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1.  Surgeons' beliefs and perceptions about removal of orthopaedic implants 
Background
The routine removal of orthopaedic fixation devices after fracture healing remains an issue of debate. There are no evidence-based guidelines on this matter, and little is known on surgeons' practice and perceived effectiveness of implant removal in different clinical settings.
Methods
A 41-item questionnaire was distributed to 730 attendees of the AO Principles and Masters Courses of Operative Fracture Treatment in Davos, Switzerland, to assess their attitudes towards removal of different types of implants, and perceived benefits and risks with this common procedure.
Results
The response rate was 655/730 (89.7%), representing 54.6% of all 1199 course attendees. Surgeons from 65 countries (571 males and 84 females, mean age 39 ± SD 9 years) took part in the survey. Fifty-eight percent of the participants did not agree that routine implant removal is necessary, and 49% and 58% did not agree that indwelling implants pose an excess risk for fractures or general adverse effects. Forty-eight percent felt that removal is riskier than leaving the implant in situ. Implant removal in symptomatic patients was rated to be moderately effective (mean rating on a 10-point-scale, 5.8, 95% confidence interval 5.7–6.0). Eighty-five percent of all participants agreed that implant removal poses a burden to hospital resources. Surgeons were undetermined whether implant removal is adequately reimbursed by payers of health care services (44% "I-don't-know"-answers).
Conclusion
Many surgeons refuse a routine implant removal policy, and do not believe in clinically significant adverse effects of retained metal implants. Given the frequency of the procedure in orthopaedic departments worldwide, there is an urgent need for a large randomized trial to determine the efficacy and effectiveness of implant removal with regard to patient-centred outcomes.
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-9-73
PMCID: PMC2430567  PMID: 18501014
2.  Difficulties encountered removing locked plates 
INTRODUCTION
Locked plates are commonly used to obtain fixation in periarticular and comminuted fractures. Their use has also gained popularity in repairing fractures in osteoporotic bone. These plates provide stable fixation and promote biological healing. Over the last 3 years, we have used over 150 locked plates with varying success to fix periarticular fractures involving mainly the knee and ankle. In this study, we report our clinical experience and the difficulties encountered when removing locked plates in adult patients with a variety of indications including implant failure, infection, non-union and a palpable symptomatic implant.
METHODS
A retrospective analysis was performed of patients enrolled prospectively into a database. Included in the study were 36 consecutive adult patients who each underwent the procedure of locked plate removal in a single inner city level 1 trauma centre. Data collected included primary indication for fixation, indication for implant removal, time of the implant in situ, grade of operating surgeon and difficulties encountered during the procedure.
RESULTS
Implant removal was associated with a complication rate of 47%. The major problems encountered were difficulty in removing the locked screws and the implant itself. A total of ten cold welded screws were found in eight cases. Removal was facilitated by high speed metal cutting burrs and screw removal sets in all but one case, where a decision was made to leave the plate in situ.
CONCLUSIONS
The majority of studies investigating implant removal and problems encountered in doing so report a relatively high complication rate. With the advent of locking plates and their growing popularity, difficulties are now being seen intra-operatively when removing them. There is a paucity of data, however, specifically directed at locking plate removal. We recommend that surgeons should be aware of the potential complications while removing locked plates. Fluoroscopic control and all available extra equipment (mainly metal cutting burrs and screw removal sets) should be available in theatre.
doi:10.1308/10.1308/003588412X13373405386411
PMCID: PMC3954247  PMID: 23031770
Locked plates; Less invasive stabilisation system; Locking compression plate; Hardware removal; Complications; Cold welding
3.  Metal Allergy Screening Prior to Joint Arthroplasty and Its Influence on Implant Choice: A Delphi Consensus Study Amongst Orthopaedic Arthroplasty Surgeons 
Knee Surgery & Related Research  2013;25(4):186-193.
Purpose
This study was undertaken to obtain a consensus amongst joint arthroplasty experts with regards to metal allergy screening prior to joint arthroplasty and the choice of implant in patients with potential metal allergy.
Materials and Methods
A web based Delphi consensus study was used including orthopaedic surgeons that had previously published on the topic of knee, hip or shoulder arthroplasty. Two rounds of questionnaires were sent via electronic mail. Consensus was considered reached if agreement was 60% or higher.
Results
Eighteen surgeons responded to the first and 17 to the second round of questionnaires. There was consensus that patients having metal arthroplasty surgery should not be routinely questioned about metal allergy prior to surgery. There was consensus that patch testing is not necessary even if metal allergy is suspected. Most respondents agreed in proceeding with cobalt chromium or stainless steel implant in patients suspected of metal allergy regardless of the results of cutaneous patch testing.
Conclusions
This consensus study suggests that routine metal allergy screening prior to joint arthroplasty is not essential. The use of traditional cobalt chromium/stainless steel implants is recommended regardless of the patient's metal allergy status based on expert opinion through this study.
doi:10.5792/ksrr.2013.25.4.186
PMCID: PMC3867611  PMID: 24368996
Arthroplasty; Metal allergy; Delphi study
4.  Prophylactic antibiotic regimens in tumor surgery (PARITY) survey 
Background
Deep infection following endoprosthetic limb reconstruction for sarcoma of the long bones is a devastating complication occurring in 15% of sarcoma patients. Optimizing infection protocols and conducting definitive surgical trials are critical to improving outcomes. In this study, the PARITY (Prophylactic Antibiotic Regimens in Tumor Surgery) investigators aimed to examine surgeon preferences in antibiotic prophylaxis and perceptions about current evidence, as well as to ascertain interest in resolving uncertainty in the evidence with clinical trials.
Methods
We used a cross-sectional survey to examine current practice in the prescription of prophylactic antibiotics in Musculoskeletal Tumor Surgery. The survey was approved by our institution’s Ethics Board and emailed to all Active Members of the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) and Canadian Orthopaedic Oncology Society (CANOOS). Survey answers were collected using an anonymous online survey tool.
Results
Of the 96 surgeons who received the questionnaire, 72 responded (75% response rate (% CI: 65.5, 82.5%)). While almost all respondents agreed antibiotic regimens were important in reducing the risk of infection, respondents varied considerably in their choices of antibiotic regimens and dosages. Although 73% (95% CI: 61, 82%) of respondents prescribe a first generation cephalosporin, 25% favor additional coverage with an aminoglycoside and/or Vancomycin. Of those who prescribe a cephalosporin, 33% prescribe a dosage of one gram for all patients and the reminder prescribe up to 2 grams based on body weight. One in three surgeons (95% CI: 25, 48%) believes antibiotics could be discontinued after 24 hours but 40% (95% CI: 30, 53%) continue antibiotics until the suction drain is removed. Given the ongoing uncertainty in evidence to guide best practices, 90% (95% CI: 81, 95%) of respondents agreed that they would change their practice if a large randomized controlled trial showed clear benefit of an antibiotic drug regimen different from what they are currently using. Further support for a clinical trial was observed by an overwhelming surgeon interest (87%; 95% CI: 77, 93%) in participating in a multi-center randomized controlled study.
