Essential tremor (ET) and Parkinson's disease (PD) are probably the most common movement disorders. As ethnic differences have been reported in ET, we designed the present study to evaluate the prevalence of ET and that of Parkinson's disease (PD) in the Druze villages of northern Israel.
A two-phase, door-to-door survey was undertaken. Residents aged ≥51 years who agreed to participate and answered “yes” to tremor or PD-related screening questions and 3% of subjects who screened negative were evaluated. Diagnostic criteria for ET were similar to those used in Sicilian and Spanish studies. PD was diagnosed according to Gelb's criteria.
The target population consisted of 9,086, the study cohort of 3,980 residents. Tremor was observed in 36 subjects. In 27, the tremor fully met the criteria for ET. The prevalence of ET (age ≥65) was 1.49% (95% CI 0.91–2.07%). PD was diagnosed in 23 subjects. The prevalence of PD (age ≥65) was 1.13 (95% CI 0.62–1.64%). Leucine-rich repeat protein kinase 2 (G2019S mutation) was evaluated in subjects diagnosed with tremor PD and those screened for assessment of the validity of the questionnaire. None carried the mutation.
The prevalence of ET in the Druze population is low and similar to the prevalence of PD.
Essential tremor; Parkinson's disease; epidemiology; Druze; leucine-rich repeat protein kinase 2
Essential tremor (ET) is much more prevalent than Parkinson’s disease (PD) in Western countries. We estimated ET and PD prevalence in Wadi Ara Arabic villages in Northern Israel.
In this door-to-door survey, all consenting residents aged ≥ 65 years were systematically examined by an Arabic speaking team. No pre-screening questionnaires were used. A random sample of 900 subjects [437 males, mean age (SD)=72.6 years(6.6)] of the 2,163 eligible residents were evaluated. Sixteen subjects had an action, intentional tremor. Tremor prevalence was estimated as 1.78 % (95 % CI 1.1–2.87). Nine of these had another likely cause of tremor. Only 7 were diagnosed as ET [prevalence 0.78 % (95 %CI 0.38–1.6)]. PD was diagnosed in 13 subjects. PD prevalence was 1.44 % (95%CI 0.84–2.45).
ET is unusually uncommon in this population and possibly even less frequent than PD. PD prevalence in Wadi Ara is similar to that reported in Western countries.
Epidemiology; prevalence studies; tremor; Parkinson’s disease; Arabic
There is a paucity of known correlates of common mental disorders (CMDs) among the youth age group in India. This analysis aims to determine risk factors associated with a probable diagnosis of CMD in a youth sample in India.
This is a secondary analysis of data collected via a door-to-door (community) survey of 3,662 youth (aged 16–24 years) in selected urban and rural areas in Goa. The urban and rural areas were selected based on their engagement with a Goan-based mental health charity organisation, Sangath. Point prevalence of CMD was estimated using the general health questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12). Multivariate logistic regression analyses determined factors associated with CMD and associations were stratified by gender.
In total, 3,649 (1,796 urban; 1,853 rural) youth were assessed for probable diagnosis of CMD. There was an almost equal ratio of males (49 %) to females (51 %) in the sample. During the time of the survey, 91 % of the sample was residing with parents, with 83 % being between the ages of 22 and 24 years living with parents. A small proportion of the sample never attended school (1.1 %) with the rest either educated, employed or unemployed. The point prevalence of probable CMD in the sample was 7.87 %; 95 % CI 7.01–8.80 %. Those living in urban areas had a higher prevalence of CMD (9.12 %; 95 % CI 7.90–10.52 %) compared to those living in rural areas (6.60 %; 95 % CI 5.50–7.82 %). After adjusting for a range of potential confounders, independent risk factors for CMD were being older, i.e., between 22- and 24-years old, (OR 1.60; 95 % CI 1.10–2.24; p = 0.015), residing in urban areas (OR 1.51; 95 % CI 1.12–2.04; p = 0.007), physical abuse (beaten in the last 3 months) by parents, teachers or others (OR 3.10; 95 % CI 2.11–4.51; p < 0.001), sexual harassment (OR 2.01; 95 % CI 1.30–3.20; p = 0.003) and sexual abuse (OR 2.54; 95 % CI 1.94–3.33; p < 0.001). Being able to talk about personal problems (OR 0.52; 95 % CI 0.34–0.80; p = 0.003) was a protective factor. After stratifying by gender, sexual harassment, physical and sexual abuse were associated with a likely CMD diagnosis in females and males.
