PCa plasma was significantly higher than in those with pre-inflammatory BPH and control plasma. This differential expression of exosomal Survivin was seen with both newly diagnosed and advanced PCa subjects with high or low-grade cancers. Analysis of plasma exosomal Survivin levels may offer a convenient tool for diagnosing or monitoring PCa and may, as it is elevated in low as well as high Gleason scored samples, be used for early detection.
Exosomes are small vesicles of endosomal origin that can be released by many different cells to the microenvironment. Exosomes have been shown to participate in the immune system, by mediating antigen presentation. We have recently shown the presence of both mRNA and microRNA in exosomes, specifically in exosomes derived from mast cells. This RNA can be transferred between one mast cell to another, most likely through fusion of the exosome to the recipient cell membrane. The delivered RNA is functional, as the mRNA can lead to translation of new proteins in a recipient cell. The RNA shuttled between cells via exosomes is called esRNA. We propose that several types of exosomes may exist, and that an additional function of exosomes is to communicate to neighbouring cells through delivery of RNA-signals.
esRNA; exosomes; microRNA; mRNA; cell communication; signalling
Exosomes are secreted membrane vesicles that have been proposed as an effective means to detect a variety of disease states, including cancer. The properties of exosomes, including stability in biological fluids, allow for their efficient isolation and make them an ideal vehicle for studies on early disease detection and evaluation. Much data has been collected over recent years regarding the messenger RNA, microRNA, and protein contents of exosomes. In addition, many studies have described the functional role that exosomes play in disease initiation and progression. Tumor cells have been shown to secrete exosomes, often in increased amounts compared to normal cells, and these exosomes can carry the genomic and proteomic signatures characteristic of the tumor cells from which they were derived. While these unique signatures make exosomes ideal for cancer detection, exosomes derived from cancer cells have also been shown to play a functional role in cancer progression. Here, we review the unique genomic and proteomic contents of exosomes originating from cancer cells as well as their functional effects to promote tumor progression.
exosomes; microvesicles; cancer; detection
Vasculogenesis and angiogenesis are critical processes in fetal circulation and placental vasculature development. Placental mesenchymal stem cells (pMSC) are known to release paracrine factors (some of which are contained within exosomes) that promote angiogenesis and cell migration. The aims of this study were: to determine the effects of oxygen tension on the release of exosomes from pMSC; and to establish the effects of pMSC-derived exosomes on the migration and angiogenic tube formation of placental microvascular endothelial cells (hPMEC). pMSC were isolated from placental villi (8–12 weeks of gestation, n = 6) and cultured under an atmosphere of 1%, 3% or 8% O2. Cell-conditioned media were collected and exosomes (exo-pMSC) isolated by differential and buoyant density centrifugation. The dose effect (5–20 µg exosomal protein/ml) of pMSC-derived exosomes on hPMEC migration and tube formation were established using a real-time, live-cell imaging system (Incucyte™). The exosome pellet was resuspended in PBS and protein content was established by mass spectrometry (MS). Protein function and canonical pathways were identified using the PANTHER program and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, respectively. Exo-pMSC were identified, by electron microscopy, as spherical vesicles, with a typical cup-shape and diameters around of 100 nm and positive for exosome markers: CD63, CD9 and CD81. Under hypoxic conditions (1% and 3% O2) exo-pMSC released increased by 3.3 and 6.7 folds, respectively, when compared to the controls (8% O2; p<0.01). Exo-pMSC increased hPMEC migration by 1.6 fold compared to the control (p<0.05) and increased hPMEC tube formation by 7.2 fold (p<0.05). MS analysis identified 390 different proteins involved in cytoskeleton organization, development, immunomodulatory, and cell-to-cell communication. The data obtained support the hypothesis that pMSC-derived exosomes may contribute to placental vascular adaptation to low oxygen tension under both physiological and pathological conditions.
Exosomes are nanovesicles that are released from cells as a mechanism of cell-free intercellular communication. Only a limited number of proteins have been identified from the plasma exosome proteome. Here, we developed a multi-step fractionation scheme incorporating gel exclusion chromatography, rate zonal centrifugation through continuous sucrose gradients, and high-speed centrifugation to purify exosomes from human plasma. Exosome-associated proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE and 66 proteins were identified by LC-MS/MS, which included both cellular and extracellular proteins. Furthermore, we identified and characterized peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), a nuclear receptor that regulates adipocyte differentiation and proliferation, as well as immune and inflammatory cell functions, as a novel component of plasma-derived exosomes. Given the important role of exosomes as intercellular messengers, the discovery of PPARγ as a component of human plasma exosomes identifies a potential new pathway for the paracrine transfer of nuclear receptors.
Exosomes are endosome-derived vesicles that are released when multi-vesicular bodies (MVBs) fuse with the plasma membrane. Exosomes released from mycobacteria-infected cells have recently been shown to be pro-inflammatory. A prominent host molecule that is found within these exosomes is Hsp70, a member of the heat-shock family of proteins.