Conclusion
The current lack of guidelines for the prescription of prophylactic antibiotics in Musculoskeletal Tumor Surgery has left Orthopaedic Oncologists with varying opinions and practices. The lack of current evidence and strong surgeon support for participating in a definitive study provides strong rationale for clinical trials.
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-13-91
PMCID: PMC3461415  PMID: 22676321
5.  Clinical outcome of implant removal after fracture healing. Design of a prospective multicentre clinical cohort study 
Background
The clinical results of removal of metal implants after fracture healing are unknown and the question whether to remove or to leave them in is part of discussion worldwide. We present the design of a prospective clinical multicentre cohort study to determine the main indications for and expectations of implant removal, the influence on complaints, the incidence of surgery related complications and the socio-economic consequences of implant removal.
Methods/Design
In a prospective multicentre clinical cohort study at least 200 patients with a healed fracture after osteosynthesis with a metal implant are included for analyzing the outcome after removal. Six hospitals in the Netherlands are participating. Special questionnaires are designed. The follow up after surgery will be at least six months. The primary endpoint is the incidence of surgery related complications. Secondary endpoints are the influence of removal on preoperative symptoms and complaints and the socio-economic consequences.
Discussion
By performing this study we hope to find profound arguments to remove or not to remove metal implants after fracture healing that can help to develop clear guidelines for daily practice.
Trial registration
NTR1297, http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=1297
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-13-147
PMCID: PMC3493388  PMID: 22894749
Implant removal; Metal implants; Fracture healing; Fracture surgery; Osteosynthesis; Complications; Complaints
6.  Removal of orthopaedic implants: indications, outcome and economic implications  
Abstract
Introduction: The removal of implants after fracture healing has always been a topical and controversial issue. Undisputed however, is the removal of implants which are associated with complications. In this paper, we evaluated the indications, the outcome and economic cost to the patient and the health system of routine removal of implants after union.
Patients and methods: This is a two-year comparative, prospective study carried out in three hospitals in North Central Nigeria. All patients who presented for implant removal and consented to the study were recruited. Fracture union was confirmed both clinically and radiological. Direct costs of treatment paid for by the patients and number of absences from work and school were used as economic indices.
Results: Forty-seven patients comprising 20(42.6%) males and 27(57,4%) females, mean age of 31.6 (±13.4) years were analysed. Forty-two (89.4%) had fixation with plates and screws, three (6.4%) had screws with cerclage wire and two(4.2%) had tension band wiring. Patient request was the main indication for removal in 34(72.3%), surgeon’s request without symptoms in 7(14.9%),six(10.7%) were symptomatic comprising four(8.5%) due to postoperative chronic osteomyelitis and intractable pain in two(4.3%). Total cost of implant removal was $33,293.59 ($ 708.37 ±22.10; range $366.97-1,100.92). Total cost of removal in patients with symptomatic implants-in-situ was $3,678,90( $ 613.15±14.50) One patient had a refracture. Mean duration away from work or school was 16 days.
Conclusion: Routine removal of implants after fracture union constituted great waste of highly needed cash in both direct cost and loss of man-hour especially in a dwindling economy in an era of evidence based Medicare and best practice. It is recommended that each hospital adopts strict criteria for implant removal.
PMCID: PMC4170248  PMID: 25452945
Orthopaedic implants removal; Chronic osteomyelitis; Intractable pain
7.  A RANDOMIZED, PROSPECTIVE STUDY COMPARING INTERTROCHANTERIC HIP FRACTURE FIXATION WITH THE DYNAMIC HIP SCREW AND THE DYNAMIC HELICAL HIP SYSTEM IN A COMMUNITY PRACTICE 
The Iowa Orthopaedic Journal  2011;31:166-172.
Objective
To evaluate the clinical performance of the Dynamic Helical Hip System (DHHS) spiral blade relative to the Dynamic Hip Screw (DHS) lag screw.
Design
Randomized prospective study.
Setting
One level-2 trauma center and one level-3 trauma center.
Patients
Fifty-one consecutive patients were recruited into the trial. Inclusion criteria included patients over 50 years of age with AO/OTA 31A1 or 31A2 fracture.
Intervention
Surgeries were performed by one of 15 participating community orthopaedic surgeons. The patients were randomized to either a DHHS or DHS implant. Follow-up occurred at two weeks and six weeks and then at six-week intervals until healing occurred.
Main Outcome Measures
Primary outcome variables included sliding of die implant on the final AP radiographs, failure by cut-out and implant failure.
Results
There were 24 patients in the DHS group and 27 in the DHHS group. There was no difference in age, gender, ASA score, fracture classification or in the quality of reduction measured on the immediate postoperative radiographs (p=0.28) between the two groups. The tip apex distance was 18.7 mm in the DHHS group and 18.5 mm in the DHS group (p=0.40). The DHHS group had average blade sliding of 7.4 mm while the DHS group had an average lag-screw sliding of 7.7 (p=0.45). The DHHS group had two failures by central protrusion of the blade through the femoral head without significant varus collapse or superior migration. One was revised to a DHS and healed, the other was revised to a proximal femoral locking plate, which also failed and eventually required revision to a total hip arthroplasty. Investigation of the implants post failure showed evidence of binding of the blade shaft in the barrel as a mechanism of failure in both cases. No DHS implants cut out in this series, although one patient was revised to a total hip arthroplasty for symptomatic segmental osteonecrosis.
Conclusion
Both implants performed well in a majority of cases. The higher incidence of failure in the DHHS group is concerning, despite the low numbers. The mechanism of failure of the DHHS implant left adequate bone stock for attempts at revision fixation.
PMCID: PMC3215131  PMID: 22096437
8.  Diagnosis and treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip in the Netherlands: national questionnaire of paediatric orthopaedic surgeons on current practice in children less than 1 year old 
Purpose
There is no consensus in the literature regarding the diagnosis and treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). We designed a national questionnaire to assess the various opinions and current practice of paediatric orthopaedic surgeons in the Netherlands regarding the diagnosis and treatment of DDH in children less than 1 year old.
Methods
The questionnaire was sent to all members of the Dutch Paediatric Orthopaedic Society (DPOS). It discusses different methods and criteria used in the diagnosis of DDH, the use of different therapies and the use of different imaging techniques to evaluate the result of treatment.
Results
With 38 responders, the overall response rate to the survey was 67%. Most surgeons use clinical, radiographic and/or ultrasound examination for the diagnosis. The starting point of treatment is usually on the mild part of the DDH spectrum. The Pavlik harness is most popular in the treatment of dislocated hips, whereas in dysplastic hips, most surgeons use a rigid splint. The duration of treatment has a wide range and evaluation of the effect of treatment is predominantly done by radiography.
Conclusions
The diagnosis and treatment of DDH in the Netherlands has as much diversity as the literature has recommendations about this subject. The lack of consensus on many aspects of DDH diagnosis and treatment should form the basis for a discussion among Dutch paediatric orthopaedic surgeons. Using the available evidence, it should be possible to formulate a more uniform protocol for the diagnosis and treatment of DDH.
doi:10.1007/s11832-011-0355-1
PMCID: PMC3145893  PMID: 21949542
Developmental dysplasia of the hip; Current practice; Diagnosis; Treatment
9.  Diagnosis and treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip in the Netherlands: national questionnaire of paediatric orthopaedic surgeons on current practice in children less than 1 year old 
Purpose
There is no consensus in the literature regarding the diagnosis and treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). We designed a national questionnaire to assess the various opinions and current practice of paediatric orthopaedic surgeons in the Netherlands regarding the diagnosis and treatment of DDH in children less than 1 year old.