Sexual and recent physical abuses were independent risk factors for CMD in both genders. In addition, being older and being able to discuss problems were associated with CMD diagnosis in females but not in males.
Youth; 16–24 years; Common mental disorders; India; Community survey
tropical ataxic neuropathy (TAN) is currently used to describe several
neurological syndromes attributed to toxiconutritional causes. However,
TAN was initially proposed to describe a specific neurological syndrome
seen predominantly among the Ijebu speaking Yorubas in south western
Nigeria. In this study, the prevalence of TAN was determined in Ososa,
a semiurban community in south western Nigeria described as endemic for
TAN in 1969, and its neurological features were compared with
Strachan's syndrome, prisoners of war neuropathy, the epidemic
neuropathy in Cuba, and konzo.
METHODS—A census of
Ososa was followed by door to door screening of all subjects aged 10 years and above with a newly designed screening instrument. Subjects
who screened positive had a neurological examination, and the diagnosis
of TAN was made if any two or more of bilateral optic atrophy,
bilateral neurosensory deafness, sensory gait ataxia, or distal
symmetric sensory polyneuropathy were present.
RESULTS—A total of
4583 inhabitants were registered in the census. Of these, 3428 subjects
aged 10 years and above were screened. The diagnosis of TAN was made in
206 of 323 subjects who screened positive for TAN. The prevalence of
TAN was 6.0%, 3.9% in males and 7.7% in females. The highest age
specific prevalence was 24% in the 60-69 years age group in women.
occurrence of TAN in Ososa continues at a higher prevalence than was
reported 30 years ago. Its neurological features and natural history do
not resemble those described for Strachan syndrome, epidemic neuropathy
in Cuba, or konzo. The increasing consumption of cassava foods linked
to its causation makes TAN of public health importance in Nigeria, the
most populous African country.
No well-designed longitudinal study on Parkinson disease (PD) has been conducted in India. Therefore, we planned to determine the prevalence, incidence, and mortality rates of PD in the city of Kolkata, India, on a stratified random sample through a door-to-door survey.
This study was undertaken between 2003 to 2007 with a validated questionnaire by a team consisting of 4 trained field workers in 3 stages. Field workers screened the cases, later confirmed by a specialist doctor. In the third stage, a movement disorders specialist undertook home visits and reviewed all surviving cases after 1 year from last screening. Information on death was collected through verbal autopsy. A nested case-control study (1:3) was also undertaken to determine putative risk factors. The rates were age adjusted to the World Standard Population.
A total population of 100,802 was screened. The age-adjusted prevalence rate (PR) and average annual incidence rate were 52.85/100,000 and 5.71/100,000 per year, respectively. The slum population showed significantly decreased PR with age compared with the nonslum population. The adjusted average annual mortality rate was 2.89/100,000 per year. The relative risk of death was 8.98. The case-control study showed that tobacco chewing protected and hypertension increased PD occurrence.
This study documented lower prevalence and incidence of PD as compared with Caucasian and a few Oriental populations. The mortality rates were comparable. The decreased age-specific PR among slum populations and higher relative risk of death need further probing.
= average annual incidence rate;
= average annual mortality rate;
= confidence interval;
= family screening questionnaire;
= intraclass correlation coefficient;
= incidence rate;
= movement disorder;
= National Sample Survey Organization;
= odds ratio;
= Parkinson disease;
= parkinsonism plus syndrome;
= prevalence rate;
= Poisson regression modeling;
= relative risk;
= secondary parkinsonism;
= verbal autopsy.
There has been an exponential growth in the number of elderly population in India. This study aims to determine the prevalence of dementia in an urban center of Pune and to evaluate the corresponding socio-demographic correlates along with psychiatric morbidity in the study sample.
Materials and Methods:
The study population in Pune and Kirkee cantonments was selected based on 2001 census data. The number of people over 65 years numbered 6721 and 2145 of them were randomly selected for a door-to-door survey. They were initially administered household questionnaire and then subjected to a screening tool. Each participant underwent a brief mental state examination and data was collected on the basis of a structured proforma. Patients underwent a detailed cognitive profile using subtests from CSI-D (community screening instrument – dementia), which included a Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease (CERAD) word list, word fluency and delayed recall. Information pertaining to socio-demographic factors in participants and caregivers, caregiver-burden and behavioral and psychological symptoms in participants too were collected from the questionnaire. Radio imaging investigation was also carried out to quantify the deficit. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software was used to compute the results.
