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1.  Essential Tremor Prevalence is Low in the Druze Population in Northern Israel 
Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements  2012;2:tre-02-81-390-1.
Background
Essential tremor (ET) and Parkinson's disease (PD) are probably the most common movement disorders. As ethnic differences have been reported in ET, we designed the present study to evaluate the prevalence of ET and that of Parkinson's disease (PD) in the Druze villages of northern Israel.
Methods
A two-phase, door-to-door survey was undertaken. Residents aged ≥51 years who agreed to participate and answered “yes” to tremor or PD-related screening questions and 3% of subjects who screened negative were evaluated. Diagnostic criteria for ET were similar to those used in Sicilian and Spanish studies. PD was diagnosed according to Gelb's criteria.
Results
The target population consisted of 9,086, the study cohort of 3,980 residents. Tremor was observed in 36 subjects. In 27, the tremor fully met the criteria for ET. The prevalence of ET (age ≥65) was 1.49% (95% CI 0.91–2.07%). PD was diagnosed in 23 subjects. The prevalence of PD (age ≥65) was 1.13 (95% CI 0.62–1.64%). Leucine-rich repeat protein kinase 2 (G2019S mutation) was evaluated in subjects diagnosed with tremor PD and those screened for assessment of the validity of the questionnaire. None carried the mutation.
Discussion
The prevalence of ET in the Druze population is low and similar to the prevalence of PD.
PMCID: PMC3570042  PMID: 23440912
Essential tremor; Parkinson's disease; epidemiology; Druze; leucine-rich repeat protein kinase 2
2.  Prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among urban elderlies: Lucknow elderly study 
Indian Journal of Psychiatry  2014;56(2):154-160.
Background:
Paucity of systematic studies in elderly mental health in an aging population is an urgent need, which is required to address services and planning issues for health.
Aim:
The present study aims to investigate the distribution of physical, neuropsychiatric, and cognitive disorders of a community sample of elderlies with certain socioeconomic data.
Materials and Methods:
A door-to-door household survey was conducted to identify houses with elderlies (≥55 years) in two urban localities of Lucknow. Mini mental state examination (MMSE), Survey Psychiatric Assessment Schedule (SPAS)/Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) and physical and neurological examination were used for screening all consenting elderlies. MMSE positive participants were assessed on Cambridge Mental Disorders of the Elderly Examination-Revised for diagnosis of cognitive disorders; SPAS/MDQ positives were assessed on Schedule for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry based clinical interview for diagnosis of neuropsychiatric disorders other than cognitive disorders (using ICD-10 criteria). Routine and indicated laboratory/radiological investigations on all and on MMSE/SPAS (organic section) positive/physically ill participants respectively were done to confirm organic and/or physical illness. Only percentages were calculated to find the distribution of morbidity.
Results:
The sample had proportionate age structure as that of the surveyed population and had balanced gender representation in each age deciles. Prevalence of neuropsychiatric disorders (with/without comorbidities) was 11.8% in the elderlies (60 years and above) highest being in the 60-69 years age group. Being women and of lower socioeconomic status was more commonly associated with a neuropsychiatric diagnosis. 7.6% of the elderlies had cognitive impairment. Overall findings suggest a prevalence rate of 17.34% of total psychiatric morbidity among elderlies. A significant number had comorbid physical illness diagnoses.
Conclusion:
More than half the elderlies had some diagnosable physical or mental ailment. The study familiarizes us to the significant amount of physical and psychiatric comorbidity in the particular age group. About one-fifth was found to suffer from psychiatric morbidity, which any health services for the elderly should be oriented towards.
doi:10.4103/0019-5545.130496
PMCID: PMC4040063  PMID: 24891703
Cambridge mental disorders of the elderly examination-revised; cognitive impairment; comorbid physical illness; elderly; prevalence; psychiatric morbidity
3.  Essential tremor might be less frequent than Parkinson’s disease in North Israel Arab villages 
Essential tremor (ET) is much more prevalent than Parkinson’s disease (PD) in Western countries. We estimated ET and PD prevalence in Wadi Ara Arabic villages in Northern Israel.
In this door-to-door survey, all consenting residents aged ≥ 65 years were systematically examined by an Arabic speaking team. No pre-screening questionnaires were used. A random sample of 900 subjects [437 males, mean age (SD)=72.6 years(6.6)] of the 2,163 eligible residents were evaluated. Sixteen subjects had an action, intentional tremor. Tremor prevalence was estimated as 1.78 % (95 % CI 1.1–2.87). Nine of these had another likely cause of tremor. Only 7 were diagnosed as ET [prevalence 0.78 % (95 %CI 0.38–1.6)]. PD was diagnosed in 13 subjects. PD prevalence was 1.44 % (95%CI 0.84–2.45).
ET is unusually uncommon in this population and possibly even less frequent than PD. PD prevalence in Wadi Ara is similar to that reported in Western countries.
doi:10.1002/mds.22324
PMCID: PMC2763173  PMID: 18823047
Epidemiology; prevalence studies; tremor; Parkinson’s disease; Arabic
4.  Abuse and other correlates of common mental disorders in youth: a cross-sectional study in Goa, India 
Purpose
There is a paucity of known correlates of common mental disorders (CMDs) among the youth age group in India. This analysis aims to determine risk factors associated with a probable diagnosis of CMD in a youth sample in India.
