Methanosarcina mazei is one of the model organisms for the methanogenic order Methanosarcinales whose metabolism has been studied in detail. However, the genetic toolbox is still limited. This study was aimed at widening the scope of utilizable methods in this group of organisms. (i) Proteins specific to methanogens are oftentimes difficult to produce in E. coli. However, a protein production system is not available for methanogens. Here we present an inducible system to produce Strep-tagged proteins in Ms. mazei. The promoter p1687, which directs the transcription of methyl transferases that demethylate methylamines, was cloned into plasmid pWM321 and its activity was determined by monitoring β-glucuronidase production. The promoter was inactive during growth on methanol but was rapidly activated when trimethylamine was added to the medium. The gene encoding the β-glucuronidase from E. coli was fused to a Strep-tag and was cloned downstream of the p1687 promoter. The protein was overproduced in Ms. mazei and was purified in an active form by affinity chromatography. (ii) Puromycin is currently the only antibiotic used as a selectable marker in Ms. mazei and its relatives. We established neomycin resistance as a second selectable marker by designing a plasmid that confers neomycin resistance in Ms. mazei.
A markerless genetic exchange system was successfully established in Methanosarcina mazei strain Gö1 using the hpt gene coding for hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase. First, a chromosomal deletion mutant of the hpt gene was generated conferring resistance to the purine analog 8-aza-2,6-diaminopurine (8-ADP). The nonreplicating allelic exchange vector (pRS345) carrying the pac-resistance cassette for direct selection of chromosomal integration, and the hpt gene for counterselection was introduced into this strain. By a pop-in and ultimately pop-out event of the plasmid from the chromosome, allelic exchange is enabled. Using this system, we successfully generated a M. mazei deletion mutant of the gene encoding the regulatory non-coding RNA sRNA154. Characterizing M. mazeiΔsRNA154 under nitrogen limiting conditions demonstrated differential expression of at least three cytoplasmic proteins and reduced growth strongly arguing for a prominent role of sRNA154 in regulation of nitrogen fixation by posttranscriptional regulation.
The common substrate structure for the functionally diverse Nudix protein superfamily is nucleotide-diphosphate-X, where X is a large variety of leaving groups. The substrate specificity is known for less than 1% of the 29,400 known members. Most activities result in the release of an inorganic phosphate ion or of a product bearing a terminal phosphate moiety. Reactions have typically been monitored by a modification of the discontinuous Fiske–SubbaRow assay, which is relatively insensitive and slow. We report here the development of a continuous fluorescence assay that enables the rapid and accurate determination of substrate specificities in a 96-well format. We used this novel assay to confirm the reported substrate characterizations of MutT and NudD of Escherichia coli and to characterize DR_1025 of Deinococcus radiodurans and MM_0920 of Methanosarcina mazei. Novel findings enabled by the new assay include the following. First, in addition to the well-characterized hydrolysis of 8-oxo-dGTP at the α–β position, MutT cleaves at the β–γ phosphate bond at a rate of 3% of that recorded for hydrolysis at the α–β position. Second, MutT also catalyzes the hydrolysis of 5-methyl-dCTP. Third, 8-oxo-dGTP was observed to be the best substrate for DR_1025 of the 41 compounds screened.
Nudix; Continuous assay; Fluorescence; Substrate screening; Kinetics
Many archaeal cell envelopes contain a protein coat or sheath composed of one or more surface exposed proteins. These surface layer (S-layer) proteins contribute structural integrity and protect the lipid membrane from environmental challenges. To explore the species diversity of these layers in the Methanosarcinaceae, the major S-layer protein in Methanosarcina barkeri strain Fusaro was identified using proteomics. The Mbar_A1758 gene product was present in multiple forms with apparent sizes of 130, 120, and 100 kDa, consistent with post-translational modifications including signal peptide excision and protein glycosylation. A protein with features related to the surface layer proteins found in Methanosarcina acetivorans C2A and Methanosarcina mazei Goel was identified in the M. barkeri genome. These data reveal a distinct conserved protein signature with features and implied cell surface architecture in the Methanosarcinaceae that is absent in other archaea. Paralogous gene expression patterns in two Methanosarcina species revealed abundant expression of a single S-layer paralog in each strain. Respective promoter elements were identified and shown to be conserved in mRNA coding and upstream untranslated regions. Prior M. acetivorans genome annotations assigned S-layer or surface layer associated roles of eighty genes: however, of 68 examined none was significantly expressed relative to the experimentally determined S-layer gene.
