Costly efforts have been invested to control and prevent cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and their risk factors but the ideal solutions for low resource settings remain unclear. This paper aims at summarising our approaches to implementing a programme on hypertension management in a rural commune of Vietnam.
In a rural commune, a programme has been implemented since 2006 to manage hypertensive people at the commune health station and to deliver health education on CVD risk factors to the entire community. An initial cross-sectional survey was used to screen for hypertensives who might enter the management programme. During 17 months of implementation, other people with hypertension were also followed up and treated. Data were collected from all individual medical records, including demographic factors, behavioural CVD risk factors, blood pressure levels, and number of check-ups. These data were analysed to identify factors relating to adherence to the management programme.
Both top-down and bottom-up approaches were applied to implement a hypertension management programme. The programme was able to run independently at the commune health station after 17 months. During the implementation phase, 497 people were followed up with an overall regular follow-up of 65.6% and a dropout of 14.3%. Severity of hypertension and effectiveness of treatment were the main factors influencing the decision of people to adhere to the management programme, while being female, having several behavioural CVD risk factors or a history of chronic disease were the predictors for deviating from the programme.
Our model showed the feasibility, applicability and future potential of a community-based model of comprehensive hypertension care in a low resource context using both top-down and bottom-up approaches to engage all involved partners. This success also highlighted the important roles of both local authorities and a cardiac care network, led by an outstanding cardiac referral centre.
Data for trends in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors are needed to set priorities and evaluate intervention programmes in the community. We estimated time trends in blood pressure (BP), anthropometric variables and smoking in the Vietnamese population and highlighted the differences between men and women or between rural and urban areas.
A dataset of 23,563 adults aged 25–74 from 5 cross-sectional surveys undertaken within Vietnam from 2001 to 2009 by the Vietnam National Heart Institute was used to estimate mean BP, weight, waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), the prevalence of hypertension, adiposity or smoking, which were standardised to the national age structure of 2009. Multilevel mixed linear models were used to estimate annual changes in the variables of interest, adjusted by age, sex, residential area, with random variations for age and surveyed provinces.
Among the adult population, the age-standardised mean systolic and diastolic BP increased by 0.8 and 0.3 mmHg in women, 1.1 and 0.4 mmHg in men, while the mean BMI increased by 0.1 kgm−2 in women, 0.2 kgm−2 in men per year. Consequently, the prevalence of hypertension and adiposity increased by 0.9 and 0.3% in women, 1.1 and 0.9% in men with similar time trends in both rural and urban areas, while smoking prevalence only increased in women by 0.3% per year. A U-shaped association was found between age-adjusted BP and BMI in both sexes and in both areas.
From 2001 to 2009, mean BP, weight and WC significantly increased in the Vietnamese population, leading to an increased prevalence of hypertension and adiposity, suggesting the need for the development of multi-sectoral cost-effective population-based interventions to improve CVD management and prevention. The U-shaped relationship between BP and BMI highlighted the hypertension burden in the underweight population, which is usually neglected in CVD interventions.
Objective: To assess the net 5 year effects of intervention of a community based demonstration project, the Heartbeat Wales programme, on modifiable behavioural risks for prevention of cardiovascular disease.
Design and setting: Quasi-experimental design comparing results from two independent cross sectional population surveys conducted in 1985 and 1990 in Wales and a matched reference area in north east England.
Subjects: Random, stratified samples of people aged 18-64 years (18 538 in 1985 and 13 045 in 1990) in Wales and in north east England (1483 and 4534, respectively).
Intervention: A coordinated range of activities for heart health promotion in Wales entailing public education campaigns along with supportive policy and infrastructure change. In the reference area no additional community heart health promotion was planned, though considerable activity did take place, “contaminating” the reference area.
Main outcome measures: Fifteen self reported behavioural indicators relating to dietary choice, smoking, frequency of exercise, and weight.
Results: Positive changes (for health) in behavioural outcomes were observed among the population in Wales, including a reduction in reported smoking prevalence and improvements in dietary choice. There was no net intervention effect for the programme over and above observed change in the reference area.
Conclusions: No definite conclusions can be drawn concerning the efficacy of the programme in terms of behavioural outcomes. With hindsight, the difficulties of evaluating such a complex multifaceted intervention were underestimated. Further debate on the most appropriate methods for assessing the effectiveness of community based health promotion programmes is called for.
