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1.  Boolean modeling and fault diagnosis in oxidative stress response 
BMC Genomics  2012;13(Suppl 6):S4.
Background
Oxidative stress is a consequence of normal and abnormal cellular metabolism and is linked to the development of human diseases. The effective functioning of the pathway responding to oxidative stress protects the cellular DNA against oxidative damage; conversely the failure of the oxidative stress response mechanism can induce aberrant cellular behavior leading to diseases such as neurodegenerative disorders and cancer. Thus, understanding the normal signaling present in oxidative stress response pathways and determining possible signaling alterations leading to disease could provide us with useful pointers for therapeutic purposes. Using knowledge of oxidative stress response pathways from the literature, we developed a Boolean network model whose simulated behavior is consistent with earlier experimental observations from the literature. Concatenating the oxidative stress response pathways with the PI3-Kinase-Akt pathway, the oxidative stress is linked to the phenotype of apoptosis, once again through a Boolean network model. Furthermore, we present an approach for pinpointing possible fault locations by using temporal variations in the oxidative stress input and observing the resulting deviations in the apoptotic signature from the normally predicted pathway. Such an approach could potentially form the basis for designing more effective combination therapies against complex diseases such as cancer.
Results
In this paper, we have developed a Boolean network model for the oxidative stress response. This model was developed based on pathway information from the current literature pertaining to oxidative stress. Where applicable, the behaviour predicted by the model is in agreement with experimental observations from the published literature. We have also linked the oxidative stress response to the phenomenon of apoptosis via the PI3k/Akt pathway.
Conclusions
It is our hope that some of the additional predictions here, such as those pertaining to the oscillatory behaviour of certain genes in the presence of oxidative stress, will be experimentally validated in the near future. Of course, it should be pointed out that the theoretical procedure presented here for pinpointing fault locations in a biological network with feedback will need to be further simplified before it can be even considered for practical biological validation.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-13-S6-S4
PMCID: PMC3481480  PMID: 23134720
2.  Reliability and Availability Evaluation of Wireless Sensor Networks for Industrial Applications 
Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)  2012;12(1):806-838.
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) currently represent the best candidate to be adopted as the communication solution for the last mile connection in process control and monitoring applications in industrial environments. Most of these applications have stringent dependability (reliability and availability) requirements, as a system failure may result in economic losses, put people in danger or lead to environmental damages. Among the different type of faults that can lead to a system failure, permanent faults on network devices have a major impact. They can hamper communications over long periods of time and consequently disturb, or even disable, control algorithms. The lack of a structured approach enabling the evaluation of permanent faults, prevents system designers to optimize decisions that minimize these occurrences. In this work we propose a methodology based on an automatic generation of a fault tree to evaluate the reliability and availability of Wireless Sensor Networks, when permanent faults occur on network devices. The proposal supports any topology, different levels of redundancy, network reconfigurations, criticality of devices and arbitrary failure conditions. The proposed methodology is particularly suitable for the design and validation of Wireless Sensor Networks when trying to optimize its reliability and availability requirements.
doi:10.3390/s120100806
PMCID: PMC3279241  PMID: 22368497
dependability evaluation; wireless sensor networks; fault tree analysis; WirelessHART; ISA 100.11a
3.  Fault Diagnostics for Turbo-Shaft Engine Sensors Based on a Simplified On-Board Model 
Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)  2012;12(8):11061-11076.
Combining a simplified on-board turbo-shaft model with sensor fault diagnostic logic, a model-based sensor fault diagnosis method is proposed. The existing fault diagnosis method for turbo-shaft engine key sensors is mainly based on a double redundancies technique, and this can't be satisfied in some occasions as lack of judgment. The simplified on-board model provides the analytical third channel against which the dual channel measurements are compared, while the hardware redundancy will increase the structure complexity and weight. The simplified turbo-shaft model contains the gas generator model and the power turbine model with loads, this is built up via dynamic parameters method. Sensor fault detection, diagnosis (FDD) logic is designed, and two types of sensor failures, such as the step faults and the drift faults, are simulated. When the discrepancy among the triplex channels exceeds a tolerance level, the fault diagnosis logic determines the cause of the difference. Through this approach, the sensor fault diagnosis system achieves the objectives of anomaly detection, sensor fault diagnosis and redundancy recovery. Finally, experiments on this method are carried out on a turbo-shaft engine, and two types of faults under different channel combinations are presented. The experimental results show that the proposed method for sensor fault diagnostics is efficient.
doi:10.3390/s120811061
PMCID: PMC3472873  PMID: 23112645
turbo-shaft engine; fault diagnosis; gas turbine sensor; simplified on-board model; dynamic parameters
4.  Vibration Sensor-Based Bearing Fault Diagnosis Using Ellipsoid-ARTMAP and Differential Evolution Algorithms 
Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)  2014;14(6):10598-10618.
