The environmental bacterium Burkholderia cenocepacia causes opportunistic lung infections in immunocompromised individuals, particularly in patients with cystic fibrosis. Infections in these patients are associated with exacerbated inflammation leading to rapid decay of lung function and in some cases resulting in cepacia syndrome, which is characterized by a fatal acute necrotizing pneumonia and sepsis. B. cenocepacia can survive intracellularly in macrophages by altering the maturation of the phagosome, but very little is known on macrophage responses to the intracellular infection. Here, we have examined the role of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in B. cenocepacia-infected monocytes and macrophages. We show that PI3K/Akt activity was required for NF-κB activity and the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines during infection with B. cenocepacia. In contrast to previous observations in epithelial cells infected with other Gram-negative bacteria, Akt did not enhance IKK or NF-κB p65 phosphorylation but rather inhibited GSK3β, a negative regulator of NF-κB transcriptional activity. This novel mechanism of modulation of NF-κB activity may provide a unique therapeutic target for controlling excessive inflammation upon B. cenocepacia infection.
Burkholderia cenocepacia is an opportunistic respiratory pathogen of individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF). Some strains of B. cenocepacia are highly transmissible and resistant to almost all antibiotics. Approximately one-third of B. cenocepacia infected CF patients go on to develop fatal “cepacia syndrome.” During the last two decades, substantial progress has been made with regards to evasion of host innate defense mechanisms by B. cenocepacia. Almost all strains of B. cenocepacia have the capacity to survive and replicate intracellularly in both airway epithelial cells and macrophages, which are primary sentinels of the lung and play a pivotal role in clearance of infecting bacteria. Those strains of B. cenocepacia, which express both cable pili and the associated 22 kDa adhesin are also capable of transmigrating across airway epithelium and persist in mouse models of infection. In this review, we will discuss how this type of interaction between B. cenocepacia and host may lead to persistence of bacteria as well as lung inflammation in CF patients.
cystic fibrosis; innate immunity; inflammation; bacterial pathogenesis; lung infection; cable pili; airway epithelium; macrophages
Burkholderia cepacia has emerged as an important pulmonary pathogen in immunocompromised patients and in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Little is known about the virulence factors and pathogenesis of B. cepacia, although the persistent and sometimes invasive infections caused by B. cepacia suggest that the organism possesses mechanisms for both cellular invasion and evasion of the host immune response. In this study, cultured human cells were used to analyze the invasion and intracellular survival of B. cepacia J2315, a highly transmissible clinical isolate responsible for morbidity and mortality in CF patients. Quantitative invasion and intracellular growth assays demonstrated that B. cepacia J2315 was able to enter, survive, and replicate intracellularly in U937-derived macrophages and A549 pulmonary epithelial cells. Transmission electron microscopy of infected macrophages confirmed the presence of intracellular B. cepacia and showed that intracellular bacteria were contained within membrane-bound vacuoles. An environmental isolate of B. cepacia, strain J2540, was also examined for its ability to invade and survive intracellularly in cultured human cells. J2540 entered cultured macrophages with an invasion frequency similar to that of the clinical strain, but it was less invasive than the clinical strain in epithelial cells. In marked contrast to the clinical strain, the environmental isolate was unable to survive or replicate intracellularly in either cultured macrophages or epithelial cells. Invasion and intracellular survival may play important roles in the ability of virulent strains of B. cepacia to evade the host immune response and cause persistent infections in CF patients.
Quorum sensing (QS) contributes to the virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cepacia complex lung infections. P. aeruginosa QS mutants are frequently isolated from patients with cystic fibrosis. The objective of this study was to determine whether similar adaptations occur over time in B. cepacia complex isolates. Forty-five Burkholderia multivorans and Burkholderia cenocepacia sequential isolates from patients with cystic fibrosis were analyzed for N-acyl-homoserine lactone activity. All but one isolate produced N-acyl-homoserine lactones. The B. cenocepacia N-acyl-homoserine lactone–negative isolate contained mutations in cepR and cciR. Growth competition assays were performed that compared B. cenocepacia clinical and laboratory defined wild-type and QS mutants. Survival of the laboratory wild-type and QS mutants varied, dependent on the mutation. The clinical wild-type isolate demonstrated a growth advantage over its QS mutant. These data suggest that there is a selective advantage for strains with QS systems and that QS mutations do not occur at a high frequency in B. cepacia complex isolates.