Methods
The questionnaire was sent to all members of the Dutch Paediatric Orthopaedic Society (DPOS). It discusses different methods and criteria used in the diagnosis of DDH, the use of different therapies and the use of different imaging techniques to evaluate the result of treatment.
Results
With 38 responders, the overall response rate to the survey was 67%. Most surgeons use clinical, radiographic and/or ultrasound examination for the diagnosis. The starting point of treatment is usually on the mild part of the DDH spectrum. The Pavlik harness is most popular in the treatment of dislocated hips, whereas in dysplastic hips, most surgeons use a rigid splint. The duration of treatment has a wide range and evaluation of the effect of treatment is predominantly done by radiography.
Conclusions
The diagnosis and treatment of DDH in the Netherlands has as much diversity as the literature has recommendations about this subject. The lack of consensus on many aspects of DDH diagnosis and treatment should form the basis for a discussion among Dutch paediatric orthopaedic surgeons. Using the available evidence, it should be possible to formulate a more uniform protocol for the diagnosis and treatment of DDH.
doi:10.1007/s11832-011-0355-1
PMCID: PMC3145893  PMID: 21949542
Developmental dysplasia of the hip; Current practice; Diagnosis; Treatment
10.  Current attitudes to total hip replacement in the younger patient: results of a national survey. 
A postal questionnaire was sent to all practicing consultant orthopaedic surgeons in the UK seeking information regarding their usual total hip replacement practice, the age at which they would define a patient as falling into the 'young hip group' and whether this might modify their practice. In particular, in the 'younger' age group, we were interested in the frequency of usage of uncemented implants, the choice of implant and the bearing surfaces. Of 1242 surgeons surveyed, we had a response from 935 who currently undertake total hip arthroplasty. Their responses confirm that approximately 60,645 total hip replacements are performed annually in the UK of which 9,376 are performed in the younger age group (mean age 57.5 years). As with our previous survey, the most popular prosthesis in the 'older' age group overall was the Charnley (51%) followed by the Exeter (15%). These implants also proved to be the most popular in the 'younger' age group (40% Charnley, 18% Exeter), with 75% of surgeons choosing a cemented stem, and 65% also opting to cement the socket. 23% of surgeons used hydroxy-apatite coated implants on both the femoral and acetabular sides of the joint. Stainless steel remained the most popular choice of femoral head bearing surface (42%) followed by chrome-cobalt (33%) and ceramic (25%). On the acetabular side, high density polyethylene predominated--accounting for 95%, with only 3% using chrome cobalt and 2% ceramic. There would appear to be a remarkably conservative attitude among British surgeons, the majority of whom prefer to stick with tried and tested cemented femoral implants when dealing with the younger patient. There are a small number of uncemented acetabulae and the hybrid configuration. Hydroxy-apatite coatings seem to be the most popular choice for the non-cemented prostheses. Ceramic femoral heads are used more frequently than the ceramic acetabular bearing, and equally metal/metal bearings remain infrequently used.
PMCID: PMC2503446  PMID: 10700765
11.  Complications and associated risk factors at screw removal in slipped capital femoral epiphysis treated by cannulated stainless steel screws 
Purpose
The aim of our study is to report our complication rate and analyze the associated risk factors when removing cannulated stainless steel screws for SCFE fixation.
Methods
This was a multicenter retrospective study of patients who underwent removal of cannulated stainless steel screws after a mean time of 2.03 years of implantation. Thirty-two patients were included (38 hips) with a mean of 13.7 years of age during screw removal surgery. The mean post-removal follow up time was 1.6 years. In all cases the removal of screws was done systematically. Demographic data, possible risk factors related to removal failure, as well as post-removal complications such as post-removal fractures, infections and scar issues were recorded.
Results
A removal failure rate of 15.79 % (6/38) was found. The removal surgical time was longer than the initial fixation time but without statistical significance (70.78 vs 61.84 m, p = 0.196). However, the duration of screw implantation (r2: 7.09; IC: 1.12–13.06) and screw head bony coverage (r2: 21.32; IC: 5.58–37.06) were both related to this prolonged time. Multivariant analysis revealed that a fully threaded cannulated screw had the lowest removal failure risk (OR: 0.3; IC: 0.14–0.61). There were no postremoval complications recorded.
Conclusions
We recommend to use full threaded cannulated stainless steel screws and to perform the procedure as soon as the physis are closed to decrease the surgical time. It is a safe procedure based on a low rate of complications such as post-removal fractures, infection and scar issues.
doi:10.1007/s11832-012-0425-z
PMCID: PMC3425694  PMID: 23904894
Slipped capital femoral epiphysis; Stainless steel screws; Removal failure rate; Titanium screws; Full threaded screws
12.  National Practice Patterns in Preoperative and Postoperative Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Breast Procedures Requiring Drains: Survey of the American Society of Breast Surgeons 
Annals of surgical oncology  2012;19(10):3205-3211.
Background
The aim of this study was to assess national practice patterns regarding use of perioperative antibiotics by surgeons performing breast operations requiring drainage tubes.
Methods
The members of the American Society of Breast Surgeons (ASBrS) were surveyed regarding use of perioperative antibiotics for breast operations requiring drains, with or without immediate tissue expander or implant reconstruction.
Results
Of 2857 ASBrS members contacted, 917 (32%) responded and all self-identified as surgeons. Of 905 evaluable respondents, most described themselves as general surgeons (46%) or breast surgeons (46%). For cases in which drains are anticipated, most respondents (86%) reported routine use of preoperative prophylactic antibiotics, 99% selecting cephalosporins. Use of antibiotic >24 hours postoperatively varied by whether or not reconstruction was performed. In non-reconstruction cases, the majority (76%) reported “never/almost never” prescribing antibiotics beyond the 24 hour postoperative period, but 16% reported “always/almost always”. In reconstruction cases, the majority (58%) reported routine antibiotic use beyond 24 hours and the primary driver of the decision to use antibiotics was reported to be the plastic surgeon (83%). Among those reporting use >24 hours, the duration recommended for non-reconstruction cases was “up to one week” in 38% and “until drains removed” in 39%, and this was similar for reconstruction cases.
Conclusions
Cephalosporins are utilized uniformly as preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis in breast operations requiring drains. However, use of postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis is strongly dependent on the presence of immediate breast reconstruction. Consensus is lacking on the role of postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis in breast operations utilizing drains.
doi:10.1245/s10434-012-2477-1
PMCID: PMC3934495  PMID: 22766988
13.  Minimally Invasive Plate Osteosynthesis for Open Fractures of the Proximal Tibia 
Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery  2012;4(4):313-320.
Background
Relatively few studies have addressed plate osteosynthesis for open proximal tibial fractures by now. The purpose of this study was to assess the results of minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) for open fractures of the proximal tibia.
