Activation of ε protein kinase C (εPKC) protects hearts from ischemic injury. However, some of the mechanism(s) of εPKC mediated cardioprotection are still unclear. Identification of εPKC targets may aid to elucidate εPKC–mediated cardioprotective mechanisms. Previous studies, using a combination of εPKC transgenic mice and difference in gel electrophoresis (DIGE), identified a number of proteins involved in glucose metabolism, whose expression was modified by εPKC. These studies, were accompanied by metabolomic analysis, and suggested that increased glucose oxidation may be responsible for the cardioprotective effect of εPKC. However, whether these εPKC-mediated alterations were due to differences in protein expression or phosphorylation was not determined.
Methods and Results
Here, we used an εPKC-specific activator peptide, ψεRACK, in combination with phosphoproteomics to identify εPKC targets, and identified proteins whose phosphorylation was altered by selective activation of εPKC most of the identified proteins were mitochondrial proteins and analysis of the mitochondrial phosphoproteome, led to the identification of 55 spots, corresponding to 37 individual proteins, which were exclusively phosphorylated, in the presence of ψεRACK. The majority of the proteins identified were proteins involved in glucose and lipid metabolism, components of the respiratory chain as well as mitochondrial heat shock proteins.
In summary the protective effect of εPKC during ischemia involves phosphorylation of several mitochondrial proteins involved in glucose, lipid metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation. Regulation of these metabolic pathways by εPKC phosphorylation may lead to εPKC-mediated cardioprotection induced by ψεRACK.
εPKC; ischemia; phosphorylation; mitochondria
The anthracycline chemotherapy drug doxorubicin (DOX) is cardiotoxic. This study aimed to explore the effect of acetaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), a detoxifying protein, on DOX-induced cardiotoxicity and unveil the underlying mechanisms. BALB/c mice were randomly divided in four groups: control group (no treatment), DOX group (DOX administration for myocardial damage induction), DOX + Daidzin group (DOX administration + Daidzin, an ALDH2 antagonist) and DOX + Alda-1 group (DOX administration + Alda-1, an ALDH2 agonist). Then, survival, haemodynamic parameters, expression of pro- and anti-apoptosis markers, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and 4-Hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) levels, expression and localization of NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) and its cytoplasmic subunit p47PHOX, and ALDH2 expression and activity were assessed. Mortality rates of 0, 35, 5, and 70% were obtained in the control, DOX, DOX + Alda-1, and DOX + Daidzin groups, respectively, at the ninth weekend. Compared with control animals, DOX treatment resulted in significantly reduced left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP) and ± dp/dt, and overtly increased left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP); increased Bax expression and caspase-3/7 activity, and reduced Bcl-2 expression in the myocardium; increased ROS (about 2 fold) and 4-HNE adduct (3 fold) levels in the myocardium; increased NOX2 protein expression and membrane translocation of P47PHOX. These effects were aggravated in the DOX + Daidzin group, DOX + Alda-1 treated animals showed partial or complete alleviation. Finally, Daidzin further reduced the DOX-repressed ALDH2 activity, which was partially rescued by Alda-1. These results indicated that ALDH2 attenuates DOX-induced cardiotoxicity by inhibiting oxidative stress, NOX2 expression and activity, and reducing myocardial apoptosis.
DOX; ALDH2; myocardial apoptosis; oxidative stress; NOX2
Doxorubicin (DOX) is a widely used antitumor drug, but its application is limited due to its cardiotoxic side effects. Hsp20 has been recently shown to protect cardiomyocytes against apoptosis, induced by ischemia/reperfusion injury or by prolonged β-agonist stimulation. However, it is not clear whether Hsp20 would exert similar protective effects against DOX-induced cardiac injury. Actually, DOX-treatment was associated with down-regulation of Hsp20 in the heart. To elucidate the role of Hsp20 in DOX-triggered cardiac toxicity, Hsp20 was first overexpressed ex vivo by adenovirus-mediated gene delivery. Increased Hsp20 levels conferred higher resistance to DOX-induced cell death, compared to GFP-control. Furthermore, cardiac-specific overexpression of Hsp20 in vivo significantly ameliorated acute DOX-triggered cardiomyocyte apoptosis and animal mortality. Hsp20-transgenic mice also showed improved cardiac function and prolonged survival after chronic administration of DOX. The mechanisms underlying these beneficial effects were associated with preserved Akt phosphorylation/activity and attenuation of DOX-induced oxidative stress. Co-immunoprecipitation studies revealed an interaction between Hsp20 and phosphorylated Akt. Accordingly, BAD phosphorylation was preserved and cleaved caspase-3 was decreased in DOX-treated Hsp20-TG hearts, consistent with the Hsp20's anti-apoptotic effects. Parallel ex vivo experiments showed that either infection with a dominant-negative Akt adenovirus or pre-incubation of cardiomyocytes with the PI3-kinase inhibitors significantly attenuated the protective effects of Hsp20. Taken together, our findings indicate that overexpression of Hsp20 inhibits DOX-triggered cardiac injury, and these beneficial effects appear to be dependent on Akt activation. Thus, Hsp20 may constitute a new therapeutic target in ameliorating the cardiotoxic effects of DOX-treatment in cancer patients.