Key messages Heartbeat Wales was set up in 1985 as a community based programme to demonstrate risk reduction for cardiovascular disease Important changes were observed in modifiable risks for cardiovascular disease in Wales between 1985 and 1990 There was an unexpectedly rapid uptake of heart health promotion activity in the reference area No net intervention effects were found for the programme over and above changes in the reference area Improvements in methods of evaluation for community based health promotion programmes are required
Background. Data on cardiovascular disease risk factors (CVDRFs) in Vietnam are limited. This study explores the prevalence of each CVDRF and how they cluster to evaluate CVDRF burdens and potential prevention strategies.
Methods. A cross-sectional survey in 2009 (2,130 adults) was done to collect data on behavioural CVDRF, anthropometry and blood pressure, lipidaemia profiles, and oral glucose tolerance tests. Four metabolic CVDRFs (hypertension, dyslipidaemia, diabetes, and obesity) and five behavioural CVDRFs (smoking, excessive alcohol intake, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, and stress) were analysed to identify their prevalence, cluster patterns, and social predictors. Framingham scores were applied to estimate the global 10-year CVD risks and potential benefits of CVD prevention strategies. Results. The age-standardised prevalence of having at least 2/4 metabolic, 2/5 behavioural, or 4/9 major CVDRF was 28%, 27%, 13% in women and 32%, 62%, 34% in men. Within-individual clustering of metabolic factors was more common among older women and in urban areas. High overall CVD risk (≥20% over 10 years) identified 20% of men and 5% of women—especially at higher ages—who had coexisting CVDRF. Conclusion. Multiple CVDRFs were common in Vietnamese adults with different clustering patterns across sex/age groups. Tackling any single risk factor would not be efficient.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a burden for developing countries, yet few CVD intervention studies have been conducted in developing countries such as Indonesia. This paper outlines the process of designing a community intervention programme to reduce CVD risk factors, and discusses experiences with regard to design issues for a small-scale intervention.
The design process for the present community intervention consisted of six stages: (1) a baseline risk factor survey, (2) design of a small-scale intervention by using both baseline survey and qualitative data, (3) implementation of the small-scale intervention, (4) evaluation of the small-scale intervention and design of a broader CVD intervention in the Yogyakarta municipality, (5) implementation of the broader intervention and (6) evaluation of the broader CVD intervention. According to the baseline survey, 60% of the men were smokers, more than 30% of the population had insufficient fruit and vegetable intake and more than 30% of the population were physically inactive, this is why a small-scale population intervention approach was chosen, guided both by the findings in the quantitative and the qualitative study.
A quasi-experimental study was designed with a control group and pre- and post-testing. In the small-scale intervention, two sub-districts were selected and randomly assigned as intervention and control areas. Within them, six intervention settings (two sub-villages, two schools and two workplaces) and three control settings (a sub-village, a school and a workplace) were selected. Health promotion activities targeting the whole community were implemented in the intervention area. During the evaluation, more activities were performed in the low socioeconomic status sub-village and at the civil workplace.
cardiovascular disease; design intervention; community intervention; urban community; developing countries
Hypertension is currently a global health concern. Rural and minority populations are increasingly exposed to risk factors as a result of urbanization, leading to hypertension and cardiovascular disease. We conducted a survey in the rural Karen community in Thasongyang District, Tak Province, Thailand, with the aims of determining: the distribution of blood pressure across different age groups; the prevalence of hypertension and other risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), including diabetes, smoking, sedentary lifestyle, and excess alcohol use; knowledge and awareness of hypertension as a disease; and knowledge and awareness of risk factors for hypertension among the population at risk.
This was a community-based, cross-sectional survey of 298 rural Karen residents. A set of questionnaires assessing lifestyle-related health risk behaviors and awareness and knowledge of hypertension were used. Blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, weight, height, and waist circumference were measured.
Median systolic and diastolic blood pressures were 110 (range 100–120) mmHg and 70 (range 60–80) mmHg, respectively. High blood pressure was observed in more than 27% of the population, with 15% being hypertensive and 12% being prehypertensive. Multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that people in the Karen community who were aware of hypertension were less likely to be current smokers (odds ratio [OR] 0.53, confidence interval [CI] 0.29–0.97) and those with primary school education were more likely to be aware of hypertension than those who did not have a primary school education (OR 6.5, CI 1.9–22.24). Overall, our survey showed that less than half of the Karen community had such knowledge and awareness.
