The crystal structure of kovdorskite, ideally Mg2PO4(OH)·3H2O (dimagnesium phosphate hydroxide trihydrate), was reported previously with isotropic displacement paramaters only and without H-atom positions [Ovchinnikov et al. (1980 ▶). Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR.
255, 351–354]. In this study, the kovdorskite structure is redetermined based on single-crystal X-ray diffraction data from a sample from the type locality, the Kovdor massif, Kola Peninsula, Russia, with anisotropic displacement parameters for all non-H atoms, with all H-atom located and with higher precision. Moreover, inconsistencies of the previously published structural data with respect to reported and calculated X-ray powder patterns are also discussed. The structure of kovdorskite contains a set of four edge-sharing MgO6 octahedra interconnected by PO4 tetrahedra and O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming columns and channels parallel to . The hydrogen-bonding system in kovdorskite is formed through the water molecules, with the OH− ions contributing little, if any, to the system, as indicated by the long H⋯A distances (>2.50 Å) to the nearest O atoms. The hydrogen-bond lengths determined from the structure refinement agree well with Raman spectroscopic data.
The crystal structure of the mineral junitoite, ideally CaZn2Si2O7·H2O (calcium dizinc disilicate monohydrate), was first determined by Hamilton & Finney [Mineral. Mag. (1985), 49, 91–95] based on the space group Ama2, yielding a reliability factor R of 0.10, with isotropic displacement parameters for all non-H atoms. The present study reports a structure redetermination of junitoite using single-crystal X-ray diffraction data from a natural sample, demonstrating that the space group of this mineral is actually Aea2, which can be attained simply by shifting the origin. Topologically, the structure models in the space groups Aea2 and Ama2 are analogous, consisting of chains of corner-sharing ZnO4 tetrahedra parallel to the b axis, cross-linked by Si2O7 tetrahedral dimers (the site symmetry of the bridging O atom is ..2) along a and c, forming a three-dimensional framework. The Ca2+ cations (site symmetry ..2) are situated in cavities of the framework and are bonded to five O atoms and one H2O molecule (site symmetry ..2) in a distorted octahedral coordination environment. However, some bond lengths, especially for the SiO4 tetrahedron, are noticeably different between the two structure models. Hydrogen bonding in junitoite is found between the water molecule and a framework O atom.
The crystal structure of conichalcite [calcium copper(II) arsenate(V) hydroxide], with ideal formula CaCu(AsO4)(OH), was redetermined from a natural twinned specimen found in the Maria Catalina mine (Chile). In contrast to the previous refinement from photographic data [Qurashi & Barnes (1963 ▶). Can. Mineral.
7, 561–577], all atoms were refined with anisotropic displacement parameters and with the H atom located. Conichalcite belongs to the adelite mineral group. The Jahn–Teller-distorted [CuO6] octahedra share edges, forming chains running parallel to . These chains are cross-linked by eight-coordinate Ca atoms and by sharing vertices with isolated AsO4 tetrahedra. Of five calcium arsenate minerals in the adelite group, the [MO6] (M = Cu, Zn, Co, Ni and Mg) octahedron in conichalcite is the most distorted, and the donor–acceptor O—H⋯O distance is the shortest.
The crystal structure of despujolsite [tricalcium manganese bis(sulfate) hexahydroxide trihydrate], the Ca/Mn member of the fleischerite group, ideally Ca3Mn4+(SO4)2(OH)6·3H2O, was previously determined based on X-ray diffraction intensity data from photographs, without H-atom positions located [Gaudefroy et al. (1968 ▶). Bull. Soc. Fr. Minéral. Crystallogr.
91, 43–50]. The current study redetermines the structure of despujolsite from a natural specimen, with all H atoms located and with higher precision. The structure of despujolsite is characterized by layers of CaO8 polyhedra (m.. symmetry) interconnected by Mn(OH)6 octahedra (32. symmetry) and SO4 tetrahedra (3.. symmetry) along . The average Ca—O, Mn—O and S—O bond lengths are 2.489, 1.915, and 1.472 Å, respectively. There are two distinct hydrogen bonds that stabilize the structural set-up. This work represents the first description of hydrogen bonds in the fleischerite group of minerals.