Effective fault classification of rolling element bearings provides an important basis for ensuring safe operation of rotating machinery. In this paper, a novel vibration sensor-based fault diagnosis method using an Ellipsoid-ARTMAP network (EAM) and a differential evolution (DE) algorithm is proposed. The original features are firstly extracted from vibration signals based on wavelet packet decomposition. Then, a minimum-redundancy maximum-relevancy algorithm is introduced to select the most prominent features so as to decrease feature dimensions. Finally, a DE-based EAM (DE-EAM) classifier is constructed to realize the fault diagnosis. The major characteristic of EAM is that the sample distribution of each category is realized by using a hyper-ellipsoid node and smoothing operation algorithm. Therefore, it can depict the decision boundary of disperse samples accurately and effectively avoid over-fitting phenomena. To optimize EAM network parameters, the DE algorithm is presented and two objectives, including both classification accuracy and nodes number, are simultaneously introduced as the fitness functions. Meanwhile, an exponential criterion is proposed to realize final selection of the optimal parameters. To prove the effectiveness of the proposed method, the vibration signals of four types of rolling element bearings under different loads were collected. Moreover, to improve the robustness of the classifier evaluation, a two-fold cross validation scheme is adopted and the order of feature samples is randomly arranged ten times within each fold. The results show that DE-EAM classifier can recognize the fault categories of the rolling element bearings reliably and accurately.
doi:10.3390/s140610598
PMCID: PMC4118393  PMID: 24936949
fault classification; rolling element bearing; Ellipsoid-ARTMAP network; differential evolution
5.  Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor for Fault Detection in Radial and Network Transmission Lines 
Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)  2010;10(10):9407-9423.
In this paper, a fiber optic based sensor capable of fault detection in both radial and network overhead transmission power line systems is investigated. Bragg wavelength shift is used to measure the fault current and detect fault in power systems. Magnetic fields generated by currents in the overhead transmission lines cause a strain in magnetostrictive material which is then detected by Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG). The Fiber Bragg interrogator senses the reflected FBG signals, and the Bragg wavelength shift is calculated and the signals are processed. A broadband light source in the control room scans the shift in the reflected signal. Any surge in the magnetic field relates to an increased fault current at a certain location. Also, fault location can be precisely defined with an artificial neural network (ANN) algorithm. This algorithm can be easily coordinated with other protective devices. It is shown that the faults in the overhead transmission line cause a detectable wavelength shift on the reflected signal of FBG and can be used to detect and classify different kind of faults. The proposed method has been extensively tested by simulation and results confirm that the proposed scheme is able to detect different kinds of fault in both radial and network system.
doi:10.3390/s101009407
PMCID: PMC3230966  PMID: 22163416
current measurement; current transformers; optical fiber; magnetostrictive devices; power system protection
6.  A Compound Fault Diagnosis for Rolling Bearings Method Based on Blind Source Separation and Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(10):e109166.
A Compound fault signal usually contains multiple characteristic signals and strong confusion noise, which makes it difficult to separate week fault signals from them through conventional ways, such as FFT-based envelope detection, wavelet transform or empirical mode decomposition individually. In order to improve the compound faults diagnose of rolling bearings via signals’ separation, the present paper proposes a new method to identify compound faults from measured mixed-signals, which is based on ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) method and independent component analysis (ICA) technique. With the approach, a vibration signal is firstly decomposed into intrinsic mode functions (IMF) by EEMD method to obtain multichannel signals. Then, according to a cross correlation criterion, the corresponding IMF is selected as the input matrix of ICA. Finally, the compound faults can be separated effectively by executing ICA method, which makes the fault features more easily extracted and more clearly identified. Experimental results validate the effectiveness of the proposed method in compound fault separating, which works not only for the outer race defect, but also for the rollers defect and the unbalance fault of the experimental system.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0109166
PMCID: PMC4188612  PMID: 25289644
7.  A Doppler Transient Model Based on the Laplace Wavelet and Spectrum Correlation Assessment for Locomotive Bearing Fault Diagnosis 
Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)  2013;13(11):15726-15746.
