Induction of effective osteoclastogenesis by RANK requires costimulation by ITAM-coupled receptors. In humans, the TREM-2 ITAM-coupled receptor plays a key role in bone remodeling, as patients with TREM-2 mutations exhibit defective osteoclastogenesis and bone lesions. We have identified a new rapidly induced costimulatory pathway for RANK signaling that is dependent on TREM-2 and mediated by calcium signaling. TREM-2-dependent calcium signals are required for RANK-mediated activation of CaMKII and downstream MEK and ERK MAPKs that are important for osteoclastogenesis. IL-10 inhibited RANK-induced osteoclastogenesis and selectively inhibited calcium signaling downstream of RANK by inhibiting transcription of TREM-2. Downregulation of TREM-2 expression resulted in diminished RANKL-induced activation of the CaMK-MEK-ERK pathway and decreased expression of the master regulator of osteoclastogenesis NFATc1. These findings provide a new mechanism of inhibition of human osteoclast differentiation. The results also yield insights into crosstalk between ITAM-coupled receptors and heterologous receptors such as RANK, and identify a mechanism by which IL-10 can suppress cellular responses to TNFR family members.
TLRs have been implicated in promoting osteoclast-mediated bone resorption associated with inflammatory conditions. TLRs also activate homeostatic mechanisms that suppress osteoclastogenesis and can limit the extent of pathologic bone erosion associated with infection and inflammation. We investigated mechanisms by which TLRs suppress osteoclastogenesis. In human cell culture models, TLR ligands suppressed osteoclastogenesis by inhibiting expression of receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK), thereby making precursor cells refractory to the effects of RANKL. Similar but less robust inhibition of RANK expression was observed in murine cells. LPS suppressed generation of osteoclast precursors in mice in vivo, and adsorption of LPS onto bone surfaces resulted in diminished bone resorption. Mechanisms that inhibited RANK expression were down-regulation of RANK transcription, and inhibition of M-CSF signaling that is required for RANK expression. TLRs inhibited M-CSF signaling by rapidly down-regulating cell surface expression of the M-CSF receptor c-Fms by a matrix metalloprotease- and MAPK-dependent mechanism. Additionally, TLRs cooperated with IFN-γ to inhibit expression of RANK and of the CSF1R gene that encodes c-Fms, and to synergistically inhibit osteoclastogenesis. Our findings identify a new mechanism of homeostatic regulation of osteoclastogenesis that targets RANK expression and limits bone resorption during infection and inflammation.
Bone remodeling in physiological and pathological conditions represents a balance between bone resorption mediated by osteoclasts and bone formation by osteoblasts. Bone resorption is tightly and dynamically regulated by multiple mediators, including cytokines that act directly on osteoclasts and their precursors, or indirectly by modulating osteoblast lineage cells that in turn regulate osteoclast differentiation. The critical role of cytokines in inducing and promoting osteoclast differentiation, function and survival is covered by the accompanying review by Zwerina and colleagues. Recently, it has become clear that negative regulation of osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption by inflammatory factors and cytokines, downstream signaling pathways, and a newly described network of transcriptional repressors plays a key role in bone homeostasis by fine tuning bone remodeling and restraining excessive bone resorption in inflammatory settings. In this review we discuss negative regulators of osteoclastogenesis and mechanisms by which these factors suppress bone resorption.
The Notch-driven transcription factor RBP-J inhibits osteoclast formation in response to TNF.
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) plays a key role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bone resorption and associated morbidity in diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and periodontitis. Mechanisms that regulate the direct osteoclastogenic properties of TNF to limit pathological bone resorption in inflammatory settings are mostly unknown. Here, we show that the transcription factor recombinant recognition sequence binding protein at the Jκ site (RBP-J) strongly suppresses TNF-induced osteoclastogenesis and inflammatory bone resorption, but has minimal effects on physiological bone remodeling. Myeloid-specific deletion of RBP-J converted TNF into a potent osteoclastogenic factor that could function independently of receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK) signaling. In the absence of RBP-J, TNF effectively induced osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption in RANK-deficient mice. Activation of RBP-J selectively in osteoclast precursors suppressed inflammatory osteoclastogenesis and arthritic bone resorption. Mechanistically, RBP-J suppressed induction of the master regulator of osteoclastogenesis (nuclear factor of activated T cells, cytoplasmic 1) by attenuating c-Fos activation and suppressing induction of B lymphocyte–induced maturation protein-1, thereby preventing the down-regulation of transcriptional repressors such as IRF-8 that block osteoclast differentiation. Thus, RBP-J regulates the balance between activating and repressive signals that regulate osteoclastogenesis. These findings identify RBP-J as a key upstream negative regulator of osteoclastogenesis that restrains excessive bone resorption in inflammatory settings.