It is urgently necessary to promote knowledge, awareness, and health literacy among the ethnic Karen tribes to prevent hypertension and associated CVDs.
hypertension; Karen; smoking; awareness; knowledge; CVDs
Current guidelines for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD) emphasise the importance of a healthy lifestyle. However, successful lifestyle intervention is proving to be a challenge for healthcare professionals.
Evaluation of the effect of lifestyle intervention on cardiovascular risk factors, on reaching treatment targets and on the estimated risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
The effect of a six-month multidisciplinary structured lifestyle intervention programme was assessed in 186 patients with and without a history of CVD.
Multidisciplinary structured lifestyle intervention reduced the estimated ten-year risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The relative risk reduction was similar in patients with and without a history of CVD, the absolute risk reduction was higher in patients with a history of CVD. In both groups blood pressure and body weight decreased, and the maximal work rate and maximal oxygen uptake increased significantly. Blood levels of total cholesterol and cholesterol/HDL ratio decreased significantly in patients with a history of CVD. In addition, target levels for blood pressure and physical fitness were more frequently reached in both patient groups.
Multidisciplinary structured lifestyle intervention had beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors. Relative risk reduction was similar in patients with and without evidence of cardiovascular disease. Follow-up is needed to see how well these effects can be maintained.
cardiovascular disease; cardiovascular risk; lifestyle intervention; prevention; risk factor; treatment target
Smoking prevalence among Medicaid enrollees is higher than the general population, but use of evidence-based cessation treatment is low. We evaluated whether a communications campaign improved cessation treatment utilization.
Enrollees in the Wisconsin Family Medicaid program. The average monthly enrollment during the study period was approximately 170,000 individuals.
Print materials for clinicians and consumers distributed to 13 health maintenance organizations (HMO) serving Wisconsin Medicaid HMO enrollees.
Wisconsin Medicaid pharmacy claims data for smoking cessation medications were analyzed before and after a targeted communications campaign. HMO enrollees were the intervention group. Fee-for-service enrollees were a quasi-experimental comparison group. Quit Line utilization data were also analyzed.
Pharmacotherapy claims and number of registered quitline callers were compared pre-and post-campaign.
Pre-campaign, cessation pharmacotherapy claims declined for the intervention group and increased slightly for the comparison group (t = 2.29, p = 0.03). Post-campaign, claims increased in both groups. However, the rate of increase in the intervention group was significantly greater than in the comparison group (t = −2.2, p = 0.04). A statistically significant increase was also seen in the average monthly number of Medicaid enrollees that registered for Quit Line services post-campaign compared to pre-campaign (F (1,22) = 7.19, p = 0.01).
This natural experiment demonstrated statistically significant improvements in both pharmacotherapy claims and Quit Line registrations among Medicaid enrollees. These findings may help inform other states’ efforts to improve cessation treatment utilization.
smoking; cessation; Medicaid; treatment; utilization
Background and objective
In Sweden, mortality from cardiovascular diseases (CVD) increased steadily during the 20th century and in the mid-1980s it was highest in the county of Västerbotten. Therefore, a community intervention programme was launched – the Västerbotten Intervention Programme (VIP) – with the aim of reducing morbidity and mortality from CVD and diabetes.
The VIP was first developed in the small municipality of Norsjö in 1985. Subsequently, it was successively implemented across the county and is now integrated into ordinary primary care routines. A population-based strategy directed towards the public is combined with a strategy to reach all middle-aged persons individually at ages 40, 50 and 60 years, by inviting them to participate in systematic risk factor screening and individual counselling about healthy lifestyle habits. Blood samples for research purposes are stored at the Umeå University Medical Biobank.
Overall, 113,203 health examinations have been conducted in the VIP and 6,500–7,000 examinations take place each year. Almost 27,000 subjects have participated twice. Participation rates have ranged between 48 and 67%. A dropout rate analysis in 1998 indicated only a small social selection bias. Cross-sectional, nested case-control studies and prospective studies have been based on the VIP data. Linkages between the VIP and local, regional and national databases provide opportunities for interdisciplinary research, as well as national and international collaborations on a wide range of disease outcomes. A large number of publications are based on data that are collected in the VIP, many of which also use results from analysed stored blood samples. More than 20 PhD theses have been based primarily on the VIP data.