Methods
Thirty-four patients with an open proximal tibial fracture were treated by MIPO. Thirty of these, who followed for over 1 year, constituted the subject of this retrospective study. According to the AO Foundation and Orthopaedic Trauma Association (AO-OTA) classification, there were 3 patients of type 41-C, 6 of type 42-A, 8 of type 42-B, and 13 of type 42-C. In terms of the Gustilo and Anderson's open fracture grading system, 11 patients were of grade I, 6 were of grade II, and 13 were of grade III (III-A, 6; III-B, 6; III-C, 1). After thorough debridement and wound cleansing, when necessary, a soft tissue flap was placed. Primary MIPO (simultaneous plate fixation with soft tissue procedures) was performed in 18 patients, and staged MIPO (temporary external fixation followed by soft tissue procedures and subsequent conversion to plate fixation after soft tissue healing) was performed in 12 patients. Results were assessed according to the achievement and time to union, complications (including infections), and function of the knee joint using Knee Society scores. Statistical analysis was performed to identify factors influencing results.
Results
Primary union was achieved by 24 of the 30 study subjects. Early bone grafting was performed in 6 cases with a massive initial bone defect expected to result in non-union. No patient had malalignment greater than 10°. The mean Knee Society score was 88.7 at final follow-up visits, 23 patients achieved an excellent result, and 7 a good result. There were 3 superficial and 5 deep infections, but none required early implant removal. Functional results were similar for primary and staged MIPO (p = 0.113). Fracture pattern (p = 0.089) and open fracture grade (p = 0.079) were not found to influence the results.
Conclusions
If soft tissue coverage is adequately performed, MIPO could be regarded as an acceptable method for the treatment of open proximal tibial fracture.
doi:10.4055/cios.2012.4.4.313
PMCID: PMC3504697  PMID: 23205242
Proximal; Tibia; Open fracture; Minimally invasive surgical procedure; Plate; Osteosynthesis
14.  Prospective blind comparative clinical study of two point fixation of zygomatic complex fracture using wire and mini plates 
Background
The zygomatic maxillary complex (ZMC) fractures are one of the most frequent injuries of the facial skeleton due to its position and facial contour. Assaults, road traffic accidents and falls are the principal etiologic factors that may cause fractures of zygomatic bone. The different fixation methods are applied to treat the zygomatic bone fractures, with many more classifications which have been described in the literature for the ease of management. The type of the fracture, its severity and associated facial fractures usually interferes the treatment modality.
Purpose of study
The aim of this paper is to show the results of 18yrs prospective blind comparative study using wire and plate osteosynthesis which needed open reduction and internal fixation involving Type II to Type IV Spissel and Schroll ZMC fractures.
Materials and methods
Total 80 cases included in the study out of 1780 ZMC cases which were treated using wire and plate osteosynthesis over a period of 18 yrs, involving only Type II to Type IV Spissel and Schroll ZMC fractures. Other types excluded from study to prevent observer bias. All the fixations carried out through Standard Dingman's incision using stainless steel 26 gauze wire and titanium 1.5 mm mini plate system under general anesthesia by single maxillofacial surgeon and evaluated by another maxillofacial surgeon who is blinded for surgical procedure after 2 and 4 wks of follow-up for facial symmetry, wound healing, functional assessment (mouth opening, diplopia), and sensory disturbance. All the data tabulated in Excel software (Microsoft) for statistical analysis. P-value calculated to know the Significance of treatment modality in all aspects.
Results
Result shows no significant p-values indicating both the operating techniques are equally efficient in the surgical management of ZMC fracture.
Conclusion
Osteosynthesis by mini plates is simple, logical and effective treatment compared to wire osteosynthesis in regard to stability of fracture fragments. Wire osteosynthesis will be helpful in emergency surgeries or where the mini plates are not available. Even though the wire osteosynthesis is economical compared to mini plate fixation; but the time and skill is required for fixation of wires.
doi:10.1186/1746-160X-8-7
PMCID: PMC3342088  PMID: 22390884
Zygomatic maxillary complex (ZMC); Internal fixation; Wire osteosynthesis; Mini plate osteosynthesis; Comparison of fixation
15.  Study to prospectively evaluate reamed intramedually nails in patients with tibial fractures (S.P.R.I.N.T.): Study rationale and design 
Background
Surgeons agree on the benefits of operative treatment of tibial fractures – the most common of long bone fractures – with an intramedullary rod or nail. Rates of re-operation remain high – between 23% and 60% in prior trials – and the two alternative nailing approaches, reamed or non-reamed, each have a compelling biological rationale and strong proponents, resulting in ongoing controversy regarding which is better.
Methods/Design
The objective of this trial was to assess the impact of reamed versus non-reamed intramedullary nailing on rates of re-operation in patients with open and closed fractures of the tibial shaft. The study to prospectively evaluate reamed intramedullary nails in tibial fractures (S.P.R.I.N.T) was a multi-center, randomized trial including 29 clinical sites in Canada, the United States and the Netherlands which enrolled 1200 skeletally mature patients with open (Gustilo Types I-IIIB) or closed (Tscherne Types 0–3) fractures of the tibial shaft amenable to surgical treatment with an intramedullary nail. Patients received a statically locked intramedullary nail with either reamed or non-reamed insertion. The first strategy involved fixation of the fracture with an intramedullary nail following reaming to enlarge the intramedullary canal (Reamed Group). The second treatment strategy involved fixation of the fracture with an intramedullary nail without prior reaming of the intramedullary canal (Non-Reamed Group). Patients, outcome assessors, and data analysts were blinded to treatment allocation. Peri-operative care was standardized, and re-operations before 6 months were proscribed. Patients were followed at discharge, 2 weeks post-discharge, and at 6 weeks, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months post surgery. A committee, blinded to allocation, adjudicated all outcomes.
Discussion
The primary outcome was re-operation to promote healing, treat infection, or preserve the limb (fasciotomy for compartment syndrome after nailing). The primary outcome was a composite comprising the following re-operations: bone grafts, implant exchanges, and dynamizations, in patients with fracture gaps less than 1 cm post intramedullary nail insertion. Infections and fasciotomies were considered events irrespective of the fracture gap. We planned a priori to conduct a subgroup analysis of outcomes in patients with open and closed fractures. S.P.R.I.N.T is the largest collaborative trial evaluating alternative orthopaedic surgical interventions in patients with tibial shaft fractures. The methodological rigor will set new benchmarks for future trials in the field and its results will have important impact on patient care. The S.P.R.I.N.T trial was registered [ID NCT00038129] and received research ethics approval (REB#99-077).
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-9-91
PMCID: PMC2446397  PMID: 18573205
16.  Flexible intramedullary nailing in paediatric femoral fractures. A report of 73 cases 
Background
Flexible intramedullary nailing has emerged as an accepted procedure for paediatric femoral fractures. Present indications include all patients with femoral shaft fractures and open physis. Despite its excellent reported results, orthopaedic surgeons remain divided in opinion regarding its usefulness and the best material used for nails. We thus undertook a retrospective study of paediatric femoral fractures treated with titanium or stainless steel flexible nails at our institute with a minimum of 5 years follow up.