Methods
This is a secondary analysis of data collected via a door-to-door (community) survey of 3,662 youth (aged 16–24 years) in selected urban and rural areas in Goa. The urban and rural areas were selected based on their engagement with a Goan-based mental health charity organisation, Sangath. Point prevalence of CMD was estimated using the general health questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12). Multivariate logistic regression analyses determined factors associated with CMD and associations were stratified by gender.
Results
In total, 3,649 (1,796 urban; 1,853 rural) youth were assessed for probable diagnosis of CMD. There was an almost equal ratio of males (49 %) to females (51 %) in the sample. During the time of the survey, 91 % of the sample was residing with parents, with 83 % being between the ages of 22 and 24 years living with parents. A small proportion of the sample never attended school (1.1 %) with the rest either educated, employed or unemployed. The point prevalence of probable CMD in the sample was 7.87 %; 95 % CI 7.01–8.80 %. Those living in urban areas had a higher prevalence of CMD (9.12 %; 95 % CI 7.90–10.52 %) compared to those living in rural areas (6.60 %; 95 % CI 5.50–7.82 %). After adjusting for a range of potential confounders, independent risk factors for CMD were being older, i.e., between 22- and 24-years old, (OR 1.60; 95 % CI 1.10–2.24; p = 0.015), residing in urban areas (OR 1.51; 95 % CI 1.12–2.04; p = 0.007), physical abuse (beaten in the last 3 months) by parents, teachers or others (OR 3.10; 95 % CI 2.11–4.51; p < 0.001), sexual harassment (OR 2.01; 95 % CI 1.30–3.20; p = 0.003) and sexual abuse (OR 2.54; 95 % CI 1.94–3.33; p < 0.001). Being able to talk about personal problems (OR 0.52; 95 % CI 0.34–0.80; p = 0.003) was a protective factor. After stratifying by gender, sexual harassment, physical and sexual abuse were associated with a likely CMD diagnosis in females and males.
Conclusions
Sexual and recent physical abuses were independent risk factors for CMD in both genders. In addition, being older and being able to discuss problems were associated with CMD diagnosis in females but not in males.
doi:10.1007/s00127-012-0614-6
PMCID: PMC3597274  PMID: 23111769
Youth; 16–24 years; Common mental disorders; India; Community survey
5.  Persistence of tropical ataxic neuropathy in a Nigerian community 
OBJECTIVES—The term tropical ataxic neuropathy (TAN) is currently used to describe several neurological syndromes attributed to toxiconutritional causes. However, TAN was initially proposed to describe a specific neurological syndrome seen predominantly among the Ijebu speaking Yorubas in south western Nigeria. In this study, the prevalence of TAN was determined in Ososa, a semiurban community in south western Nigeria described as endemic for TAN in 1969, and its neurological features were compared with Strachan's syndrome, prisoners of war neuropathy, the epidemic neuropathy in Cuba, and konzo.
METHODS—A census of Ososa was followed by door to door screening of all subjects aged 10 years and above with a newly designed screening instrument. Subjects who screened positive had a neurological examination, and the diagnosis of TAN was made if any two or more of bilateral optic atrophy, bilateral neurosensory deafness, sensory gait ataxia, or distal symmetric sensory polyneuropathy were present.
RESULTS—A total of 4583 inhabitants were registered in the census. Of these, 3428 subjects aged 10 years and above were screened. The diagnosis of TAN was made in 206 of 323 subjects who screened positive for TAN. The prevalence of TAN was 6.0%, 3.9% in males and 7.7% in females. The highest age specific prevalence was 24% in the 60-69 years age group in women.
CONCLUSION—The occurrence of TAN in Ososa continues at a higher prevalence than was reported 30 years ago. Its neurological features and natural history do not resemble those described for Strachan syndrome, epidemic neuropathy in Cuba, or konzo. The increasing consumption of cassava foods linked to its causation makes TAN of public health importance in Nigeria, the most populous African country.


doi:10.1136/jnnp.69.1.96
PMCID: PMC1736992  PMID: 10864612
6.  Epidemiology of Parkinson disease in the city of Kolkata, India 
Neurology  2010;75(15):1362-1369.
Objective:
No well-designed longitudinal study on Parkinson disease (PD) has been conducted in India. Therefore, we planned to determine the prevalence, incidence, and mortality rates of PD in the city of Kolkata, India, on a stratified random sample through a door-to-door survey.
Method:
This study was undertaken between 2003 to 2007 with a validated questionnaire by a team consisting of 4 trained field workers in 3 stages. Field workers screened the cases, later confirmed by a specialist doctor. In the third stage, a movement disorders specialist undertook home visits and reviewed all surviving cases after 1 year from last screening. Information on death was collected through verbal autopsy. A nested case-control study (1:3) was also undertaken to determine putative risk factors. The rates were age adjusted to the World Standard Population.
Result:
A total population of 100,802 was screened. The age-adjusted prevalence rate (PR) and average annual incidence rate were 52.85/100,000 and 5.71/100,000 per year, respectively. The slum population showed significantly decreased PR with age compared with the nonslum population. The adjusted average annual mortality rate was 2.89/100,000 per year. The relative risk of death was 8.98. The case-control study showed that tobacco chewing protected and hypertension increased PD occurrence.
Conclusion:
This study documented lower prevalence and incidence of PD as compared with Caucasian and a few Oriental populations. The mortality rates were comparable. The decreased age-specific PR among slum populations and higher relative risk of death need further probing.