Strains of the Burkholderia cepacia complex can survive within macrophages by arresting the maturation of phagocytic vacuoles. The bacteria preclude fusion of the phagosome with lysosomes by a process that is poorly understood. Using murine macrophages, we investigated the stage at which maturation is arrested and analyzed the underlying mechanism. Vacuoles containing B. cenocepacia strain J2315, an isolate of the transmissible ET12 clone, recruited Rab5 and synthesized phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate, indicating progression to the early phagosomal stage. Despite the fact that the B. cenocepacia-containing vacuoles rarely fused with lysosomes, they could nevertheless acquire the late phagosomal markers CD63 and Rab7. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and use of a probe that detects Rab7-guanosine triphosphate indicated that activation of Rab7 was impaired by B. cenocepacia, accounting at least in part for the inability of the vacuole to merge with lysosomes. The Rab7 defect was not due to excessive cholesterol accumulation and was confined to the infected vacuoles. Jointly, these experiments indicate that B. cenocepacia express virulence factors capable of interfering with Rab7 function and thereby with membrane traffic.
Burkholderia; Macrophage; Phagosome; Rab7; Cystic fibrosis
Burkholderia cenocepacia is an opportunistic pathogen that survives intracellularly in macrophages and causes serious respiratory infections in patients with cystic fibrosis. We have previously shown that bacterial survival occurs in bacteria-containing membrane vacuoles (BcCVs) resembling arrested autophagosomes. Intracellular bacteria stimulate IL-1β secretion in a caspase-1-dependent manner and induce dramatic changes to the actin cytoskeleton and the assembly of the NADPH oxidase complex onto the BcCV membrane. A Type 6 secretion system (T6SS) is required for these phenotypes but surprisingly it is not required for the maturation arrest of the BcCV. Here, we show that macrophages infected with B. cenocepacia employ the NLRP3 inflammasome to induce IL-1β secretion and pyroptosis. Moreover, IL-1β secretion by B. cenocepacia-infected macrophages is suppressed in deletion mutants unable to produce functional Type VI, Type IV, and Type 2 secretion systems (SS). We provide evidence that the T6SS mediates the disruption of the BcCV membrane, which allows the escape of proteins secreted by the T2SS into the macrophage cytoplasm. This was demonstrated by the activity of fusion derivatives of the T2SS-secreted metalloproteases ZmpA and ZmpB with adenylcyclase. Supporting this notion, ZmpA and ZmpB are required for efficient IL-1β secretion in a T6SS dependent manner. ZmpA and ZmpB are also required for the maturation arrest of the BcCVs and bacterial intra-macrophage survival in a T6SS-independent fashion. Our results uncover a novel mechanism for inflammasome activation that involves cooperation between two bacterial secretory pathways, and an unanticipated role for T2SS-secreted proteins in intracellular bacterial survival.
Pulmonary infections caused by Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) cepacia are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Several features suggestive of cellular invasion and intracellular sequestration of B. cepacia in CF are persistence of infection in the face of antibiotic therapy to which the organism demonstrates in vitro susceptibility and a propensity to cause bacteremic infections in patients with CF. Epithelial cell invasion was demonstrated in vitro in A549 cells by a modified gentamicin protection assay. The kinetics of invasion appear to be saturable. Electron microscopy of invaded monolayers showed intracytoplasmic bacteria enclosed by membrane-bound vacuoles. No lysosomal fusion with these vacuoles was observed. Intraepithelial cell replication was suggested by electron microscopy and confirmed by both a quantitative assay and a visual assay. Cytochalasin D, but not colchicine, inhibited invasion, suggesting a role for microfilaments but not microtubules. The invasion phenotype in B. cepacia may be an important virulence factor for CF infections.