The fresnoite-type compound Sr2TiO(Si2O7), distrontium oxidotitanium disilicate, has been prepared by high-temperature solid-state synthesis. The results of a Rietveld refinement study, based on high-resolution synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data, show that the title compound crystallizes in the space group P4bm and adopts the structure of other fresnoite-type mineral samples with general formula A2TiO(Si2O7) (A = alkaline earth metal cation). The structure consists of titanosilicate layers composed of corner-sharing SiO4 tetrahedra (forming Si2O7 disilicate units) and TiO5 square-based pyramids. These layers extend parallel to the ab plane and are stacked along the c axis. Layers of distorted SrO6 octahedra lie between the titanosilicate layers. The Sr2+ ion, the SiO4 tetrahedron and the bridging O atom of the disilicate unit are located on mirror planes whereas the TiO5 square-based pyramid is located on a fourfold rotation axis.
The crystal structure of terbium(III) scandate(III), with ideal formula TbScO3, has been reported previously on the basis of powder diffraction data [Liferovich & Mitchell (2004 ▶). J. Solid State Chem.
177, 2188–2197]. The current data were obtained from single crystals grown by the Czochralski method and show an improvement in the precision of the geometric parameters. Moreover, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry studies resulted in a nonstoichiometric composition of the title compound. Site-occupancy refinements based on diffraction data support the idea of a Tb deficiency on the A site (inducing O defects on the O2 position). The crystallochemical formula of the investigated sample thus may be written as A(□0.04Tb0.96)BScO2.94. In the title compound, Tb occupies the eightfold-coordinated sites (site symmetry m) and Sc the centres of corner-sharing [ScO6] octahedra (site symmetry ). The mean bond lengths and site distortions fit well into the data of the remaining lanthanoid scandates in the series from DyScO3 to NdScO3. A linear structural evolution with the size of the lanthanoid from DyScO3 to NdScO3 can be predicted.
Single crystals of europium(III) scandate(III), with ideal formula EuScO3, were grown from the melt using the micro-pulling-down method. The title compound crystallizes in an orthorhombic distorted perovskite-type structure, where Eu occupies the eightfold coordinated A sites (site symmetry m) and Sc resides on the centres of corner-sharing [ScO6] octahedra (B sites with site symmetry ). The structure of EuScO3 has been reported previously based on powder diffraction data [Liferovich & Mitchell (2004). J. Solid State Chem.
177, 2188–2197]. The results of the current redetermination based on single-crystal diffraction data shows an improvement in the precision of the structral and geometric parameters and reveals a defect-type structure. Site-occupancy refinements indicate an Eu deficiency on the A site coupled with O defects on one of the two O-atom positions. The crystallochemical formula of the investigated sample may thus be written as A(□0.032Eu0.968)BScO2.952.
The crystal structure of eveite, ideally Mn2(AsO4)(OH) [dimanganese(II) arsenate(V) hydroxide], was refined from a single crystal selected from a co-type sample from Långban, Filipstad, Varmland, Sweden. Eveite, dimorphic with sarkinite, is structurally analogous with the important rock-forming mineral andalusite, Al2OSiO4, and belongs to the libethenite group. Its structure consists of chains of edge-sharing distorted [MnO4(OH)2] octahedra (..2 symmetry) extending parallel to . These chains are cross-linked by isolated AsO4 tetrahedra (..m symmetry) through corner-sharing, forming channels in which dimers of edge-sharing [MnO4(OH)] trigonal bipyramids (..m symmetry) are located. In contrast to the previous refinement from Weissenberg photographic data [Moore & Smyth (1968 ▶). Am. Mineral.