Methanogens are a diverse group of organisms that can live in a wide range of environments. Herein, cobalt and tungsten assimilation pathways have proposed to be established in the genomes of Methanococcus maripaludies C5 and Methanosarcina mazei Go1, respectively. All of the proteins involved in the proposed pathways were identified from public domain databases and then complied manually to reconstruct the pathways. The function of proteins with unknown function was assigned by a combined prediction approach. Totally, 17 proteins were identified to cobalt transport and assimilation processes whereas 7 proteins reported to tungsten assimilation system. Phylogenetic analysis of this study revealed that heavy metal transporter of methanogens could be evolved from closely related members in the different genera of methanogens. Nevertheless, genes encoding for metal resistance proteins could be originated from thermophilic and sulfur reducing bacteria. Many metalloenzymes in methanogens were very unique to the species of methanogens. It implied that these metal ions were utilized to produce the precursors for energy driven processes of methanogens. This study suggested that in combination of systems models and evolutionary inference can only correlate metabolic fluxes and physiological changes in methanogens. In silico models of this study will provide insights to design experiments for heavy metal assimilation processes of methanogens growing under heavy metal-rich environments and or in a laboratory condition.
Methanogens; Heavy metals assimilation; Metabolic behavior; Phylogeny; Metalloenzymes; Energetic metabolism
DNA topoisomerases are highly exploited targets for antimicrobial drugs. The spread of antibiotic resistance represents a significant threat to public health and necessitates the discovery of inhibitors that target topoisomerases in novel ways. However, the traditional assays for topoisomerase activity are not suitable for the high-throughput approaches necessary for drug discovery. In this study we validate a novel assay for screening topoisomerase inhibitors. A library of 960 compounds was screened against Escherichia coli DNA gyrase and archaeal Methanosarcina mazei DNA topoisomerase VI. Several novel inhibitors were identified for both enzymes, and subsequently characterised in vitro and in vivo. Inhibitors from the M. mazei topoisomerase VI screen were tested for their ability to inhibit Arabidopsis topoisomerase VI in planta. The data from this work present new options for antibiotic drug discovery and provide insight into the mechanism of topoisomerase VI.
Currently, only one selectable marker is available for genetic studies in the archaeal genus Methanosarcina. Here we report the generation of selectable markers that encode resistance to pseudomonic acid (PAr) in Methanosarcina species by mutagenesis of the isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase gene (ileS) from Methanosarcina barkeri Fusaro. The M. barkeri ileS gene was obtained by screening of a genomic library for hybridization to a PCR fragment. The complete 3,787-bp DNA sequence surrounding and including the ileS gene was determined. As expected, M. barkeri IleS is phylogenetically related to other archaeal IleS proteins. The ileS gene was cloned into a Methanosarcina-Escherichia coli shuttle vector and mutagenized with hydroxylamine. Nine independent PAr clones were isolated after transformation of Methanosarcina acetivorans C2A with the mutagenized plasmids. Seven of these clones carry multiple changes from the wild-type sequence. Most mutations that confer PAr were shown to alter amino acid residues near the KMSKS consensus sequence of class I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. One particular mutation (G594E) was present in all but one of the PAr clones. The MIC of pseudomonic acid for M. acetivorans transformed with a plasmid carrying this single mutation is 70 μg/ml of medium (for the wild type, the MIC is 12 μg/ml). The highest MICs (560 μg/ml) were observed with two triple mutants, A440V/A482T/G594E and A440V/G593D/G594E. Plasmid shuttle vectors and insertion cassettes that encode PAr based on the mutant ileS alleles are described. Finally, the implications of the specific mutations we isolated with respect to binding of pseudomonic acid by IleS are discussed.
A methanogenic coccoid organism, Methanosarcina mazei LYC, was isolated from alkaline sediment obtained from an oil exploration drilling site. The isolate resembled M. mazei S-6 by exhibiting different morphophases during its normal growth cycle. It differed from M. mazei S-6 by undergoint a spontaneous shift from large, irregular aggregates of cells to small, individual, irregular, coccoid units. In batch cultures at pH 7.0, M. mazei LYC grew as aggregates during the early growth stage. As the batch culture began exponential growth, the cell aggregates spontaneously dispersed: the culture liquid became turbid, and myriads of tiny (diameter, 1 to 3 μm) coccoid units were observed under phase-contrast microscopy. Disaggregation apparently was accomplished by the production of an enzyme which hydrolyzed the heteropolysaccharide component of the cell wall; the enzyme was active on other Methanosarcina strains as well. Although the enzyme was active when tested at pH 6.0, it apparently was not produced at that pH: when strain LYC was grown at pH 6.0, only cell aggregates were present throughout batch growth. Individual coccoid cells of M. mazei LYC were sensitive to sodium dodecyl sulfate, but the large aggregates of cells were not. Strain LYC rapidly used H2-CO2, in addition to methanol, and mono-, di-, and trimethylamine as methanogenic substrates; acetate was used very slowly. Its optimum growth temperature was 40°C, and its optimum pH was 7.2.
