Positive family anamnesis is an important risk factor for cancer, and therefore further investigations need to be done if familial aggregation of cancer is observed. Due to a rare combination of urinary tract and bone tumors occurring in the family presented herein we hypothesized a hereditary predisposition and thus, Li-Fraumeni syndrome was considered to be the most likely differential diagnosis. To confirm Li-Fraumeni syndrome, we set out to investigate this case by analyzing the tumor suppressor gene p53. However, taking into account all the diagnostic results obtained, Li-Fraumeni syndrome could not be confirmed, but there is still uncertainty regarding a definitive diagnosis.
Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among females. 5%–10% of breast cancer cases are hereditary and are caused by pathogenic mutations in the considered reference BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. As sequencing technologies evolve, more susceptible genes have been discovered and BRCA1 and BRCA2 predisposition seems to be only a part of the story. These new findings include rare germline mutations in other high penetrant genes, the most important of which include TP53 mutations in Li-Fraumeni syndrome, STK11 mutations in Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, and PTEN mutations in Cowden syndrome. Furthermore, more frequent, but less penetrant, mutations have been identified in families with breast cancer clustering, in moderate or low penetrant genes, such as CHEK2, ATM, PALB2, and BRIP1. This paper will summarize all current data on new findings in breast cancer susceptibility genes.
Childhood adrenocortical tumor (ACT), a very rare malignancy, has an annual worldwide incidence of about 0.3 per million children younger than 15 years. The association between inherited germline mutations of the TP53 gene and an increased predisposition to ACT was described in the context of the Li-Fraumeni syndrome. In fact, about two-thirds of children with ACT have a TP53 mutation. However, less than 10% of pediatric ACT cases occur in Li-Fraumeni syndrome, suggesting that inherited low-penetrance TP53 mutations play an important role in pediatric adrenal cortex tumorigenesis. We identified a novel inherited germline TP53 mutation affecting the acceptor splice site at intron 10 in a child with an ACT and no family history of cancer. The lack of family history of cancer and previous information about the carcinogenic potential of the mutation led us to further characterize it. Bioinformatics analysis showed that the non-natural and highly hydrophobic C-terminal segment of the frame-shifted mutant p53 protein may disrupt its tumor suppressor function by causing misfolding and aggregation. Our findings highlight the clinical and genetic counseling dilemmas that arise when an inherited TP53 mutation is found in a child with ACT without relatives with Li-Fraumeni-component tumors.
Loss of heterozygosity; Pediatric adrenocortical tumor; Splice-site mutation; TP53
Recently CHK2 was functionally linked to the p53 pathway, and mutations in these two genes seem to result in a similar Li–Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) or Li–Fraumeni-like syndrome (LFL) multi-cancer phenotype frequently including breast cancer. As CHK2 has been found to bind and regulate BRCA1, the product of one of the 2 known major susceptibility genes to hereditary breast cancer, it also more directly makes CHK2 a suitable candidate gene for hereditary predisposition to breast cancer. Here we have screened 79 Finnish hereditary breast cancer families for germline CHK2 alterations. Twenty-one of these families also fulfilled the criteria for LFL or LFS. All families had previously been found negative for germline BRCA1 BRCA2 and TP53 mutations, together explaining about 23% of hereditary predisposition to breast cancer in our country. Only one missense-type mutation, Ile157→Thr157, was detected. The high Ile157 → Thr157mutation frequency (6.5%) observed in healthy controls and the lack of other mutations suggest that CHK2 does not contribute significantly to the hereditary breast cancer or LFL-associated breast cancer risk, at least not in the Finnish population. For Ile157 → Thr157our result deviates from what has been reported previously. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com
hereditary breast cancer; CHK2 mutations; Li–Fraumeni-like syndrome
Li-Fraumeni syndrome(LFS) is an autosomal dominant disorder that predisposes individuals to multiple forms of cancer including breast cancer, soft tissue sarcoma, brain tumor, osteosarcoma, leukemia, and adrenocortical carcinoma. Recently, germ-line mutation of the p53 tumor suppressor gene has been implicated in this familial disorder. We report a case of a 25-year old woman who presented with bilateral breast cancer and uterine leiomyoma. Her mother had died of early-onset bilateral breast cancer. And her younger sister had breast carcinoma as well, which was identified at the age of 22, indicating her strong familial history. To test for the presence of the p53 germ-line mutation, we analyzed the genomic DNA from the peripheral blood of the proband and her sister by PCR-SSCP analysis of exon 5 through exon 8 of the p53 gene. As a result, a p53 mutation in exon 7 was detected in an allele, and it was shared with her sister as the same pattern. Sequencing analysis determined the altered nucleotide at codon 248(CGG > TGG) which is one of the most frequent mutation sites related to LFS. Therefore, this patient has the most consistent characteristic features of LFS phenotype and it is believed that this case is the first report of a family with Li-Fraumeni syndrome carrying the p53 germ-line mutation in Korea.