Findings revealed that prevalence of dementia in the sample population of elderly aged above 65 years was 4.1%. Socio-demographic factors which conferred a statistically higher risk for dementia were identified to be older age, low socio-economic status, low level of education, presence of family history, whereas, marriage was found to be protective. Burden of care was associated with caring for elderly with dementia with increasing severity of dementia. Patients with dementia performed poorly on cognitive test battery. Social network had a protective effect in respect with severity of dementia. On magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) majority of cases of Alzheimer’s Dementia (AD) and Vascular Dementia (VaD) were noted to have both gray and white matter involvement.
Poor awareness is a key public-health problem. Society plays an important role in the ageing process. The withdrawal of the elderly from the previous societal roles,reduction in all types of interactions i.e. shift of attention from outer world to the inner world, reduction in the power and prestige of the elderly enhance aging process. Aging in Indian culture though a disability is much stressful today in Indian culture as in others.
Alzheimer’s dementia; epidemiology of dementia; prevalence of dementia
The proven benefit of integrating cervical cancer screening programme into HIV care has led to its adoption as a standard of care. However this is not operational in most HIV clinics in Nigeria. Of the various reasons given for non-implementation, none is backed by scientific evidence. This study was conducted to assess the willingness and acceptability of cervical cancer screening among HIV positive Nigerian women.
A cross sectional study of HIV positive women attending a large HIV treatment centre in Lagos, Nigeria. Respondents were identified using stratified sampling method. A pretested questionnaire was used to obtain information by trained research assistants. Obtained information were coded and managed using SPSS for windows version 19. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to determine independent predictor for acceptance of cervical cancer screening.
Of the 1517 respondents that returned completed questionnaires, 853 (56.2%) were aware of cervical cancer. Though previous cervical cancer screening was low at 9.4%, 79.8% (1210) accepted to take the test. Cost of the test (35.2%) and religious denial (14.0%) were the most common reasons given for refusal to take the test. After controlling for confounding variables in a multivariate logistic regression model, having a tertiary education (OR = 1.4; 95% CI: 1.03-1.84), no living child (OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1-2.0), recent HIV diagnosis (OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1-2.0) and being aware of cervical cancer (OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.2-2.0) retained independent association with acceptance to screen for cervical cancer.
The study shows that HIV positive women in our environment are willing to screen for cervical cancer and that the integration of reproductive health service into existing HIV programmes will strengthen rather than disrupt the services.
Cervical cancer; Screening; HIV; Acceptability
Tremor is commonly encountered in medical practice, but can be difficult to diagnose and manage. It is an involuntary rhythmic oscillation of a body part produced by reciprocally innervated antagonist muscles. Tremors vary in frequency and amplitude and are influenced by physiologic and psychological factors and drugs. Categorization is based on position, posture, and the movement necessary to elicit the tremor. A resting tremor occurs when the body part is in repose. A postural tremor occurs with maintained posture and kinetic tremor with movement. Various pathologic conditions are associated with tremors. Essential tremor, which is the most common, is postural and kinetic, with a frequency between 4 and 8 Hz, and involves mainly the upper extremities and head. Essential tremor responds to treatment with primidone, beta-blockers, and benzodiazepines. Parkinson's disease causes a 4- to 6-Hz resting tremor in the arms and legs that responds to the use of anticholinergics and a combination of carbidopa and levodopa. Tremor can also be a manifestation of Wilson's disease, lesions of the cerebellum and midbrain, peripheral neuropathy, trauma, alcohol, and conversion disorders. Treatment should be directed to the underlying condition. Stereotactic thalamotomy of thalamic stimulation is a last resort.
Background and Purpose
Stroke incidence and prevalence estimates in developing countries should include stroke cases not presenting to hospital. We performed door-to-door stroke case ascertainment in Durango Municipality, Mexico to estimate stroke incidence and prevalence, and to determine the error made by only ascertaining hospital cases.
Between September 2008 and March 2009, 1996 housing units were randomly sampled to screen for stroke in Durango Municipality residents ≥35 years of age. Field workers utilized a validated screening tool. Those screening positive were referred to a neurologist for history and examination and if confirmed, a head CT scan. Prevalence and cumulative incidence from the door-to-door surveillance were calculated and compared with previously reported hospitalization rates during the same defined time.