Material and methods
We included 73 femoral shaft fractures in 69 patients treated with retrograde flexible intramedullary nailing with a minimum follow up of 5 years. Final limb length discrepancy and any angular or rotational deformities were determined.
Results
Mean age at final follow up was 15.5 years (10-21 years). Mean follow up was 7.16 years (5.0-8.6 years). Titanium and stainless steel nails were used in 43 and 30 cases respectively. There were 51 midshaft, 17 proximal, and 5 distal fractures.
All fractures united at an average of 11 weeks but asymptomatic malalignment and LLD were seen in 19% and 58% fractures respectively. LLD ranged from -3 cm to 1.5 cm. Other complications included superficial infection(2), proximal migration of nail(3), irritation at nail insertion site(5) and penetration of femoral neck with nail tip(1). There were 59 excellent, 10 satisfactory and 4 poor results.
Conclusion
Flexible intramedullary nailing is reliable and safe for treating paediatric femoral shaft fractures. It is relatively free of serious complications despite asymptomatic malalignment and LLD in significant percentage of fractures.
doi:10.1186/1749-799X-6-64
PMCID: PMC3320542  PMID: 22192682
17.  Hardware removal after tibial fracture has healed 
Canadian Journal of Surgery  2008;51(4):263-268.
Background
Tibial fractures are the most common long bone fracture. The standard of care for the treatment of diaphyseal tibial fractures is an intramedullary nail (IMN). Implant removal is one of the most common procedures in bone and joint surgery, and criteria for implant removal are typically left to the treating surgeon. Currently, no clear criteria exist to guide a surgeon's decision to remove implanted tibial IMNs after healing.
Methods
We undertook a retrospective chart review of a single surgeon's practice from January 1996 to February 2005. We identified patients aged 16–70 years with a tibial fracture treated with an IMN. Patients were followed until fracture union and/or request for IMN removal. The following parameters were recorded: reason for implant removal, age, sex, mechanism of fracture, location of fracture, diameter of IMN, Workers' Compensation Board (WCB) status, activity level, litigation status, insurance involvement, height, weight and body mass index (BMI).
Results
Factors influencing the likelihood of removal were sex and litigation. Factors not influencing the likelihood of removal were age, weight, height, BMI, diameter of IMN, patients' level of activity, insurance claim involvement and WCB involvement. Overall, 72.2% of patients had an improvement in their symptoms after IMN removal.
Conclusion
Sex and litigation are positive predictive factors for patient requests to have tibial IMNs removed after healing.
PMCID: PMC2552942  PMID: 18815648
18.  Complications of Total Knee Arthroplasty: Standardized List and Definitions of The Knee Society 
Background
Despite the importance of complications in evaluating patient outcomes after TKA, definitions of TKA complications are not standardized. Different investigators report different complications with different definitions when reporting outcomes of TKA.
Questions/purposes
We developed a standardized list and definitions of complications and adverse events associated with TKA.
Methods
In 2009, The Knee Society appointed a TKA Complications Workgroup that surveyed the orthopaedic literature and proposed a list of TKA complications and adverse events with definitions. An expert opinion survey of members of The Knee Society was used to test the applicability and reasonableness of the proposed TKA complications. For each complication, members of The Knee Society were asked “Do you agree with the inclusion of this complication as among the minimum necessary for reporting outcomes of knee arthroplasty?” and “Do you agree with this definition?”
Results
One hundred two clinical members (100%) of The Knee Society responded to the survey. All proposed complications and definitions were endorsed by the members, and 678 suggestions were incorporated into the final work product. The 22 TKA complications and adverse events include bleeding, wound complication, thromboembolic disease, neural deficit, vascular injury, medial collateral ligament injury, instability, malalignment, stiffness, deep joint infection, fracture, extensor mechanism disruption, patellofemoral dislocation, tibiofemoral dislocation, bearing surface wear, osteolysis, implant loosening, implant fracture/tibial insert dissociation, reoperation, revision, readmission, and death.
Conclusions
We identified 22 complications and adverse events that we believe are important for reporting outcomes of TKA. Acceptance and utilization of these standardized TKA complications may improve evaluation and reporting of TKA outcomes.
doi:10.1007/s11999-012-2489-y
PMCID: PMC3528930  PMID: 22810157
19.  Osteogenic Protein-1 for Long Bone Nonunion 
Executive Summary
Objective
To assess the efficacy of osteogenic protein-1 (OP-1) for long bone nonunion.
Clinical Need
Although most fractures heal within a normal period, about 5% to 10% do not heal and are classified as delayed or nonunion fractures. Nonunion and segmental bone loss after fracture, reconstructive surgery, or lesion excision can present complex orthopedic problems, and the multiple surgical procedures often needed are associated with patient morbidity and reduced quality of life.
Many factors contribute to the pathogenesis of a delayed union or nonunion fractures, including deficiencies of calcium, vitamin D, or vitamin C, and side effects of medications such as anticoagulants, steroids, some anti-inflammatory drugs, and radiation. It has been shown that smoking interferes with bone repair in several ways.
Incidence of Nonunion and Delayed Union Cases
An estimated 5% to 10% of fractures do not heal properly and go on to delayed union or nonunion. If this overall estimate of incidence were applied to the Ontario population1, the estimated number of delayed union or nonunion in the province would be between 3,863 and 7,725.
Treatment of Nonunion Cases
The treatment of nonunion cases is a challenge to orthopedic surgeons. However, the basic principle behind treatment is to provide both mechanical and biological support to the nonunion site.
Fracture stabilization and immobilization is frequently used with the other treatment modalities that provide biological support to the fractured bone. Biological support includes materials that could be served as a source of osteogenic cells (osteogenesis), a stimulator of mesenchymal cells (osteoinduction), or a scaffold-like structure (osteoconduction).
The capacity to heal a fracture is a latent potential of the stromal stem cells, which synthesize new bone. This process has been defined as osteogenesis. Activation of the stem cells to initiate osteogenic response and to differentiate into bone-forming osteoblasts is called osteoinduction. These 2 properties accelerate the rate of fracture healing or reactivate the ineffective healing process. Osteoconduction occurs when passive structures facilitate the migration of osteoprogenitor cells, the perivascular tissue, and capillaries into these structures.
Bone Grafts and Bone Graft Substitutes
Bone graft and bone graft substitutes have one or more of the following components:
Undifferentiated stem cells
Growth factors
Structural lattice
Undifferentiated stem cells are unspecialized, multipotential cells that can differentiate into a variety of specialized cells. They can also replicate themselves. The role of stem cells is to maintain and repair the tissue in which they are residing. A single stem cell can generate all cell types of that tissue. Bone marrow is a source of at least 2 kinds of stem cells. Hematopoietic stem cells that form all types of blood cells, and bone marrow stromal stem cells that have osteogenic properties and can generate bone, cartilage, and fibrous tissue.