apoptosis; cardiomyopathy; doxorubicin; heat-shock protein; Akt
In the brain, ischemic preconditioning (IPC) diminishes mitochondrial dysfunction after ischemia and confers neuroprotection. Activation of ε protein kinase C (εPKC) has been proposed to be a key neuroprotective pathway during IPC. We tested the hypothesis that IPC increases the levels of εPKC in synaptosomes from rat hippocampus, resulting in improved synaptic mitochondrial respiration. Preconditioning significantly increased the level of hippocampal synaptosomal εPKC to 152% of sham-operated animals at 2 d of reperfusion, the time of peak neuroprotection. We tested the effect of εPKC activation on hippocampal synaptic mitochondrial respiration 2 d after preconditioning. Treatment with the specific εPKC activating peptide, tat-ψεRACK (tat-ψε-receptor for activated C kinase), increased the rate of oxygen consumption in the presence of substrates for complexes I, II, and IV to 157, 153, and 131% of control (tat peptide alone). In parallel, we found that εPKC activation in synaptosomes from preconditioned animals resulted in altered levels of phosphorylated mitochondrial respiratory chain proteins: increased serine and tyrosine phosphorylation of 18 kDa subunit of complex I, decreased serine phosphorylation of FeS protein in complex III, increased threonine phosphorylation of COX IV (cytochrome oxidase IV), increased mitochondrial membrane potential, and decreased H2O2 production. In brief, ischemic preconditioning promoted significant increases in the level of synaptosomal εPKC. Activation of εPKC increased synaptosomal mitochondrial respiration and phosphorylation of mitochondrial respiratory chain proteins. We propose that, at 48 h of reperfusion after ischemic preconditioning, εPKC is poised at synaptic mitochondria to respond to ischemia either by direct phosphorylation or activation of the εPKC signaling pathway.
cerebral ischemia; phosphorylation; electron transport chain; neuroprotection; cell death; hippocampus
Doxorubicin (DOX) is a widely used, potent chemotherapeutic agent; however, its clinical application is limited because of its dose-dependent cardiotoxicity. DOX’s cardiotoxicity involves increased oxidative/nitrative stress, impaired mitochondrial function in cardiomyocytes/endothelial cells and cell death. Cannabidiol (CBD) is a nonpsychotropic constituent of marijuana, which is well tolerated in humans, with antioxidant, antiinflammatory and recently discovered antitumor properties. We aimed to explore the effects of CBD in a well-established mouse model of DOX-induced cardiomyopathy. DOX-induced cardiomyopathy was characterized by increased myocardial injury (elevated serum creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase levels), myocardial oxidative and nitrative stress (decreased total glutathione content and glutathione peroxidase 1 activity, increased lipid peroxidation, 3-nitrotyrosine formation and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA), myocardial cell death (apoptotic and poly[ADP]-ribose polymerase 1 [PARP]-dependent) and cardiac dysfunction (decline in ejection fraction and left ventricular fractional shortening). DOX also impaired myocardial mitochondrial biogenesis (decreased mitochondrial copy number, mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1-alpha, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, estrogen-related receptor alpha), reduced mitochondrial function (attenuated complex I and II activities) and decreased myocardial expression of uncoupling protein 2 and 3 and medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase mRNA. Treatment with CBD markedly improved DOX-induced cardiac dysfunction, oxidative/nitrative stress and cell death. CBD also enhanced the DOX-induced impaired cardiac mitochondrial function and biogenesis. These data suggest that CBD may represent a novel cardioprotective strategy against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity, and the above-described effects on mitochondrial function and biogenesis may contribute to its beneficial properties described in numerous other models of tissue injury.
Although mammary cancer (MC) is the most common malignant neoplasia in women, the mortality for this cancer has decreased principally because of early detection and the use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Of several preparations that cause MC regression, doxorubicin (DOX) is the most active, first-line monotherapeutic. Nevertheless, its use is limited due to the rapid development of chemoresistance and to the cardiotoxicity caused by free radicals. In previous studies we have shown that supplementation with molecular iodine (I2) has a powerful antineoplastic effect in methylnitrosourea (MNU)-induced experimental models of MC. These studies also showed a consistent antioxidant effect of I2 in normal and tumoral tissues.
Here, we analyzed the effect of I2 in combination with DOX treatment in female Sprague Dawley rats with MNU-induced MC. In the first experiment (short) animals were treated with the therapeutic DOX dose (16 mg/kg) or with lower doses (8 and 4 mg/Kg), in each case with and without 0.05% I2 in drinking water. Iodine treatment began on day 0, a single dose of DOX was injected (ip) on day 2, and the analysis was carried out on day 7. In the second experiment (long) animals with and without iodine supplement were treated with one or two injections of 4 mg/kg DOX (on days 0 and 14) and were analyzed on day 56.
At all DOX doses, the short I2 treatment induced adjuvant antineoplastic effects (decreased tumor size and proliferating cell nuclear antigen level) with significant protection against body weight loss and cardiotoxicity (creatine kinase MB, cardiac lipoperoxidation, and heart damage). With long-term I2, mammary tumor tissue became more sensitive to DOX, since a single injection of the lowest dose of DOX (4 mg/Kg) was enough to stop tumor progression and a second DOX4 injection on day 14 caused a significant and rapid decrease in tumor size, decreased the expression of chemoresistance markers (Bcl2 and survivin), and increased the expression of the apoptotic protein Bax and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor type gamma.