Li-Fraumeni-Syndrome (LFS) is an autosomal-dominant, inherited tumour predisposition syndrome associated with heterozygous germline mutations in the TP53 gene. Patients with LFS are at a high risk to develop early-onset breast cancer and multiple malignancies, among which sarcomas are the most common. A high incidence of childhood tumours and close to 100% penetrance has been described. Knowledge of the genetic status of the TP53 gene in these patients is critical not only due to the increased risk of malignancies, but also because of the therapeutic implications, since a higher rate of radiation-induced secondary tumours in these patients has been observed.
We report a patient with LFS harbouring heterozygous, pathogenic TP53 germline mutation, who was affected by four synchronous malignancies at the age of 40: a myxofibrosarcoma of the right upper arm, bilateral breast cancer and a periadrenal liposarcoma. Radiological treatments and a surveillance program were adjusted according to recommendations for LFS patients.
Management of tumour treatment of patients with LFS is different to the general population because of their risk for secondary cancers in the radiation field. Screening procedures should take a possibly elevated risk for radiation induced cancer into account.
Li-Fraumeni-Syndrome; LFS; TP53; Secondary cancer; Treatment
The predisposition to malignancy that is dominantly inherited in Li-Fraumeni syndrome is associated with germline mutations of the tumour suppressor gene p53. Although second malignant neoplasms have been described in children with p53 mutations, the synchronous occurrence of two embryologically different tumours in these children has not been reported. A 20 month old girl with failure to thrive and congenital heart defects was found to have unilateral adrenal masses which, at surgical removal, proved to be an adrenocortical carcinoma and a ganglioneuroblastoma. Further investigation showed a germline p53 mutation and Turner syndrome. It remains to be determined what effect the 45,X chromosomal complement may have on the expression of neoplasms seen in patients with p53 germline mutations.
Germline TP53 mutations result in cancer proneness syndromes known as Li-Fraumeni, Li-Fraumeni-like, and nonsyndromic predisposition with or without family history. To explore genotype/phenotype associations, we previously adopted a functional classification of all germline p53 mutant alleles based on transactivation. Severe Deficiency (SD) alleles were associated with more severe cancer proneness syndromes, and a larger number of tumours, compared to Partial Deficiency (PD) alleles. Since mutant p53 can exert Dominant-Negative (DN) effects, we addressed the relationship between DN and clinical manifestations. We reasoned that DN effects might be stronger in familial cancer cases associated with germline p53 mutations, where mutant alleles co-exist with the wild type allele since conception. We examined 104 p53 mutant alleles with single amino acid substitutions described in the IARC germline database for (i) transactivation capability and (ii) capacity to reduce the activity of the wild type allele (i.e., DN effect) using a quantitative yeast-based assay. The functional classifications of p53 alleles were then related to clinical variables. We confirmed that a classification based on transactivation alone can identify familial cancer cases with more severe clinical features. Classification based on DN effects allowed us to highlight similar associations but did not reveal distinct clinical subclasses of SD alleles, except for a correlation with tumour tissue prevalence. We conclude that in carriers of germline p53 mutations transactivation-based classification of p53 alleles appears more important for genotype/phenotype correlations than DN effects and that haplo-insufficiency of the TP53 gene is an important factor in cancer proneness in humans.