Bone marrow has been used to stimulate bone formation in bone defects and cases of nonunion fractures. Bone marrow can be aspirated from the iliac crest and injected percutaneously with fluoroscopic guidance into the site of the nonunion fracture. The effectiveness of this technique depends on the number and activity of stem cells in the aspirated bone marrow. It may be possible to increase the proliferation and speed differentiation of stem cells by exposing them to growth factor or by combining them with collagen.
Many growth factors and cytokines induced in response to injury are believed to have a considerable role in the process of repair. Of the many bone growth factors studied, bone morphogenetics (BMPs) have generated the greatest attention because of their osteoinductive potential. The BMPs that have been most widely studied for their ability to induce bone regeneration in humans include BMP-2 and BMP-7 (osteogenic protein). Human osteogenic protein-1 (OP-1) has been cloned and produced with recombinant technology and is free from the risk of infection or allergic reaction.
The structural lattice is osteoconductive; it supports the ingrowth of developing capillaries and perivascular tissues. Three distinct groups of structural lattice have been identified: collagen, calcium sulphate, and calcium phosphate. These materials can be used to replace a lost segment of bone.
Grafts Used for Nonunion
Autologous bone graft is generally considered the gold standard and the best material for grafting because it contains several elements that are critical in promoting bone formation, including osteoprogenitor cells, the matrix, and bone morphogenetic proteins. The osteoconductive property of cancellous autograft is related to the porosity of bone. The highly porous, scaffold-like structure of the graft allows host osteoblasts and host osteoprogenitor cells to migrate easily into the area of the defect and to begin regeneration of bone. Sources of cancellous bone are the iliac crest, the distal femur, the greater trochanter, and the proximal tibia. However, harvesting the autologous bone graft is associated with postoperative pain at the donor site, potential injury to the surrounding arteries, nerves, and tissues, and the risk of infection. Thus the development of synthetic materials with osteoconductive and osteoinductive properties that can eliminate the need for harvesting has become a major goal of orthopedic research.
Allograft is the graft of tissue between individuals who are of the same species but are of a disparate genotype. Allograft has osteoconductive and limited osteoinductive properties. Demineralized bone matrix (DBM) is human cortical and cancellous allograft. These products are prepared by acid extraction of allograft bone, resulting in the loss of most of the mineralized component while collagen and noncollagenous proteins, including growth factors, are retained. Figures 1 to 5 demonstrate the osteogenic, osteoinduction, and osteoconduction properties of autologous bone graft, allograft, OP-1, bone graft substitutes, and bone marrow.
Autologous Bone Graft
Osteogenic Protein-1
Allograft bone and Demineralized Bone Matrix
Bone Graft Substitutes
Autologous Bone Marrow Graft
New Technology Being Reviewed: Osteogenic Protein-1
Health Canada issued a Class IV licence for OP-1 in June 2004 (licence number 36320). The manufacturer of OP-1 is Stryker Biotech (Hapkinton, MA).
The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a humanitarian device exemption for the application of the OP-1 implant as an “alternative to autograft in recalcitrant long bone nonunions where use of autograft is unfeasible and alternative treatments have failed.” Regulatory agencies in Europe, Australia, and New Zealand have permitted the use of this implant in specific cases, such as in tibial nonunions, or in more general cases, such as in long bone nonunions.
According to the manufacturer, OP-1 is indicated for the treatment of long bone nonunions. It is contraindicated in the patient has a hypersensitivity to the active substance or collagen, and it should not be applied at the site of a resected tumour that is at or near the defect or fracture. Finally, it should not be used in patients who are skeletally immature (< 18 years of age), or if there is no radiological evidence of closure of epiphysis.
Review Strategy
Objective
To summarize the safety profile and effectiveness of OP-1 in the treatment of cases of long bone nonunion and bone defects
To compare the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of OP-1 in the treatment of long bone nonunions and bone defects with the alternative technologies, particularly the gold standard autologous bone graft.
Literature Search
International Network of Agencies for Health Technology Assessments (INAHTA), the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and the CCTR (formerly Cochrane Controlled Trials Register) were searched for health technology assessments. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Medline In Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations were searched from January 1, 1996 to January 27, 2004 for studies on OP-1. The search was limited to English-language articles and human studies. The search yielded 47 citations. Three studies met inclusion criteria (2 RCTs and 1 Ontario-based study presented at an international conference.
Summary of Findings
Friedlaender et al. conducted a prospective, randomized, partially blinded clinical trial on the treatment tibial nonunions with OP-1. Tibial nonunions were chosen for this study because of their high frequency, challenging treatment requirements, and substantial morbidity. All of the nonunions were at least 9 months old and had shown no progress toward healing over the previous 3 months. The patients were randomized to receive either treatment with autologous bone grafting or treatment with OP-1 in a type-1 collagen carrier. Both groups received reduction and fixation with an intramedullary rod. Table 1 summarizes the clinical outcomes of this study.
Outcomes in a Randomized Clinical Trial on Tibial Nonunions: Osteogenic Protein-1 versus Autologous Bone Grafting
Clinical success was defined as full weight-bearing, loss of severe pain at the fracture site on weight-bearing, and no further surgical treatment to enhance fracture repair.
The results of this study demonstrated that recombinant OP-1 is associated with substantial clinical and radiographic success for the treatment of tibial nonunions when used with intramedullary rod fixation. No adverse event related to sensitization was reported. Five per cent of the patients in the OP-1 group had circulating antibodies against type 1 collagen. Only 10% of the patients had a low level of anti-OP-1 antibodies, and all effects were transient. Furthermore, the success rate with the OP-1 implant was comparable with those achieved with autograft at 9 and 24 months follow-up. Eighty-two per cent of patients were successful at 24 months follow-up in both groups.
Statistically significant increased blood loss in the group treated with the autograft was observed (P = .049). Patients treated with autograft had longer operation and hospitalization times. All patients in the autograft group had pain at the donor site after surgery, and more than 80% judged their postoperative pain as moderate or severe. At their 6-month visit, 20% of the patients in the autograft group had persistent pain, mild or moderate in nature, at the donor site. This number fell to 13% at 12 months.
All patients in each of the groups had at least 1 adverse event that wasn’t serious, such as fever, nausea and vomiting, leg edema, discomfort, and bruising at the operative site. The incidence of these events was similar in both groups. Serious adverse events were observed in 44% of both groups, none of which were considered related to the OP-1 implant or autograft.
On the basis of this data, the FDA issued a humanitarian device exemption for the application of OP-1 implant as an alternative to autograft in recalcitrant long bone nonunions when the use of autograft is unfeasible and alternative treatments have failed.
Study on Fibular Defects
Geesink et al. investigated the osteogenic activity of OP-1 by assessing its value in bridging fibular defects made at the time of tibial osteotomy for varus or valgus deformity of the knee. This study had 2 phases and included 12 patients in each phase. Each phase included 12 patients (6 in each group). Patients in the first phase received either DBM or were left untreated. Patients in the second phase received either OP-1 on collagen type-1 or collagen type-1 alone.
Radiological and Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) evaluation showed that in patients in whom the defect was left untreated, no formation of bone occurred. At 12 months follow-up, new bone formation with bridging occurred in 4 of the 6 patients in DMB group, and 5 of the 6 patients in OP-1 group. One patient in OP-1 group did not show any evidence of new bone formation at any point during the study.