Pulmonary colonization of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with Burkholderia cenocepacia or other bacteria of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) is associated with worse prognosis and increased risk of death. During colonization, the bacteria may evolve under the stressing selection pressures exerted in the CF lung, in particular, those resulting from challenges of the host immune defenses, antimicrobial therapy, nutrient availability and oxygen limitation. Understanding the adaptive mechanisms that promote successful colonization and long-term survival of B. cenocepacia in the CF lung is essential for an improved therapeutic outcome of chronic infections. To get mechanistic insights into these adaptive strategies a transcriptomic analysis, based on DNA microarrays, was explored in this study. The genomic expression levels in two clonal variants isolated during long-term colonization of a CF patient who died from the cepacia syndrome were compared. One of the isolates examined, IST439, is the first B. cenocepacia isolate retrieved from the patient and the other isolate, IST4113, was obtained three years later and is more resistant to different classes of antimicrobials. Approximately 1000 genes were found to be differently expressed in the two clonal variants reflecting a marked reprogramming of genomic expression. The up-regulated genes in IST4113 include those involved in translation, iron uptake (in particular, in ornibactin biosynthesis), efflux of drugs and in adhesion to epithelial lung tissue and to mucin. Alterations related with adaptation to the nutritional environment of the CF lung and to an oxygen-limited environment are also suggested to be a key feature of transcriptional reprogramming occurring during long-term colonization, antibiotic therapy and the progression of the disease.
Burkholderia cenocepacia (formerly Burkholderia cepacia complex genomovar III) causes chronic lung infections in patients with cystic fibrosis. In this work, we used a modified signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM) strategy for the isolation of B. cenocepacia mutants that cannot survive in vivo. Thirty-seven specialized plasposons, each carrying a unique oligonucleotide tag signature, were constructed and used to examine the survival of 2,627 B. cenocepacia transposon mutants, arranged in pools of 37 unique mutants, after a 10-day lung infection in rats by using the agar bead model. The recovered mutants were screened by real-time PCR, resulting in the identification of 260 mutants which presumably did not survive within the lungs. These mutants were repooled into smaller pools, and the infections were repeated. After a second screen, we isolated 102 mutants unable to survive in the rat model. The location of the transposon in each of these mutants was mapped within the B. cenocepacia chromosomes. We identified mutations in genes involved in cellular metabolism, global regulation, DNA replication and repair, and those encoding bacterial surface structures, including transmembrane proteins and cell surface polysaccharides. Also, we found 18 genes of unknown function, which are conserved in other bacteria. A subset of 12 representative mutants that were individually examined using the rat model in competition with the wild-type strain displayed reduced survival, confirming the predictive value of our STM screen. This study provides a blueprint to investigate at the molecular level the basis for survival and persistence of B. cenocepacia within the airways.
Long-term respiratory infections with Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) bacteria in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients generally lead to a more rapid decline in lung function and, in some cases, to a fatal necrotizing pneumonia known as the “cepacia syndrome.” Bcc bacteria are ubiquitous in the environment and are recognized as serious opportunistic pathogens that are virtually impossible to eradicate from the CF lung, posing a serious clinical threat. The epidemiological survey of Bcc bacteria involved in respiratory infections at the major Portuguese CF Treatment Center at Santa Maria Hospital, in Lisbon, has been carried out by our research group for the past 16 years, covering over 500 clinical isolates where B. cepacia and B. cenocepacia are the predominant species, with B. stabilis, B. contaminans, B. dolosa, and B. multivorans also represented. The systematic and longitudinal study of this CF population during such an extended period of time represents a unique case–study, comprehending 41 Bcc-infected patients (29 pediatric and 12 adult) of whom around 70% have been persistently colonized between 7 months and 9 years. During chronic infection, the CF airways represent an evolving ecosystem, with multiple phenotypic variants emerging from the clonal population and becoming established in the patients’ airways as the result of genetic adaptation. Understanding the evolutionary mechanisms involved is crucial for an improved therapeutic outcome of chronic infections in CF. This review focuses on our contribution to the understanding of these adaptive mechanisms based on extensive phenotypic, genotypic, and genome-wide expression approaches of selected Bcc clonal variants obtained during long-term colonization of the CF airways.