p53; germline mutation; Dominant-negative; Li-Fraumeni Syndrome; functional characterization
We have screened two families for constitutional TP53 mutations, one family with Li-Fraumeni syndrome and the other with features of this syndrome. We report a germline mutation in exon 7 of the TP53 gene in the family with "Li-Fraumeni-like" syndrome. The mutation occurred at codon 245 and causes a Gly-Ser amino acid change. It was inherited by both affected and unaffected subjects. Malignant tumours from all members of this family showed strong positive nuclear immunohistochemical staining with antibodies CM-1 and DO1, directed against TP53. In contrast, no constitutional TP53 mutations were found in a "classic" Li-Fraumeni family. In this family positive staining was seen in both malignant and normal tissues. These results support previous findings that variants of the Li-Fraumeni syndrome exist since not all LFS families carry TP53 germline mutations. Secondly, immunohistochemical positivity is not synonymous with an underlying mutation and is therefore inadequate as an exclusive diagnostic marker.
Identification of inherited cancer-predisposing genes offers opportunities for cancer prevention. Inherited susceptibility genes have been identified, primarily through studies of unusual cancer cases and families but also through general population studies. Examples include the RB1 gene for retinoblastoma; the WT1 gene for Wilms' tumor; germline p53 mutations in families with the Li-Fraumeni syndrome; the NF1 and NF2 genes for neuroblastomatosis, types 1 and 2; the VHL gene for renal cancer and other tumors associated with Von Hippel-Lindau disease; the APC gene for adenomatous polyposis coli; the BRCA1 gene for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer; and the mismatch repair genes for colon and other common cancers. For some cancers, identification of gene carriers might be beneficial for targeting screening and chemopreventive interventions. On the other hand, predisposition testing for cancer has the potential for harm from loss of insurability and employability, psychological distress, social stigmatization and other adverse effects. Research is needed to identify predisposition testing procedures that maximize benefits while minimizing harm to subjects. Chemoprevention trials in genetically susceptible populations offer the prospect of finding effective methods of reducing future cancer risk.
Germline mutations in TP53 are the underlying defect of Li-Fraumeni Syndrome (LFS) and Li-Fraumeni-like (LFL) Syndrome, autosomal dominant disorders characterized by predisposition to multiple early onset cancers. In Brazil, a variant form of LFS/LFL is commonly detected because of the high prevalence of a founder mutation at codon 337 in TP53 (p.R337H). The p53 protein exerts multiple roles in the regulation of oxidative metabolism and cellular anti-oxidant defense systems. Herein, we analyzed the redox parameters in blood samples from p.R337H mutation carriers (C, n = 17) and non-carriers (NC, n = 17). We identified a significant increase in erythrocyte GPx activity and in plasma carbonyl content,an indicator of protein oxidative damage, in mutation carriers compared to non-carriers (P = 0.048 and P = 0.035, respectively). Mutation carriers also showed a four-fold increase in plasma malondialdehyde levels, indicating increased lipid peroxidation (NC = 40.20±0.71, C = 160.5±0.88, P<0.0001). Finally, carriers showed increased total antioxidant status but a decrease in plasma ascorbic acid content. The observed imbalance could be associated with deregulated cell bioenergetics and/or with increased inflammatory stress, two effects that may result from loss of wild-type p53 function. These findings provide the first evidence that oxidative damage occurs in carriers of a germline TP53 mutation, and these may have important implications regarding our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for germline TP53 p.R337H mutation-associated carcinogenesis.