The concept of the VIP, established as a collaboration between politicians and health care providers on the one hand and primary care, functioning as the operating machinery, and the public on the other, forms the basis for effective implementation and endurance over time. After more than 20 years of the VIP, there is a large comprehensive population-based database, a stable organisation to conduct health surveys and collect data, and a solid structure to enable widespread multidisciplinary and scientific collaborations.
prevention; community intervention; cardiovascular diseases; primary health care; health promotion; research methodology
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in Vietnam and hypertension (HTN) is an important and prevalent risk factor for CVD in the adult Vietnamese population. Despite an increasing prevalence of HTN in this country, information about the awareness, treatment, and control of HTN is limited. The objectives of this study were to describe the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of HTN, and factors associated with these endpoints, in residents of a mountainous province in Vietnam.
Data from 2,368 adults (age≥25 years) participating in a population-based survey conducted in 2011 in Thai Nguyen province were analyzed. All eligible participants completed a structured questionnaire and were examined by community health workers using a standardized protocol.
The overall prevalence of HTN in this population was 23%. Older age, male sex, and being overweight were associated with a higher odds of having HTN, while higher educational level was associated with a lower odds of having HTN. Among those with HTN, only 34% were aware of their condition, 43% of those who were aware they had HTN received treatment and, of these, 39% had their HTN controlled.
Nearly one in four adults in Thai Nguyen is hypertensive, but far fewer are aware of this condition and even fewer have their blood pressure adequately controlled. Public health strategies increasing awareness of HTN in the community, as well as improvements in the treatment and control of HTN, remain needed to reduce the prevalence of HTN and related morbidity and mortality.
Because of a high cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in people with Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH), early prevention of cardiovascular disease is important for health gain and cost reduction. This project focuses on the development and evaluation of an innovative intervention aiming to reduce CVD risk by promoting a healthy lifestyle among people with FH.
This project is designed as a randomised controlled trial in which individuals with FH will be assigned randomly to a control or intervention group. In the intervention group (n = 200), participants will receive a personalized intervention which is a combination of web-based tailored lifestyle advice and personal counselling by a lifestyle coach. The control group (n = 200) will receive care as usual. Primary outcomes are biological indicators of CVD risk: systolic blood pressure, glucose, BMI, waist circumference and lipids (triglycerides, total, LDL and HDL cholesterol). Secondary outcomes are: healthy lifestyle behaviour (with regard to smoking, physical activity, dietary pattern and compliance to statin therapy) and psychological correlates and determinants of healthy lifestyle behaviour (knowledge, attitude, risk perception, social influence, self-efficacy, cues to action, intention and autonomy). Measurement will take place at baseline, and at 3 and 12 months after randomisation. Additionally, a throughout process-evaluation will be conducted to assess and monitor intervention implementation during the trial.
Results of the PRO-FIT project will provide information about the effects and implementation of a healthy lifestyle intervention for individuals with FH. Our experiences with this intervention will be indicative about the suitability, feasibility and benefits of this approach for future interventions in other high-risk groups, such as Familial Combined Hypercholesterolemia (FCH) and diabetes.
Trial registration number
The childhood obesity epidemic is one of the foremost UK health priorities. Childhood obesity tracks into adult life and places individuals at considerable risk for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, liver disease and other morbidities. There is widespread need for paediatric lifestyle programmes as change may be easier to accomplish in childhood than later in life.
The study will evaluate the management of adolescent obesity by conducting a Medical Research Council complex intervention phase III efficacy randomised clinical trial of the Healthy Eating Lifestyle Programme within primary care. The study tests a community delivered multi-component intervention designed for adolescents developed from best practice as identified by National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. The hospital based pilot reduced body mass index and improved health-related quality of life.
Subjects will be individually randomised to receiving either the Healthy Eating Lifestyle Programme (12 fortnightly family sessions) or enhanced standard care. Baseline and follow up assessments will be undertaken blind to allocation status. A health economic evaluation is also being conducted.
200 obese young people (13-17 years, body mass index > 98th centile for age and sex) will be recruited from primary care within the greater London area.
The primary hypothesis is that a motivational and solution-focused family-based weight management programme delivered over 6 months is more efficacious in reducing body mass index in obese adolescents identified in the community than enhanced standard care.
The primary outcome will be body mass index at the end of the intervention, adjusted for baseline body mass index, age and sex.