cystic fibrosis; chronic respiratory infection; long-term colonization; Burkholderia cepacia complex; Burkholderia cenocepacia; genome-wide expression; clonal variation
Progressive pulmonary infection is the dominant clinical feature of cystic fibrosis (CF), but the molecular basis for this susceptibility remains incompletely understood. To study this problem, we developed a model of chronic pneumonia by repeated instillation of a clinical isolate of Burkholderia cepacia (genomovar III, ET12 strain), an opportunistic gram-negative bacterium, from a case of CF into the lungs of Cftr m1unc−/− (Cftr−/−) and congenic Cftr+/+ controls. Nine days after the last instillation, the CF transmembrane regulator knockout mice showed persistence of viable bacteria with chronic severe bronchopneumonia while wild-type mice remained healthy. The histopathological changes in the lungs of the susceptible Cftr−/− mice were characterized by infiltration of a mixed inflammatory-cell population into the peribronchiolar and perivascular spaces, Clara cell hyperplasia, mucus hypersecretion in airways, and exudation into alveolar airspaces by a mixed population of macrophages and neutrophils. An increased proportion of neutrophils was observed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from the Cftr−/− mice, which, despite an increased bacterial load, demonstrated minimal evidence of activation. Alveolar macrophages from Cftr−/− mice also demonstrated suboptimal activation. These observations suggest that the pulmonary host defenses are compromised in lungs from animals with CF, as manifested by increased susceptibility to bacterial infection and lung injury. This murine model of chronic pneumonia thus reflects, in part, the situation in human patients and may help elucidate the mechanisms leading to defective host defense in CF.
Bacteria belonging to the “Burkholderia cepacia complex” (Bcc) often cause fatal pulmonary infections in cystic fibrosis patients, yet little is know about the underlying molecular mechanisms. These Gram-negative bacteria can adopt an intracellular lifestyle, although their ability to replicate intracellularly has been difficult to demonstrate. Here we show that Bcc bacteria survive and multiply in macrophages of zebrafish embryos. Local dissemination by nonlytic release from infected cells was followed by bacteremia and extracellular replication. Burkholderia cenocepacia isolates belonging to the epidemic electrophoretic type 12 (ET12) lineage were highly virulent for the embryos; intravenous injection of <10 bacteria of strain K56-2 killed embryos within 3 days. However, small but significant differences between the clonal ET12 isolates K56-2, J2315, and BC7 were evident. In addition, the innate immune response in young embryos was sufficiently developed to control infection with other less virulent Bcc strains, such as Burkholderia vietnamiensis FC441 and Burkholderia stabilis LMG14294. A K56-2 cepR quorum-sensing regulator mutant was highly attenuated, and its ability to replicate and spread to neighboring cells was greatly reduced. Our data indicate that the zebrafish embryo is an excellent vertebrate model to dissect the molecular basis of intracellular replication and the early innate immune responses in this intricate host-pathogen interaction.
Objective and design
Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) regulates infection and inflammation. In this study, we investigated whether a lack of functional CFTR in neutrophils would promote lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lung inflammation and injury.
Materials and methods
CFTR-inhibited or F508del-CFTR-mutated neutrophils were stimulated with LPS and cultured to evaluate production of cytokines and NF-κB activation. Wild-type mice were reconstituted with F508del neutrophils or bone marrow and then intratracheally challenged with LPS to observe lung inflammatory response.
Pharmacologic inhibition and genetic mutation of CFTR in neutrophils activated NF-κB and facilitated macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) production. Wild-type mice reconstituted with F508del neutrophils and bone marrow had more severe lung inflammation and injury after LPS challenge compared to wild-type mice receiving wild-type neutrophils or bone marrow reconstitution.
Lack of functional CFTR in neutrophils can promote LPS-induced acute lung inflammation and injury.
Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator; Neutrophils; Cytokine; Lipopolysaccharide; Bone marrow transplantation
Introduction: Burkholderia cepacia infection has been associated with a poor prognosis for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). It is now recognised that organisms classified as B cepacia comprise a number of distinct genomic species each known as a genomovar of the B cepacia complex (BCC). The outcome of infection for CF patients with individual genomovars is unknown. The clinical outcome of infection with the two most commonly isolated genomovars (B cenocepacia and B multivorans) was studied at a specialist CF centre between 1982 and 2003.