Osteosarcoma is the most common form of bone cancer. Pivotal insight into the genes involved in human osteosarcoma has been provided by the study of rare familial cancer predisposition syndromes. Three kindreds stand out as predisposing to the development of osteosarcoma: Li-Fraumeni syndrome, familial retinoblastoma and RecQ helicase disorders, which include Rothmund-Thomson Syndrome in particular. These disorders have highlighted the important roles of P53 and RB respectively, in the development of osteosarcoma. The association of OS with RECQL4 mutations is apparent but the relevance of this to OS is uncertain as mutations in RECQL4 are not found in sporadic OS. Application of the knowledge or mutations of P53 and RB in familial and sporadic OS has enabled the development of tractable, highly penetrant murine models of OS. These models share many of the cardinal features associated with human osteosarcoma including, importantly, a high incidence of spontaneous metastasis. The recent development of these models has been a significant advance for efforts to improve our understanding of the genetics of human OS and, more critically, to provide a high-throughput genetically modifiable platform for preclinical evaluation of new therapeutics.
Osteosarcoma; p53; Rb; Mouse models
We have screened for germline TP53 mutations in Finnish BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation-negative families. This study represents the largest survey of the entire protein-encoding portion of TP53, and indicates that mutations are only found at conserved domains in breast cancer families also meeting the criteria for Li-Fraumeni/Li-Fraumeni-like syndrome, explaining only a very small additional fraction of the hereditary breast cancer cases. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com
hereditary breast cancer; TP53 mutations; Li-Fraumeni syndrome
The TP53 tumor suppressor gene encodes a sequence-specific transcription factor that is able to transactivate several sets of genes, the promoters of which include appropriate response elements. Although human cancers frequently contain mutated p53, the alleles as well as the clinical expression are often heterogeneous. Germ line mutations of TP53 result in cancer proneness syndromes known as Li-Fraumeni, Li-Fraumeni – like, and nonsyndromic predisposition with or without family history. p53 mutants can be classified as partial deficiency alleles or severe deficiency alleles depending on their ability to transactivate a set of human target sequences, as measured using a standardized yeast-based assay (see http://www.umd.be:2072/index.html).We have investigated the extent to which the functional features of p53 mutant alleles determine clinical features in patients who have inherited these alleles and have developed cancer.
We retrieved clinical data from the IARC database (see http://www.p53.iarc.fr/Germline.html) for all cancer patients with germline p53 mutations and applied stringent statistical evaluations to compare the functional classification of p53 alleles with clinical phenotypes.
Our analyses reveal that partial deficiency alleles are associated with a milder family history (P = 0.007), a lower numbers of tumors (P = 0.007), and a delayed disease onset (median, 31 versus 15 years; P = 0.007) which could be related to distinct tumor spectra.
These findings establish for the first time significant correlations between the residual transactivation function of individual TP53 alleles and clinical variables in patients with inherited p53 mutations who develop cancer.
We report the case of a 12-year-old girl with a strong family history of malignancy who presented with immature teratoma and gliomatosis peritonei. Despite first and second line chemotherapy, the disease ran an unusually refractory course. Although the presentation was not the typical tumour presentation of Li–Fraumeni syndrome (LFS), we proceeded to undertake tumour genetic testing of the patient and her parents. LFS was diagnosed in this patient and her father with a sequence variation of CGG>TGG, R248W, which is one of the most common transcriptionally inactive mutations detected in LFS. Genetic counselling was offered to the father. A tumour screening programme and genetic screening for the p53 gene mutation for the surviving family members can be offered once consent is obtained from the father. This case illustrates the importance of cancer genetic study, even if the tumour presentation is not typical for any familial cancer syndrome.