53, 1841–1845], all non-H atoms were refined with anisotropic displacement parameters and the H atom was located. The distance of the donor and acceptor O atoms involved in hydrogen bonding is in agreement with Raman spectroscopic data. Examination of the Raman spectra for arsenate minerals in the libethenite group reveals that the position of the peak originating from the O—H stretching vibration shifts to lower wavenumbers from eveite, to adamite, zincolivenite, and olivenite.
The crystal structure of durangite, ideally NaAl(AsO4)F (chemical name sodium aluminium arsenate fluoride), has been determined previously [Kokkoros (1938). Z. Kristallogr.
99, 38–49] using Weissenberg film data without reporting displacement parameters of atoms or a reliability factor. This study reports the redetermination of the structure of durangite using single-crystal X-ray diffraction data from a natural sample with composition (Na0.95Li0.05)(Al0.91Fe3+
0.02)(AsO4)(F0.73(OH)0.27) from the type locality, the Barranca mine, Coneto de Comonfort, Durango, Mexico. Durangite is isostructural with minerals of the titanite group in the space group C2/c. Its structure is characterized by kinked chains of corner-sharing AlO4F2 octahedra parallel to the c axis. These chains are cross-linked by isolated AsO4 tetrahedra, forming a three-dimensional framework. The Na+ cation (site symmetry 2) occupies the interstitial sites and is coordinated by one F− and six O2− anions. The AlO4F2 octahedron has symmetry -1; it is flattened, with the Al—F bond length [1.8457 (4) Å] shorter than the Al—O bond lengths [1.8913 (8) and 1.9002 (9) Å]. Examination of the Raman spectra for arsenate minerals in the titanite group reveals that the position of the band originating from the As—O symmetric stretching vibrations shifts to lower wavenumbers from durangite, maxwellite [ideally NaFe(AsO4)F], to tilasite [CaMg(AsO4)F].
The crystal structure of olivenite, ideally Cu2(AsO4)(OH) [dicopper(II) arsenate(V) hydroxide], was redetermined from an untwinned and phosphate-containing natural sample, composition Cu2(As0.92P0.08O4), from Majuba Hill (Nevada, USA). Olivenite is structurally analogous with the important rock-forming mineral andalusite, Al2OSiO4. Its structure consists of chains of edge-sharing, distorted [CuO4(OH)2] octahedra extending parallel to . These chains are cross-linked by isolated AsO4 tetrahedra through corner-sharing, forming channels in which dimers of edge-sharing [CuO4(OH)] trigonal bipyramids are located. The structure is stabilized by medium to weak O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. In contrast to the previous refinements from powder and single crystal X-ray data, all non-H atoms were refined with anisotropic displacement parameters and the H atom was located.
Crystals of dilithium manganese(II) silicate were grown under high-temperature hydrothermal conditions in the system LiOH—MnO2—SiO2. The title compound crystallizes in the βII-Li3PO4 structure type. The coordination polyhedra of all cations are slightly distorted tetrahedra (m symmetry for MnO4 and SiO4), which are linked by corner-sharing to each other. The vertices of the tetrahedra point to the same direction perpendicular to the distorted hexagonal close-packed (hcp) array of O atoms within which half of the tetrahedral voids are occupied by cations. In comparison with the previous refinement from powder X-ray data [Dominko et al. (2006 ▶). Electrochem. Commun.
8, 217–222], the present reinvestigation from single-crystal X-ray data allows a more precise determination of the distribution of the Li+ and Mn2+ cations, giving a perfectly site-ordered structure model for both Li+ and Mn2+.
Crystals of di-μ-bromido-bis[tetrabromidotantalum(V)], (TaBr5)2, were obtained by recrystallization at 773 K. A first crystal structure study of (TaBr5)2 was reported by Rolsten [J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1958) ▶, 80, 2952–2953], who analysed the powder diffraction pattern and came to the conclusion that it crystallizes isotypically with (NbBr5)2 in a primitive orthorhombic cell. These findings are not in agreement with our current results of a monoclinic C-centred structure. (TaBr5)2 is isotypic with α-(NbCl5)2. The crystal structure contains [TaBr6] octahedra sharing common edges forming [TaBr5]2 dimers. Two crystallographically independent dimers with symmetries m and 2/m and Ta⋯Ta distances of 4.1574 (11) and 4.1551 (15) Å, respectively, are present in the structure.