Methods: The numbers of patients who progressed from initial to chronic infection were assessed. Control groups were created by matching patients with chronic BCC infection by percentage forced expiratory volume in 1 second with patients with Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. Outcome measures were survival time, deaths from "cepacia syndrome", rate of decline in spirometry and body mass index (BMI), and treatment requirements.
Results: Forty nine patients had an initial infection with either B multivorans (n = 16) or B cenocepacia (n = 33); 8/16 and 31/33, respectively, developed chronic infection (p<0.001). Deaths from "cepacia syndrome" occurred in both BCC groups. Patients with B cenocepacia infection had a shorter survival than patients with P aeruginosa infection (p = 0.01). There was no difference in survival between CF patients infected with B multivorans and P aeruginosa. There were no observed differences in changes in spirometry and BMI or treatment requirements between the BCC groups and respective controls.
Conclusion: In CF, the genomovar status of BCC may influence both the likelihood of progression from initial to chronic infection and the overall survival of the patients.
Burkholderia cenocepacia, an opportunistic pathogen that causes lung infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, is associated with rapid and usually fatal lung deterioration due to necrotizing pneumonia and sepsis, a condition known as cepacia syndrome. The key bacterial determinants associated with this poor clinical outcome in CF patients are not clear. In this study, the cytotoxicity and procoagulant activity of B. cenocepacia from the ET-12 lineage, that has been linked to the cepacia syndrome, and four clinical isolates recovered from CF patients with mild clinical courses were analysed in both in vitro and in vivo assays.
B. cenocepacia-infected BEAS-2B epithelial respiratory cells were used to investigate the bacterial cytotoxicity assessed by the flow cytometric detection of cell staining with propidium iodide. Bacteria-induced procoagulant activity in cell cultures was assessed by a colorimetric assay and by the flow cytometric detection of tissue factor (TF)-bearing microparticles in cell culture supernatants. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) from intratracheally infected mice were assessed for bacterial proinflammatory and procoagulant activities as well as for bacterial cytotoxicity, by the detection of released lactate dehydrogenase.
ET-12 was significantly more cytotoxic to cell cultures but clinical isolates Cl-2, Cl-3 and Cl-4 exhibited also a cytotoxic profile. ET-12 and CI-2 were similarly able to generate a TF-dependent procoagulant environment in cell culture supernatant and to enhance the release of TF-bearing microparticles from infected cells. In the in vivo assay, all bacterial isolates disseminated from the mice lungs, but Cl-2 and Cl-4 exhibited the highest rates of recovery from mice livers. Interestingly, Cl-2 and Cl-4, together with ET-12, exhibited the highest cytotoxicity. All bacteria were similarly capable of generating a procoagulant and inflammatory environment in animal lungs.
B. cenocepacia were shown to exhibit cytotoxic and procoagulant activities potentially implicated in bacterial dissemination into the circulation and acute pulmonary decline detected in susceptible CF patients. Improved understanding of the mechanisms accounting for B. cenocepacia-induced clinical decline has the potential to indicate novel therapeutic strategies to be included in the care B. cenocepacia-infected patients.
Chronic respiratory infections by Burkholderia cenocepacia in cystic fibrosis patients are associated with increased morbidity and mortality, but virulence factors determining the persistence of the infection in the airways are not well characterized. Using a chronic pulmonary infection model, we previously identified an attenuated mutant with an insertion in a gene encoding an RpoN activator protein, suggesting that RpoN and/or components of the RpoN regulon play a role in B. cenocepacia virulence. In this study, we demonstrate that a functional rpoN gene is required for bacterial motility and biofilm formation in B. cenocepacia K56-2. Unlike other bacteria, RpoN does not control flagellar biosynthesis, as evidenced by the presence of flagella in the rpoN mutant. We also demonstrate that, in macrophages, the rpoN mutant is rapidly trafficked to lysosomes while intracellular wild-type B. cenocepacia localizes in bacterium-containing vacuoles that exhibit a pronounced delay in phagolysosomal fusion. Rapid trafficking to the lysosomes is also associated with the release of red fluorescent protein into the vacuolar lumen, indicating loss of bacterial cell envelope integrity. Although a role for RpoN in motility and biofilm formation has been previously established, this study is the first demonstration that the RpoN regulon in B. cenocepacia is involved in delaying phagolysosomal fusion, thereby prolonging bacterial intracellular survival within macrophages.