Expression of platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) and PDGF-receptor mRNA was examined from a glioblastoma taken from a patient with Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Northern blot analysis and in situ hybridisation showed very high concentrations of both PDGF-A and PDGF alpha-receptor mRNA in the tumour. The overall pattern of PDGF expression was similar to those found in sporadic glioblastomas. Mutations in p53 has been implicated as an early pathogenic event leading to sporadic low grade astrocytomas, and is the third most common tumour type in patients with Li-Fraumeni syndrome, where they are predisposed due to a germline mutation in the p53 tumour suppressor gene. This study suggests that progression towards a glioblastoma in both the general population and in patients with Li-Fraumeni syndrome may involve potential autocrine and paracrine stimulation by growth factors such as PDGF.
Cellular senescence is an irreversible growth arrest that is activated in normal cells upon shortening of telomere and other cellular stresses. Bypassing cellular senescence is a necessary step for cells to become immortal during oncogenic transformation. During the spontaneous immortalization of Li-Fraumeni Syndrome (LFS) fibroblasts, we found that CREG1 (Cellular Repressor of E1A-stimulated Genes 1) expression was decreased during immortalization and increased in senescence. Moreover, we found that repression of CREG1 expression occurs via an epigenetic mechanism, promoter DNA methylation. Ectopic expression of CREG1 in the immortal LFS cell lines decreases cell proliferation but does not directly induce senescence. We confirmed this in osteosarcoma and fibrosarcoma cancer cell lines, cancers commonly seen in Li-Fraumeni Syndrome. In addition, we found that p16INK4a is also downregulated in immortal cells and that coexpression of CREG1 and p16INK4a, an inhibitor of CDK4/6 and Rb phosphorylation, has a greater effect than either CREG1 and p16INK4a alone to reduce cell growth, induce cell cycle arrest and cellular senescence in immortal LFS fibroblasts, osteosarcoma and fibrosarcoma cell lines. Moreover, cooperation of CREG1 and p16INK4a inhibits the expression of cyclin A and cyclin B by inhibiting promoter activity, thereby decreasing mRNA and protein levels; these proteins are required for S-phase entry and G2/M transition. In conclusion, this is the first evidence to demonstrate that CREG1 enhances p16INK4a-induced senescence by transcriptional repression of cell cycle-regulated genes.
CREG1; p16INK4a; cellular immortalization; cellular senescence; Li-Fraumeni syndrome
Li-Fraumeni (LFS) and Li-Fraumeni-like (LFL) syndromes are associated to germline TP53 mutations, and are characterized by the development of central nervous system tumors, sarcomas, adrenocortical carcinomas, and other early-onset tumors. Due to the high frequency of breast cancer in LFS/LFL families, these syndromes clinically overlap with hereditary breast cancer (HBC). Germline point mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, and TP53 genes are associated with high risk of breast cancer. Large rearrangements involving these genes are also implicated in the HBC phenotype.
We have screened DNA copy number changes by MLPA on BRCA1, BRCA2, and TP53 genes in 23 breast cancer patients with a clinical diagnosis consistent with LFS/LFL; most of these families also met the clinical criteria for other HBC syndromes.
We found no DNA copy number alterations in the BRCA2 and TP53 genes, but we detected in one patient a 36.4 Kb BRCA1 microdeletion, confirmed and further mapped by array-CGH, encompassing exons 9–19. Breakpoints sequencing analysis suggests that this rearrangement was mediated by flanking Alu sequences.
This is the first description of a germline intragenic BRCA1 deletion in a breast cancer patient with a family history consistent with both LFL and HBC syndromes. Our results show that large rearrangements in these known cancer predisposition genes occur, but are not a frequent cause of cancer susceptibility.
Breast cancer; Copy number variation; MLPA; BRCA1 microdeletion; Li-Fraumeni syndrome
Breast cancer is the most common tumor in women with Li Fraumeni Syndrome (LFS), an inherited cancer syndrome associated with germline mutations in the TP53 tumor suppressor gene. Their lifetime breast cancer risk is 49% by age 60. Breast cancers in TP53 carriers have recently been reported to more often be hormone receptor and HER-2 positive by immunohistochemistry and FISH in small series. We seek to expand this small literature with this report of a histopathologic analysis of breast cancers from women with documented LFS.