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), are known to protect against inflammation-induced bone loss in chronic inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, periodontitis and osteoporosis. We previously reported that DHA, not EPA, inhibited osteoclastogenesis induced by the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (sRANKL) in vitro. In this study, we performed gene expression analysis using microarrays to identify genes affected by the DHA treatment during osteoclastogenesis. DHA strongly inhibited osteoclastogenesis at the late stage. Among the genes upregulated by the sRANKL treatment, 4779 genes were downregulated by DHA and upregulated by the EPA treatment. Gene ontology analysis identified sets of genes related to cell motility, cell adhesion, cell-cell signaling and cell morphogenesis. Quantitative PCR analysis confirmed that DC-STAMP, an essential gene for the cell fusion process in osteoclastogenesis, and other osteoclast-related genes, such as Siglec-15, Tspan7 and Mst1r, were inhibited by DHA.
polyunsaturated fatty acid; docosahexaenoic acid; osteoclast
The receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) and the proinflammatory cytokines are believed to play important roles in osteoclastogenesis. We recently reported that the innate immune recognition receptor, Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), is crucial for inflammatory bone loss in response to infection by Porphyromonas gingivalis, the primary organism associated with chronic inflammatory periodontal disease. However, the contribution of macrophage-expressed TLRs to osteoclastogenesis has not been defined. In this study, we defined a requirement for TLR2 in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)-elicited osteoclastogenesis in response to exposure to P. gingivalis. Culture supernatant (CS) fluids from P. gingivalis-stimulated macrophages induced bone marrow macrophage-derived osteoclastogenesis. This activity was dependent on TNF-α and occurred independently of RANKL, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and IL-6. CS fluids from P. gingivalis-stimulated TLR2−/− macrophages failed to express TNF-α, and these fluids induced significantly less osteoclast formation compared with that of the wild-type or the TLR4−/− macrophages. In addition, P. gingivalis exposure induced up-regulation of TLR2 expression on the cell surface of macrophages, which was demonstrated to functionally react to reexposure to P. gingivalis, as measured by a further increase in TNF-α production. These results demonstrate that macrophage-dependent TLR2 signaling is crucial for TNF-α-dependent/RANKL-independent osteoclastogenesis in response to P. gingivalis infection. Furthermore, the ability of P. gingivalis to induce the cell surface expression of TLR2 may contribute to the chronic inflammatory state induced by this pathogen.
The transcription factor nuclear factor (NF)-κB is well recognised as a pivotal player in osteoclastogenesis and inflammation induced bone loss. Here, the authors discuss their recent results, obtained using a genetic approach in mice, that indicate the importance of IKKß, and not IKKα, as a transducer of signals from receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK) to NF-κB. Ablation of IKKß results in lack of osteoclastogenesis and unresponsiveness of IKKß deficient mice to inflammation induced bone loss. In the need of a more effective therapy for the treatment of inflammatory diseases causing bone resorption, specific inhibition of IKKß represents a logical alternative strategy to the current therapies.
Bone destruction and inflammation are closely linked. Cytokines play an important role in inflammatory bone destruction by upregulating the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL). The direct role of cytokines that act in a non-RANKL-dependent manner has yet to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the direct osteoclastogenic properties of inflammatory cytokines at different time-points of osteoclastogenesis. Mouse bone marrow macrophages were stimulated with the macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and various concentrations of RANKL. Inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-17 and IL-23, were added to the culture system of osteoclastogenesis. Two time-points of cytokine treatment were set. The ‘early’ effect of each cytokine was investigated at the time of first RANKL treatment, whereas the ‘late’ effect was investigated 48 h after the first RANKL challenge. Osteoclast differentiation and function were assessed using an osteoclast marker [tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)] and by visualization of pit formation. A permissive level of RANKL was required for cytokine-associated osteoclastogenesis in all experiments. In the M-CSF/RANKL monocellular culture system, IL-1β enhanced and IL-6 decreased osteoclast formation in a dose-dependent manner, regardless of temporal differences. Other cytokines showed various responses according to the phase of osteoclast maturation and the concentration of each cytokine and RANKL. Furthermore, luciferase assays showed that both IL-1β and RANKL activated the NF-κB signaling pathway. Collectively, our data revealed that targeting IL-1β may be a promising strategy to inhibit inflammation-associated bone destruction and osteoporosis.