The DOX-I2 combination exerts antineoplastic, chemosensitivity, and cardioprotective effects and could be a promising strategy against breast cancer progression.
Mammary cancer; MNU; Iodine; Doxorubicin; Chemoresistance; PPARγ; Cardioprotection
Cardiac cell death and generation of oxidative stress contribute to doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiac dysfunction. E3 ligase Nrdp1 plays a critical role in the regulation of cell apoptosis, inflammation and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may contribute to heart failure. However, the role of Nrdp1 in DOX-induced cardiac injury remains to be determined.
Methods and Results
We examined the effect of Nrdp1 overexpression with DOX treatment in rat neonatal cardiomyocytes and mouse heart tissue. Cardiomyocytes were infected with adenovirus containing GFP (Ad-GFP), Nrdp1 wild-type (Ad-Nrdp1) or the dominant-negative form of Nrdp1 (Ad-Dn-Nrdp1), then treated with DOX for 24 hr. DOX treatment increased cell death and apoptosis, with Ad-Nrdp1 infection enhancing these actions but Ad-Dn-Nrdp1 infection attenuating these effects. Furthermore, 5 days after a single injection of DOX (20 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), Nrdp1 transgenic mice (TG) showed decreased cardiac function and increased apoptosis, autophagy and oxidative stress as compared with wild-type (WT) mice (P<0.01). Survival rate was significantly lower in Nrdp1 TG mice than in WT mice 10 days after DOX injection (P<0.01).
These results were associated with decreased activation of Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathways. Nrdp1 may be a key mediator in the development of cardiac dysfunction after DOX treatment and associated with inhibition of Akt, ERK1/2 and STAT3. Nrdp1 may be a new therapeutic target in protecting against the cardiotoxic effects of DOX.
To test the effect of 2,3,5,4′-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside (THSG) on doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiotoxicity.
We used neonate rat cardiomyocytes and an acute mouse model of DOX-induced cardiotoxicity to examine the protective effect of THSG.
In the mouse model, administration of THSG significantly reduced DOX-induced cardiotoxicity, including animal mortality, histopathological changes, and levels of serum creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Moreover, THSG was able to attenuate the increased malondialdehyde (MDA) and decreased reduced glutathione (GSH) caused by DOX. In in vitro studies, THSG 10−300 μmol/L ameliorated DOX-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner. Further studies showed that THSG inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and prevented DOX-induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, caspase-3 activation and upregulation of Bax protein expression. We observed a protective response against damage after DOX treatment. The level of Bcl-2 protein was increased. Additionally, THSG inhibited a DOX-induced [Ca2+] increase.
These results showed that THSG protected against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity by decreasing ROS generation and intracellular [Ca2+] and by inhibiting apoptotic signaling pathways.
2,3,5,4′-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside; doxorubicin; apoptosis; reactive oxygen species
In Canada, breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in women. Approximately 25% to 30% of breast cancers overexpress the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. Trastuzumab (Trz), which is a monoclonal antibody against epidermal growth factor receptor 2, reduces recurrence and mortality by 50% and 33%, respectively. Other clinical studies have shown that 5% to 10% of patients who receive Trz following doxorubicin treatment develop cardiac dysfunction. This reviews discusses the various mechanisms that may account for doxorubicin and Trz-induced cardiac dysfunction.
Trastuzumab (Trz) is a monoclonal antibody against the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 that is found to be overexpressed in 25% to 30% of breast cancer patients. In spite of the therapeutic benefits of Trz, cardiotoxic side effects are still an issue. This effect is potentiated particularly when Trz is administered following doxorubicin (DOX) treatment. Among the various mechanisms that may account for DOX and Trz-induced cardiotoxicity, the role of oxidative stress has gained significant support. The present review discusses the evidence supporting the hypothesis that oxidative stress comes from multiple sources through an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species and/or a decrease in antioxidant defense systems. The adjuvant use of Trz can potentiate cardiomyocyte damage through a ‘dual-hit’ mechanism, which includes inhibition of the neuregulin-1 survival signalling pathway and angiotensin II-induced activation of NADPH oxidase, with the ability to further increase reactive oxygen species production. Preventive therapies for DOX- and Trz-induced cardiac dysfunction have eluded investigators, but may include the prophylactic use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, beta-blockers and use of antioxidants. Thus, a better understanding of the mechanisms leading to this characteristic drug-induced cardiomyopathy, as well as potential cardioprotective strategies is required.
Doxorubicin; Epidermal growth factor; Heart failure; Oxidative stress; Renin-angiotensin system
A PEG-based, folate mediated, active tumor targeting drug delivery system using DOX-hyd-PEG-FA nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared. DOX-hyd-PEG-FA NPs showed a significantly faster DOX release in pH 5.0 medium than in pH 7.4 medium. Compared with DOX-hyd-PEG NPs, DOX-hyd-PEG-FA NPs increased the intracellular accumulation of DOX and showed a DOX translocation from lysosomes to nucleus. The cytotoxicity of DOX-hyd-PEG-FA NPs on KB cells was much higher than that of free DOX, DOX-ami-PEG-FA NPs and DOX-hyd-PEG NPs. The cytotoxicity of DOX-hyd-PEG-FA NPs on KB cells was attenuated in the presence of exogenous folic acid. The IC50 of DOX-hyd-PEG-FA NPs and DOX-hyd-PEG NPs on A549 cells showed no significant difference. After DOX-hyd-PEG-FA NPs were intravenously administered, the amount of DOX distributed in tumor tissue was significantly increased, while the amount of DOX distributed in heart was greatly decreased as compared with free DOX. Compared with free DOX, NPs yielded improved survival rate, prolonged life span, delayed tumor growth and reduced the cardiotoxicity in tumor bearing mice model. These results indicated that the acid sensitivity, passive and active tumor targeting abilities were likely to act synergistically to enhance the drug delivery efficiency of DOX-hyd-PEG-FA NPs. Therefore, DOX-hyd-PEG-FA NPs are a promising drug delivery system for targeted cancer therapy.