The salt adaptation of the methanogenic archaeon Methanosarcina mazei Gö1 was studied at the physiological and molecular levels. The freshwater organism M. mazei Gö1 was able to adapt to salt concentrations up to 1 M, and the addition of the compatible solute glycine betaine to the growth medium facilitated adaptation to higher salt concentrations. Transport studies with cell suspensions revealed a salt-induced glycine betaine uptake activity in M. mazei Gö1, and inhibitor studies argue for a primary transport device. Analysis of the genome of M. mazei Gö1 identified a homolog of known primary glycine betaine transporters. This gene cluster was designated Ota (osmoprotectant transporter A). Its sequence and gene organization are very similar to those of the glycine betaine transporter OpuA of Bacillus subtilis. Northern blot analysis of otaC revealed a salt-dependent transcription of this gene. Ota is the first identified salt-induced transporter for compatible solutes in Archaea.
The gene sequences encoding disaggregatase (Dag), the enzyme
responsible for dispersion of cell aggregates of
Methanosarcina mazei to single cells, were determined
for three strains of M. mazei (S-6T, LYC
and TMA). The dag genes of the three strains were
3234 bp in length and had almost the same sequences with 97% amino
acid sequence identities. Dag was predicted to comprise 1077 amino
acid residues and to have a molecular mass of 120 kDa containing three
repeats of the DNRLRE domain in the C terminus, which is specific to
the genus Methanosarcina and may be responsible for
structural organization and cell wall function. Recombinant Dag was
overexpressed in Escherichia coli and preparations of
the expressed protein exhibited enzymatic activity. The RT-PCR
analysis showed that dag was transcribed to mRNA in
M. mazei LYC and indicated that the gene was
expressed in vivo. This is the first time the gene involved in the
morphological change of Methanosarcina spp. from
aggregate to single cells has been identified.
methanochondroitin; morphological change
The effect of medium osmolarity on the morphology and growth of Methanosarcina barkeri, Methanosarcina thermophila, Methanosarcina mazei, Methanosarcina vacuolata, and Methanosarcina acetivorans was examined. Each strain was adapted for growth in NaCl concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 1.0 M. Methanosarcina spp. isolated from both marine and nonmarine sources exhibited similar growth characteristics at all NaCl concentrations tested, demonstrating that these species are capable of adapting to a similar range of medium osmolarities. Concomitant with the adaptation in 0.4 to 1.0 M NaCl, all strains disaggregated and grew as single cells rather than in the characteristic multicellular aggregates. Aggregated cells had a methanochondroitin outer layer, while disaggregated single cells lacked the outer layer but retained the protein S-layer adjacent to the cell membrane. Synthesis of glucuronic acid, a major component of methanochondroitin, was reduced 20-fold in the single-cell form of M. barkeri when compared with synthesis in aggregated cells. Strains with the methanochondroitin outer cell layer exhibited enhanced stability at low (<0.2 M NaCl) osmolarity and grew at higher temperatures. Disaggregated cells could be converted back to aggregated cells by gradually readapting cultures to lower NaCl (<0.2 M) and Mg2+ (<0.005 M) concentrations. Disaggregated Methanosarcina spp. could also be colonized and replica plated with greater than 95% recovery rates on solidified agar basal medium that contained 0.4 to 0.6 M NaCl and either trimethylamine, methanol, or acetate as the substrate. The ability to disaggregate and grow Methanosarcina spp. as viable, detergent-sensitive, single cells on agar medium makes these species amenable to mutant selection and screening for genetic studies and enables cells to be gently lysed for the isolation of intact genetic material.
In the course of studies on cachectin/TNF being conducted in our laboratory, a novel macrophage product has been detected and characterized. Termed macrophage inflammatory protein or MIP, this protein appears to be an endogenous mediator of the inflammatory events induced by endotoxin. A cDNA cloned probe for this protein has been isolated from a lambda gt10 phage library prepared from poly(A)+ RNA obtained of endotoxin-induced RAW264.7 cells. The sequence codes for a 92 amino acid-long polypeptide, of which 69 amino acids correspond to the mature product. The sequence predicts a molecular weight of 7,889 and structural analysis of the protein indicates a characteristic signal sequence alpha-helix and a hydrophobic core. Sequence data also confirm no sequence similarity to any other protein listed in the Dayhoff data base.