GLOSSARY
= average annual incidence rate;
= average annual mortality rate;
= confidence interval;
= family screening questionnaire;
= intraclass correlation coefficient;
= incidence rate;
= movement disorder;
= National Sample Survey Organization;
= odds ratio;
= Parkinson disease;
= parkinsonism plus syndrome;
= prevalence rate;
= Poisson regression modeling;
= relative risk;
= secondary parkinsonism;
= verbal autopsy.
doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e3181f735a7
PMCID: PMC3013482  PMID: 20938028
7.  Prevalence of Essential Tremor on Arosa Island, Spain: a Community-based, Door-to-Door Survey 
Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements  2013;3:tre-03-192-4299-1.
Background
The prevalence of essential tremor (ET) is still not well understood and the various studies performed to date have generated highly variable results. Few epidemiologic studies on the prevalence of ET have been reported from Spain.
Methods
A one-stage door-to-door survey was conducted on Arosa Island, northwestern Spain, to determine the prevalence of ET in the population aged 65 years and older. The diagnostic criteria for ET were the presence of non-dystonic head tremor or moderate- to severe-amplitude tremor on at least four tests of the revised Washington Heights-Inwood Genetic Study of Essential Tremor (WHIGET) Scale.
Results
A total of 65 individuals with ET (28 males, 37 females) were identified, resulting in a crude prevalence of 8.63% (adjusted rate 8.42%). Prevalence increased with advancing age. There were no significant differences in prevalence between sexes in any of the age groups. Among the prevalent cases, 12.3% (n = 8) had been previously diagnosed. Only 29.2% (n = 19) reported functional disability caused by tremor. A family history of tremor was reported in 35.4% (n = 23).
Discussion
The prevalence of ET was higher than that seen in similar populations in Spain and other countries. A high proportion of those with ET were previously undiagnosed. Since Arosa Island has been a relatively isolated area, these results might indicate a predominant role, at least in the elderly, for genetic factors in the development of ET.
PMCID: PMC3779822  PMID: 24116344
Tremor; essential tremor; elderly; epidemiology; prevalence; survey; population isolate
8.  Diagnosis and Treatment of Common Forms of Tremor 
Seminars in neurology  2011;31(1):65-77.
Tremor is the most common movement disorder presenting to an outpatient neurology practice and is defined as a rhythmical, involuntary oscillatory movement of a body part. The authors review the clinical examination, classification, and diagnosis of tremor. The pathophysiology of the more common forms of tremor is outlined, and treatment options are discussed. Essential tremor is characterized primarily by postural and action tremors, may be a neurodegenerative disorder with pathologic changes in the cerebellum, and can be treated with a wide range of pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic methods. Tremor at rest is typical for Parkinson’s disease, but may arise independently of a dopaminergic deficit. Enhanced physiologic tremor, intention tremor, and dystonic tremor are discussed. Further differential diagnoses described in this review include drug- or toxin-induced tremor, neuropathic tremor, psychogenic tremor, orthostatic tremor, palatal tremor, tremor in Wilson’s disease, and tremor secondary to cerebral lesions, such as Holmes’ tremor (midbrain tremor). An individualized approach to treatment of tremor patients is important, taking into account the degree of disability, including social embarrassment, which the tremor causes in the patient’s life.
doi:10.1055/s-0031-1271312
PMCID: PMC3907068  PMID: 21321834
Tremor; essential tremor; Parkinson’s disease; dystonia; pathophysiology
9.  An epidemiological study of dementia under the aegis of mental health program, Maharashtra, Pune chapter 
Indian Journal of Psychiatry  2010;52(2):131-139.
Background:
There has been an exponential growth in the number of elderly population in India. This study aims to determine the prevalence of dementia in an urban center of Pune and to evaluate the corresponding socio-demographic correlates along with psychiatric morbidity in the study sample.
Materials and Methods:
The study population in Pune and Kirkee cantonments was selected based on 2001 census data. The number of people over 65 years numbered 6721 and 2145 of them were randomly selected for a door-to-door survey. They were initially administered household questionnaire and then subjected to a screening tool. Each participant underwent a brief mental state examination and data was collected on the basis of a structured proforma. Patients underwent a detailed cognitive profile using subtests from CSI-D (community screening instrument – dementia), which included a Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease (CERAD) word list, word fluency and delayed recall. Information pertaining to socio-demographic factors in participants and caregivers, caregiver-burden and behavioral and psychological symptoms in participants too were collected from the questionnaire. Radio imaging investigation was also carried out to quantify the deficit. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software was used to compute the results.
Results:
Findings revealed that prevalence of dementia in the sample population of elderly aged above 65 years was 4.1%. Socio-demographic factors which conferred a statistically higher risk for dementia were identified to be older age, low socio-economic status, low level of education, presence of family history, whereas, marriage was found to be protective. Burden of care was associated with caring for elderly with dementia with increasing severity of dementia. Patients with dementia performed poorly on cognitive test battery. Social network had a protective effect in respect with severity of dementia. On magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) majority of cases of Alzheimer’s Dementia (AD) and Vascular Dementia (VaD) were noted to have both gray and white matter involvement.
Conclusion:
Poor awareness is a key public-health problem. Society plays an important role in the ageing process. The withdrawal of the elderly from the previous societal roles,reduction in all types of interactions i.e. shift of attention from outer world to the inner world, reduction in the power and prestige of the elderly enhance aging process. Aging in Indian culture though a disability is much stressful today in Indian culture as in others.
doi:10.4103/0019-5545.64588
PMCID: PMC2927882  PMID: 20838500
Alzheimer’s dementia; epidemiology of dementia; prevalence of dementia
10.  Willingness and acceptability of cervical cancer screening among HIV positive Nigerian women 
BMC Public Health  2013;13:46.