The condition of locomotive bearings, which are essential components in trains, is crucial to train safety. The Doppler effect significantly distorts acoustic signals during high movement speeds, substantially increasing the difficulty of monitoring locomotive bearings online. In this study, a new Doppler transient model based on the acoustic theory and the Laplace wavelet is presented for the identification of fault-related impact intervals embedded in acoustic signals. An envelope spectrum correlation assessment is conducted between the transient model and the real fault signal in the frequency domain to optimize the model parameters. The proposed method can identify the parameters used for simulated transients (periods in simulated transients) from acoustic signals. Thus, localized bearing faults can be detected successfully based on identified parameters, particularly period intervals. The performance of the proposed method is tested on a simulated signal suffering from the Doppler effect. Besides, the proposed method is used to analyze real acoustic signals of locomotive bearings with inner race and outer race faults, respectively. The results confirm that the periods between the transients, which represent locomotive bearing fault characteristics, can be detected successfully.
doi:10.3390/s131115726
PMCID: PMC3871113  PMID: 24253191
Doppler transient model; locomotive bearings; spectrum correlation assessment; Laplace wavelet; fault diagnosis
8.  A Dynamic Integrated Fault Diagnosis Method for Power Transformers 
The Scientific World Journal  2015;2015:459268.
In order to diagnose transformer fault efficiently and accurately, a dynamic integrated fault diagnosis method based on Bayesian network is proposed in this paper. First, an integrated fault diagnosis model is established based on the causal relationship among abnormal working conditions, failure modes, and failure symptoms of transformers, aimed at obtaining the most possible failure mode. And then considering the evidence input into the diagnosis model is gradually acquired and the fault diagnosis process in reality is multistep, a dynamic fault diagnosis mechanism is proposed based on the integrated fault diagnosis model. Different from the existing one-step diagnosis mechanism, it includes a multistep evidence-selection process, which gives the most effective diagnostic test to be performed in next step. Therefore, it can reduce unnecessary diagnostic tests and improve the accuracy and efficiency of diagnosis. Finally, the dynamic integrated fault diagnosis method is applied to actual cases, and the validity of this method is verified.
doi:10.1155/2015/459268
PMCID: PMC4320846
9.  Advanced Fault Diagnosis Methods in Molecular Networks 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(10):e108830.
Analysis of the failure of cell signaling networks is an important topic in systems biology and has applications in target discovery and drug development. In this paper, some advanced methods for fault diagnosis in signaling networks are developed and then applied to a caspase network and an SHP2 network. The goal is to understand how, and to what extent, the dysfunction of molecules in a network contributes to the failure of the entire network. Network dysfunction (failure) is defined as failure to produce the expected outputs in response to the input signals. Vulnerability level of a molecule is defined as the probability of the network failure, when the molecule is dysfunctional. In this study, a method to calculate the vulnerability level of single molecules for different combinations of input signals is developed. Furthermore, a more complex yet biologically meaningful method for calculating the multi-fault vulnerability levels is suggested, in which two or more molecules are simultaneously dysfunctional. Finally, a method is developed for fault diagnosis of networks based on a ternary logic model, which considers three activity levels for a molecule instead of the previously published binary logic model, and provides equations for the vulnerabilities of molecules in a ternary framework. Multi-fault analysis shows that the pairs of molecules with high vulnerability typically include a highly vulnerable molecule identified by the single fault analysis. The ternary fault analysis for the caspase network shows that predictions obtained using the more complex ternary model are about the same as the predictions of the simpler binary approach. This study suggests that by increasing the number of activity levels the complexity of the model grows; however, the predictive power of the ternary model does not appear to be increased proportionally.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0108830
PMCID: PMC4188586  PMID: 25290670
10.  Intelligent Gearbox Diagnosis Methods Based on SVM, Wavelet Lifting and RBR 
Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)  2010;10(5):4602-4621.
Given the problems in intelligent gearbox diagnosis methods, it is difficult to obtain the desired information and a large enough sample size to study; therefore, we propose the application of various methods for gearbox fault diagnosis, including wavelet lifting, a support vector machine (SVM) and rule-based reasoning (RBR). In a complex field environment, it is less likely for machines to have the same fault; moreover, the fault features can also vary. Therefore, a SVM could be used for the initial diagnosis. First, gearbox vibration signals were processed with wavelet packet decomposition, and the signal energy coefficients of each frequency band were extracted and used as input feature vectors in SVM for normal and faulty pattern recognition. Second, precision analysis using wavelet lifting could successfully filter out the noisy signals while maintaining the impulse characteristics of the fault; thus effectively extracting the fault frequency of the machine. Lastly, the knowledge base was built based on the field rules summarized by experts to identify the detailed fault type. Results have shown that SVM is a powerful tool to accomplish gearbox fault pattern recognition when the sample size is small, whereas the wavelet lifting scheme can effectively extract fault features, and rule-based reasoning can be used to identify the detailed fault type. Therefore, a method that combines SVM, wavelet lifting and rule-based reasoning ensures effective gearbox fault diagnosis.
doi:10.3390/s100504602
PMCID: PMC3292134  PMID: 22399894
gearbox; support vector machines (SVM); wavelet lifting; rule-based reasoning (RBR); intelligent diagnosis
11.  Fault Diagnosis for Micro-Gas Turbine Engine Sensors via Wavelet Entropy 
Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)  2011;11(10):9928-9941.