Clinical application of potent anthracycline anticancer drugs, especially doxorubicin (DOX), is limited by a toxic cardiac side effect that is not fully understood and preventive strategies are yet to be established. Studies in genetically modified mice have demonstrated that focal adhesion kinase (FAK) plays a key role in regulating adaptive responses of the adult myocardium to pathological stimuli through activation of intracellular signaling cascades that facilitate cardiomyocyte growth and survival. The objective of this study was to determine if targeted myocardial FAK activation could protect the heart from DOX-induced de-compensation and to characterize the underlying mechanisms. To this end, mice with myocyte-restricted FAK knock-out (MFKO) or myocyte-specific expression of an active FAK variant (termed SuperFAK) were subjected to DOX treatment. FAK depletion enhanced susceptibility to DOX-induced myocyte apoptosis and cardiac dysfunction, while elevated FAK activity provided remarkable cardioprotection. Our mechanistic studies reveal a heretofore unappreciated role for the protective cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 in the repression of the pro-apoptotic BH3-only protein Bim and the maintenance of mitochondrial integrity and myocyte survival. DOX treatment induced proteasomal degradation of p21, which exacerbated mitochondrial dysfunction and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. FAK was both necessary and sufficient for maintaining p21 levels following DOX treatment and depletion of p21 compromised FAK-dependent protection from DOX. These findings identify p21 as a key determinant of DOX resistance downstream of FAK in cardiomyocytes and indicate that cardiac-restricted enhancement of the FAK/p21 signaling axis might be an effective strategy to preserve myocardial function in patients receiving anthracycline chemotherapy.
Anthracycline cardiomyopathy; apoptosis; mitochondria; cardiomyocyte; cell cycle
Doxorubicin (DOX) is a highly effective chemotherapeutic agent; however, cumulative dose-dependent cardiotoxicity is a significant side effect of this therapy. Because DOX is a polyaromatic hydrocarbon, we hypothesized that it will be metabolized by the activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ligand-activated transcription factor that is involved in the metabolism of numerous xenobiotic agents. These studies were performed to determine whether DOX activates AhR and whether this activation modulates the toxicity of DOX in cardiomyocytes.
Methods and results
Treatment with DOX induced AhR migration to the nucleus, increased AhR binding with its co-factor, aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-1 (ARNT1), and increased the expression of AhR-regulated phase I (CYP1A1) and phase II (GSTA1) drug-metabolizing enzymes in both cardiomyocytes and in the intact heart. Knockdown of AhR in H9C2 cells abolished DOX-induced increases in CYP1A1 and GSTA1 expression. Similar results were obtained by treating adult rat ventricular myocytes with the AhR antagonist, CH-223191. Taken together, these findings indicate that DOX-induced upregulation of CYP1A1 and GSTA1 expression is AhR dependent. AhR null mice treated with 10 mg/kg DOX did not show any activation of CYP1A1 or GSTA1 expression. Moreover, lack of AhR in vivo resulted in a significant decrease in left ventricular function compared with wild-type animals, and increased p53 activation and apoptosis in the heart after treatment with DOX.
These findings indicate that AhR plays an important role in DOX metabolism by the heart and further demonstrate that AhR is cardioprotective against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity.
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor; Doxorubicin cardiotoxicity; Reactive oxygen species; Apoptosis; Cardioprotection
Doxorubicin (DOX) is an effective anti-cancer therapeutic, but is associated with both acute and late-stage cardiotoxicity. Children are particularly sensitive to DOX-induced heart failure. Here, the impact of p53 inhibition on acute vs. late-stage DOX cardiotoxicity was examined in a juvenile model.
Methods and results
Two-week-old MHC-CB7 mice (which express dominant-interfering p53 in cardiomyocytes) and their non-transgenic (NON-TXG) littermates received weekly DOX injections for 5 weeks (25 mg/kg cumulative dose). One week after the last DOX treatment (acute stage), MHC-CB7 mice exhibited improved cardiac function and lower levels of cardiomyocyte apoptosis when compared with the NON-TXG mice. Surprisingly, by 13 weeks following the last DOX treatment (late stage), MHC-CB7 exhibited a progressive decrease in cardiac function and higher rates of cardiomyocyte apoptosis when compared with NON-TXG mice. p53 inhibition blocked transient DOX-induced STAT3 activation in MHC-CB7 mice, which was associated with enhanced induction of the DNA repair proteins Ku70 and Ku80. Mice with cardiomyocyte-restricted deletion of STAT3 exhibited worse cardiac function, higher levels of cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and a greater induction of Ku70 and Ku80 in response to DOX treatment during the acute stage when compared with control animals.