Background
The proven benefit of integrating cervical cancer screening programme into HIV care has led to its adoption as a standard of care. However this is not operational in most HIV clinics in Nigeria. Of the various reasons given for non-implementation, none is backed by scientific evidence. This study was conducted to assess the willingness and acceptability of cervical cancer screening among HIV positive Nigerian women.
Methods
A cross sectional study of HIV positive women attending a large HIV treatment centre in Lagos, Nigeria. Respondents were identified using stratified sampling method. A pretested questionnaire was used to obtain information by trained research assistants. Obtained information were coded and managed using SPSS for windows version 19. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to determine independent predictor for acceptance of cervical cancer screening.
Results
Of the 1517 respondents that returned completed questionnaires, 853 (56.2%) were aware of cervical cancer. Though previous cervical cancer screening was low at 9.4%, 79.8% (1210) accepted to take the test. Cost of the test (35.2%) and religious denial (14.0%) were the most common reasons given for refusal to take the test. After controlling for confounding variables in a multivariate logistic regression model, having a tertiary education (OR = 1.4; 95% CI: 1.03-1.84), no living child (OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1-2.0), recent HIV diagnosis (OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1-2.0) and being aware of cervical cancer (OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.2-2.0) retained independent association with acceptance to screen for cervical cancer.
Conclusions
The study shows that HIV positive women in our environment are willing to screen for cervical cancer and that the integration of reproductive health service into existing HIV programmes will strengthen rather than disrupt the services.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-46
PMCID: PMC3567931  PMID: 23327453
Cervical cancer; Screening; HIV; Acceptability
11.  Tremor disorders. Diagnosis and management. 
Western Journal of Medicine  1995;162(6):510-513.
Tremor is commonly encountered in medical practice, but can be difficult to diagnose and manage. It is an involuntary rhythmic oscillation of a body part produced by reciprocally innervated antagonist muscles. Tremors vary in frequency and amplitude and are influenced by physiologic and psychological factors and drugs. Categorization is based on position, posture, and the movement necessary to elicit the tremor. A resting tremor occurs when the body part is in repose. A postural tremor occurs with maintained posture and kinetic tremor with movement. Various pathologic conditions are associated with tremors. Essential tremor, which is the most common, is postural and kinetic, with a frequency between 4 and 8 Hz, and involves mainly the upper extremities and head. Essential tremor responds to treatment with primidone, beta-blockers, and benzodiazepines. Parkinson's disease causes a 4- to 6-Hz resting tremor in the arms and legs that responds to the use of anticholinergics and a combination of carbidopa and levodopa. Tremor can also be a manifestation of Wilson's disease, lesions of the cerebellum and midbrain, peripheral neuropathy, trauma, alcohol, and conversion disorders. Treatment should be directed to the underlying condition. Stereotactic thalamotomy of thalamic stimulation is a last resort.
PMCID: PMC1022828  PMID: 7618310
12.  What is It? Difficult to Pigeon Hole Tremor: a Clinical–Pathological Study of a Man with Jaw Tremor 
Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements  2013;3:tre-03-174-4112-1.
Background
The phenomenology of tremor is broad and its classification is complicated. Furthermore, the full range of tremor phenomenology with respect to specific neurological and neurodegenerative diseases has not been fully elaborated.
Case Report
This right-handed man had a chief complaint of jaw tremor, which began approximately 20 years prior to death at age 101 years. He had been diagnosed with essential tremor (ET) by a local doctor. His examination at age 100 years was notable for marked jaw tremor at rest in the absence of other clear features of parkinsonism, mild kinetic tremor of the hands and, in the last year of life, a score of 22/41 on a cognitive screen. A senior movement disorder neurologist raised doubt about the “ET” diagnosis. The history and videotaped examination were reviewed by three additional senior tremor experts, who raised a number of diagnostic possibilities. A complete postmortem examination was performed by a senior neuropathologist, and was notable for the presence of tufted astrocytes, AT8-labeled glial cytoplasmic inclusions, and globose neuronal tangles. These changes were widespread and definitive. A neuropathological diagnosis of progressive supranuclear palsy was assigned.
Discussion
This case presents with mixed and difficult to clinically classify tremor phenomenology and other neurological findings. The postmortem diagnosis was not predicted based on the clinical features, and it is possible that it does not account for all of the features. The case raises many interesting issues and provides a window into the complexity of the interpretation, nosology, and classification of tremor phenomenology.
PMCID: PMC3712322  PMID: 23864988
13.  Door-to-door capture of incident and prevalent stroke cases in Durango, Mexico – the Brain Attack Surveillance in Durango (BASID) Study 
Background and Purpose
Stroke incidence and prevalence estimates in developing countries should include stroke cases not presenting to hospital. We performed door-to-door stroke case ascertainment in Durango Municipality, Mexico to estimate stroke incidence and prevalence, and to determine the error made by only ascertaining hospital cases.
Methods
Between September 2008 and March 2009, 1996 housing units were randomly sampled to screen for stroke in Durango Municipality residents ≥35 years of age. Field workers utilized a validated screening tool. Those screening positive were referred to a neurologist for history and examination and if confirmed, a head CT scan. Prevalence and cumulative incidence from the door-to-door surveillance were calculated and compared with previously reported hospitalization rates during the same defined time.