The previous structure determination of the title compound, dibarium tritelluridocadmate, was based on powder X-ray diffraction data [Wang & DiSalvo (1999 ▶). J. Solid State Chem.
148, 464–467]. In the current redetermination from single-crystal X-ray data, all atoms were refined with anisotropic displacement parameters. The previous structure report is generally confirmed, but with some differences in bond lengths. Ba2CdTe3 is isotypic with Ba2
3 (M = Mn, Cd; X = S, Se) and features 1
∞[CdTe2/2Te2/1]4− chains of corner-sharing CdTe4 tetrahedra running parallel . The two Ba2+ cations are located between the chains, both within distorted monocapped trigonal–prismatic coordination polyhedra. All atoms in the structure are located on a mirror plane.
The crystal structure of mercurous iodide, Hg2I2, has been determined previously from X-ray powder diffraction data [Havighurst (1926 ▶). J. Am. Chem. Soc.
48, 2113–2125]. The results of the current redetermination based on single-crystal X-ray diffraction data provide more precise geometrical data and also anisotropic displacement parameters for the Hg and I atoms, which are both situated on positions with site-symmetry 4mm. The structure consists of linear dimers I—Hg—Hg—I extending along the c axis with an Hg—Hg distance of 2.5903 (13) Å. The overall coordination sphere of the Hg+ atom is a considerably distorted octahedron. The crystal specimen under investigation was twinned by non-merohedry with a refined twin domain fraction of 0.853 (14):0.147 (14).
The crystal structure of Mg2B25, dimagnesium pentaeicosaboride, was reexamined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. The structural model previously reported on the basis of powder X-ray diffraction data [Giunchi et al. (2006 ▶). Solid State Sci.
8, 1202–1208] has been confirmed, although a much higher precision refinement was achieved, leading to much smaller standard uncertainties on bond lengths and refined occupancy factors. Moreover, all atoms were refined with anisotropic displacement parameters. Mg2B25 crystallizes in the β-boron structure type and is isostructural with other rhombohedral compounds of the boron-rich metal boride family. Magnesium atoms are found in interstitial sites on special positions (two with site symmetry .m, one with .2 and one with 3m), all with partial occupancies.
The crystal structure of the title compound, DyNi3, was redetermined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. In comparison with previous studies based on powder X-ray diffraction data [Lemaire & Paccard (1969 ▶). Bull. Soc. Fr. Minéral. Cristallogr.
92, 9–16; Tsai et al. (1974 ▶). J. Appl. Phys.
45, 3582–3586], the present redetermination revealed refined coordinates and anisotropic displacement parameters for all atoms. The crystal structure of DyNi3 adopts the PuNi3 structure type and can be derived from the CaCu5 structure type as an intergrowth structure. The asymmetric unit contains two Dy sites (site symmetries 3m and -3) and three Ni sites (m, 3m and -3m). The two different coordination polyhedra of Dy are a Frank–Kasper polyhedron formed by four Dy and 12 Ni atoms and a pseudo-Frank–Kasper polyhedron formed by two Dy and 18 Ni atoms. The three different coordination polyhedra of Ni are Frank–Kasper icosahedra formed by five Dy and seven Ni atoms, three Dy and nine Ni atoms, and six Dy and six Ni atoms.
In comparison with the previous refinement of tetrapotassium di-μ-chlorido-bis[tetrachloridobismuthate(III)] tetrahydrate [Volkova, Udovenko, Levin & Shevchenko (1983). Koord. Khim.