Ontario Pilot Study
A prospective pilot study was conducted in Ontario, Canada to investigate the safety and efficacy of OP-1 for the treatment of recalcitrant long bone nonunions. The study looked at 15 patients with complex, recalcitrant, long bone nonunions whose previous treatment had failed. The investigators concluded that this bone graft substitute appears to be safe and effective in providing sufficient biological stimulation in difficult to treat nonunions. Results of a more complete study on 70 patients are ready for publication. According to the principal investigator, OP-1 was 90% effective in inducing bone formation and bone healing in this sample.
Alternative Technologies
The Medical Advisory Secretariat conducted a literature search from January 1, 2000 to February 28, 2005 to identify studies on nonunions/bone defects that had been treated with alternative technologies. A review of these studies showed that, in addition to the gold standard autologous bone marrow grafting, bone allografts, demineralized bone matrices, bone graft substitutes, and autologous bone marrow have been used for treatment of nonunions and bone defects. These studies were categorized according to the osteoinductive, osteoconductive, and osteogenesis properties of the technologies studied.
A review of these studies showed that bone allografts have been used mostly in various reconstruction procedures to restore the defect after excavating a bone lesion. Two studies investigated the effectiveness of DBM in healing fracture nonunions. Calcium phosphate and calcium sulphate have been used mostly for repair of bone defects.
Several investigators have looked at the use of autologous bone marrow for treatment of long bone nonunions. The results of these studies show that method of percutaneous bone marrow grafting is highly effective in the treatment of long bone nonunions. In a total of 301 fractures across all studies, 268 (89%) healed with a mean healing time of 2.5 to 8 months. This healing time as derived from these case series is less than the timing of the primary end point in Friedlaender’s study (9 months). Table 2 summarizes the results of these studies. Table 2 summarizes the results of these studies.
Studies that used Percutaneous Bone Marrow Grafting for Treatment of Nonunions
Economic Analysis
Based on annual estimated incidence of long-bone nonunion of 3,863 - 7,725, the annual hospitalization costs associated with this condition is between $21.2 and $42.3 million based on a unit cost of $5,477 per hospital separation. When utilized, the device, a single vial of OP-1, is approximately $5,000 and if adopted universally in Ontario, the total device costs would be in the range of $19.3 - $38.6 million annually. The physician fee for harvest, insertion of bone, or OP-1 is $193 and is $193 for autologous bone marrow transplantation. Total annual physician costs are expected to be in the range of from $0.7 million to $1.3 million per year. Expenditures associated with long-bone nonunion are unlikely to increase since incidence of long-bone nonunion is unlikely to change in the future. However, the rate of uptake of OP-1 could have a significant impact on costs if the uptake were large.
The use of OP-1 and autologous bone marrow transplantation may offset pain medication costs compared with those associated with autologous bone harvest given that the former procedures do not involve the pain associated with the bone harvest site. However, given that this pain is normally not permanent, the overall offset is likely to be small. There are likely to be smaller OHIP costs associated with OP-1 than bone-harvest procedures given that only 1, rather than 2, incisions are needed when comparing the former with the latter procedure. This offset could amount to between $0.3 million to $0.7 million annually.
No data on the cost-effectiveness of OP-1 is available.
PMCID: PMC3382627  PMID: 23074475
20.  Spine imaging after lumbar disc replacement: pitfalls and current recommendations 
Background
Most lumbar artificial discs are still composed of stainless steel alloys, which prevents adequate postoperative diagnostic imaging of the operated region when using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Thus patients with postoperative radicular symptoms or claudication after stainless steel implants often require alternative diagnostic procedures.
Methods
Possible complications of lumbar total disc replacement (TDR) are reviewed from the available literature and imaging recommendations given with regard to implant type. Two illustrative cases are presented in figures.
Results
Access-related complications, infections, implant wear, loosening or fracture, polyethylene inlay dislodgement, facet joint hypertrophy, central stenosis, and ankylosis of the operated segment can be visualised both in titanium and stainless steel implants, but require different imaging modalities due to magnetic artifacts in MRI.
Conclusion
Alternative radiographic procedures should be considered when evaluating patients following TDR. Postoperative complications following lumbar TDR including spinal stenosis causing radiculopathy and implant loosening can be visualised by myelography and radionucleotide techniques as an adjunct to plain film radiographs. Even in the presence of massive stainless steel TDR implants lumbar radicular stenosis and implant loosening can be visualised if myelography and radionuclide techniques are applied.
doi:10.1186/1754-9493-3-15
PMCID: PMC2716308  PMID: 19619332
21.  Late-developing infection following posterior fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis 
European Spine Journal  2011;20(Suppl 1):121-127.
This study is a retrospective case series review of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) who were revised more than 1 year after the index procedure, due to a late-developing deep wound infection, to determine onset, bacteriology, possible influence of implant alloy (titanium vs. stainless-steel) and treatment outcome of patients. From a total of 540 patients who underwent posterior-only fusion for AIS from 1993 through 2005 at our institution, 15 cases (2.77%) were revised due to a late-developing post-operative infection: there were six males and nine females, with an average age at initial surgery of 15.8 years (range 12–18). Late infections occurred at a mean of 70 months (15–95) after the index procedure. The implant alloy used was a stainless-steel instrumentation in 11 patients (4.56% of 241) and a titanium one in 4 patients (1.33% of 299): there was an higher incidence of late infections in stainless-steel alloy group of patients (P < 0.0001). Complete removal of instrumentation was performed in nine patients, obtaining in all cases wound healing and no symptoms of infection, at a minimum 3 years follow-up. In the other six patients, presenting less severe clinical signs of infections, an attempt to save/replace the previous instrumentation was performed, but a complete instrumentation removal had to be performed 11.6 months later (range 3–24) for the persistence or recurrence of infection: all patients healed uneventfully at a minimum 3 years follow-up. Intraoperative cultures were obtained in all 15 cases, being positive in 13 cases (S. epidermidis in 5 patients, S. aureus in 3, Propionibacterium acnes in 1, Serratia marcescens in 1, Propionibacterium acnes + S. epidermidis in 1, S. aureus + S. epidermidis in 1 and coagulase-negative Staphylococci in 1). None presented at latest follow-up scoliosis progression: there was no statistically significant difference between final and pre-operative revision surgery values (P = 0.17). In conclusion, treatment of late-developing post-operative infection in AIS surgery required complete removal of the implant, continuous drain and adequate antibiotic therapy based on intraoperative swab antibiogram. Titanium alloy instrumentations resulted less subject to late post-operative infections, when compared to stainless-steel ones (P < 0.0001).
doi:10.1007/s00586-011-1754-1
PMCID: PMC3087047  PMID: 21505809
Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis; Posterior fusion; Late-developing infection
22.  An interactive surgical planning tool for acetabular fractures: initial results 
Background
Acetabular fractures still are among the most challenging fractures to treat because of complex anatomy, involved surgical access to fracture sites and the relatively low incidence of these lesions. Proper evaluation and surgical planning is necessary to achieve anatomic reduction of the articular surface and stable fixation of the pelvic ring. The goal of this study was to test the feasibility of preoperative surgical planning in acetabular fractures using a new prototype planning tool based on an interactive virtual reality-style environment.