Results
Respondents included 2437 subjects from 1419 homes. The refusal rate was 3.8%. Twenty subjects had verified or probable stroke. The prevalence of probable or verified stroke was 7.7/1000 (95% CI: 4.3/1000, 11.2/1000). Five patients had a stroke during the time of the hospital surveillance, yielding a cumulative incidence of 232.3/100,000 (95% CI: 27.8, 436.9). Two of the 5 cases were captured by door-to-door surveillance but not by hospital surveillance.
Conclusions
This study provides the first community-based stroke prevalence and incidence estimates in Mexico. The wide confidence intervals, despite the large number of surveyed housing units, suggest the need for more advanced sampling strategies for stroke surveillance in the developing world.
doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.110.592592
PMCID: PMC3073745  PMID: 21212398
Stroke; Epidemiology; World Health; Mexico; Surveillance; Methods
14.  Primary Headache Disorders at a Tertiary Health Facility in Lagos, Nigeria: Prevalence and Consultation Patterns 
BioMed Research International  2014;2014:782915.
Background. Primary headaches are underdiagnosed and undertreated, with a significant impact on social activities and work. Aim. To determine the last-year prevalence and health care utilization pattern of primary headaches at a tertiary centre. Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out amongst staff of the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital in Lagos, Nigeria. 402 staff members were selected by simple random sampling and administered a detailed structured headache assessment questionnaire. Migraine and tension-type headache were diagnosed according to the criteria of the International Headache Society (2004). Results. The participants comprised 168 males and 234 females. The mean age was 36.9 ± 7.9 years. The overall headache prevalence was 39.3% with female predominance (P < 0.0001). Tension-type headache was the most prevalent at 72.8% and migraine at 18.9%. Unclassifiable headache constituted 8.2%. Migraine headache showed female preponderance (P = 0.000). 80.4% of participants did not seek medical consultation compared with 19.6% who did (P = 0.000). Of the latter, 83.9% consulted the general practitioner (GP), whilst 16.1% consulted the neurologist. Conclusions. Primary headache prevalence is high in our population. It is not recognised as that requiring care by most of the staff of this tertiary health facility; thus education is required to increase health care utilization.
doi:10.1155/2014/782915
PMCID: PMC3920920  PMID: 24587991
15.  Prevalence of Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Community Based Study From Northern India 
Background/Aims
The prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) varies from 4% to 20% in different Asian nations. Prevalence of IBS in native North Indian community is not known.
Methods
Between November 2008 to December 2009, we estimated the prevalence of IBS in a rural community of Ballabgarh block, located in Haryana state. A structured questionnaire based on Rome III module was used to collect symptoms related to IBS from all the participants in a door to door survey. A Rome III criterion was used for diagnosis of IBS. IBS was further classified based on predominance of symptoms as constipation predominant, diarrhea predominant, mixed and unspecified based on Rome III module.
Results
There were 4,767 participants (mean age 34.6 ± 10.8, males 50%). Overall, 555 (11.6%; 95% CI, 10.7-12.5) had constipation, 542 (11.4%; 95% CI, 10.5-12.3) diarrhea and 823 (17.3%; 95% CI, 16.2-18.4) abdominal pain. The overall prevalence of IBS was 4% (95% CI, 3.5-4.6). The prevalence of constipation predominant IBS was 0.3% (95% CI, 0.16-0.49), diarrhea predominant IBS 1.5% (95% CI, 1.18-1.90), mixed IBS 1.7% (95% CI, 1.35-2.11) and unsubtyped IBS 0.5% (95% CI, 0.32-0.75). The prevalence of IBS was significantly higher in females compared with males (4.8% vs 3.2%, P = 0.008). However, there was no significant difference between males and females in the prevalence of different subtypes of IBS. The prevalence increased with age.
Conclusions
The prevalence of IBS in a North Indian community is 4%. IBS poses a significant burden on the rural adults.
doi:10.5056/jnm.2011.17.1.82
PMCID: PMC3042224  PMID: 21369496
Asia; Constipation; Diarrhea; Epidemiology; Irritable bowel syndrome
16.  Mothers’ human papilloma virus knowledge and willingness to vaccinate their adolescent daughters in Lagos, Nigeria 
Introduction
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections in sexually active adolescents and young women and has been implicated as a cause of the majority of cases of cervical cancer, which is the second most common cancer in women in Nigeria. HPV is preventable with the use of HPV vaccines.
Objectives
The objective of this study was to assess mothers’ HPV knowledge and their willingness to vaccinate their adolescent daughters in Lagos, Nigeria.
Materials and methods
This study was a community-based, descriptive cross-sectional study carried out in July, 2012 in Shomolu Local Government Area (LGA) of Lagos State, Nigeria. Multistage sampling method was employed to select the 290 respondents who participated in the study. Structured, pretested, interviewer-administered questionnaires were used for data collection. Data was analyzed with Epi Info™ version 7.
Results
The study revealed low awareness of HPV (27.9%) and HPV vaccines (19.7%) among the mothers that participated. There was a high awareness for cervical cancer but little knowledge of its link to HPV. Awareness and utilization of HPV vaccines increased with increasing educational level (P < 0.05). There was a high willingness and intention among the mothers to vaccinate their girls (88.9%) and to recommend the vaccine to others (91.0%). Accessibility and affordability of the HPV vaccines were found to be possible barriers to future utilization of the vaccines.