The secondary hypothesis is that the Healthy Eating Lifestyle Programme is more efficacious in improving quality of life and psychological function and reducing waist circumference and cardiovascular risk factors in obese adolescents than enhanced standard care assessed at 6 and 12 months post baseline assessment.
Improvement in quality of life predicts on-going lifestyle change and maximises the chances of long-term weight reduction. We will explore whether improvement in QOL may be intermediate on the pathway between the intervention and body mass index change.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is largely the product of interactions among modifiable risk factors that are common in developed nations and increasingly of concern in developing countries. Hypertension is an important precursor to the development of CVD, and although detection and treatment rates have improved in recent years in some jurisdictions, effective strategies and policies supporting a shift in distribution of risk factors at the population level remain paramount. Challenges in managing cardiovascular health more effectively include factors at the patient, provider, and system level. Strategies to reduce hypertension and CVD should be population based, incorporate multilevel, multicomponent, and socioenvironmental approaches, and integrate community resources with public health and clinical care. There is an urgent need to improve monitoring and management of risk factors through community-wide, primary care-linked initiatives, increase the evidence base for community-based prevention strategies, further develop and evaluate promising program components, and develop new approaches to support healthy lifestyle behaviors in diverse age, socioeconomic, and ethnocultural groups. Policy and system changes are critical to reduce risk in populations, including legislation and public education to reduce dietary sodium and trans-fatty acids, food pricing policies, and changes to health care delivery systems to explicitly support prevention and management of CVD.
risk factors; blood pressure determination; community health services; community health planning; public health practice
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are a leading contributor to the burden of disease in low- and middle-income countries. Guidelines for CVD prevention care in low resource settings have been developed but little information is available on strategies to implement this care. A community health insurance program might be used to improve patients' access to care. The operational research project "QUality Improvement Cardiovascular care Kwara - I (QUICK-I)" aims to assess the feasibility of CVD prevention care in rural Nigeria, according to international guidelines, in the context of a community based health insurance scheme.
Design: prospective observational hospital based cohort study.
Setting: a primary health care centre in rural Nigeria.
Study population: 300 patients at risk for development of CVD (patients with hypertension, diabetes, renal disease or established CVD) who are enrolled in the Hygeia Community Health Plan.
Measurements: demographic and socio- economic data, physical and laboratory examination, CVD risk profile including screening for target organ damage. Measurements will be done at 3 month intervals during 1 year. Direct and indirect costs of CVD prevention care will be estimated.
Outcomes: 1) The adjusted cardiovascular quality of care indicator scores based on the "United Kingdom National Health Services Quality and Outcome Framework". 2) The average costs of CVD prevention and treatment per patient per year for patients, the clinic and the insurance company. 3) The estimated net health care costs of standard CVD prevention care per quality-adjusted life year gained.
Analysis: The primary outcomes, the score on CVD quality indicators and cost data will be descriptive. The quality scores and cost data will be used to describe the feasibility of CVD prevention care according to international guidelines. A cost-effectiveness analysis will be done using a Markov model.
Results of QUICK-I can be used by policy makers and professionals who aim to implement CVD prevention programs in settings with limited resources. The context of the insurance program will provide insight in the opportunities community health insurance may offer to attain sustainable chronic disease management programs in low resource settings.
This protocol has been registered at ISRCTN, ID number: ISRCTN47894401.
An increasingly aged, overweight, and sedentary population has resulted in elevated risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The escalating incidence of diabetes and other chronic illnesses, deficits in health care budgets, and physician shortages, especially in rural communities, have prompted investigations of feasible solutions. The Diabetes and Technology for Increased Activity (DaTA) study was designed to test the effectiveness of a lifestyle intervention driven by self-monitoring of blood glucose (BG), blood pressure (BP), physical activity (PA), and weight to positively impact CVD risk factors in a medically underserviced rural population with a high incidence of metabolic syndrome (MS).
Research Design and Methods:
Conducted in a community-based research setting, this single-center open feasibility study used smart phones to transmit BP, BG, pedometer, weight, heart rate, and activity measurements to a database. Technology allowed participants to interface with the clinical team and self-monitor their personal health indicators.
Twenty-four participants aged 30 to 71 years completed the 8-week intervention. Participants had significant improvement in clinic (p = .046) and self-monitored diastolic BP (p = .001), body mass index (p = .002), and total cholesterol (p = .009), and steps per day. Daily PA increased as well as participants' interest in and willingness to make lifestyle changes that impact health outcomes.