Sensor fault diagnosis is necessary to ensure the normal operation of a gas turbine system. However, the existing methods require too many resources and this need can’t be satisfied in some occasions. Since the sensor readings are directly affected by sensor state, sensor fault diagnosis can be performed by extracting features of the measured signals. This paper proposes a novel fault diagnosis method for sensors based on wavelet entropy. Based on the wavelet theory, wavelet decomposition is utilized to decompose the signal in different scales. Then the instantaneous wavelet energy entropy (IWEE) and instantaneous wavelet singular entropy (IWSE) are defined based on the previous wavelet entropy theory. Subsequently, a fault diagnosis method for gas turbine sensors is proposed based on the results of a numerically simulated example. Then, experiments on this method are carried out on a real micro gas turbine engine. In the experiment, four types of faults with different magnitudes are presented. The experimental results show that the proposed method for sensor fault diagnosis is efficient.
doi:10.3390/s111009928
PMCID: PMC3231250  PMID: 22163734
fault diagnosis; wavelet entropy; wavelet decomposition; gas turbine sensor
12.  Sensor-Based Vibration Signal Feature Extraction Using an Improved Composite Dictionary Matching Pursuit Algorithm 
Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)  2014;14(9):16715-16739.
This paper presents a new method for a composite dictionary matching pursuit algorithm, which is applied to vibration sensor signal feature extraction and fault diagnosis of a gearbox. Three advantages are highlighted in the new method. First, the composite dictionary in the algorithm has been changed from multi-atom matching to single-atom matching. Compared to non-composite dictionary single-atom matching, the original composite dictionary multi-atom matching pursuit (CD-MaMP) algorithm can achieve noise reduction in the reconstruction stage, but it cannot dramatically reduce the computational cost and improve the efficiency in the decomposition stage. Therefore, the optimized composite dictionary single-atom matching algorithm (CD-SaMP) is proposed. Second, the termination condition of iteration based on the attenuation coefficient is put forward to improve the sparsity and efficiency of the algorithm, which adjusts the parameters of the termination condition constantly in the process of decomposition to avoid noise. Third, composite dictionaries are enriched with the modulation dictionary, which is one of the important structural characteristics of gear fault signals. Meanwhile, the termination condition of iteration settings, sub-feature dictionary selections and operation efficiency between CD-MaMP and CD-SaMP are discussed, aiming at gear simulation vibration signals with noise. The simulation sensor-based vibration signal results show that the termination condition of iteration based on the attenuation coefficient enhances decomposition sparsity greatly and achieves a good effect of noise reduction. Furthermore, the modulation dictionary achieves a better matching effect compared to the Fourier dictionary, and CD-SaMP has a great advantage of sparsity and efficiency compared with the CD-MaMP. The sensor-based vibration signals measured from practical engineering gearbox analyses have further shown that the CD-SaMP decomposition and reconstruction algorithm is feasible and effective.
doi:10.3390/s140916715
PMCID: PMC4208195  PMID: 25207870
composite dictionary single-atom matching; termination condition of iteration; fault diagnosis; modulation dictionary; sensor-based vibration signals
13.  Trust Index Based Fault Tolerant Multiple Event Localization Algorithm for WSNs 
Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)  2011;11(7):6555-6574.
This paper investigates the use of wireless sensor networks for multiple event source localization using binary information from the sensor nodes. The events could continually emit signals whose strength is attenuated inversely proportional to the distance from the source. In this context, faults occur due to various reasons and are manifested when a node reports a wrong decision. In order to reduce the impact of node faults on the accuracy of multiple event localization, we introduce a trust index model to evaluate the fidelity of information which the nodes report and use in the event detection process, and propose the Trust Index based Subtract on Negative Add on Positive (TISNAP) localization algorithm, which reduces the impact of faulty nodes on the event localization by decreasing their trust index, to improve the accuracy of event localization and performance of fault tolerance for multiple event source localization. The algorithm includes three phases: first, the sink identifies the cluster nodes to determine the number of events occurred in the entire region by analyzing the binary data reported by all nodes; then, it constructs the likelihood matrix related to the cluster nodes and estimates the location of all events according to the alarmed status and trust index of the nodes around the cluster nodes. Finally, the sink updates the trust index of all nodes according to the fidelity of their information in the previous reporting cycle. The algorithm improves the accuracy of localization and performance of fault tolerance in multiple event source localization. The experiment results show that when the probability of node fault is close to 50%, the algorithm can still accurately determine the number of the events and have better accuracy of localization compared with other algorithms.