These data support a model wherein a p53-dependent cardioprotective pathway, mediated via STAT3 activation, mitigates DOX-induced myocardial stress during drug delivery. Furthermore, these data suggest an explanation as to how p53 inhibition can result in cardioprotection during drug treatment and, paradoxically, enhanced cardiotoxicity long after the cessation of drug treatment.
Heart failure; Apoptosis; Myocytes
Cardio-Oncology is an evolving discipline that focuses on the management of cancer patients who develop cardiovascular complications as a result of their treatment. Although the current combination of surgical resection, radiation, and chemotherapy may lead to a cure in cancer patients, the administration of anti-cancer drugs, in particular Doxorubicin (DOX) and Trastuzumab (TRZ), is associated with an increased risk of cardiotoxicity. Little is known on the potential cardioprotective role of renin angiotensin system (RAS) antagonists in the prevention of DOX+TRZ mediated cardiotoxicity.
The aim of the study was to determine whether RAS antagonists would be useful in attenuating DOX+TRZ induced cardiotoxicity.
A total of 240 C57Bl/6 mice were randomized to prophylactic treatment with placebo, Aliskiren, Perindopril, or Valsartan for a total of 13 weeks. Within each arm, mice received treatment with either DOX, TRZ, or the combination of both drugs. Serial murine echocardiography was performed weekly to characterize the degree of cardiovascular remodeling within each group.
In wild-type (WT) mice treated with DOX+TRZ, LV end diastolic internal diameter (LVID) increased from 3.1 ± 0.2 mm at baseline to 4.6 ± 0.3 mm at week 13 (p < 0.05) and the LV fractional shortening (FS) decreased from 52 ± 2% at baseline to 26 ± 2% at week 13 (p < 0.05). Prophylactic treatment with Aliskiren, Perindopril, or Valsartan attenuated the degree of LV cavity dilatation with LVID dimensions of 3.9 ± 0.2 mm, 4.1 ± 0.2 mm, and 4.2 ± 0.1 mm at week 13, respectively (p < 0.05). Similarly, prophylactic treatment with Aliskiren, Perindopril, or Valsartan was partially cardioprotective with FS of 40 ± 1%, 32 ± 1%, and 33 ± 2% at week 13, respectively (p < 0.05). As compared to WT mice receiving DOX+TRZ, prophylactic treatment with RAS inhibition was also associated with improved survival, corroborating the echocardiographic findings.
The cardiotoxic effects of DOX+TRZ were partially attenuated by the prophylactic administration of RAS antagonists in a chronic murine model of chemotherapy induced cardiac dysfunction.
Cardio-Oncology; Doxorubicin; Trastuzumab; RAS antagonists; Murine echocardiography
Doxorubicin (Dox) is a major anticancer chemotherapeutic agent. However, it causes cardiomyopathy due to the side effect of cardiomyocyte apoptosis. We have previously reported that angiopoietin-1 significantly reduced myocardial infarction after ischemic injury and protected cardiomyocytes from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. It is hypothesized that angiopoietin-1 may protect cardiomyocytes from Dox-induced apoptosis. Cardiomyocytes H9C2 were transfected with adenovirus expressing angiopoietin-1 (Ad5-Ang-1) 24 h before the cells were challenged with Dox at a concentration of 2 µmol/L. Ad5-GFP served as the vector control. Cardiomyocyte apoptosis was evaluated using Annexin V-FITC staining and caspase-3 and caspase-8 activity was determined by Western blotting. The results showed that Dox treatment significantly induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis as evidenced by the greater number of Annexin V-FITC stained cells and increases in caspase-3 and caspase-8 activity. In contrast, overexpression of angiopoietin-1 significantly prevented Dox-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. To elucidate the mechanisms by which angiopoietin-1 protected cells from Dox-induced apoptosis, we analyzed both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathways. We observed that angiopoietin-1 prevented Dox-induced activation of both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathways. Specifically, angiopoietin-1 prevented DOX-induced increases in FasL and Bax levels and cleaved caspase-3 and caspase-8 levels in H9C2 cells. In addition, overexpression of angiopoietin-1 also activated the pro-survival phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway and decreased Dox-induced nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) activation. Our data suggest that promoting the expression of angiopoietin-1 could be a potential approach for reducing Dox-induced cardiomyocyte cytoxicity.
cardiomyocyte; doxorubicin; apoptosis; angiopoietin-1; phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K); nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB)
Doxorubicin (DOX) induces oxidative stress leading to cardiotoxicity. Diosgenin, a steroidal saponin of Dioscorea opposita, has been reported to have antioxidant activity. Our study was aimed to find out the protective effect of diosgenin against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity in mice. DOX treatment led to a significant decrease in the ratio of heart weight to body weight, and increases in the blood pressure and the serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and creatine kinase myocardial bound (CK-MB), markers of cardiotoxicity. In the heart tissue of the DOX-treated mice, DOX reduced activities of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), were recovered by diosgenin. Diosgenin also decreased the serum levels of cardiotoxicity markers, cardiac levels of thiobarbituric acid relative substances (TBARS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), caspase-3 activation, and mitochondrial dysfunction, as well as the expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), an inflammatory factor. Moreover, diosgenin had the effects of increasing the cardiac levels of cGMP via modulation of phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) activity, and in improving myocardial fibrosis in the DOX-treated mice. Molecular data showed that the protective effects of diosgenin might be mediated via regulation of protein kinase A (PKA) and p38. Our data imply that diosgenin possesses antioxidant and anti-apoptotic activities, and cGMP modulation effect, which in turn protect the heart from the DOX-induced cardiotoxicity.