The DaTA study demonstrated that self-monitoring of the risk factors for MS and increased PA improved the participant's CVD risk profile. Considering the 8-week time period of this intervention, results are encouraging. This lifestyle intervention, which uses education and technology as tools, confirms the utility of remote health monitoring.
diabetes; lifestyle management; remote monitoring; rural primary care; technology
The Uniontown, Alabama Community Health Project trained and facilitated Community Health Advisors (CHAs) in conducting a theory-based intervention designed to reduce the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) among rural African-American women. The multiphased project included formative evaluation and community organization, CHA recruitment and training, community intervention and maintenance. Formative data collected to develop the training, intervention and evaluation methods and materials indicated the need for programs to increase knowledge, skills and resources for changing behaviors that increase the risk of CVD. CHAs worked in partnership with staff to develop, implement, evaluate and maintain strategies to reduce risk for CVD in women and to influence city officials, business owners and community coalitions to facilitate project activities. Process data documented sustained increases in social capital and community capacity to address health-related issues, as well as improvements in the community’s physical infrastructure. This project is unique in that it documents that a comprehensive CHA-based intervention for CVD can facilitate wide-reaching changes in capacity to address health issues in a rural community that include improvements in community infrastructure and are sustained beyond the scope of the originally funded intervention.
Early identification of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk is important to reach people in need of treatment. At-risk patients benefit from behavioral counseling in addition to medical therapy. The objective of this study was to determine whether enhanced counseling, using patient navigators trained to counsel patients on CVD risk-reduction strategies and facilitate patient access to community-based lifestyle-change services, reduced CVD risk among at-risk patients in a low-income population.
We compared clinical characteristics at baseline and 12-month follow-up among 340 intervention and 340 comparison patients from community health centers in Denver, Colorado, between March 2007 and June 2009; all patients had a Framingham risk score (FRS) greater or equal to 10% at baseline. The intervention consisted of patient-centered counseling by bilingual patient navigators. At baseline and at 6-month and 12-month follow-up, we assessed health behaviors of intervention participants. We used an intent-to-treat approach for all analyses and measured significant differences by χ2 and t tests.
We found significant differences in several clinical outcomes. At follow-up, the mean FRS was lower for the intervention group (mean FRS, 15%) than for the comparison group (mean FRS, 16%); total cholesterol was lower for the intervention group (mean total cholesterol, 183 mg/dL) than for the comparison group (mean total cholesterol, 197 mg/dL). Intervention participants reported significant improvements in some health behaviors at 12-month follow-up, especially nutrition-related behaviors. Behaviors related to tobacco use and cessation attempts did not improve.
Patient navigators may provide some benefit in reducing risk of CVD in a similar population.
Objectives: As physical activity is promoted as part of a healthy lifestyle, sports injuries are becoming an important public health concern in many countries. The objective of this study is to investigate rates of sports injuries before and after implementation of a WHO Safe Community program.
Methods: Sports injury data were collected pre- and post-implementation from all individuals below 65 years of age during 1 year in the targeted municipality (population 41 000) and in a control municipality (population 26 000). A quasi-experimental design was used and individuals were divided into three categories based on household relationship to the labour market.
Results: There were no differences between socio-economic categories regarding pre-intervention injury rates. No statistically significant post-intervention changes in injury rate were observed in the control area or among any females in either area. In the intervention area, a statistically significant (p = 0.011) decrease in injury rate was observed among male members of households in which the vocationally important member was employed. A statistically significant decrease was observed in injuries sustained in team sports among male members of households in which the vocationally important member was employed (p = 0.001) and among members of households in which the vocationally important member was self employed (p<0.05).
Conclusions: The study indicates areas for improvement in the civic network based WHO Safe Community model. The results show that females, participants in individual sports, and members of non-vocationally active households were less affected by the interventions. These facts have to be addressed in planning future community based sports injury prevention programmes and their evaluations.
The Hypertension Initiative began in 1999 to help transition South Carolina from a leader in cardiovascular disease (CVD) to a model of heart and vascular health. Goals were to reduce heart disease and stroke 50% by promoting healthy lifestyles and access to effective care and medications. Continuing medical education was used to train providers, encourage physicians to become American Society of Hypertension (ASH) certified Hypertension Specialists and recruit practices into the community-based practice network (CBPN). Practice data audit with provider specific feedback is a key quality improvement tool.