doi:10.3390/s110706555
PMCID: PMC3231684  PMID: 22163972
trust index; binary data; multiple event localization; fault tolerance; maximum likelihood estimation; wireless sensor networks
14.  Adaptive Redundant Lifting Wavelet Transform Based on Fitting for Fault Feature Extraction of Roller Bearings 
Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)  2012;12(4):4381-4398.
A least square method based on data fitting is proposed to construct a new lifting wavelet, together with the nonlinear idea and redundant algorithm, the adaptive redundant lifting transform based on fitting is firstly stated in this paper. By variable combination selections of basis function, sample number and dimension of basis function, a total of nine wavelets with different characteristics are constructed, which are respectively adopted to perform redundant lifting wavelet transforms on low-frequency approximate signals at each layer. Then the normalized lP norms of the new node-signal obtained through decomposition are calculated to adaptively determine the optimal wavelet for the decomposed approximate signal. Next, the original signal is taken for subsection power spectrum analysis to choose the node-signal for single branch reconstruction and demodulation. Experiment signals and engineering signals are respectively used to verify the above method and the results show that bearing faults can be diagnosed more effectively by the method presented here than by both spectrum analysis and demodulation analysis. Meanwhile, compared with the symmetrical wavelets constructed with Lagrange interpolation algorithm, the asymmetrical wavelets constructed based on data fitting are more suitable in feature extraction of fault signal of roller bearings.
doi:10.3390/s120404381
PMCID: PMC3355416  PMID: 22666035
data fitting; lifting wavelet construction; adaptive; roller bearings; feature extraction
15.  Detecting Solenoid Valve Deterioration in In-Use Electronic Diesel Fuel Injection Control Systems 
Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)  2010;10(8):7157-7169.
The diesel engine is the main power source for most agricultural vehicles. The control of diesel engine emissions is an important global issue. Fuel injection control systems directly affect fuel efficiency and emissions of diesel engines. Deterioration faults, such as rack deformation, solenoid valve failure, and rack-travel sensor malfunction, are possibly in the fuel injection module of electronic diesel control (EDC) systems. Among these faults, solenoid valve failure is most likely to occur for in-use diesel engines. According to the previous studies, this failure is a result of the wear of the plunger and sleeve, based on a long period of usage, lubricant degradation, or engine overheating. Due to the difficulty in identifying solenoid valve deterioration, this study focuses on developing a sensor identification algorithm that can clearly classify the usability of the solenoid valve, without disassembling the fuel pump of an EDC system for in-use agricultural vehicles. A diagnostic algorithm is proposed, including a feedback controller, a parameter identifier, a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) sensor, and a neural network classifier. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can accurately identify the usability of solenoid valves.
doi:10.3390/s100807157
PMCID: PMC3231176  PMID: 22163597
solenoid valve; diesel engine; fault detection; LVDT sensor
16.  Spectral Regression Based Fault Feature Extraction for Bearing Accelerometer Sensor Signals 
Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)  2012;12(10):13694-13719.
Bearings are not only the most important element but also a common source of failures in rotary machinery. Bearing fault prognosis technology has been receiving more and more attention recently, in particular because it plays an increasingly important role in avoiding the occurrence of accidents. Therein, fault feature extraction (FFE) of bearing accelerometer sensor signals is essential to highlight representative features of bearing conditions for machinery fault diagnosis and prognosis. This paper proposes a spectral regression (SR)-based approach for fault feature extraction from original features including time, frequency and time-frequency domain features of bearing accelerometer sensor signals. SR is a novel regression framework for efficient regularized subspace learning and feature extraction technology, and it uses the least squares method to obtain the best projection direction, rather than computing the density matrix of features, so it also has the advantage in dimensionality reduction. The effectiveness of the SR-based method is validated experimentally by applying the acquired vibration signals data to bearings. The experimental results indicate that SR can reduce the computation cost and preserve more structure information about different bearing faults and severities, and it is demonstrated that the proposed feature extraction scheme has an advantage over other similar approaches.
doi:10.3390/s121013694
PMCID: PMC3545588  PMID: 23202017
feature extraction; spectral regression; bearing accelerometer sensor; fault diagnosis; fault prognosis
17.  A Variable Neighborhood Walksat-Based Algorithm for MAX-SAT Problems 
The Scientific World Journal  2014;2014:798323.