doxorubicin; cadiotoxicity; diosgenin; antioxidant; cGMP
The anthracycline antibiotic doxorubicin (DOX) is a potent cancer chemotherapeutic agent that exerts both acute and chronic cardiotoxicity. Here we show that in adult mouse cardiomyocytes, DOX activates (i) the pro-apoptotic p53, (ii) p38MAPK and JNK, (iii) Bax translocation, (iv) cytochrome c release, and (v) caspase 3. Further, it (vi) inhibits expression of anti-apoptotic Akt, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, and (vii) induces internucleosomal degradation and cell death. WNT1-Inducible Signaling Pathway Protein-1 (WISP1), a CCN family member and a matricellular protein, inhibits DOX-mediated cardiomyocyte death. WISP1 inhibits DOX-induced p53 activation, p38 MAPK and JNK phosphorylation, Bax translocation to mitochondria, and cytochrome c release into cytoplasm. Additionally, WISP1 reverses DOX-induced suppression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL expression and Akt inhibition. The pro-survival effects of WISP1 were recapitulated by the forced expression of mutant p53, wild-type Bcl-2, wild-type Bcl-xL, or constitutively active Akt prior to DOX treatment. WISP1 also induces the pro-survival factor Survivin via PI3K/Akt signaling. Overexpression of wild-type, but not mutant Survivin, blunts DOX cytotoxicity. Further, WISP1 stimulates PI3K-Akt-dependent GSK3β phosphorylation and β-catenin nuclear translocation. Importantly, WISP1 induces its own expression. Together, these results provide important insights into the cytoprotective effects of WISP1 in cardiomyocytes, and suggest a potential therapeutic role for WISP1 in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity.
CCN; WISP; doxorubicin; cardiomyocytes; growth factors; cardiotoxicity
Senescence marker protein 30 (SMP30), which was originally identified as an aging marker protein, is assumed to act as a novel anti-aging factor in the liver, lungs and brain. We hypothesized that SMP30 has cardio-protective function due to its anti-aging and anti-oxidant effects on doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiac dysfunction.
Methods and Results
SMP30 knockout (SMP30 KO) mice, SMP30 transgenic (SMP30 TG) mice with cardiac-specific overexpression of SMP30 gene and wild-type (WT) littermate mice at 12–14 weeks of age were given intra-peritoneal injection of DOX (20 mg/kg) or saline. Five days after DOX injection, echocardiography revealed that left ventricular ejection fraction was more severely reduced in the DOX-treated SMP30 KO mice than in the DOX-treated WT mice, but was preserved in the DOX-treated SMP30 TG mice. Generation of reactive oxygen species and oxidative DNA damage in the myocardium were greater in the DOX-treated SMP30 KO mice than in the DOX-treated WT mice, but much less in the SMP30 TG mice. The numbers of deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling positive nuclei in the myocardium, apoptotic signaling pathways such as caspase-3 activity, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and phosphorylation activity of c-Jun N-terminal kinase were increased in SMP30 KO mice and decreased in SMP30 TG mice compared with WT mice after DOX injection.
SMP30 has a cardio-protective role by anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic effects in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity, and can be a new therapeutic target to prevent DOX-induced heart failure.
Doxorubicin (DOX) is one of most common anti-cancer chemotherapeutic drugs, but its clinical use is associated with dose-limiting cardiotoxicity. We have recently developed a series of PEG-oligocholic acid based telodendrimers, which can efficiently encapsulate hydrophobic drugs and self-assemble to form stable micelles in aqueous condition. In the present study, two representative telodendrimers (PEG5k-CA8 and PEG2k-CA4) have been applied to prepare DOX micellar formulations for the targeted delivery of DOX to lymphoma. PEG2k-CA4 micelles, compared to PEG5k-CA8 micelles, were found to have higher DOX loading capacity (14.8% vs. 8.2%, w/w), superior stability in physiological condition, and more sustained release profile. Both of these DOX-loaded micelles can be efficiently internalized and release the drug in Raji lymphoma cells. DOX-loaded micelles were found to exhibit similar in vitro cytotoxic activities against both T- and B- lymphoma cells as the free DOX. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of DOX-loaded PEG2k-CA4 micelles in mice was approximately 15 mg/kg, which was 1.5-fold higher of the MTD of free DOX. Pharmacokinetics and biodistribution studies demonstrated both DOX-loaded micelles were able to prolong the blood retention time, preferentially accumulate and penetrate in B-cell lymphomas via the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. Finally, DOX-PEG2k-CA4 micelles achieved enhanced anti-cancer efficacy and prolonged survival in Raji lymphoma bearing mice, compared to free DOX and PEGylated liposomal DOX (Doxil®) at the equivalent dose. In addition, the analysis of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) serum enzymes level indicated that DOX micellar formulations significantly reduced the cardiotoxicity associated with free DOX.
doxorubicin; polymeric micelles; drug delivery; biodistribution; cardiotoxicity; cancer therapy
The response of the myocardium to an ischaemic insult is regulated by two highly homologous protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes, δ and εPKC. Here, we determined the spatial and temporal relationships between these two isozymes in the context of ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) and ischaemic preconditioning (IPC) to better understand their roles in cardioprotection.