With ASH support, the CBPN has grown to 197 practices with ~1.6 million patients (~700,000 hypertensives). Clinical data are obtained from electronic health records and quarterly provider feedback reports generated. Hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes control rose and South Carolina improved from 51st to 35th in CVD mortality from 1995 to 2006.
The Hypertension Initiative expanded to the Outpatient Quality Improvement Network to encompass comparative effectiveness research and other chronic diseases. Lessons learned include: trust enables success, addressing practice priorities powers participation, infrastructure support must be multilateral, strategic planning identifies opportunities and pitfalls. A collaborative practice network is attainable that produces positive, sustainable, and growing impacts on cardiovascular and other chronic diseases.
hypertension; hyperlipidemia; diabetes community-based practice network; evidence-based medicine
High blood pressure (BP) is a major public health problem in India and its prevalence is rapidly increasing among urban and rural populations. Reducing systolic and diastolic BP can decrease cardiovascular risk and this can be achieved by non-pharmacological (lifestyle measures) as well as pharmacological means. Lifestyle changes should be the initial approach to hypertension management and include dietary interventions (reducing salt, increasing potassium, alcohol avoidance, and multifactorial diet control), weight reduction, tobacco cessation, physical exercise, and stress management. A number of pharmaceutical agents, well evidenced by large randomized clinical trials, are available for initial treatment of high BP. These include older molecules such as thiazide diuretics and beta-blocking agents and newer molecules, dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (CCB), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB). In view of the recent clinical trials data, some international guidelines suggest that CCB, ACE inhibitors or ARB and not beta-blockers or diuretics should be the initial therapy in hypertension management. Comprehensive hypertension management focuses on reducing overall cardiovascular risk by lifestyle measures, BP lowering and lipid management and should be the preferred initial treatment approach.
B-blockers; dietary therapy; high blood pressure; lifestyle; pharmacotherapy; physical activity; salt
Decreasing salt consumption can prevent cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Practically, it is difficult to promote people’s awareness of daily salt intake and to change their eating habits in terms of reducing salt intake for better cardiovascular health. Health education programs visualizing daily dietary salt content and intake may promote lifestyle changes in patients at high risk of cardiovascular diseases.
This is a cluster randomized trial. A total of 800 high-CVD-risk patients attending diabetes and hypertension clinics at health centers in Muang District, Chiang Rai province, Thailand, will be studied with informed consent. A health center recruiting 100 participants is a cluster, the unit of randomization. Eight clusters will be randomized into intervention and control arms and followed up for 1 year. Within the intervention clusters the following will be undertaken: (1) salt content in the daily diet will be measured and shown to study participants; (2) 24-hour salt intake will be estimated in overnight-collected urine and the results shown to the participants; (3) a dietician will assist small group health education classes in cooking meals with less salt. The primary outcome is blood pressure change at the 1-year follow-up. Secondary outcomes at the 1-year follow-up are estimated 24-hoursalt intake, incidence of CVD events and CVD death. The intention-to-treat analysis will be followed.
Blood pressure and estimated 24-hour salt intake will be compared between intervention and control groups at the cluster and individual level at the 1-year follow-up. Clinical CVD events and deaths will be analyzed by time-event analysis. Retinal blood vessel calibers of CVD-risk patients will be assessed cross-sectionally. Behavioral change to reduce salt intake and the influencing factors will be determined by structured equation model (SEM). Multilevel regression analyses will be applied. Finally, the cost effectiveness of the intervention will be analyzed.
This study is unique as it will recruit the individuals most vulnerable to CVD morbidity and mortality by applying the general Framingham CVD risk scoring system. Dietary salt reduction will be applied as a prioritized, community level intervention for the prevention of CVD in a developing country.
Salt; CVD; Thailand; Behavior; Intervention
The high prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the Hispanic population of the United States, together with low rates of health insurance coverage, suggest a potential cardiovascular health crisis. The objective of Project HEART (Health Education Awareness Research Team) was to promote behavior changes to decrease CVD risk factors in a high-risk Hispanic border population.
Project HEART took place from 2005 through 2008 as a randomized community trial with a community-based participatory research framework using promotores de salud (community health workers). A total of 328 participants with at least 1 CVD risk factor were selected by randomizing 10 US Census tracts in El Paso, Texas, to either the experimental or the control group. The experimental group (n = 192) was assigned to a series of 8 health classes using the Su Corazón, Su Vida curriculum. After 2 months of educational sessions, the group was followed for 2 months. The control group (n = 136) was given basic educational materials at baseline, and no other intervention was used. Main outcomes of interest included changes in health behaviors and clinical measures.