Methods
7 patients (5 male and 2 female; median age 53 y (25 to 92 y)) with an acetabular fracture were prospectively included. Exclusion criterions were simple wall fractures, cases with anticipated surgical dislocation of the femoral head for joint debridement and accurate fracture reduction. According to the Letournel classification 4 cases had two column fractures, 2 cases had anterior column fractures and 1 case had a T-shaped fracture including a posterior wall fracture.
The workflow included following steps: (1) Formation of a patient-specific bone model from preoperative computed tomography scans, (2) interactive virtual fracture reduction with visuo-haptic feedback, (3) virtual fracture fixation using common osteosynthesis implants and (4) measurement of implant position relative to landmarks. The surgeon manually contoured osteosynthesis plates preoperatively according to the virtually defined deformation. Screenshots including all measurements for the OR were available.
The tool was validated comparing the preoperative planning and postoperative results by 3D-superimposition.
Results
Preoperative planning was feasible in all cases. In 6 of 7 cases superimposition of preoperative planning and postoperative follow-up CT showed a good to excellent correlation. In one case part of the procedure had to be changed due to impossibility of fracture reduction from an ilioinguinal approach. In 3 cases with osteopenic bone patient-specific prebent fixation plates were helpful in guiding fracture reduction. Additionally, anatomical landmark based measurements were helpful for intraoperative navigation.
Conclusion
The presented prototype planning tool for pelvic surgery was successfully integrated in a clinical workflow to improve patient-specific preoperative planning, giving visual and haptic information about the injury and allowing a patient-specific adaptation of osteosynthesis implants to the virtually reduced pelvis.
doi:10.1186/1749-799X-5-50
PMCID: PMC2923114  PMID: 20684761
23.  Are osteoporotic fractures being adequately investigated?: A questionnaire of GP & orthopaedic surgeons 
Background
To investigate the current practice of Orthopaedic Surgeons & General Practitioners (GP) when presented with patients who have a fracture, with possible underlying Osteoporosis.
Methods
Questionnaires were sent to 140 GPs and 140 Orthopaedic Surgeons. The participants were asked their routine clinical practice with regard to investigation of underlying osteoporosis in 3 clinical scenarios.
55 year old lady with a low trauma Colles fracture
60 year old lady with a vertebral wedge fracture
70 year old lady with a low trauma neck of femur fracture.
Results
Most doctors agreed that patients over 50 years old with low trauma fractures required investigation for osteoporosis, however, most surgeons (56%, n = 66) would discharge patients with low trauma Colles fracture without requesting or initiating investigation for osteoporosis. Most GPs (67%, n = 76) would not investigate a similar patient for osteoporosis, unless prompted by the Orthopaedic Surgeon or patient.
More surgeons (71%, n= 83) and GPs (64%, n = 72) would initiate investigations for osteoporosis in a vertebral wedge fracture, but few surgeons (35%, n = 23) would investigate a neck of femur fracture patient after orthopaedic treatment.
Conclusion
Most doctors know that fragility fractures in patients over 50 years old require investigation for Osteoporosis; however, a large population of patients with osteoporotic fractures are not being given the advantages of secondary prevention.
doi:10.1186/1471-2296-7-7
PMCID: PMC1388220  PMID: 16464250
24.  Open reduction and Internal Fixation of Displaced Proximal Humerus Fractures with AO Stainless Steel T-Plate 
Abstract
Background: Proximal humeral fractures are considered the last unsolved fractures in orthopaedics. The treatment is controversial and various operative modalities have been reported in the literature. The aim of the present study was to evaluate functional outcome and complication rate after open reduction and internal fixation of displaced proximal humerus fractures by proximal humerus AO stainless steel T-plate.
Twenty-five (25) patients with displaced proximal humerus fractures treated with proximal humerus T-plate between May 2005 and June 2008 were included in the study. Fractures were classified according to the Neer classification into displaced 2-part, 3-part, and 4-part fractures. Patients were followed-up for a minimum period of two years. Functional evaluation was done according to the Neer scoring system. Scores were compared with other studies in the literature using similar implant.
Twenty patients had 2-part fracture, four had 3-part fracture, and one had 4-part fracture. Eighty-eight [88% (n = 22)] patients had good to excellent result, eight [8% (n = 2)] had fair, and four [4% (n = 1)] had poor result. Difference in Neer’s score between 2-part and 3-part fractures was not significant. Complications encountered in this series were screw backout in 8% (n = 2), superficial infection in 12% (n = 3), and avascular necrosis in 4% (n = 1) of cases.
We conclude that proximal humerus AO T- plate is a cheap and easily available implant, aspects which are particularly relevant in third world countries like India. It gives reliable fixation for 2-part and 3-part fractures. Its use in more complicated fracture patterns of 4-part fractures is not recommended.
Key Words
Proximal humerus fractures, proximal humerus stainless steel T-plate, unstable fracture
doi:10.5704/MOJ.1403.011
PMCID: PMC4093544  PMID: 25279078
25.  Open MR imaging in spine surgery: experimental investigations and first clinical experiences 
European Spine Journal  1999;8(5):346-353.
Abstract
Introduction: The latest open MRI technology allows to perform open and closed surgical procedures under real-time imaging. Before performing spinal trauma surgery preclinical examinations had to be done to evaluate the artifacts caused by the implants. Methods: The MRT presented is a prototype developed by GE. Two vertically positioned magnetic coils are installed in an operation theater. By that means two surgeons are able to access the patient between the two coils. Numerous tests regarding the material of instruments and implants were necessary in advance. The specific size of the artifact depending on the pulse sequence and the positioning within the magnetic field had to be examined. Results: The magnifying factors of the artifact in the spin echo sequence regarding titanium are between 1.7 and 3.2, depending on the direction of the magnetic vector. Regading stainless steel they are between 8.4 and 8.5. In the gradient echo sequence the factors are between 7.5 and 7.7 for titanium and between 16.9 and 18.0 for stainless steel. The tip of an implant is imaged with an accuracy of 0 to 2 mm. Since September 1997 16 patients with unstable fractures of the thoracic and lumbar spine have been treated by dorsal instrumentation in the open MRI. Percutaneous insertion of the internal fixator has proven a successful minimally invasive procedure. The positioning of the screws in the pedicle is secure, the degree of indirect reduction of the posterior wall of the vertebral body can be imaged immediately. The diameter of the spinal canal can be determined in any plane. Discussion and conclusion: The open MRI has proven useful in orthopedic and trauma surgery. The size and configuration of the artifacts caused by instruments and implants is predictable. Therefore exact positioning of the implants is achieved more easily. Dorsal instrumentation of unstable thoracolumbar fractures with a percutaneous technique has turned out safe and less traumatic under MR-imaging. Real-time imaging of soft tissue and bone in any plane improves security for the patient and allows the surgeon to work less invasively and more precisely.
doi:10.1007/s005860050186
PMCID: PMC3611200  PMID: 10552316
Key words Open MRI; Spinal; fractures; Internal fixator; Percutaneous; Artifacts

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