The simplicity of the maximum satisfiability problem (MAX-SAT) combined with its applicability in many areas of artificial intelligence and computing science made it one of the fundamental optimization problems. This NP-complete problem refers to the task of finding a variable assignment that satisfies the maximum number of clauses (or the sum of weights of satisfied clauses) in a Boolean formula. The Walksat algorithm is considered to be the main skeleton underlying almost all local search algorithms for MAX-SAT. Most local search algorithms including Walksat rely on the 1-flip neighborhood structure. This paper introduces a variable neighborhood walksat-based algorithm. The neighborhood structure can be combined easily using any local search algorithm. Its effectiveness is compared with existing algorithms using 1-flip neighborhood structure and solvers such as CCLS and Optimax from the eighth MAX-SAT evaluation.
doi:10.1155/2014/798323
PMCID: PMC4142167  PMID: 25177732
18.  Smart Sensor for Online Detection of Multiple-Combined Faults in VSD-Fed Induction Motors 
Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)  2012;12(9):11989-12005.
Induction motors fed through variable speed drives (VSD) are widely used in different industrial processes. Nowadays, the industry demands the integration of smart sensors to improve the fault detection in order to reduce cost, maintenance and power consumption. Induction motors can develop one or more faults at the same time that can be produce severe damages. The combined fault identification in induction motors is a demanding task, but it has been rarely considered in spite of being a common situation, because it is difficult to identify two or more faults simultaneously. This work presents a smart sensor for online detection of simple and multiple-combined faults in induction motors fed through a VSD in a wide frequency range covering low frequencies from 3 Hz and high frequencies up to 60 Hz based on a primary sensor being a commercially available current clamp or a hall-effect sensor. The proposed smart sensor implements a methodology based on the fast Fourier transform (FFT), RMS calculation and artificial neural networks (ANN), which are processed online using digital hardware signal processing based on field programmable gate array (FPGA).
doi:10.3390/s120911989
PMCID: PMC3478822
smart sensor; induction motors; multiple-combined faults; VSD; FPGA
19.  Intelligent Method for Diagnosing Structural Faults of Rotating Machinery Using Ant Colony Optimization 
Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)  2011;11(4):4009-4029.
Structural faults, such as unbalance, misalignment and looseness, etc., often occur in the shafts of rotating machinery. These faults may cause serious machine accidents and lead to great production losses. This paper proposes an intelligent method for diagnosing structural faults of rotating machinery using ant colony optimization (ACO) and relative ratio symptom parameters (RRSPs) in order to detect faults and distinguish fault types at an early stage. New symptom parameters called “relative ratio symptom parameters” are defined for reflecting the features of vibration signals measured in each state. Synthetic detection index (SDI) using statistical theory has also been defined to evaluate the applicability of the RRSPs. The SDI can be used to indicate the fitness of a RRSP for ACO. Lastly, this paper also compares the proposed method with the conventional neural networks (NN) method. Practical examples of fault diagnosis for a centrifugal fan are provided to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. The verification results show that the structural faults often occurring in the centrifugal fan, such as unbalance, misalignment and looseness states are effectively identified by the proposed method, while these faults are difficult to detect using conventional neural networks.
doi:10.3390/s110404009
PMCID: PMC3231334  PMID: 22163833
rotating machinery; structural fault; relative ratio symptom parameter; ant colony optimization
20.  Similarity Ratio Analysis for Early Stage Fault Detection with Optical Emission Spectrometer in Plasma Etching Process 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(4):e95679.
A Similarity Ratio Analysis (SRA) method is proposed for early-stage Fault Detection (FD) in plasma etching processes using real-time Optical Emission Spectrometer (OES) data as input. The SRA method can help to realise a highly precise control system by detecting abnormal etch-rate faults in real-time during an etching process. The method processes spectrum scans at successive time points and uses a windowing mechanism over the time series to alleviate problems with timing uncertainties due to process shift from one process run to another. A SRA library is first built to capture features of a healthy etching process. By comparing with the SRA library, a Similarity Ratio (SR) statistic is then calculated for each spectrum scan as the monitored process progresses. A fault detection mechanism, named 3-Warning-1-Alarm (3W1A), takes the SR values as inputs and triggers a system alarm when certain conditions are satisfied. This design reduces the chance of false alarm, and provides a reliable fault reporting service. The SRA method is demonstrated on a real semiconductor manufacturing dataset. The effectiveness of SRA-based fault detection is evaluated using a time-series SR test and also using a post-process SR test. The time-series SR provides an early-stage fault detection service, so less energy and materials will be wasted by faulty processing. The post-process SR provides a fault detection service with higher reliability than the time-series SR, but with fault testing conducted only after each process run completes.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0095679
PMCID: PMC3995992  PMID: 24755865
21.  Monitoring and Control Interface Based on Virtual Sensors 
Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)  2014;14(11):20645-20666.