Unstained slides and paraffin-embedded tumor blocks from breast cancers from 39 germline TP53 mutations carriers were assembled from investigators in the LFS consortium. Central histology review was performed on 93% of the specimens by a single breast pathologist from a major university hospital. Histology, grade and hormone receptor status was assessed by immunohistochemistry; HER-2 status was defined by immunohistochemistry and/or FISH.
The 43 tumors from 39 women comprise 32 invasive ductal carcinomas and 11 ductal carcinomas in situ (DCIS). No other histologies were observed. The median age at diagnosis was 32 years (range 22–46). Of the invasive cancers, 84% were positive for ER and/or PR; 81% were high grade. Sixty three percent of invasive and 73% of in situ carcinomas were positive for Her2/neu (IHC 3+ or FISH amplified). Of the invasive tumors, 53% were positive for both ER, and HER2+; other ER/PR/HER2 combinations were observed. The DCIS were positive for ER and HER2 in 27% of the cases.
This report of the phenotype of breast cancers from women with Li Fraumeni syndrome nearly doubles the literature on this topic. Most DCIS and invasive ductal carcinomas in Li Fraumeni syndrome are hormone receptor positive and/or HER-2 positive. These findings suggest that modern treatments may improve outcomes for women with LFS-associated breast cancer.
Breast Cancer; Li Fraumeni Syndrome; TP53 mutations; HER2; hormone receptors
Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is a classic cancer predisposition disorder that is commonly associated with germline mutations of the p53 tumor suppressor gene. Examination of the wide spectrum of adult-onset and childhood cancers and the distribution of p53 mutations has led to a greater understanding of cancer genotype-phenotype correlations. However, the complex LFS phenotype is not readily explained by the simple identification of germline p53 mutations in affected individuals. Recent work has identified genetic events that modify the LFS phenotype. These include intragenic polymorphisms, mutations/polymorphisms of genes in the p53 regulatory pathway, as well as more global events such as aberrant copy number variation and telomere attrition. These genetic events may, in part, explain the breadth of tumor histiotypes within and across LFS families, the apparent accelerated age of onset within families, and the range of clinical outcomes among affected family members. This review will examine the clinical and genetic definitions of LFS and offer insight into how lessons learned from the study of this rare disorder may inform similar questions in other familial cancer syndromes.
Li-Fraumeni syndrome; cancer predisposition; germline p53 mutations
The Li-Fraumeni cancer syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant syndrome, characterised by the occurrence of diverse mesenchymal and epithelial neoplasms at multiple sites. It has recently been shown that some of these individuals have a germ line mutation of the p53 tumour suppressor gene. The case of one member of such a family who has now developed three separate primary malignant tumours is reported. All three tumours expressed mutant p53 protein.
Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is a rare dominantly inherited cancer predisposition syndrome that was first described in 1969. In most families, it is caused by germline mutations in the TP53 gene and is characterized by early onset of multiple specific cancers and very high lifetime cumulative cancer risk. Despite significant progress in understanding the molecular biology of TP53, the optimal clinical management of this syndrome is poorly defined. We convened a workshop on November 2, 2010, at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland, bringing together clinicians and scientists, as well as individuals from families with LFS, to review the state of the science, address clinical management issues, stimulate collaborative research, and engage the LFS family community. This workshop also led to the creation of the Li-Fraumeni Exploration (LiFE) Research Consortium.
Li-Fraumeni syndrome; hereditary cancer predisposition syndrome; TP53 mutations
CHEK2 has previously been excluded as a major cause of Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS). One particular CHEK2 germline mutation, c.1100delC, has been shown to be associated with elevated breast cancer risk. The prevalence of CHEK2*1100delC differs between populations and has been found to be relatively high in the Netherlands. The question remains nevertheless whether CHEK2 germline mutations contribute to the Li-Fraumeni phenotype.