Respondents included 2437 subjects from 1419 homes. The refusal rate was 3.8%. Twenty subjects had verified or probable stroke. The prevalence of probable or verified stroke was 7.7/1000 (95% CI: 4.3/1000, 11.2/1000). Five patients had a stroke during the time of the hospital surveillance, yielding a cumulative incidence of 232.3/100,000 (95% CI: 27.8, 436.9). Two of the 5 cases were captured by door-to-door surveillance but not by hospital surveillance.
This study provides the first community-based stroke prevalence and incidence estimates in Mexico. The wide confidence intervals, despite the large number of surveyed housing units, suggest the need for more advanced sampling strategies for stroke surveillance in the developing world.
Stroke; Epidemiology; World Health; Mexico; Surveillance; Methods
The prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) varies from 4% to 20% in different Asian nations. Prevalence of IBS in native North Indian community is not known.
Between November 2008 to December 2009, we estimated the prevalence of IBS in a rural community of Ballabgarh block, located in Haryana state. A structured questionnaire based on Rome III module was used to collect symptoms related to IBS from all the participants in a door to door survey. A Rome III criterion was used for diagnosis of IBS. IBS was further classified based on predominance of symptoms as constipation predominant, diarrhea predominant, mixed and unspecified based on Rome III module.
There were 4,767 participants (mean age 34.6 ± 10.8, males 50%). Overall, 555 (11.6%; 95% CI, 10.7-12.5) had constipation, 542 (11.4%; 95% CI, 10.5-12.3) diarrhea and 823 (17.3%; 95% CI, 16.2-18.4) abdominal pain. The overall prevalence of IBS was 4% (95% CI, 3.5-4.6). The prevalence of constipation predominant IBS was 0.3% (95% CI, 0.16-0.49), diarrhea predominant IBS 1.5% (95% CI, 1.18-1.90), mixed IBS 1.7% (95% CI, 1.35-2.11) and unsubtyped IBS 0.5% (95% CI, 0.32-0.75). The prevalence of IBS was significantly higher in females compared with males (4.8% vs 3.2%, P = 0.008). However, there was no significant difference between males and females in the prevalence of different subtypes of IBS. The prevalence increased with age.
The prevalence of IBS in a North Indian community is 4%. IBS poses a significant burden on the rural adults.
Asia; Constipation; Diarrhea; Epidemiology; Irritable bowel syndrome
Essential tremor (ET) is the most common adult movement disorder. Traditionally
considered as a benign disease, it can cause an important physical and
psychosocial disability. Drug treatment for ET remains poor and often
unsatisfactory. Current therapeutic strategies for ET are reviewed according to
the level of discomfort caused by tremor. For mild tremor, nonpharmacological
strategies consist of alcohol and acute pharmacological therapy; for moderate
tremor, pharmacological therapies (propranolol, gabapentin, primidone,
topiramate, alprazolam and other drugs); and for severe tremor, the role of
functional surgery is emphasised (thalamic deep brain stimulation, thalamotomy).
The more specific treatment of head tremor with the use of botulinum toxin is
also discussed. Several points are discussed to guide the immediate research
into this disease in the near future. Dystonic tremor is a common symptom in
dystonia. Diagnostic criteria for dystonic tremor and differential diagnosis
with psychogenic tremor and ET are described. Treatment of dystonic tremor
matches the treatment of dystonia. In cases of symptomatic dystonic tremor
similar to ET, therapeutic strategies would be the same as for ET.
essential tremor; propranolol; gabapentin; primidone; topiramate; alprazolam; deep brain stimulation
The association between family patterns and neurotic illness has been reported variously in India. Previous work from our centre seems to suggest that a joint family provides better support and security to vulnerable individuals. The present work is a community based project conducted in a selected rural and an urban area. The door to door survey by the research team identified index subjects who were screened for presence of psychotic illness before being included. Non psychotic psychiatric disorders were identified using the Cornell Medical Index and Khatri's scale was used for typing the family pattern. The social interaction schedule was the major instrument to quantify the type and duration of interaction, and life events were scaled using the modified Life Events inventory.
Our results indicate that whereas the joint family system was prevalent in the rural areas, the major family constellation in the urban areas was nuclear. Though the primary group of the rural respondent was richer, the average member of the urban area spent more time in interaction and thus utilized the support system better. The results are discussed for their relevance to the understanding of the genesis of neurotic disorders.