inflammation; osteoclast; receptor activator nuclear factor-κB ligand; interleukin-1β; interleukin-6; nuclear factor-κB
Inflammatory osteolysis is a relatively frequent and incapacitating complication of rheumatoid arthritis and multiple other inflammation-associated bone diseases. It is thought to operate through an ultimate common pathway of accelerated osteoclast recruitment and activation under the control of cytokines produced in the inflammatory environment. Over the past decade, there have been major advances in our understanding of the mechanisms of osteoclastogenesis. It is now clear that the interaction of receptor activator NF-κB (RANK) and its ligand, RANKL, plays a central role in osteoclast formation and activity. Therefore, understanding osteoclastogenesis offers new pathways for potential therapeutic intervention in inflammatory osteolysis. The success of anti-tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1 therapy highlights the central role that these specific cytokines play in this disease. This review outlines our current understanding of the mechanisms mediating inflammatory osteolysis and highlights potential therapeutic strategies.
Bone; Osteolysis; Osteoclast; Interleukins; TNF-α; RANK ligand
Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is a cytokine produced by monocytes, macrophages, and T cells and is induced by pathogens, endotoxins, or related substances. TNF-α may play a key role in bone metabolism and is important in inflammatory bone diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. Cells directly involved in osteoclastogenesis include macrophages, which are osteoclast precursor cells, osteoblasts, or stromal cells. These cells express receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) to induce osteoclastogenesis, and T cells, which secrete RANKL, promote osteoclastogenesis during inflammation. Elucidating the detailed effects of TNF-α on bone metabolism may enable the identification of therapeutic targets that can efficiently suppress bone destruction in inflammatory bone diseases. TNF-α is considered to act by directly increasing RANK expression in macrophages and by increasing RANKL in stromal cells. Inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin- (IL-) 12, IL-18, and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) strongly inhibit osteoclast formation. IL-12, IL-18, and IFN-γ induce apoptosis in bone marrow cells treated with TNF-α in vitro, and osteoclastogenesis is inhibited by the interactions of TNF-α-induced Fas and Fas ligand induced by IL-12, IL-18, and IFN-γ. This review describes and discusses the role of cells concerned with osteoclast formation and immunological reactions in TNF-α-mediated osteoclastogenesis in vitro and in vivo.
Estrogen deficiency induces bone loss by upregulating osteoclastogenesis by mechanisms not completely defined. We found that ovariectomy-enhanced T-cell production of TNF-α, which, acting through the TNF-α receptor p55, augments macrophage colony-stimulating factor–induced (M-CSF–induced) and RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. Ovariectomy failed to induce bone loss, stimulate bone resorption, or increase M-CSF– and RANKL-dependent osteoclastogenesis in T-cell deficient mice, establishing T cells as essential mediators of the bone-wasting effects of estrogen deficiency in vivo. These findings demonstrate that the ability of estrogen to target T cells, suppressing their production of TNF-α, is a key mechanism by which estrogen prevents osteoclastic bone resorption and bone loss.
Diseases of bone loss are a major public health problem. Here, we report the novel therapeutic action of simvastatin in osteoclastogenesis and osteoprotection, demonstrated by the ability of simvastatin to suppress osteoclast formation in vitro and in vivo. We found that in vitro, IRF4 expression is upregulated during osteoclast differentiation induced by RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand), while simvastatin blocks RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis and decreases expression of NFATc1 (nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 1), IRF4 and osteoclast markers. We also show that IRF4 acts in cooperation with NFATc2 and NF-κB on the promoter region of NFATc1 to accelerate its initial transcription during the early stage of osteoclastogenesis. Moreover, our study using IRF4 siRNA knockdown directly demonstrates the requirement for IRF4 in NFATc1 mRNA transcription and its necessity in RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation. Our results suggest that the reduction in osteoclastogenesis is partly due to the inhibition of IRF4 production in RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation. To investigate the in vivo effects of simvastatin in RANKL-treated mice, we examined the bone mineral density (BMD) of a mouse model of bone loss, and found that simvastatin significantly reduced bone loss by suppressing osteoclast numbers in vivo, even in the presence of high concentrations of RANKL. These results suggest that the depletion of osteoclasts is not due to the reduction in RANKL produced by osteoblasts in vivo. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that simvastatin blocks RANKL-induced IRF4 expression in osteoclastogenesis. We propose that the expression of IRF4 by osteoclasts could be a promising new therapeutic target in bone-loss diseases.