Trimeric PII-like signal proteins are known to be involved in bacterial regulation of ammonium assimilation and nitrogen fixation. We report here the first biochemical characterization of an archaeal GlnK protein from the diazotrophic methanogenic archaeon Methanosarcina mazei strain Gö1 and show that M. mazei GlnK1 is able to functionally complement an Escherichia coli glnK mutant for growth on arginine. This indicates that the archaeal GlnK protein substitutes for the regulatory function of E. coli GlnK. M. mazei GlnK1 is encoded in the glnK1-amtB1 operon, which is transcriptionally regulated by the availability of combined nitrogen and is only transcribed in the absence of ammonium. The deduced amino acid sequence of the archaeal glnK1 shows 44% identity to the E. coli GlnK and contains the conserved tyrosine residue (Tyr-51) in the T-loop structure. M. mazei glnK1 was cloned and overexpressed in E. coli, and GlnK1 was purified to apparent homogeneity. A molecular mass of 42 kDa was observed under native conditions, indicating that its native form is a trimer. GlnK1-specific antibodies were raised and used to confirm the in vivo trimeric form by Western analysis. In vivo ammonium upshift experiments and analysis of purified GlnK1 indicated significant differences compared to E. coli GlnK. First, GlnK1 from M. mazei is not covalently modified by uridylylation under nitrogen limitation. Second, heterotrimers between M. mazei GlnK1 and Klebsiella pneumoniae GlnK are not formed. Because M. mazei GlnK1 was able to complement growth of an E. coli glnK mutant with arginine as the sole nitrogen source, it is likely that uridylylation is not required for its regulatory function.
Methanosarcina barkeri MS and 227 and Methanosarcina mazei S-6 produced acetate when grown on H2-CO2, methanol, or trimethylamine. Marked differences in acetate production by the two bacterial species were found, even though methane and cell yields were nearly the same. M. barkeri produced 30 to 75 μmol of acetate per mmol of CH4 formed, but M. mazei produced only 8 to 9 μmol of acetate per mmol of CH4.
Crystals of an E. coli AcrB contaminant were grown from 95% pure CorA preparations. This very frequently occurring problem in membrane-protein crystallography laboratories is reported, as well as suggestions to avoid it.
In the course of a crystallographic study of the Methanosarcina mazei CorA transporter, the membrane protein was obtained with at least 95% purity and was submitted to crystallization trials. Small crystals (<100 µm) were grown that diffracted to 3.42 Å resolution and belonged to space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 145.74, c = 514.0 Å. After molecular-replacement attempts using available CorA structures as search models failed to yield a solution, it was discovered that the crystals consisted of an Escherichia coli contaminating protein, acriflavine resistance protein B (AcrB), that was present at less than 5% in the protein preparations. AcrB contamination is a major problem when expressing membrane proteins in E. coli since it binds naturally to immobilized metal-ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) resins. Here, the structure is compared with previously deposited AcrB structures and strategies are proposed to avoid this contamination.
membrane protein crystallization; contaminants; AcrB
A novel neural surface protein, Bravo, shows a pattern of topological restriction in the embryonic chick retinotectal system. Bravo is present on the developing optic fibers in the retina; however, retinal axons in the tectum do not display Bravo. The appearance of Bravo in vitro is modulated by environmental cues. Axons growing out from retinal explants on retinal basal lamina, their natural substrate, express Bravo, whereas such axons growing on collagen do not. Retinal explants provide a valuable system to characterize the mechanism of Bravo restriction, as well as the cellular signals controlling it. Bravo was identified with monoclonal antibodies from a collection generated against exposed molecules isolated by using a selective cell surface biotinylation procedure. The NH2-terminal sequence of Bravo shows similarity with L1, a neural surface molecule which is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. This possible relationship to L1, together with its restricted appearance, suggests an involvement of Bravo in axonal growth and guidance.