AIDS continues to devastate urban communities, particularly among marginally-housed, ethnic minority, and drug-using populations. This study (1) describes access to comprehensive medical care, quality of HIV-related care, and attitudes regarding health among HIV-infected residents of single-room occupancy (SRO) hotels and (2) explores predictors of the use of pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) prophylaxis and highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).
We conducted a cross-sectional, community-based study of 69 Bronx SRO hotel residents during May 1998. Utilizing door-to-door recruitment, we administered a 41-item, anonymous questionnaire to assess participants' demographic characteristics, level of illness and health care utilization, use of HIV-related therapies, and perceptions of their own health and medical care.
Of respondents, 65% identified as African-American or Black, 22% as Puerto Rican, and 13% as White or Other. The median age was 42; 68% were male, and 38% were high school graduates. Most individuals were marginally-housed (median stay = 9 months). Almost all participants (96%) paid for medical services via Medicaid. Of the 93% with HIV infection, 44% had been hospitalized at least once in the past year, 72% reported a history of AIDS-defining opportunistic infections, and the median CD4 count was 214. Over two-thirds were actively using drugs and/or alcohol.
Among HIV-infected residents, 81% had seen a doctor in the last three months. However, only 67% felt they had a "regular" physician, and 48% felt their access to medical care was average to very poor. Among eligible HIV-infected persons, only 39% had taken HAART and 73% had taken PCP prophylaxis in the last week. Predictors for the use of HAART included absence of active cocaine and/or crack use (RR = 3.91; 95% CI 1.03–14.8; p < .03), use of PCP prophylaxis (RR = 5.69; 95% CI .85–38.1; p < .03) and the belief that HAART "can help people with AIDS" (RR = 1.75; 95% CI 1.28–2.44; p < .03). HAART use did not correlate with site or frequency of medical care or active alcohol or heroin use. Individuals with regular doctors were less likely to have visited an emergency room in the past 3 months (RR = .41; 95% CI .22–.76; p < .02) and more likely to be taking PCP prophylaxis (RR = 2.68; 95% CI 1.19–6.02; p < .008).
Despite relatively advanced disease in this population of marginally-housed HIV-infected persons, significant proportions do not have a regular primary care provider, are not taking HAART, and report sub-optimal quality of and access to medical care. Active cocaine and/or crack use correlate with a lesser use of HAART.
Sickle cell anaemia is the most common genetic disorder worldwide as well as in Nigeria. Delay in the diagnosis of the condition constitutes an important cause of concern for caretakers of affected children.
To determine the age at diagnosis in a population of children with sickle cell anaemia in Lagos, Nigeria.
The study was conducted between October and December 2009 at the sickle cell clinic of the Department of Paediatrics of Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Ikeja, Lagos in South west Nigeria. By convenience sampling, a total of 192 children with sickle cell anaemia aged six months to 15 years were interviewed with the aid of a structured questionnaire.
Overall, the mean age at confirmation of haemoglobin genotype was 27.33 months (± 26. 36 months). The mean age at diagnosis was significantly lower among males than females (25.59 ± 27.74 Vs. 29.14 ± 24.85, p = 0.04). A quarter of the children were diagnosed before infancy and three-quarters before three years of age. Upper social stratum and small family size were significantly associated with earlier diagnosis of sickle cell anaemia.
Too few subjects are diagnosed in infancy. Routine screening should ideally be done at birth and neonatal period or at the latest, between six and nine months.
The prevalence of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), a premalignant plasma-cell disorder has not been determined in our geographic area Nigeria.
A cross sectional survey was carried on apparently healthy Nigerians selected by multistage sampling technique from the cosmopolitan city of Lagos, Nigeria. Subjects enrolled into the study had 2-step screening for the presence, type and concentration of monoclonal band. Agarose-gel electrophoresis was performed on all serum samples, and any serum sample with a discrete band of monoclonal protein or thought to have a localized band was subjected to Immunofixation. Subjects were also evaluated for Bence jones proteinuria, haematological and biochemical parameters.
Four hundred and ten subjects with a mean age of 45.68 ± 10.3 years, a median of 45.00 years and a range of 20 to 80 years were enrolled into the study. MGUS was identified in only one (0.24 percent) of the 410 study subject. This subject was demonstrated to have a double monoclonal gammopathy; IgGλ at 16.9 g/L and IgAκ at 8.5 g/L. None of them including the sole subject with MGUS had a monoclonal urinary light chain.