Burkholderia cenocepacia, a bacterium commonly found in the environment, is an important opportunistic pathogen in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Very little is known about the mechanisms by which B. cenocepacia causes disease, but chronic infection of the airways in CF patients may be associated, at least in part, with the ability of this bacterium to survive within epithelial cells and macrophages. Survival in macrophages occurs in a membrane-bound compartment that is distinct from the lysosome, suggesting that B. cenocepacia prevents phagolysosomal fusion. In a previous study, we employed signature-tagged mutagenesis and an agar bead model of chronic pulmonary infection in rats to identify B. cenocepacia genes that are required for bacterial survival in vivo. One of the most significantly attenuated mutants had an insertion in the mgtC gene. Here, we show that mgtC is also needed for growth of B. cenocepacia in magnesium-depleted medium and for bacterial survival within murine macrophages. Using fluorescence microscopy, we demonstrated that B. cenocepacia mgtC mutants, unlike the parental isolate, colocalize with the fluorescent acidotropic probe LysoTracker Red. At 4 h postinfection, mgtC mutants expressing monomeric red fluorescent protein cannot retain this protein within the bacterial cytoplasm. Together, these results demonstrate that, unlike the parental strain, an mgtC mutant does not induce a delay in phagolysosomal fusion and the bacterium-containing vacuoles are rapidly targeted to the lysosome, where bacteria are destroyed.
Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients harboring the most common deletion mutation of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), F508del, are poor responders to potentiators of CFTR channel activity which can be used to treat a small subset of CF patients who genetically carry plasma membrane (PM)-resident CFTR mutants. The misfolded F508del-CFTR protein is unstable in the PM even if rescued by pharmacological agents that prevent its intracellular retention and degradation. CF is a conformational disease in which defective CFTR induces an impressive derangement of general proteostasis resulting from disabled autophagy. In this review, we discuss how rescuing Beclin 1 (BECN1), a major player of autophagosome formation, either by means of direct gene transfer or indirectly by administration of proteostasis regulators, could stabilize F508del-CFTR at the PM. We focus on the relationship between the improvement of peripheral proteostasis and CFTR PM stability in F508del-CFTR homozygous bronchial epithelia or mouse lungs. Moreover, this article reviews recent pre-clinical evidence indicating that targeting the intracellular environment surrounding the misfolded mutant CFTR instead of protein itself could constitute an attractive therapeutic option to sensitize patients carrying the F508del-CFTR mutation to the beneficial action of CFTR potentiators on lung inflammation.
cystic fibrosis; CFTR; proteostasis regulators; autophagy; BECN1
This work reports results of a systematic molecular analysis involving 113 Burkholderia cepacia complex isolates obtained from 23 cystic fibrosis (CF) patients under surveillance over a 7-year period at the major Portuguese CF center, the Santa Maria Hospital in Lisbon. The majority of the isolates were serial isolates from persistently infected patients (more than one-half of the population examined). In agreement with previous studies, B. cenocepacia (formerly genomovar III) was the most prevalent species; it was isolated from 52% of the patients infected with B. cepacia complex isolates. Contrasting with previous studies, a very significant percentage of the Portuguese CF subpopulation examined was infected with B. cepacia genomovar I (36%) and B. stabilis (18%). B. multivorans was recovered from two of the infected patients. All four of the species or genomovars were associated with poor clinical outcome, including the cepacia syndrome, and gave rise to chronic and transient infections, with the clinical condition depending on the patient and other still-unidentified factors. The B. cepacia epidemic strain marker region was found exclusively in genomovar III strains, while cblA was detected in genomovars I and III, only. There was no clear relation between the presence of these markers and transmissibility. Altogether, our results indicate that the use of these markers or the genomovar status in identifying patients at higher risk for infection is uncertain.
The Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) is a group of genetically related environmental bacteria that can cause chronic opportunistic infections in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and other underlying diseases. These infections are difficult to treat due to the inherent resistance of the bacteria to antibiotics. Bacteria can spread between CF patients through social contact and sometimes cause cepacia syndrome, a fatal pneumonia accompanied by septicemia. Burkholderia cenocepacia has been the focus of attention because initially it was the most common Bcc species isolated from patients with CF in North America and Europe. Today, B. cenocepacia, along with Burkholderia multivorans, is the most prevalent Bcc species in patients with CF. Given the progress that has been made in our understanding of B. cenocepacia over the past decade, we thought that it was an appropriate time to review our knowledge of the pathogenesis of B. cenocepacia, paying particular attention to the characterization of virulence determinants and the new tools that have been developed to study them. A common theme emerging from these studies is that B. cenocepacia establishes chronic infections in immunocompromised patients, which depend more on determinants mediating host niche adaptation than those involved directly in host cells and tissue damage.
Burkholderia cenocepacia is an important pulmonary pathogen in individuals with cystic fibrosis. Infection is often associated with severe pulmonary inflammation and some patients develop a fatal necrotizing pneumonia and sepsis (‘cepacia syndrome’). The mechanisms by which this species causes severe pulmonary inflammation are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that B. cenocepacia BC7, a potentially virulent representative of the epidemic ET12 lineage binds to tumor necrosis factor receptor I (TNFR1) and activates TNFR1-related signaling pathway similar to TNF-α, a natural ligand for TNFR1. This interaction participates in stimulating a robust IL-8 production from CF airway epithelial cells. In contrast, BC45, a relatively less virulent ET12 representative, and ATCC 25416, an environmental B. cepacia strain do not bind to TNFR1 and stimulate only minimal IL-8 production from CF cells. Further, TNFR1 expression is increased in CF airway epithelial cells compared to non-CF cells. We also show that B. cenocepacia ET12 strain colocaizes with TNFR1 in vitro and in the lungs of CF patient who died due to infection with B. cenocepacia, ET12 strain. Together, these results suggest that interaction of B. cenocepacia, ET12 strain with TNFR1 may contribute to robust inflammatory responses elicited by this organism.
cepacia complex; inflammation; tumor necrosis factor; interleukin
Burkholderia cepacia is a Gram-negative pathogen that causes serious respiratory infections in immunocompromised patients and individuals with cystic fibrosis. This bacterium is known to release extracellular proteins that may be involved in virulence.
In the present study, B. cepacia grown to mid-logarithmic and early-stationary phases were investigated on their ability to invade and survive intracellularly in A549 lung epithelial cells in order to discern the fate of these bacteria in the pathogenesis of B. cepacia lung infections in in vitro condition. The early-stationary phase B. cepacia was demonstrated to be more invasive than mid-logarithmic phase. In addition, culture supernatants of B. cepacia obtained from these phases of growth were also demonstrated to cause different cytotoxic potency on the A549 human lung epithelial cells. Profiling of the supernatants using the gel-based proteomics approach identified 43 proteins that were commonly released in both the growth phases and 40 proteins newly-released at the early-stationary phase. The latter proteins may account for the higher cytotoxic activity of the early-stationary culture supernatant compared to that obtained at the mid-logarithmic phase. Among the newly-released proteins in the early-stationary phase supernatant were flagellar hook-associated domain protein (FliD), flagellar hook-associated protein (FlgK), TonB-dependent siderophore (Fiu), Elongation factor G (FusA), phosphoglycerate kinase (Pgk) and sulfatase (AslA) which are known for their virulence.
Differences in the ability of B. cepacia to invade and survive intracellularly inside the epithelial cells at different phases of growth may improve our understanding of the varied disease progressions associated with B. cepacia infections. In addition, the identified culture supernatant proteins may be used as targets for the development of new strategies to control B. cepacia infection using agents that can block their release.
Burkholderia cenocepacia is an opportunistic pathogen causing life-threatening infections in patients with cystic fibrosis. The bacterium survives within macrophages by interfering with endocytic trafficking and delaying the maturation of the B. cenocepacia-containing phagosome. We hypothesize that B. cenocepacia undergoes changes in gene expression after internalization by macrophages, inducing genes involved in intracellular survival and host adaptation.