Unnatural amino acids (Uaas) can be translationally incorporated into proteins in vivo using evolved tRNA/aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (RS) pairs, affording chemistries inaccessible when restricted to the 20 natural amino acids. To date, most evolved RSs aminoacylate Uaas chemically similar to the native substrate of the wild-type RS; these conservative changes limit the scope of Uaa applications. Here, we adapt Methanosarcina mazei PylRS to charge a noticeably disparate Uaa, O-methyl-l-tyrosine (Ome). In addition, the 1.75 Å X-ray crystal structure of the evolved PylRS complexed with Ome and a non-hydrolyzable ATP analogue reveals the stereochemical determinants for substrate selection. Catalytically synergistic active site mutations remodel the substrate-binding cavity, providing a shortened but wider active site. In particular, mutation of Asn346, a residue critical for specific selection and turnover of the Pyl chemical core, accommodates different side chains while the central role of Asn346 in aminoacylation is rescued through compensatory hydrogen bonding provided by A302T. This multifaceted analysis provides a new starting point for engineering PylRS to aminoacylate a significantly more diverse selection of Uaas than previously anticipated.
Open reading frame (ORF) Mm2058 of the methanogenic archaeon Methanosarcina mazei strain Gö1 was shown in vivo and in vitro to encode the nonorthologous replacement of the α-ribazole-phosphate phosphatase (CobC; EC 220.127.116.11) enzyme of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2. Bioinformatics analysis of sequences available in databases tentatively identified ORF Mm2058, which was cloned under the control of an inducible promoter and was used to support growth of an S. enterica strain under conditions that demanded CobC-like activity. The Mm2058 protein was expressed with a decahistidine tag at its N terminus and was purified to homogeneity using nickel affinity chromatography. High-performance liquid chromatography followed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry showed that the Mm2058 protein had phosphatase activity that converted α-ribazole-5′-phosphate to α-ribazole, as reported for the bacterial CobC enzyme. On the basis of the data reported here, we refer to ORF Mm2058 as cobZ. We tested the prediction by Rodionov et al. (D. A. Rodionov, A. G. Vitreschak, A. A. Mironov, and M. S. Gelfand, J. Biol. Chem. 278:41148-41159, 2003) that ORF HSL01294 (also called Vng1577) encoded the nonorthologous replacement of the bacterial CobC enzyme in the extremely halophilic archaeon Halobacterium sp. strain NRC-1. A strain of the latter carrying an in-frame deletion of ORF Vng1577 was not a cobalamin auxotroph, suggesting that either there is redundancy of this function in Halobacterium or the gene was misannotated.
An in situ reverse transcription-PCR protocol for detecting specific mRNA in Methanosarcina mazei S-6 is described. This method allowed us to detect heat shock-induced increases in the intracellular levels of the transcript of the universal stress gene dnaK. The cell walls of paraformaldehyde-fixed cells were permeabilized by a thermal cycling procedure or by lysozyme treatment, and the cellular DNA was removed with DNase. The cells were subjected to a seminested reverse transcription-PCR protocol in which a digoxigenin-labeled primer was used. Detection of the reporter molecule was based on the 2-hydroxy-3-naphtoic acid-2′-phenylanilide phosphate–Fast Red detection system and binding of anti-digoxigenin–alkaline phosphatase conjugate. Fluorescence in permeabilized cells increased after a heat shock compared to fluorescence in non-heat-shocked cells, and the increase corresponded to an increase in the level of the dnaK transcript.
The compatible solute Nɛ-acetyl-β-lysine is unique to methanogenic archaea and is produced under salt stress only. However, the molecular basis for the salt-dependent regulation of Nɛ-acetyl-β-lysine formation is unknown. Genes potentially encoding lysine-2,3-aminomutase (ablA) and β-lysine acetyltransferase (ablB), which are assumed to catalyze Nɛ-acetyl-β-lysine formation from α-lysine, were identified on the chromosomes of the methanogenic archaea Methanosarcina mazei Gö1, Methanosarcina acetivorans, Methanosarcina barkeri, Methanococcus jannaschii, and Methanococcus maripaludis. The order of the two genes was identical in the five organisms, and the deduced proteins were very similar, indicating a high degree of conservation of structure and function. Northern blot analysis revealed that the two genes are organized in an operon (termed the abl operon) in M. mazei Gö1. Expression of the abl operon was strictly salt dependent. The abl operon was deleted in the genetically tractable M. maripaludis. Δabl mutants of M. maripaludis no longer produced Nɛ-acetyl-β-lysine and were incapable of growth at high salt concentrations, indicating that the abl operon is essential for Nɛ-acetyl-β-lysine synthesis. These experiments revealed the first genes involved in the biosynthesis of compatible solutes in methanogens.