Bone metabolism results from a balance between osteoclast-driven bone resorption and osteoblast-mediated bone formation. Diseases such as periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis are characterized by increased bone destruction due to enhanced osteoclastogenesis1,2. Here we report that interferon regulatory factor 8 (IRF8), a transcription factor expressed in immune cells, is a key regulatory molecule for osteoclastogenesis. IRF8 expression in osteoclast precursors was downregulated during the initial phase of osteoclast differentiation induced by receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL, also called TRANCE, ODF, and OPGL), which is encoded by the Tnfsf11 gene. Mice deficient in IRF8 exhibited severe osteoporosis due to increased numbers of osteoclasts, and enhanced bone destruction following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration. Irf8–/– osteoclast precursors underwent increased osteoclastogenesis in response to RANKL and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα). IRF8 suppressed osteoclastogenesis by inhibiting the function and expression of nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1). Our results show that IRF8 inhibits osteoclast formation under physiological and pathological conditions, and suggest a model where downregulation of inhibitory factors like IRF8 contributes to RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis.
Dendritic cells (DCs) produce type I interferons (IFNs) in greater amounts than other cells, but the mechanisms remain elusive. Here we studied the role of a transcription factor, IRF-8 in DC induction of type I IFNs. Upon NDV infection, bone marrow derived plasmacytoid and conventional DCs induced IFN transcripts, exhibiting two phase kinetics. The second, amplifying phase represented an IFN feedback response that accounted for much of IFN protein production. Induction of second phase transcription required IRF-8. CMV and Toll like receptor-mediated IFN induction in DCs also required IRF-8. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed that IRF-7, IRF-8 and RNA polymerase II were recruited to the IFN promoters upon stimulation. Moreover, sustained RNA polymerase II recruitment to the promoters critically depended on IRF-8. Together, IRF-8 magnifies the second phase of IFN transcription in DCs by prolonging binding of basic transcription machinery to the IFN promoters, thereby playing a role in innate immunity.
Physiologic osteoclastogenesis entails activation of multiple signal transduction pathways distal to the cell membrane receptor RANK. However, atypical osteoclastogenesis driven by pro-inflammatory stimuli has been described. We have reported recently a novel mechanism whereby endogenous mutational activation of the classical NF-κB pathway is sufficient to induce RANKL/RANK-independent osteoclastogenesis. Here we investigate the physiologic relevance of this phenomenon in vivo. Using a knock-in approach, the active form of IKK2, namely IKK2SSEE, was introduced into the myeloid lineage with the aid of CD11b-cre mice. Phenotypic assessment revealed that expression of IKK2SSEE in the myeloid compartment induced significant bone loss in vivo. This observation was supported by a dramatic increase in the number and size of osteoclasts in trabecular regions, elevated levels of circulating TRACP-5b, and reduced bone volume. Mechanistically, we observed that IKK2SSEE induced high expression of not only p65 but also p52 and RelB; the latter two molecules are considered exclusive members of the alternative NF-κB pathway. Intriguingly, RelB and P52 were both required to mediate the osteoclastogenic effect of IKK2SSEE and co-expression of these two proteins was sufficient to recapitulate osteoclastogenesis in the absence of RANKL or IKK2SSEE. Furthermore, we found that NF-κB2/p100 is a potent inhibitor of IKK2SSEE-induced osteoclastogenesis. Deletion of p52 enabled more robust osteoclast formation by the active kinase. In summary, molecular activation of IKK2 may play a role in conditions of pathologic bone destruction, which may be refractory to therapeutic interventions targeting the proximal RANKL/RANK signal.