Methods and results
Using an ex vivo rat model of myocardial infarction, we found that short bouts of ischaemia and reperfusion prior to the prolonged ischaemic event (IPC) diminished δPKC translocation by 3.8-fold and increased εPKC accumulation at mitochondria by 16-fold during reperfusion. In addition, total cellular levels of δPKC decreased by 60 ± 2.7% in response to IPC, whereas the levels of εPKC did not significantly change. Prolonged ischaemia induced a 48 ± 11% decline in the ATP-dependent proteasomal activity and increased the accumulation of misfolded proteins during reperfusion by 192 ± 32%; both of these events were completely prevented by IPC. Pharmacological inhibition of the proteasome or selective inhibition of εPKC during IPC restored δPKC levels at the mitochondria while decreasing εPKC levels, resulting in a loss of IPC-induced protection from I/R. Importantly, increased myocardial injury was the result, in part, of restoring a δPKC-mediated I/R pro-apoptotic phenotype by decreasing pro-survival signalling and increasing cytochrome c release into the cytosol.
Taken together, our findings indicate that IPC prevents I/R injury at reperfusion by protecting ATP-dependent 26S proteasomal function. This decreases the accumulation of the pro-apoptotic kinase, δPKC, at cardiac mitochondria, resulting in the accumulation of the pro-survival kinase, εPKC.
Cardioprotection; Ischaemia/reperfusion; Apoptosis; Proteasome; PKC; Ischaemic preconditioning
Doxorubicin (DOX) is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic agents, but cardiotoxicity limits DOX therapy. Although the mechanisms are not entirely understood, reactive oxygen species (ROS) appear to be involved in DOX cardiotoxicity. Ca/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) can be activated by ROS through oxidation and is known to contribute to myocardial dysfunction through Ca leakage from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR).
We hypothesized that CaMKII contributes to DOX-induced defects in intracellular Ca ([Ca]i) handling.
Cardiac myocytes were isolated from wild-type (WT) adult rat hearts and from mouse hearts lacking the predominant myocardial CaMKII isoform (CaMKIIδ−/−, KO) vs. WT. Isolated cardiomyocytes were investigated 30 min after DOX (10 µmol/L) superfusion, using epifluorescence and confocal microscopy. Intracellular ROS-generation ([ROS]i) and [Ca]i handling properties were assessed. In a subset of experiments, KN-93 or AIP (each 1 µmol/L) were used to inhibit CaMKII. Melatonin (Mel, 100 µmol/L) served as ROS-scavenger. Western blots were performed to determine the amount of CaMKII phosphorylation and oxidation.
DOX increased [ROS]i and led to significant diastolic [Ca]i overload in rat myocytes. This was associated with reduced [Ca]i transients, a 5.8-fold increased diastolic SR Ca leak and diminished SR Ca content. ROS-scavenging partially rescued Ca handling. Western blots revealed increased CaMKII phosphorylation, but not CaMKII oxidation after DOX. Pharmacological CaMKII inhibition attenuated diastolic [Ca]i overload after DOX superfusion and led to partially restored [Ca]i transients and SR Ca content, presumably due to reduced Ca spark frequency. In line with this concept, isoform-specific CaMKIIδ-KO attenuated diastolic [Ca]i overload and Ca spark frequency.
DOX exposure induces CaMKII-dependent SR Ca leakage, which partially contributes to impaired cellular [Ca]i homeostasis. Pharmacological and genetic CaMKII inhibition attenuated but did not completely abolish the effects of DOX on [Ca]i. In light of the clinical relevance of DOX, further investigations seem appropriate to determine if CaMKII inhibition could reduce DOX-induced cardiotoxicity.
Doxorubicin (DOX), an effective chemotherapeutic drug used in the treatment of various cancers, is limited in its clinical applications due to cardiotoxicity. Recent studies suggest that transplanted adult stem cells inhibit DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. However, the effects of transplanted embryonic stem (ES) and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are completely unknown in DOX-induced left ventricular dysfunction following myocardial infarction (MI). In brief, C57BL/6 mice were divided into five groups: Sham, DOX-MI, DOX-MI+cell culture (CC) media, DOX-MI+ES cells, and DOX-MI+iPS cells. Mice were injected with cumulative dose of 12 mg/kg of DOX and 2 weeks later, MI was induced by coronary artery ligation. Following ligation, 5×104 ES or iPS cells were delivered into the peri-infarct region. At day 14 post-MI, echocardiography was performed, mice were sacrificed, and hearts were harvested for further analyses. Our data reveal apoptosis was significantly inhibited in ES and iPS cell transplanted hearts compared with respective controls (DOX-MI+ES: 0.48±0.06% and DOX-MI+iPS: 0.33±0.05% vs. DOX-MI: 1.04±0.07% and DOX-MI+CC: 0.96±0.21%; p<0.05). Furthermore, a significant increase in levels of Notch-1 (p<0.05), Hes1 (p<0.05), and pAkt (p<0.05) were observed whereas a decrease in the levels of PTEN (p<0.05), a negative regulator of Akt, was evident following stem cell transplantation. Moreover, hearts transplanted with stem cells demonstrated decreased vascular and interstitial fibrosis (p<0.05) as well as MMP-9 expression (p<0.01) compared with controls. Additionally, heart function was significantly improved (p<0.05) in both cell-transplanted groups. In conclusion, our data show that transplantation of ES and iPS cells blunt DOX-induced adverse cardiac remodeling, which is associated with improved cardiac function, and these effects are mediated by the Notch pathway.