When monomethylamine was the growth substrate, spontaneous disaggregation of Methanosarcina mazei S-6 commenced at the mid-exponential phase and resulted in the formation of a suspension containing 108 to 109 free cells per ml. Free cells were osmotically fragile and amenable to extraction of DNA. Hypertonic media for the manipulation and regeneration of free cells into aggregates were developed, and plating efficiencies of 100% were achieved for M. mazei S-6 and LYC. Free cells of strain S-6 required MgCl2 (10 mM) for growth, whereas aggregates did not. Specific growth rates of strains S-6 and LYC were increased by MgCl2. Treatment with pronase caused sphere formation and removal of the protein wall of cells of strain S-6, but protoplasts could not be regenerated. The disaggregating enzyme produced by strain S-6 facilitated the preparation of suspensions of free cells of some strains of Methanosarcina barkeri. Although this provided a means of extracting high-molecular-weight DNA from M. barkeri, less than 0.1% of free cells were viable.
Three microtitration plate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) have been developed: a competitive ELISA and a two-site (or indirect sandwich) ELISA for Methanosarcina mazei S6 and a two-site ELISA for Methanobacterium bryantii FR-2. The assays were sensitive, with limits of cell protein detection of 3 ng ml−1, 5 ng ml−1, and 50 ng ml−1, respectively, and showed good precision. The M. mazei assays used monoclonal antibodies and were entirely species specific, showing no cross-reaction with methanogens of other genera or with other species of the same genus. The Methanobacterium bryantii assay, which used two polyclonal antisera, showed only a slight cross-reaction with one other Methanobacterium species but no cross-reaction with methanogens of other genera. The use of the ELISAs for quantitative analysis of mixed cultures and of sewage sludge samples was investigated. Sludge diluted at 1:103 or more caused no significant interference in any of the three ELISAs. Various cultures of bacteria, methanogens, and nonmethanogens at a protein concentration of 50 μg ml−1 showed no significant interference in the M. mazei competitive assay and the Methanobacterium bryantii two-site assay, although they did cause falsely low results in the M. mazei two-site assay.
At certain stages in its growth cycle, Methanosarcina mazei produces an enzyme (disaggregatase) that causes aggregates to separate into single cells. M. mazei S-6 and LYC both produce this enzymatic activity, although the specificities of activities differ. The disaggregatase of M. mazei S-6 had little effect on strain LYC cells, but the disaggregatase of M. mazei LYC disaggregated both strain LYC and strain S-6 cells. The disaggregatase of M. mazei LYC was purified by column chromatography, and it apparently consisted of two similar subunits with a combined molecular size of about 180,000 Da. Strain S-6 culture supernatants contained 14 U of activity per liter when activity was measured as uronic acids released from purified cell wall material. When the activity was quantified as the release of uronic acids from boiled M. mazei S-6 cells, the highest activity was found at pH 4.7 and at 35 degrees C.
Dehalogenation of carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, and bromoform in pure cultures of Methanosarcina sp. strain DCM and Methanosarcina mazei S6 was demonstrated. The initial dechlorination product of chloroform was methylene chloride (dichloromethane), which accumulated transiently to about 70% of the added chloroform; trace amounts of chloromethane were also detected. The amount of chloroform dechlorinated per mole of methane produced was approximately 10 times greater than the ratio observed previously for tetrachloroethene dechlorination by these strains. The production of 14CO2 from [14C]chloroform and the absence of 14CH4 imply that processes in addition to reductive dechlorination operate.
Based on internal ribosomal entry sites (IRES) of picornaviral origin we constructed a novel family of mammalian expression vectors. pQuattro vectors contain quattrocistronic artificial eukaryotic operons which link, in a single transcript, the simultaneous and coordinated as well as adjustable expression of up to three independent genes of interest to a terminal neomycin (neo) resistance marker. Due to the strict genetic linkage of the transgenes and the terminal selection marker, this genetic configuration enables, by the selection on neomycin, multigene metabolic engineering of mammalian cells in a single step (one-step metabolic engineering). Furthermore, selection on the terminal cistron of multicistronic expression units enforces cocistronic expression of all upstream encoded genes and maximises genetic integrity of the eukaryotic operon in stable mammalian cell lines, since clones harbouring damaged multicistronic expression units become neomycin-sensitive and are automatically counterselected (auto-selection). The modular set-up and the abundance of restriction sites in pQuattro vectors facilitate the movement of individual genes between multicistronic expression vectors and guarantees high compatibility with genetic elements of a wide variety of existing mammalian expression vectors.
CITE; EMCV; GFP; IRES; picornavirus