We first characterized the exosomes purified from control and mycobacteria-infected cells. We found that relative to uninfected cells, macrophages infected with M. smegmatis and M. avium release more exosomes and the exosomes they released had more Hsp70 on their surface. Both exosomes and exogenous Hsp70 treatment of macrophages led to NF-κB activation and TNFα release in uninfected macrophages; Hsp70 levels were elevated in mycobacteria-infected cells. Macrophage treatment with Hsp70 also led to increase in the phagocytosis and maturation of latex-bead phagosomes. Finally, Hsp70 pre-incubation of M. smegmatis- and M. avium-infected cells led to increased phago-lysosome fusion, as well as more killing of mycobacteria within macrophages.
Our results fit into an emerging concept whereby exosomes-containing Hsp70 are effective inducers of inflammation, also in response to mycobacterial infection.
Medulloblastomas are the most prevalent malignant pediatric brain tumors. Survival for these patients has remained largely the same for approximately 20 years, and our therapies for these cancers cause significant health, cognitive, behavioral and developmental sequelae for those who survive the tumor and their treatments. We obviously need a better understanding of the biology of these tumors, particularly with regard to their migratory/invasive behaviors, their proliferative propensity, and their abilities to deflect immune responses. Exosomes, virus-sized membrane vesicles released extracellularly from cells after formation in, and transit thru, the endosomal pathway, may play roles in medulloblastoma pathogenesis but are as yet unstudied in this disease. Here we characterized exosomes from a medulloblastoma cell line with biochemical and proteomic analyses, and included characterization of patient serum exosomes. Further scrutiny of the proteomic data suggested functional properties of the exosomes that are relevant to medulloblastoma tumor biology, including their roles as proliferation stimulants, their activities as attractants for tumor cell migration, and their immune modulatory impacts on lymphocytes. Aspects of this held true for exosomes from other medulloblastoma cell lines as well. Additionally, pathway analyses suggested a possible role for the transcription factor hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4A); however, inhibition of the protein’s activity actually increased D283MED cell proliferation/clonogenecity, suggesting that HNF4A may act as a tumor suppressor in this cell line. Our work demonstrates that relevant functional properties of exosomes may be derived from appropriate proteomic analyses, which translate into mechanisms of tumor pathophysiology harbored in these extracellular vesicles.
An important characteristic of tumors is that they at some point in their development overcome the surveillance of the immune system. Tumors secrete exosomes, multivesicular bodies containing a distinct set of proteins that can fuse with cells of the circulating immune system. Purified exosomes from TS/A breast cancer cells, but not non-exosomal fractions, inhibit (at concentrations of nanograms per ml protein) IL-2-induced natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity. The dietary polyphenol, curcumin (diferuloylmethane), partially reverses tumor exosome-mediated inhibition of natural killer cell activation, which is mediated through the impairment of the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Exposure of mouse breast tumor cells to curcumin causes a dose-dependent increase in ubiquitinated exosomal proteins compared to those in untreated TS/A breast tumor cells. Furthermore, exosomes isolated from tumor cells pretreated with curcumin have a much attenuated inhibition of IL-2 stimulated NK cell activation. Jak3-mediated activation of Stat5 is required for tumor cytotoxicity of IL-2 stimulated NK cells. TS/A tumor exosomes strongly inhibit activation of Stat5, whereas the tumor exosomes isolated from curcumin-pretreated tumor cells have a lowered potency for inhibition of IL-2 stimulated NK cell cytotoxicity. These data suggest that partial reversal of tumor exosome-mediated inhibition of NK cell tumor cytotoxicity may account for the anti-cancer properties curcumin.
The present study is designed to assess if exosomes released from Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) cells may modulate angiogenesis. We have isolated and characterized the exosomes generated from LAMA84 CML cells and demonstrated that addition of exosomes to human vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC) induces an increase of both ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 cell adhesion molecules and interleukin-8 expression. The stimulation of cell-cell adhesion molecules was paralleled by a dose-dependent increase of adhesion of CML cells to a HUVEC monolayer. We further showed that the treatment with exosomes from CML cells caused an increase in endothelial cell motility accompanied by a loss of VE-cadherin and β-catenin from the endothelial cell surface. Functional characterization of exosomes isolated from CML patients confirmed the data obtained with exosomes derived from CML cell line. CML exosomes caused reorganization into tubes of HUVEC cells cultured on Matrigel. When added to Matrigel plugs in vivo, exosomes induced ingrowth of murine endothelial cells and vascularization of the Matrigel plugs. Our results suggest for the first time that exosomes released from CML cells directly affect endothelial cells modulating the process of neovascularization.
Exosomes; Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Cells; Endothelial cells; Tumor Microenvironment