Conclusion
Despite low knowledge about HPV and HPV vaccines, mothers were willing to vaccinate their daughters. We recommend improving mothers’ knowledge by education and the possible inclusion of the vaccine in the national immunization schedule to eliminate the financial barrier.
Video abstract
doi:10.2147/IJWH.S44483
PMCID: PMC3711756  PMID: 23874123
HPV; vaccine; Nigeria
17.  Prevalence and characteristics of prostate cancer among participants of a community-based screening in Nigeria using serum prostate specific antigen and digital rectal examination 
Introduction
Prostate cancer (CaP) is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among Nigerian men but CaP screening is not a common practice. The true burden of the disease in Nigeria is not known. The study was aimed at studying the community burden of CaP in Lagos.
Methods
During a community-based prostate cancer awareness program in 13 local government areas of Lagos, men aged >40 years had serum total PSA (tPSA) test and digital rectal examination (DRE). Those with abnormal DRE or tPSA >95th percentile of the cohort or both were selected for prostate biopsy (TRPB).
Results
4172 men were screened and complete data was available for 4110 (98.5%). The mean age was 60.8 years. DRE was abnormal in 410 men and was significantly correlated with the age of the patient and tPSA (p<0.001). The tPSA ranged from 0 to 438.3ng/ml with a median, mean and 95th percentile of 1.5, 2.5 and 10.0ng/ml respectively. 341 out of the 438(78%) men selected were subjected to TRBP. Forty-three men had histological diagnosis of CaP, giving an estimated prevalence rate of at least 1.046% or 1046 per 100,000 men of age ≥40. Only 11 (26%) had organ-confined disease while 17 (40%) had locally advanced disease and 15 (35%) men had metastatic disease. The majority of the men, 32 (74%) were reported to have Gleason's score of ≥7.
Conclusion
The prevalence rate of CaP among men aged ≥40 years in Lagos is higher than previously reported in hospital-based study. Majority have advanced and high-grade disease.
doi:10.11604/pamj.2013.15.129.2489
PMCID: PMC3830465  PMID: 24255735
Prostate; cancer; prevalence; screening; Nigeria
18.  FAMILY JOINTNESS, SOCIAL INTERACTION AND NEUROSES : A RURAL URBAN COMPARISON1 
Indian Journal of Psychiatry  1984;26(4):357-363.
SUMMARY
The association between family patterns and neurotic illness has been reported variously in India. Previous work from our centre seems to suggest that a joint family provides better support and security to vulnerable individuals. The present work is a community based project conducted in a selected rural and an urban area. The door to door survey by the research team identified index subjects who were screened for presence of psychotic illness before being included. Non psychotic psychiatric disorders were identified using the Cornell Medical Index and Khatri's scale was used for typing the family pattern. The social interaction schedule was the major instrument to quantify the type and duration of interaction, and life events were scaled using the modified Life Events inventory.
Our results indicate that whereas the joint family system was prevalent in the rural areas, the major family constellation in the urban areas was nuclear. Though the primary group of the rural respondent was richer, the average member of the urban area spent more time in interaction and thus utilized the support system better. The results are discussed for their relevance to the understanding of the genesis of neurotic disorders.
PMCID: PMC3011200  PMID: 21966013
19.  Patient-Centered Research Abstracts 
Journal of General Internal Medicine  2000;15(Suppl 2):6-7.
PURPOSE
AIDS continues to devastate urban communities, particularly among marginally-housed, ethnic minority, and drug-using populations. This study (1) describes access to comprehensive medical care, quality of HIV-related care, and attitudes regarding health among HIV-infected residents of single-room occupancy (SRO) hotels and (2) explores predictors of the use of pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) prophylaxis and highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).
METHODS
We conducted a cross-sectional, community-based study of 69 Bronx SRO hotel residents during May 1998. Utilizing door-to-door recruitment, we administered a 41-item, anonymous questionnaire to assess participants' demographic characteristics, level of illness and health care utilization, use of HIV-related therapies, and perceptions of their own health and medical care.
RESULTS
Of respondents, 65% identified as African-American or Black, 22% as Puerto Rican, and 13% as White or Other. The median age was 42; 68% were male, and 38% were high school graduates. Most individuals were marginally-housed (median stay = 9 months). Almost all participants (96%) paid for medical services via Medicaid. Of the 93% with HIV infection, 44% had been hospitalized at least once in the past year, 72% reported a history of AIDS-defining opportunistic infections, and the median CD4 count was 214. Over two-thirds were actively using drugs and/or alcohol.
Among HIV-infected residents, 81% had seen a doctor in the last three months. However, only 67% felt they had a "regular" physician, and 48% felt their access to medical care was average to very poor. Among eligible HIV-infected persons, only 39% had taken HAART and 73% had taken PCP prophylaxis in the last week. Predictors for the use of HAART included absence of active cocaine and/or crack use (RR = 3.91; 95% CI 1.03–14.8; p < .03), use of PCP prophylaxis (RR = 5.69; 95% CI .85–38.1; p < .03) and the belief that HAART "can help people with AIDS" (RR = 1.75; 95% CI 1.28–2.44; p < .03). HAART use did not correlate with site or frequency of medical care or active alcohol or heroin use. Individuals with regular doctors were less likely to have visited an emergency room in the past 3 months (RR = .41; 95% CI .22–.76; p < .02) and more likely to be taking PCP prophylaxis (RR = 2.68; 95% CI 1.19–6.02; p < .008).