Among residents of Lagos, Nigeria, MGUS was found in only 0.24% percent of apparently normal persons with a median age of 45 years. This suggests that MGUS which represents the earliest stage of monoclonal plasma/lymphoid cell proliferation is not a common finding in the relatively young population of Nigeria. Future epidemiologic studies dealing with plasma cell disorders in older people are required to carefully examine the relationship between environmental factors and prevalence of MGUS and its ultimate progression to MM.
Prevalence; Type; Monoclonal; Gammopathy; Lagos
Tremor is one of the most common involuntary movement disorders seen in clinical practice. In addition to the detailed history, the differential diagnosis is mainly clinical based on the distinction at rest, postural and intention, activation condition, frequency, and topographical distribution. The causes of tremor are heterogeneous and it can present alone (for example, essential tremor) or as a part of a neurological syndrome (for example, multiple sclerosis). Essential tremor and the tremor of Parkinson's disease are the most common tremors encountered in clinical practice. This article focuses on a practical approach to these different forms of tremor and how to distinguish them clinically. Evidence supporting various strategies used in the differentiation is then presented, followed by a review of formal guidelines or recommendations when they exist.
Breast cancer is the leading female malignancy in Nigeria. Screening for early detection has led to reduction in mortality from the disease. It is known that attitudes of physicians and motivation by community nurses influence uptake of screening methods by women. This study aims to investigate knowledge of breast cancer risk factors, beliefs about treatment and practice of screening methods among a cohort of female healthcare professionals in Lagos, Nigeria.
A cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire to assess the knowledge of breast cancer risk factors, beliefs about treatment and practice of screening methods among 207 female doctors, nurses and other healthcare professionals working in a university teaching hospital in Lagos, Nigeria. Stratified random sampling method was employed. Chi square test, analysis of variance and Mantel-Haenszel test were performed in data analysis using SPSS v10.0 and Epi Info version 6 statistical packages.
Female doctors obtained a mean knowledge score of 74% and were the only professional group that had satisfactory knowledge of risk factors. Majority (86%) believed that early breast cancer is curable while half of participants believed that prayer can make breast cancer disappear from the affected breast. Eighty three percent practice breast self-examination (BSE) once a month and only 8% have ever had a mammogram. Age, knowledge of risk factors, profession and beliefs were not significantly associated with rate of BSE in this study.
Results from this study suggest the need for continuing medical education programmes aimed at improving knowledge of breast cancer among female healthcare providers other than doctors.
Over three-quarter of the world's population is using herbal medicines with an increasing trend globally. Herbal medicines may be beneficial but are not completely harmless.
This study aimed to assess the extent of use and the general knowledge of the benefits and safety of herbal medicines among urban residents in Lagos, Nigeria.
The study involved 388 participants recruited by cluster and random sampling techniques. Participants were interviewed with a structured open- and close-ended questionnaire.
The information obtained comprises the demography and types of herbal medicines used by the respondents; indications for their use; the sources, benefits and adverse effects of the herbal medicines they used.
A total of 12 herbal medicines (crude or refined) were used by the respondents, either alone or in combination with other herbal medicines. Herbal medicines were reportedly used by 259 (66.8%) respondents. 'Agbo jedi-jedi' (35%) was the most frequently used herbal medicine preparation, followed by 'agbo-iba' (27.5%) and Oroki herbal mixture® (9%). Family and friends had a marked influence on 78.4% of the respondents who used herbal medicine preparations. Herbal medicines were considered safe by half of the respondents despite 20.8% of those who experienced mild to moderate adverse effects.
Herbal medicine is popular among the respondents but they appear to be ignorant of its potential toxicities. It may be necessary to evaluate the safety, efficacy and quality of herbal medicines and their products through randomised clinical trial studies. Public enlightenment programme about safe use of herbal medicines may be necessary as a means of minimizing the potential adverse effects.
The parasitic skin disease tungiasis (caused by the flea Tunga penetrans) affects resource-poor communities in Latin America, the Caribbean and sub-Saharan Africa. Prevalences in endemic areas are high, and severe pathology occurs commonly. However, risk factors for infestation have never been assessed in Africa.