We have screened 65 Dutch TP53-negative LFS/LFL candidate patients for CHEK2 germline mutations to determine their contribution to the LFS/LFL phenotype.
We identified six index patients with a CHEK2 sequence variant, four with the c.1100delC variant and two sequence variants of unknown significance, p.Phe328Ser and c.1096-?_1629+?del.
Our data show that CHEK2 is not a major LFS susceptibility gene in the Dutch population. However, CHEK2 might be a factor contributing to individual tumour development in TP53-negative cancer-prone families.
The use of pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for hereditary cancer is subject to on-going debate, particularly among professionals. This study evaluates the attitude towards PGD and attitude-associated characteristics of those concerned: family members with a hereditary cancer predisposition. Forty-eight Von Hippel-Lindau and 18 Li–Fraumeni Syndrome families were identified via the 9 family cancer clinics in the Netherlands. In total, 216 high risk family members and partners were approached, of whom 179 (83%) completed a self-report questionnaire. Of the high risk family members, 35% expressed a positive attitude towards PGD. Those with a current desire to have children were significantly more likely to have a positive attitude: 48% would consider the use of PGD. No other sociodemographic, medical or psychosocial variables were associated significantly with a positive attitude. The most frequently reported advantage of PGD is the avoidance of a possible pregnancy termination. Uncertainty about late effects was the most frequently reported disadvantage. These results indicate that approximately half of those contemplating a future pregnancy would consider the use of PGD. The actual uptake, however, is expected to be lower. There is no indication that psychosocial factors affect interest in PGD.
Attitude; Hereditary cancer; Li–Fraumeni Syndrome (LFS); Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD); Von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL)
Germline TP53 mutations cause an increased risk to early-onset breast cancer in Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) families and the majority of carriers identified through breast cancer cohorts have LFS or Li-Fraumeni-like (LFL) features. However, in Asia and in many low resource settings, it is challenging to obtain accurate family history and we, therefore, sought to determine whether the presence of early-onset breast cancer is an appropriate selection criteria for germline TP53 testing.
A total of 100 patients with early-onset breast cancer (≤ 35 years) treated at University Malaya Medical Centre between 2003 and 2009, were analyzed for germline mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2 and TP53 by full DNA sequencing. Of the mutations identified, we examined their likely pathogenicity on the basis of prevalence in a case-control cohort, co-segregation analyses and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in tumor tissues.
We identified 11 BRCA1 (11%) and 6 BRCA2 (6%) germline carriers among early-onset breast cancer patients. Of the 83 BRCA-negative patients, we identified four exonic variants and three intronic variants in TP53. Of these, two exonic variants are clinically relevant (E346X and p. G334_R335dup6) and two novel missense mutations (A138V and E285K) are likely to be clinically relevant, on the basis of co-segregation and loss of heterozygosity (LOH). Notably, E285K was found in two unrelated individuals and haplotype analyses suggest a founder effect. Two of the three intronic variants are likely benign based on their prevalence in a control population. Clinically relevant TP53 germline mutations were identified in three of the four patients (75%) with a family history of at least two LFS-linked cancers (breast, bone or soft tissue sarcoma, brain tumors or adrenocortical cancer); 1 of the 17 patients (6%) with a family history of breast cancer only, and 1 of the 62 patients (< 2%) with no family history of breast or LFS-linked cancers.
Our study reports germline BRCA1, BRCA2 and TP53 mutations are found in early-onset breast cancer patients at 11%, 6% and 5% respectively, suggesting that TP53 mutation screening should be considered for these patients. However, we find that even in low resource Asian settings where family history is poorly reported, germline TP53 mutations are found predominantly among breast cancer patients with a family history of LFS-linked cancers.