CONCLUSION
Despite relatively advanced disease in this population of marginally-housed HIV-infected persons, significant proportions do not have a regular primary care provider, are not taking HAART, and report sub-optimal quality of and access to medical care. Active cocaine and/or crack use correlate with a lesser use of HAART.
doi:10.1046/j.1525-1497.2000.15200-26.x
PMCID: PMC1495737
20.  Seroprevalence of parvovirus B19 antibodies and evidence of viremia among Nigerian patients with sickle cell anemia 
Journal of Biomedical Research  2013;27(4):272-282.
Clinical, biochemical and molecular evidence for the sickle cell anemia (SCA) crisis in Nigerian patients arising from parvovirus b19 infection remains inadequate. This study determined the prevalence and correlates of anti-parvovirus b19 antibodies in a population of SCA patients and non-SCA healthy controls in Lagos, Nigeria. In this prospective cross-sectional study, we enrolled 73 confirmed SCA patients from 5 district hospitals in Lagos and 81 sex and age-matched non-SCA healthy controls. Serum sample from each study participant was screened for anti-parvovirus b19 by ELISA and PCR techniques. Standard biomedical assays were also done. Anti-parvovirus b19 IgM and IgG antibodies were detected in 22 (14.3%) and 97 (62.9%) of the 154 sera screened, 13 (17.8%) and 45 (61.6%) in SCA patients; 9 (11.1%) and 52 (64.2%) in non-SCA controls. The overall seronegativity rate was 19.5%. Parvovirus B19 DNA was found in 2 (11.1%) of the 18 IgM seropositive SCA serum samples screened. On the whole, parvovirus b19 infection was more commonly asymptomatic in non-SCA controls but caused significant elevation in liver enzymes in infected SCA patients (P < 0.05). The risk of acute parvovirus b19 infection increased 65 times during unsteady state among the SCA patients. Although no deaths of infected patients were recorded during the study, age below 12 years, hospitalization and overcrowded environment were risk factors for infection. We conclude that parvovirus b19 is common in SCA patients, incurring greater susceptibility to infections.
doi:10.7555/JBR.27.20120067
PMCID: PMC3721035  PMID: 23885266
parvovirus b19 infection; seroprevalence; sickle cell anemia
21.  Diagnosis and Management of Essential Tremor and Dystonic Tremor 
Essential tremor (ET) is the most common adult movement disorder. Traditionally considered as a benign disease, it can cause an important physical and psychosocial disability. Drug treatment for ET remains poor and often unsatisfactory. Current therapeutic strategies for ET are reviewed according to the level of discomfort caused by tremor. For mild tremor, nonpharmacological strategies consist of alcohol and acute pharmacological therapy; for moderate tremor, pharmacological therapies (propranolol, gabapentin, primidone, topiramate, alprazolam and other drugs); and for severe tremor, the role of functional surgery is emphasised (thalamic deep brain stimulation, thalamotomy). The more specific treatment of head tremor with the use of botulinum toxin is also discussed. Several points are discussed to guide the immediate research into this disease in the near future. Dystonic tremor is a common symptom in dystonia. Diagnostic criteria for dystonic tremor and differential diagnosis with psychogenic tremor and ET are described. Treatment of dystonic tremor matches the treatment of dystonia. In cases of symptomatic dystonic tremor similar to ET, therapeutic strategies would be the same as for ET.
doi:10.1177/1756285609104791
PMCID: PMC3002636  PMID: 21179530
essential tremor; propranolol; gabapentin; primidone; topiramate; alprazolam; deep brain stimulation
22.  A Cross-sectional study of stand-alone Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in a Nigerian Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory 
Background
There is a paucity of diagnostic and therapeutic facilities in Nigeria to confirm coronary artery disease and offer appropriate interventional therapy. There is now a private cardiac catheterization laboratory in Lagos but as there are no sustained Open Heart Surgery programmes, percutaneous coronary interventions are currently being performed without surgical backup. This study was designed to assess results of stand-alone percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) as currently practiced in Lagos, Nigeria.
Methods
This cross-sectional study was conducted between July 2009 and July 2012. The study included all patients that underwent PCI in Lagos. Data was extracted from a prospectively maintained database.
Results
Coronary artery disease was confirmed in 80 (52.6%) of 152 Nigerians referred with a diagnosis of Ischaemic Heart Disease. There were 53 males (66.2%) and 27 females (33.8%). The average age was 60.3 +/−9.6 years and average euroscore was 4.5 +/−3.1. Of the 80 patients, 77 (96.3%) had significant stenoses and were candidates for revascularization. Distribution of significant stenoses was one in 32 patients (41.5%), two in 11 patients (14.3%), three in 19 patients (24.7%), four in 13 patients (16.9%) and five in 2 patients (2.6%). PCI was performed in 48 (62.3%) of the patients eligible for revascularization as the coronary anatomy in the remaining patients was not suitable for PCI. The indication for PCI was for myocardial infarction or unstable angina in 39 patients (81.2%). PCI was performed with PTCA plus stenting in 41 patients (85.4%) and with PTCA alone in 7 patients (14.6%) with good angiographic results. Overall 29 of the 48 patients (60.4%) had complete revascularization of significant stenoses. Complications of PCI were bleeding that required blood transfusion in 1 patient (2.1%), minor femoral haematomas in 2 patients (4.2%), and a major adverse clinical event in 1 patient (2.1%).