9, 356–360], the current redetermination reveals anisotropic displacement parameters for all non-H atoms, localization of the H atoms, and higher precision of lattice parameters and interatomic distances. The crystal structure is built up of edge-sharing [Bi2Cl10]4− double octahedra with the bridging Cl atoms situated on a mirror plane, three K+ counter-cations (two of which are on mirror planes), and two water molecules that are solely coordinated to the K+ cations. These building units are linked into a three-dimensional network structure. Additional O—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds between the water molecules and the complex anions stabilize this arrangement.
Single crystals of silver(I) polyphosphate(V), AgPO3, were prepared via a phosphoric acid melt method using a solution of Ag3PO4 in H3PO4. In comparison with the previous study based on single-crystal Weissenberg photographs [Jost (1961 ▶). Acta Cryst. 14, 779–784], the results were mainly confirmed, but with much higher precision and with all displacement parameters refined anisotropically. The structure is built up from two types of distorted edge- and corner-sharing [AgO5] polyhedra, giving rise to multidirectional ribbons, and from two types of PO4 tetrahedra linked into meandering chains (PO3)n spreading parallel to the b axis with a repeat unit of four tetrahedra. The calculated bond-valence sum value of one of the two AgI ions indicates a significant strain of the structure.
The crystal structure of dizinc trimolybdenum(IV) octaoxide, Zn2Mo3O8, has been redetermined from single-crystal X-ray data. The structure has been reported previously based on neutron powder diffraction data [Hibble et al. (1999 ▶). Acta Cryst. B55, 683-697] and single-crystal data [McCarroll et al. (1957 ▶). J. Am. Chem. Soc.
79, 5410–5414; Ansell & Katz (1966 ▶) Acta Cryst.
21, 482–485]. The results of the current redetermination show an improvement in the precision of the structural and geometric parameters with all atoms refined with anisotropic displacement parameters. The crystal structure consists of distorted hexagonal-close-packed oxygen layers with stacking sequence abac along  and is held together by alternating zinc and molybdenum layers. The Zn atoms occupy both tetrahedral and octahedral interstices with a ratio of 1:1. The Mo atoms occupy octahedral sites and form strongly bonded triangular clusters involving three MoO6 octahedra that are each shared along two edges, forming a Mo3O13 unit. All atoms lie on special positions. The Zn atoms are in 2b Wyckoff positions with 3m. site symmetry, the Mo atoms are in 6c Wyckoff positions with . m. site symmetry and the O atoms are in 2a, 2b and 6c Wyckoff positions with 3m. and . m. site symmetries, respectively.
The crystal structure of molybdenum triplatinum tetrasilicide, MoPt3Si4, determined previously from powder diffraction data [Joubert et al. (2010 ▶). J. Solid State Chem.
183, 173–179], has been redetermined using a single crystal synthesized from the elements by high-frequency melting. The redetermination provides more precise geometrical data and also anisotropic displacement parameters. The crystal structure can be considered to be derived from the PtSi structure type with an ordered substitution of Pt by Mo atoms, but leading to a very distorted Si network compared to the parent structure. Mo and Pt exhibit different coordination polyhedra. These are based on bicapped-square antiprisms, but with two additional vertices in cis positions for Mo, whereas they are in trans positions for Pt (as in PtSi). The coordination polyhedra for three of the Si atoms can be considered as highly deformed square antiprisms (as in PtSi), while the fourth Si atom has a bicapped trigonal–prismatic coordination geometry.
The crystal structure of the already known binary title compound LaZn5 (lanthanum pentazinc) (space group P6/mmm, Pearson symbol hP6, CaCu5 structure type) has been redetermined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. In contrast to previous determinations based on X-ray powder data [Nowotny (1942). Z. Metallkd.