In this article, a toolbox based on a monitoring and control interface (MCI) is presented and applied in a heat exchanger. The MCI was programed in order to realize sensor fault detection and isolation and fault tolerance using virtual sensors. The virtual sensors were designed from model-based high-gain observers. To develop the control task, different kinds of control laws were included in the monitoring and control interface. These control laws are PID, MPC and a non-linear model-based control law. The MCI helps to maintain the heat exchanger under operation, even if a temperature outlet sensor fault occurs; in the case of outlet temperature sensor failure, the MCI will display an alarm. The monitoring and control interface is used as a practical tool to support electronic engineering students with heat transfer and control concepts to be applied in a double-pipe heat exchanger pilot plant. The method aims to teach the students through the observation and manipulation of the main variables of the process and by the interaction with the monitoring and control interface (MCI) developed in LabVIEW©. The MCI provides the electronic engineering students with the knowledge of heat exchanger behavior, since the interface is provided with a thermodynamic model that approximates the temperatures and the physical properties of the fluid (density and heat capacity). An advantage of the interface is the easy manipulation of the actuator for an automatic or manual operation. Another advantage of the monitoring and control interface is that all algorithms can be manipulated and modified by the users.
doi:10.3390/s141120645
PMCID: PMC4279504  PMID: 25365462
monitoring and control interface; virtual sensors; interactive educational workstation; heat exchanger
22.  SOM Neural Network Fault Diagnosis Method of Polymerization Kettle Equipment Optimized by Improved PSO Algorithm 
The Scientific World Journal  2014;2014:937680.
For meeting the real-time fault diagnosis and the optimization monitoring requirements of the polymerization kettle in the polyvinyl chloride resin (PVC) production process, a fault diagnosis strategy based on the self-organizing map (SOM) neural network is proposed. Firstly, a mapping between the polymerization process data and the fault pattern is established by analyzing the production technology of polymerization kettle equipment. The particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm with a new dynamical adjustment method of inertial weights is adopted to optimize the structural parameters of SOM neural network. The fault pattern classification of the polymerization kettle equipment is to realize the nonlinear mapping from symptom set to fault set according to the given symptom set. Finally, the simulation experiments of fault diagnosis are conducted by combining with the industrial on-site historical data of the polymerization kettle and the simulation results show that the proposed PSO-SOM fault diagnosis strategy is effective.
doi:10.1155/2014/937680
PMCID: PMC4134784  PMID: 25152929
23.  Designing fault-tolerant distributed archives for picture archiving and communication systems 
Journal of Digital Imaging  2001;14(Suppl 1):80-83.
Purpose: Distributed archives in a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) environment can provide added fault tolerance and fail-over capability, as well as increased load capacity at a more economical price than traditional “high-availability” systems. Systems can be configured with varying levels of fault tolerance, depending on the amountof redundancy desired. There is, however, a direct correlation between the level of hardware redundancy and cost to implement. This presentation details the system design for fault-tolerant distributed archives as well as several options for redundancy, referencing implementation of a fault-tolerant archivesystem at the University of Utah.Methods: The distributed archive system described here is based on Image Devices’ image archive software, which can be implemented on multiple individual archive servers in order to distribute archive functionality and operational load. The configuration and implementation of the individual servers together make up the distributed archive system and does not impact the ability of the system to be scaled to meet future requirements. Several implementation and configuration options exist, including the ability for servers to maintain replicated databases containing pateintand image information. Thus, each archive can be aware of all information and the location of this information within the distributed archive system.Results: The goal is to produce systems that will still be operational in the event of any single point of failure, ie, a network connection failure between facilities or the failure of asingle archive server within the distributed system. During normal operation, workload forimage acquisition, image routing and image query requests will be distributed between the archive servers. If the system is deployed in a multifacility environment, each archive server can be configured to be responsible for the acquisition and image distribution management within that server’s localfacility. If the system is deployed in a single facility environment, load can be distributed evenly between the archive servers based on an understanding of the workload requirements generated be each acquisition and display device in the system. In the event that an archive server fails, other archive servers within the system will have the ability to provide redundancy employed. Three levels of fault-tolerant design can be achieved with this system architecture: (1) duplicate work capability only; (2) duplicate work capability and short-term image cache; (3) duplicate work capability,short-term image cache, and long-term image archival. Using the basic fault-tolerant design above, we have implemented a multifacility distributedarchive system at the University of Utah. This system was implemented at a fraction of the cost of true “high-availability” archive architectures yet provides constant up time for the PACS system. If the network connection between thetwo locations goes down, each siteis still fully functional for soft-copy read, as well as image acquisition and distribution. If either of the archiveservers goes down, the image sources are redirected to the other archive server. The operational server then handles image distribution for both locations. Access to images in the short-term image cache is available to both archive servers and is not affected by loss of the network connection or remoteserver. Because there is ony one long-term archivedevice, the ability to retrieve images from long-term storage is theonly function compromised by a network or server failure.Conclusion: By implementing distributed archives in a PACS environment, it is possible to achieve a highly fault-tolerant system without the expense of high-availability hardware and software. The design concepts outlined here can be applied to any PACS system that supports distributed archive functionality.