The tyrosine kinase c-Src and transcription factor NF-κB are considered crucial components required for normal osteoclastogenesis. Genetic ablation of either pathway leads to detrimental osteopetrotic phenotypes in mice. Similarly, obstruction of either pathway halts osteoclastogenesis and lessens various forms of bone loss. It has been shown previously that mice expressing a kinase domain-truncated c-Src, termed Src251, develop severe osteopetrosis owing to increased osteoclast apoptosis. It was further suggested that this phenomenon is associated with reduced Akt kinase activity. However, the precise mechanism underlying the osteoclast inhibitory effect of Src251 remains obscure. C-Src associates with TRAF6-p62 interacting with receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK) distal region and the complex facilitate activation of RANK down stream signal transduction cascades including NF-κB. Given this proximity between c-Src and NF-κB signaling in osteoclasts, we surmised that inhibition of osteoclastogenesis by Src251 may be achieved through inhibition of NF-κB signaling. We have demonstrated recently that NEMO, the regulatory subunit of the IKK complex, is crucial for osteoclastogenesis and interacts with c-Src in osteoclast progenitors. Transfection studies, in which we employed various forms of c-Src and NEMO, revealed that the dominant negative form of c-Src, namely Src251, mediates degradation of NEMO thus halting NF-κB signaling. Furthermore, degradation of NEMO requires its intact zinc finger domain which is located at the ubiquitination domain. This process also requires appropriate cellular localization of Src251, since deletion of its myristoylation domain ablates its degradation capacity. Buttressing these findings, the expression of NEMO and NF-κB signaling were significantly reduced in monocytes collected from Src251 transgenic mice.
NEMO; c-Src; Src251; DEGRADATION; NF-κB
Although interferon-γ (IFN-γ) potently inhibits osteoclastogenesis, the suppressive effect is significantly reduced when osteoclast precursors are pre-exposed to the receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK) ligand (RANKL). However, the molecular mechanism underlying the biphasic effects of IFN-γ on osteoclastogenesis remains elusive. Here, we recapitulate the biphasic functions of IFN-γ in osteoclastogenesis in both tissue culture dishes and on bone slices. We further demonstrate that IFN-γ markedly suppresses the RANKL-induced expression of nuclear factor of activated T-cells c1 (NFATc1) in normal, but not RANKL-pretreated bone marrow macrophages (BMMs). Similarly, IFN-γ impairs the activation of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathways in normal, but not RANKL-pretreated, BMMs. These findings indicate that IFN-γ inhibits osteoclastogenesis partially by suppressing the expression of NFATc1 and the activation of the NF-κB and JNK pathways. Moreover, IFN-γ inhibits the RANKL-induced expression of osteoclast genes, but RANKL pretreatment reprograms osteoclast genes into a state in which they can no longer be suppressed by IFN-γ, indicating that IFN-γ inhibits osteoclastogenesis by blocking the expression of osteoclast genes. Finally, the IVVY535–538 motif in the cytoplasmic domain of RANK is responsible for rendering BMMs refractory to the inhibitory effect of IFN-γ. Taken together, these findings provide important mechanistic insights into the biphasic effects of IFN-γ on osteoclastogenesis.
To study anti-inflammatory cytokine effects on RANKL+-T-cell-mediated osteoclastogenesis in vivo, we injected human interleukin-10 (hIL-10) into pathogen-infected HuPBL-NOD/SCID mice. The results show significantly decreased RANKL+ Th1-associated alveolar bone loss and coexpression of human gamma interferon (hIFN-γ) and human macrophage colony-stimulating factor, but not hIL-4, in RANKL+ Th cells compatible with those from successfully treated aggressive periodontitis subjects. Thus, there are critical cytokine interactions linking hIFN-γ+ Th1 cells to RANKL-RANK/OPG signaling for periodontal osteoclastogenesis in vivo.