Methods and Findings
A cross-sectional study was conducted in Erekiti, a rural community in Lagos State (Nigeria), where tungiasis is endemic. Individuals were examined clinically for the presence of tungiasis, and a questionnaire was applied. Data from 643 individuals (86.6% of the target population) were analyzed; 252 (42.5%) were infested with T. penetrans. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, presence of pigs on the compounds (adjusted odds ratio = 17.98; 95% confidence interval: 5.55–58.23), sand or clay floor inside houses (9.33; 5.06–17.19), and having the common resting place outside the house (7.14; 4.0–14.29) were the most important risk factors identified. The regular use of closed footwear (0.34; 0.18–0.62) and the use of insecticides indoors (0.2; 0.05–0.83) were protective against infestation. The population attributable fractions associated with tungiasis were: sand or clay floor inside the house (73.7%), resting usually outside the house (65.5%), no regular use of closed footwear (51.1%), and pigs on the compound (37.9%).
The presence of tungiasis in Erekiti is determined to an important extent by a limited number of modifiable variables. Effective and sustainable intervention measures addressing these factors need to be implemented in this and other West African communities with high disease burden.
Tungiasis is a parasitic skin disease caused by the sand flea Tunga penetrans. After penetration into the skin, the flea grows and reaches the size of a pea. The disease is a neglected public health problem in endemic areas in Latin America, the Caribbean and Africa, and causes considerable morbidity in the affected communities. We performed a study in a rural community in Nigeria to detect factors associated with tungiasis. People were examined for the presence of sand flea lesions, and a questionnaire was applied. Of the 643 individuals examined, 252 (42.5%) had tungiasis. The most important factors independently associated with the disease were: presence of pigs on the compound (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 17.98), sand or clay floor inside house (OR = 9.33), and having the common resting place outside the house (OR = 7.14). The regular use of closed footwear (OR = 0.34) and the use of insecticides indoors (OR = 0.2) were protective factors. Our data show that tungiasis in this community is determined to an important extent by some variables that may be a target for interventions.
To study tremor in patients with X-linked recessive spinobulbar muscular atrophy or Kennedy's disease.
Ten patients (from 7 families) with a genetic diagnosis of Kennedy's disease were screened for the presence of tremor using a standardized clinical protocol and followed up at a neurology outpatient clinic. All index patients were genotyped and showed an expanded allele in the androgen receptor gene.
Mean patient age was 37.6 years and mean number of CAG repeats 47 (44-53). Tremor was present in 8 (80%) patients and was predominantly postural hand tremor. Alcohol responsiveness was detected in 7 (88%) patients with tremor, who all responded well to treatment with a β-blocker (propranolol).
Tremor is a common feature in patients with Kennedy's disease and has characteristics similar to those of essential tremor.
Kennedy's disease; X-linked recessive bulbospinal neuronopathy; Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy; Motor neuron disease; Tremor
To examine the utility of baseline factors to predict disease progression among a clinical cohort of patients diagnosed with essential tremor.
Tremor Rating Scale (TRS).
A clinical series of 128 consecutive patients diagnosed with essential tremor was included for study. 45 (35%) patients had at least one follow‐up exam (mean = 3.6 years). Baseline predictive factors examined included age, age at onset of symptoms, disease duration, sex, handedness, total tremor rating score, asymmetric tremor ratings, location of initial tremor onset, use of drugs for movement disorders, ETOH responsiveness of tremor, association of head or neck tremor, history of depression, familial history of essential tremor, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and other movement disorders.
On average, the TRS total score increased by <1 point per year before the first visit to the clinic and by about 2 points per year during the observed study period. The increase of 2 points per year during the observed study period represented an approximate 12% annual change from the mean TRS total score at the first clinic visit. Significant (p<0.05) predictive factors associated with increased tremor severity at the initial clinic visit included older age, longer disease duration, use of movement disorder drugs and the presence of voice tremor (r = 0.24, 0.27, 0.25, 0.19). The major factors associated with an increase in tremor severity from the initial clinic visit to the last follow up included asymmetrical tremor ratings, unilateral initial tremor onset and longer follow‐up duration (r = 0.32, 0.31, 0.30). Multivariate regression analysis accounted for about 17–30% of the variance in tremor ratings (p<0.05).
Essential tremor is a slow, progressive disease. The rate of disease progression and the factors associated with disease progression may vary throughout the disease course.
To find out the prevalence, clinical and biochemical correlates of Breast Artery Calcification (BAC) in the Nigerian women.
This is a cross sectional study involving 54 consecutive adult female subjects sent to the Radiology Department of the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital (LASUTH), Ikeja-Lagos, Nigeria for screening and diagnostic mammography. The study was carried out for a period of five months.