doi:10.1007/BF03190303
PMCID: PMC3452698  PMID: 11442129
24.  Geodetic Network Design and Optimization on the Active Tuzla Fault (Izmir, Turkey) for Disaster Management 
Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)  2008;8(8):4742-4757.
Both seismological and geodynamic research emphasize that the Aegean Region, which comprises the Hellenic Arc, the Greek mainland and Western Turkey is the most seismically active region in Western Eurasia. The convergence of the Eurasian and African lithospheric plates forces a westward motion on the Anatolian plate relative to the Eurasian one. Western Anatolia is a valuable laboratory for Earth Science research because of its complex geological structure. Izmir is a large city in Turkey with a population of about 2.5 million that is at great risk from big earthquakes. Unfortunately, previous geodynamics studies performed in this region are insufficient or cover large areas instead of specific faults. The Tuzla Fault, which is aligned trending NE–SW between the town of Menderes and Cape Doganbey, is an important fault in terms of seismic activity and its proximity to the city of Izmir. This study aims to perform a large scale investigation focusing on the Tuzla Fault and its vicinity for better understanding of the region's tectonics. In order to investigate the crustal deformation along the Tuzla Fault and Izmir Bay, a geodetic network has been designed and optimizations were performed. This paper suggests a schedule for a crustal deformation monitoring study which includes research on the tectonics of the region, network design and optimization strategies, theory and practice of processing. The study is also open for extension in terms of monitoring different types of fault characteristics. A one-dimensional fault model with two parameters – standard strike-slip model of dislocation theory in an elastic half-space – is formulated in order to determine which sites are suitable for the campaign based geodetic GPS measurements. Geodetic results can be used as a background data for disaster management systems.
doi:10.3390/s8084742
PMCID: PMC3705469
Crustal Deformation; Tuzla Fault; Network Design and Optimization; Seismic Hazard; GPS sensors
25.  Robust Fault Detection System for Insulin Pump Therapy Using Continuous Glucose Monitoring 
Background
The popularity of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII), or insulin pump therapy, as a way to deliver insulin more physiologically and achieve better glycemic control in diabetes patients has increased. Despite the substantiated therapeutic advantages of using CSII, its use has also been associated with an increased risk of technical malfunctioning of the device, which leads to an increased risk of acute metabolic complications, such as diabetic ketoacidosis. Current insulin pumps already incorporate systems to detect some types of faults, such as obstructions in the infusion set, but are not able to detect other types of fault such as the disconnection or leakage of the infusion set.
Methods
In this article, we propose utilizing a validated robust model-based fault detection technique, based on interval analysis, for detecting disconnections of the insulin infusion set. For this purpose, a previously validated metabolic model of glucose regulation in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and a continuous glucose monitoring device were used. As a first step to assess the performance of the presented fault detection system, a Food and Drug Administration-accepted T1DM simulator was employed.
Results
Of the 100 in silico tests (10 scenarios on 10 subjects), only two false negatives and one false positive occurred. All faults were detected before plasma glucose concentration reached 300 mg/dl, with a mean plasma glucose detection value of 163 mg/dl and a mean detection time of 200 min.
Conclusions
Interval model-based fault detection has been proven (in silico) to be an effective tool for detecting disconnection faults in sensor-augmented CSII systems. Proper quantification of the uncertainty associated with the employed model has been observed to be crucial for the good performance of the proposed approach.
PMCID: PMC3570848  PMID: 23063040
diabetes fault detection; insulin pump therapy; interval analysis; model-based; robustness

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