We examined gene expression by intracellular B. cenocepacia using selective capture of transcribed sequences (SCOTS) combined with microarray analysis. We identified 767 genes with significantly different levels of expression by intracellular bacteria, of which 330 showed increased expression and 437 showed decreased expression. Affected genes represented all aspects of cellular life including information storage and processing, cellular processes and signaling, and metabolism. In general, intracellular gene expression demonstrated a pattern of environmental sensing, bacterial response, and metabolic adaptation to the phagosomal environment. Deletion of various SCOTS-identified genes affected bacterial entry into macrophages and intracellular replication. We also show that intracellular B. cenocepacia is cytotoxic towards the macrophage host, and capable of spread to neighboring cells, a role dependent on SCOTS-identified genes. In particular, genes involved in bacterial motility, cobalamin biosynthesis, the type VI secretion system, and membrane modification contributed greatly to macrophage entry and subsequent intracellular behavior of B. cenocepacia.
B. cenocepacia enters macrophages, adapts to the phagosomal environment, replicates within a modified phagosome, and exhibits cytotoxicity towards the host cells. The analysis of the transcriptomic response of intracellular B. cenocepacia reveals that metabolic adaptation to a new niche plays a major role in the survival of B. cenocepacia in macrophages. This adaptive response does not require the expression of any specific virulence-associated factor, which is consistent with the opportunistic nature of this microorganism. Further investigation into the remaining SCOTS-identified genes will provide a more complete picture of the adaptive response of B. cenocepacia to the host cell environment.
Chronic lung infection is the major cause of morbidity and premature mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Bacteria of the Burkholderia cepacia complex are the most threatening pathogens in CF, and a better understanding of how these bacteria adapt to the CF airway environment and resist the host defense mechanisms and therapeutically administered antibiotics is crucial. To provide clues to the adaptive strategies adopted by Burkholderia cenocepacia during long-term colonization, we carried out a phenotypic assessment of 11 clonal variants obtained at the major Portuguese CF Center in Lisbon from sputa of the same CF patient during 3.5 years of colonization of the lungs, until the patient's death with cepacia syndrome. Phenotypic characterization included susceptibility assays against different classes of antimicrobials and characterization of cell motility, cell hydrophobicity and zeta potential, colony and cell morphology, fatty acid composition, growth under iron limitation/load conditions, exopolysaccharide production, and size of the biofilms formed. The results suggest the occurrence of clonal expansion during long-term colonization. For a number of the characteristics tested, no isolation time-dependent consistent alteration pattern could be identified. However, the values for antimicrobial susceptibility and swarming motility for the first B. cenocepacia isolate, thought to have initiated the infection, were consistently above those for the clonal variants obtained during the course of infection, and the opposite was found for the zeta potential. The adaptive strategy for long-term colonization, described here for the first time, involved the alteration of membrane fatty acid composition, in particular a reduction of the degree of fatty acid saturation, in the B. cenocepacia variants retrieved, along with the deterioration of pulmonary function and severe oxygen limitation.
It is unclear whether adaptation to a new host typically broadens or compromises host range, yet the answer bears on the fate of emergent pathogens and symbionts. We investigated this dynamic using a soil isolate of Burkholderia cenocepacia, a species that normally inhabits the rhizosphere, is related to the onion pathogen B. cepacia, and can infect the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients. We hypothesized that adaptation of B. cenocepacia to a novel host would compromise fitness and virulence in alternative hosts. We modeled adaptation to a specific host by experimentally evolving 12 populations of B. cenocepacia in liquid medium composed of macerated onion tissue for 1,000 generations. The mean fitness of all populations increased by 78% relative to the ancestor, but significant variation among lines was observed. Populations also varied in several phenotypes related to host association, including motility, biofilm formation, and quorum-sensing function. Together, these results suggest that each population adapted by fixing different sets of adaptive mutations. However, this adaptation was consistently accompanied by a loss of pathogenicity to the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans; by 500 generations most populations became unable to kill nematodes. In conclusion, we observed a narrowing of host range as a consequence of prolonged adaptation to an environment simulating a specific host, and we suggest that emergent pathogens may face similar consequences if they become host-restricted.