Conclusion
A stand-alone PCI programme has been developed in Lagos, Nigeria. Both elective and urgent PCIs have been performed with no mortalities and a low complication rate. Increased volumes will however accrue and complete revascularization rates would be improved with the establishment of Open Heart Surgery programmes to provide CABG as back-up for PCI and alternate therapy for more complex lesions.
doi:10.1186/1471-2261-14-8
PMCID: PMC3897932  PMID: 24433419
23.  A prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors among a rural Yoruba south-western Nigerian population: a population-based survey 
Background
It has been hypothesised that rural sub-Saharan Africa is at an early stage of epidemiological transition from communicable to non-communicable diseases (NCD). Limited information exists about the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors and the burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the adult Nigerian population, especially in the rural setting.
Objectives
The aim of this study was to assess and describe the prevalence of several cardiometabolic risk factors in the sub-Saharan adult population of a rural Yoruba community, living in south-western Nigeria.
Methods
The study was a descriptive, cross-sectional, random-sample survey. Participants were visited at home by trained nurses and community health extension workers (CHEW) who administered a questionnaire, took the relevant history, carried out clinical examinations and measurements and took samples for laboratory tests. They were supervised by primary healthcare physicians serving the community. The variables recorded comprised clinical history, CVD risk factors including blood pressure (BP), body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, blood sugar and serum lipid levels, cigarette use, and dietary habits. The participants included 2 000 healthy adults aged 18 to 64 years who had been living in the area for more than three years.
Results
The average age was 42.1 ± 21.6, with 43.7% (873) being males and 56.3% (1127) females; 20.8% were hypertensive with BP ≥ 140/90 mmHg, 42.3% of the men and 36.8% of the women had BP ≥ 130/85 mmHg; 2.5% had diabetes, 1.9% had hypertriglycerideaemia, 43.1% had low HDL-C, 3.9% had general obesity, 14.7% had abdominal obesity, 3.2% were physically inactive, and 1.7% smoked cigarettes. Overall, 12.9% of the subjects were found to have at least one CVD risk factor. Using the Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III criteria, 2.1% of men and 2.7% of women in the study population had at least three of the criteria, the commonest being HDL-C < 40 mg/dl in men or < 50 mg/dl in women, followed by BP ≥ 130/85 mmHg, then waist circumference > 88 cm in women or > 102 cm in men, followed by blood glucose ≥ 110 mg/dl.
Conclusion
The results obtained from this study strongly suggest a high prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors in this rural population and that the epidemiological transition is not restricted to the urban population. This serves as a wake-up call for action in the planning of health services for the management of CVD and other chronic NCDs.
PMCID: PMC3721297  PMID: 20224842
cardiometabolic risk factors; cardiovascular disease; Nigeria
24.  Age at Diagnosis of Sickle Cell Anaemia in Lagos, Nigeria 
Background
Sickle cell anaemia is the most common genetic disorder worldwide as well as in Nigeria. Delay in the diagnosis of the condition constitutes an important cause of concern for caretakers of affected children.
Objective
To determine the age at diagnosis in a population of children with sickle cell anaemia in Lagos, Nigeria.
Methodology
The study was conducted between October and December 2009 at the sickle cell clinic of the Department of Paediatrics of Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Ikeja, Lagos in South west Nigeria. By convenience sampling, a total of 192 children with sickle cell anaemia aged six months to 15 years were interviewed with the aid of a structured questionnaire.
Results
Overall, the mean age at confirmation of haemoglobin genotype was 27.33 months (± 26. 36 months). The mean age at diagnosis was significantly lower among males than females (25.59 ± 27.74 Vs. 29.14 ± 24.85, p = 0.04). A quarter of the children were diagnosed before infancy and three-quarters before three years of age. Upper social stratum and small family size were significantly associated with earlier diagnosis of sickle cell anaemia.
Conclusion
Too few subjects are diagnosed in infancy. Routine screening should ideally be done at birth and neonatal period or at the latest, between six and nine months.
doi:10.4084/MJHID.2013.001
PMCID: PMC3552728  PMID: 23350014
25.  Prevalence of neurological disorders in Al Quseir, Egypt: methodological aspects 
Methodology and strategy play a very important role in epidemiological studies. Determination of the study area, geographical features, facilities, difficulties, and key personnel from the same area are important factors for successful methodology. Over 31 months (July 1, 2009 to January 31, 2012), a screening and an examination survey were carried out to ascertain the prevalence of epilepsy, stroke, dementia, cerebellar ataxia, migraine, cerebral palsy, Parkinsonism, chorea, athetosis, dystonia, trigeminal neuralgia, Bell’s palsy, multiple sclerosis, spinal cord disorders, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders in Al Quseir, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt. A total of 33,285 people were screened by three neurologists in a door-to-door manner, including every door, using a standardized Arabic questionnaire to detect any subject with a neurological disorder. The methodological aspects of this project were carried out through eight phases: (1) data collection; (2) preparation; (3) screening; (4) case ascertainment; (5) investigations; (6) classifications; (7) data entry; and (8) statistics and tabulations. The results of this study reveal that the total prevalence of neurological disorders in Al Quseir was 4.6% and higher among females (5.2%) than males (3.9%). The highest prevalence was recorded in the elderly population (60+ years [8.0%]) and among the age group 18–39 years (5.4%).
doi:10.2147/NDT.S42392
PMCID: PMC3772874  PMID: 24043938
methodological aspects; demographic data; prevalence

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