34, 247–253; de Negri et al. (2008). Intermetallics, 16, 168–178], where unit-cell parameters and assignment of the structure type were reported, the present study reveals anisotropic displacement parameters for all atoms. The crystal structure consists of three crytallographically distinct atoms. The La atom (Wyckoff site 1a, site symmetry 6/mmm) is surrounded by 18 Zn atoms and two La atoms. The coordination polyhedron around one of the Zn atoms (Wyckoff site 2c, site symmetry -6m2) is an icosahedron made up from three La and nine Zn atoms. The other Zn atom (Wyckoff site 3g, site symmetry mmm) is surrounded by four La and eight Zn atoms. Bonding between atoms is explored by means of the TB–LMTO–ASA (tight-binding linear muffin-tin orbital atomic spheres approximation) program package. The positive charge density is localized around La atoms, and the negative charge density is around Zn atoms, with weak covalent bonding between the latter.
The crystal structure of Ce[B5O8(OH)(H2O)]NO3·2H2O, cerium(III) aquahydroxidooctaoxidopentaborate nitrate dihydrate, has been redetermined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. In contrast to the previous determination [Li et al. (2003 ▶). Chem. Mater.
15, 2253–2260], the present study reveals the location of all H atoms, slightly different fundamental building blocks (FBBs) of the polyborate anions, more reasonable displacement ellipsoids for all non-H atoms, as well as a model without disorder of the nitrate anion. The crystal structure is built from corrugated polyborate layers parallel to (010). These layers, consisting of [B5O8(OH)(H2O)]2− anions as FBBs, stack along  and are linked by Ce3+ ions, which exhibit a distorted CeO10 coordination sphere. The layers are additionally stabilized via O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds between water molecules and nitrate anions, located at the interlayer space. The [BO3(H2O)]-group shows a [3 + 1] coordination and is considerably distorted from a tetrahedral configuration. Bond-valence-sum calculation shows that the valence sum of boron is only 2.63 valence units (v.u.) when the contribution of the water molecule (0.49 v.u.) is neglected.
The title compound, C21H36O3, was obtained by treatment of cyclohexanecarbaldehyde with catalytic toluene-4-sulfonic acid monohydrate. This redetermination results in a crystal structure with significantly higher precision than the original determination [Diana & Ganis (1963 ▶). Atti Accad. Naz. Lincei, 35, 80–88]. The asymmetric unit contains one sixth of the molecule, the formula unit being generated by crystallographic 3m symmetry. In the molecule, the trioxane and cyclohexane rings are in chair conformations. In the crystal structure, molecules are linked by weak C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds along the  direction.
The redetermined structure of 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane, C3H6N6O6, at 90 (2) K has orthorhombic (Pbca) symmetry. It is of interest with respect to energetic compounds. The structure was originally investigated through X-ray diffraction by Hultgren [(1936). J. Chem. Phys.
4, 84]. Later X-ray investigations were completed by McCrone [(1950). Anal. Chem.
22, 954–955] and Harris, Reed & Gluyas [(1959). AFOSR-TR-59-165 Ohio State University Research Foundation, Columbus, Ohio, USA]. A single-crystal neutron diffraction study was performed by Choi & Prince [(1972). Acta Cryst. B28, 2857–2862] to ascertain the H-atom positions, which had not been defined by the earlier X-ray diffraction studies. All previous studies were performed at or near room temperature. The structure provided is the α polymorph of the title compound. The ring atoms are arranged in the chair conformation with two nitro groups occupying pseudo-equatorial positions and the remaining nitro group is axial. The crystal packing is stabilized by close intramolecular interactions from one H atom in each methylene group to O atoms of adjacent nitro groups, ranging from 2.251 to 2.593 Å.
The crystal structure of the title compound, which is also known as vitamin B13 (systematic name: 2,6-dioxo-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyrimidine-4-carboxylic acid monohydrate), C5H4N2O4·H2O, was reported for the first time by Takusagawa & Shimada [Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn (1973 ▶), 46, 2011–2019]. The present redetermination provides more precise values of the molecular geometry. The asymmetric unit comprises a planar diketo tautomer and a solvent water molecule. In the crystal structure, molecules are connected by O—H⋯O, N—H⋯O and C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds involving NH groups, two carbonyl O atoms and the solvent water molecule.