The prevalence of BAC was 20%. Ageing was found to be related to BAC. Cardiovascular risk factors including diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension, obesity, alcohol ingestion, use of oral contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy, were not significantly related to the presence of BAC in this study.
This study showed that though the presence of BAC in a mammogram is related to age, it may not predict or serve as a significant marker for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in women in our environment.
With a rapidly increasing population of older aged people, epidemiological data regarding the prevalence of mental and physical illnesses are urgently required for proper health planning. However, there is a scarcity of such data from India.
To study the frequency and pattern of psychiatric morbidity present and the association of physical illness with psychiatric morbidity in an elderly urban population.
Settings and Design:
Cross-sectional, epidemiological study.
Materials and Methods:
All the consenting elderly persons in a municipal ward division (n=202) were enrolled after surveying a total adult population of 7239 people. A door to door survey was undertaken where the participants were interviewed and physically examined. General Health Questionnaire-12, Mini Mental State Examination, CAGE Questionnaire and Geriatric Depression Scale were used in the interview apart from consulting the available documents. Other family members were also interviewed to verify the information.
Chi-square test with Yates correction.
Psychiatric illnesses were detected in 26.7% while physical illnesses were present in 69.8% of the population surveyed. Predominant psychiatric diagnoses were depressive disorders, dementia, generalized anxiety disorder, alcohol dependence and bipolar disorder. The most common physical illness was visual impairment, followed by cardiovascular disease, rheumatic illnesses, pulmonary illnesses, hearing impairment, genitourinary diseases and neurological disorders. Presence of dementia was associated with increased age, single/widowed/separated status, nuclear family, economic dependence, low education, cardiovascular disorders, rheumatic disorders and neurological disorders. Depression was associated with female sex, single/widowed/separated status, staying in nuclear families, economic dependence on others and co-morbid physical illnesses, specifically cardiovascular disorders and visual impairment.
This study presented a higher rate of dementia and old age depression. The interesting association with several sociodemographic factors as well as physical illnesses may have important implications for health planning.
Dementia; epidemiology; geriatric depression; mental health
Psychiatric morbidity was studied in an urbanized tribal (Santal) community comprising 205 families in the district of Nadia, West Bengal by the method of door to door survey of each family by a team of psychiatrists. Total morbidity was 519 1000. Depression was the commonest type of illness. Neurotic illness, epilepsy and mental retaliation had a very low rate of prevalence. Married individuals were more attached than the unmarried ones. Males had a slightly higher rate of mental morbidity. The population showed a general tendency of greater vulnerability to mental illness with advancing age. Results are discussed in the perspective of relevant studies.
Primary headache disorders are a major public-health problem globally and, possibly more so, in low- and middle-income countries. No methodologically sound studies of prevalence and burden of headache in the adult Indian population have been published previously. The present study was a door-to-door cold-calling survey in urban and rural areas in and around Bangalore, Karnataka State. From 2,714 households contacted, 2,514 biologically unrelated individuals were eligible for the survey and 2,329 (92.9 %) participated (1,103 [48 %] rural; 1,226 [52 %] urban; 1,141 [49 %] male; 1,188 [51 %] female; mean age 38.0 years). The focus was on primary headache (migraine and tension-type headache [TTH]) and medication-overuse headache. A structured questionnaire administered by trained lay interviewers was the instrument both for diagnosis (algorithmically determined from responses) and burden estimation. The screening question enquired into headache in the last year. The validation study compared questionnaire-based diagnoses with those obtained soon after through personal interview by a neurologist in a random sub-sample of participants (n = 381; 16 %). It showed high values (>80 %) for sensitivity, specificity and predictive values for any headache, and for specificity and negative predictive value for migraine and TTH. Kappa values for diagnostic agreement were good for any headache (0.69 [95 % CI 0.61–0.76]), moderate (0.46 [0.35–0.56]) for migraine and fair (0.39 [0.29–0.49]) for TTH.The survey methodology, including identification of and access to participants, proved feasible. The questionnaire proved effective in the survey population. The study will give reliable estimates of the prevalence and burden of headache, and of migraine and TTH specifically, in urban and rural Karnataka.
Primary headache disorders; Migraine; Tension-type headache; Epidemiology; Burden of disease; Methodology; Survey; Validation; Global Campaign against Headache; India