Participants in the experimental group showed more awareness of CVD risk factors, more confidence in the control of these factors, and improved dietary habits (ie, lower salt and cholesterol intake, better weight-control practices) compared with the control group. Total cholesterol was 3% lower in the experimental than in the control participants, and non–high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were both 5% lower.
The HEART trial suggests that community health education using promotores de salud is a viable strategy for CVD risk reduction in a Hispanic border community.
Community intervention programmes to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors within urban communities in developing countries are rare. One possible explanation is the difficulty of designing an intervention that corresponds to the local context and culture.
To understand people's perceptions of health and CVD, and how people prevent CVD in an urban setting in Yogyakarta, Indonesia.
A qualitative study was performed through focus group discussions and individual research interviews. Participants were selected purposively in terms of socio-economic status (SES), lay people, community leaders and government officers. Data were analysed by using content analysis.
Seven categories were identified: (1) heart disease is dangerous, (2) the cause of heart disease, (3) men have no time for health, (4) women are caretakers for health, (5) different information-seeking patterns, (6) the role of community leaders and (7) patterns of lay people's action. Each category consists of sub-categories according to the SES of participants. The main theme that emerged was one of balance and harmony, indicating the necessity of assuring a balance between ‘good’ and ‘bad’ habits.
The basic concepts of balance and harmony, which differ between low and high SES groups, must be understood when tailoring community interventions to reduce CVD risk factors.
health perception; Javanese philosophy; qualitative content analysis; cardiovascular disease; community intervention
Accumulation of lifestyle physical activity is a current aim of health promotion, with increased stair climbing one public health target. While the workplace provides an opportunity for regular stair climbing, evidence for effectiveness of point-of-choice interventions is equivocal. This paper reports a new approach to worksite interventions, aimed at changing attitudes and, hence, behaviour.
Pre-testing of calorific expenditure messages used structured interviews with members of the public (n = 300). Effects of multi-component campaigns on stair climbing were tested with quasi-experimental, interrupted time-series designs. In one worksite, a main campaign poster outlining the amount of calorific expenditure obtainable from stair climbing and a conventional point-of-choice prompt were used (Poster alone site). In a second worksite, additional messages in the stairwell about calorific expenditure reinforced the main campaign (Poster + Stairwell messages site). The outcome variables were automated observations of stair and lift ascent (28,854) and descent (29,352) at baseline and for three weeks after the intervention was installed. Post-intervention questionnaires for employees at the worksites assessed responses to the campaign (n = 253). Analyses employed Analysis of Variance with follow-up Bonferroni t-tests (message pre-testing), logistic regression of stair ascent and descent (campaign testing), and Bonferroni t-tests and multiple regression (follow-up questionnaire).
Pre-testing of messages based on calorific expenditure suggested they could motivate stair climbing if believed. The new campaign increased stair climbing, with greater effects at the Poster + Stairwell messages site (OR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.40-1.66) than Posters alone (OR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.15-1.34). Follow-up revealed higher agreement with two statements about calorific outcomes of stair climbing in the site where they were installed in the stairwell, suggesting more positive attitudes resulted from the intervention. Future intentions for stair use were predicted by motivation by the campaign and beliefs that stair climbing would help weight control.
Multi-component campaigns that target attitudes and intentions may substantially increase stair climbing at work.
The HEALTHY Study was a 3-year school-based intervention designed to change the behaviors of middle school students to reduce their risk for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. This report examines the relation between exposure to communications campaign materials and behavior change among students in the HEALTHY intervention schools. Using data from campaign tracking logs and student interviews, the authors examined communications campaign implementation and exposure to the communications campaign as well as health behavior change. Campaign tracking documents revealed variability across schools in the quantity of communications materials disseminated. Student interviews confirmed that there was variability in the proportion of students who reported receiving information from the communication campaign elements. Correlations and regression analysis controlling for semester examined the association between campaign exposure and behavior change across schools. There was a significant association between the proportion of students exposed to the campaign and the proportion of students who made changes in health behavior commensurate with study goals. The results suggest that, in the context of a multifaceted school-based health promotion intervention, schools that achieve a higher rate of exposure to communication campaign materials among the students may stimulate greater health behavior change.