Extracellular proteinaceous factors of Porphyromonas gingivalis, a periodontal pathogen, that influence receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis from bone marrow macrophages were investigated. The culture supernatant of P. gingivalis had the ability to inhibit RANKL-induced in vitro osteoclastogenesis. A major protein of the culture supernatant, hemoglobin receptor protein (HbR), suppressed RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in a dose-dependent fashion. HbR markedly inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis when present in the culture for the first 24 h after addition of RANKL, whereas no significant inhibition was observed when HbR was added after 24 h or later, implying that HbR might interfere with only the initial stage of RANKL-mediated differentiation. HbR tightly bound to bone marrow macrophages and had the ability to induce phosphorylation of ERK, p38, NF-κB, and Akt. RANKL-induced phosphorylation of ERK, p38, and NF-κB was not suppressed by HbR, but that of Akt was markedly suppressed. HbR inhibited RANKL-mediated induction of c-Fos and NFATc1. HbR could induce beta interferon (IFN-β) from bone marrow macrophages, but the induction level of IFN-β might not be sufficient to suppress RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis, implying presence of an IFN-β-independent pathway in HbR-mediated inhibition of osteoclastogenesis. Since rapid and extensive destruction of the alveolar bone causes tooth loss, resulting in loss of the gingival crevice that is an anatomical niche for periodontal pathogens such as P. gingivalis, the suppressive effect of HbR on osteoclastogenesis may help the microorganism exist long in the niche.
During granulomatous inflammatory reactions, myeloid cells can differentiate into activated phagocytic macrophages, wound-healing macrophages, foreign body giant cells, and bone-resorbing osteoclasts. Although it is appreciated that a variety of stimuli, including cytokines, cell–matrix interactions, and challenge with foreign materials can influence myeloid cell fate, little is known of how these signals integrate during this process. In this study, we have investigated the cross talk between receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis and particle phagocytosis-induced activation of human monocytes. Understanding interconnected signals is of particular importance to disorders, such as periprosthetic osteolysis, in which granulomatous inflammation is initiated by particle phagocytosis in proximity to bone and leads to inflammatory bone loss. Using cell-based osteoclastogenesis and phagocytosis assays together with expression analysis of key regulators of osteoclastogenesis, we show in this study that phagocytosis of disease-relevant particles inhibits RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis of human monocytes. Mechanistically, phagocytosis mediates this effect by downregulation of RANK and c-Fms, the receptors for the essential osteoclastogenic cytokines RANKL and M-CSF. RANKL pretreatment of monocytes generates preosteoclasts that are resistant to RANK downregulation and committed to osteoclast formation, even though they retain phagocytic activity. Thus, the relative timing of exposure to phagocytosable particulates and to osteoclastogenic cytokines is critically important in the determination of myeloid cell fate.
IL-20 promotes osteoclast differentiation by inducing RANK and RANKL expression in osteoclast precursors and osteoblasts, respectively.
IL-20 is a proinflammatory cytokine of the IL-10 family that is involved in psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis, and stroke. However, little is known about the role of IL-20 in bone destruction. We explored the function of IL-20 in osteoclastogenesis and the therapeutic potential of anti–IL-20 monoclonal antibody 7E for treating osteoporosis. Higher serum IL-20 levels were detected in patients with osteopenia and osteoporosis and in ovariectomized (OVX) mice. IL-20 mediates osteoclastogenesis by up-regulating the receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK) expression in osteoclast precursor cells and RANK ligand (RANKL) in osteoblasts. 7E treatment completely inhibited osteoclast differentiation induced by macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and RANKL in vitro and protected mice from OVX-induced bone loss in vivo. Furthermore, IL-20R1–deficient mice had significantly higher bone mineral density (BMD) than did wild-type controls. IL-20R1 deficiency also abolished IL-20–induced osteoclastogenesis and increased BMD in OVX mice. We have identified a pivotal role of IL-20 in osteoclast differentiation, and we conclude that anti–IL-20 monoclonal antibody is a potential therapeutic for protecting against osteoporotic bone loss.
Hwangryun-haedok-tang (HRT) is traditional herbal medicine used to treat inflammatory-related diseases in Asia. However, its effect on osteoclastogenesis and bone loss is still unknown. In this study, we evaluated the effect of HRT and its fermented product (fHRT) on the receptor activator for the nuclear factor-κB ligand-induced osteoclastogenesis using murine bone marrow-derived macrophages and postmenopausal bone loss using an ovariectomy (OVX) rat model.
Tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining was employed to evaluate osteoclast formation. mRNA level of transcription factor and protein levels of signaling molecules were determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis, respectively. Effect of HRT or fHRT on OVX-induced bone loss was evaluated using OVX rats orally administered HRT, or fHRT with 300 mg/kg for 12 weeks. Micro-CT analysis of femora was performed to analyze bone parameter.
HRT or fHRT treatment significantly decreased TRAP activity and the number of TRAP positive multinuclear cells on osteoclastogenesis. Interestingly, these inhibitory effects of HRT were enhanced by fermentation. Furthermore, fHRT significantly inhibited mRNA and protein expression of nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1, which leads to down-regulation of NFATc1-regulated mRNA expressions such as TRAP, the d2 isoform of vacuolar ATPase V(0) domain, and cathepsin K. Administration of fHRT significantly inhibited the decrease of bone mineral density, and improved bone parameter of femora more than that of HRT and vehicle in OVX rats.
This study demonstrated that lactic bacterial fermentation fortifies the inhibitory effect of HRT on osteoclastogenesis and bone loss. These results suggest that fermented HRT might have the beneficial potential on osteoporosis by inhibiting osteoclastogenesis.
Hwangryun-haedok-tang; Lactobacillus curvatus; Osteoclastogenesis; RANKL; Ovariectomy
Bone erosion is a hallmark of rheumatoid arthritis. Recent evidence from experimental arthritis suggests that osteoclasts are essential for the formation of local bone erosions. Two essential regulators of osteoclastogenesis have recently been described: the receptor-activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand, which promotes osteoclast maturation, and osteoprotegerin (OPG), which blocks osteoclastogenesis. The present review summarizes the current knowledge on the role of osteoclasts in local bone erosion. In addition, the role of OPG as a therapeutic tool to inhibit local bone erosion is addressed. Finally, evidence for OPG as an inhibitor of systemic inflammatory bone loss is discussed.
bone erosion; osteoclasts; osteoporosis; osteoprotegerin; rheumatoid arthritis
Advances in multiple myeloma support the notion that the associated bone disease, characterized by increased osteoclastogenesis and suppressed osteoblastogenesis, is both a consequence and necessity of tumour progression. Osteoblastogenesis is suppressed by secreted inhibitors and dysregulation of cell-surface “coupling” factors on osteogenic cells. Osteoclastogenesis is increased as a consequence of osteoblast deactivation and of production of osteoclast-activating factors. Osteoclasts express soluble and cell-surface factors that stimulate myeloma growth, while osteoblasts produce bone-building factors that restrain growth of myeloma cells that are dependent on the microenvironment; detailed molecular mechanisms are discussed. Experimental and clinical findings indicate that pharmacological and experimental osteoblast-activating agents that effectively promote bone formation also reduce growth of myeloma cells within bone, seemingly by simultaneously stimulating osteoblastogenesis and restraining osteoclastogenesis. Unravelling mechanisms of myeloma bone disease expands horizons for developing novel interventions and also facilitates better understanding of the association between induction of osteolysis and disease progression.
myeloma; osteoblasts; osteoclasts; Wnt; proteasome
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bone loss through stimulation of osteoclastic bone resorption and inhibition of osteoblastic bone formation. Compared with the well established role of TNF in osteoclastogenesis, mechanisms by which TNF inhibits osteoblast function have not been fully determined. Runx2 is an osteoblast-specific transcription factor whose steady-state protein levels are regulated by proteasomal degradation, mediated by the E3 ubiquitin ligases, Smurf1 and Smurf2. We hypothesized that TNF inhibits osteoblast function through Smurf-mediated Runx2 degradation. We treated C2C12 and 2T3 osteoblast precursor cell lines and primary osteoblasts with TNF and found that TNF, but not interleukin-1, significantly increased Smurf1 and Smurf2 expression. TNF increased the degradation of endogenous or transfected Runx2 protein, which was blocked by treating cells with a proteasomal inhibitor or by infecting cells with small interfering (si)RNA against Smurf1 or Smurf2. TNF inhibited the expression of bone morphogenetic protein and transforming growth factor-β signaling reporter constructs, and the inhibition of each was blocked by Smurf1 siRNA and Smurf2 siRNA, respectively. Overexpression of Smurf1 and/or Smurf2 siRNAs prevented the inhibitory effect of TNF on Runx2 reporter. Consistent with these in vitro findings, bones from TNF transgenic mice or TNF-injected wild type mice had increased Smurf1 and decreased Runx2 protein levels. We propose that one of the mechanisms by which TNF inhibits bone formation in inflammatory bone disorders is by promoting Runx2 proteasomal degradation through up-regulation of Smurf1 and Smurf2 expression.