Doxorubicin (DOX) is a wide-spectrum antitumor drug, but its clinical application is limited by its cardiotoxicity. However, the mechanisms underlying DOX-induced cardiomyopathy remain mostly unclear. Here we observed that apoptosis repressor with caspase recruitment domain (ARC) was downregulated in mouse heart and cardiomyocytes upon DOX treatment. Furthermore, enforced expression of ARC attenuated DOX-induced cardiomyocyte mitochondrial fission and apoptosis. ARC transgenic mice demonstrated reduced cardiotoxicity upon DOX administration. DOX-induced mitochondrial fission required the activity of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1). In elucidating the molecular mechanism by which ARC was downregulated upon DOX treatment, miR-532-3p was found to directly target ARC and participated in DOX-induced mitochondrial fission and apoptosis. MiR-532-3p was not involved in DOX-induced apoptosis in cancer cells. Taken together, these findings provide novel evidence that miR-532-3p and ARC constitute an antiapoptotic pathway that regulates DOX cardiotoxicity. Therefore, the development of new therapeutic strategies based on ARC and miR-532-3p is promising for overcoming the cardiotoxicity of chemotherapy for cancer therapy.
The balance between endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-derived nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production determines endothelial-mediated vascular homeostasis. Activation of protein kinase C (PKC) has been linked to imbalance of the eNOS/ROS system, which leads to endothelial dysfunction. We previously found that selective inhibition of delta PKC (δPKC) or selective activation of epsilon PKC (εPKC) reduces oxidative damage in the heart following myocardial infarction. In this study we determined the effect of these PKC isozymes in the survival of coronary endothelial cells (CVEC). We demonstrate here that serum deprivation of CVEC increased eNOS-mediated ROS levels, activated caspase-3, reduced Akt phosphorylation and cell number. Treatment with either the δPKC inhibitor, δV1-1, or the εPKC activator, ψεRACK, inhibited these effects, restoring cell survival through inhibition of eNOS activity. The decrease in eNOS activity coincided with specific de-phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser1179, and eNOS phosphorylation at Thr497 and Ser116. Furthermore, δV1-1 or ψεRACK induced physical association of eNOS with caveolin-1, an additional marker of eNOS inhibition, and restored Akt activation by inhibiting its nitration. Together our data demonstrate that 1) in endothelial dysfunction, ROS and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) formation result from uncontrolled eNOS activity mediated by activation of δPKC or inhibition of εPKC 2) inhibition of δPKC or activation of εePKC correct the perturbed phosphorylation state of eNOS, thus increasing cell survival. Since endothelial health ensures better tissue perfusion and oxygenation, treatment with a δPKC inhibitor and/or an εPKC activator in diseases of endothelial dysfunction should be considered.
Pervious biochemical and hemodymanic studies have highlighted the important role of εPKC in cardioprotection during ischemic preconditioning. However, little is known about the electrophysiological consequences of εPKC modulation in ischemic hearts. Membrane permeable peptide εPKC selective activator and inhibitor were used to investigate the role of εPKC modulation in reperfusion arrhythmias.
Protein transduction domain from HIV- TAT was used as a carrier for peptide delivery into intact Langendorff perfused guinea pig hearts. Action potentials were imaged and mapped (124 sites) using optical techniques and surface ECG was continuously recorded. Hearts were exposed to 30 min stabilization period, 15 min of no-flow ischemia, followed by 20 min reperfusion. Peptides (0.5 μM) were infused as follows: a) control (vehicle-TAT peptide; TAT-scrambled ψεRACK peptide); b) εPKC agonist (TAT-ψεRACK); c) εPKC antagonist (TAT-εV1).
Hearts treated with εPKC agonist ψεRACK had reduced incidence of ventricular tachycardia (VT, 64%) and fibrillation (VF, 50%) compared to control (VT, 80%, p<0.05) and (VF, 70%, P<0.05). However, the highest incidence of VT (100%, P<0.05) and VF (80%) occurred in hearts treated with εPKC antagonist peptide εV1 compared to control and to εPKC agonist ψεRACK. Interestingly, at 20 min reperfusion, 100% of hearts treated with εPKC agonist ψεRACK exhibited complete recovery of action potentials compared to 40% (p<0.05) of hearts treated with εPKC antagonist peptide, εV1 and 65% (P<0.5) of hearts in control. At 20 min reperfusion, maps of action potential duration from εPKC agonist ψεRACK showed minimal dispersion (48.2±9 ms) compared to exacerbated dispersion (115.4±42 ms, P<0.05) in εPKC antagonist and control (67±20 ms, P<0.05). VT/VF and dispersion from hearts treated with scrambled agonist or antagonist peptides were similar to control.
the results demonstrate that εPKC activation by ψεRACK peptide protects intact hearts from reperfusion arrhythmias and affords better recovery. On the other hand, inhibition of εPKC increased the incidence of arrhythmias and worsened recovery compared to controls. The results carry significant therapeutic implications for the treatment of acute ischemic heart disease by preconditioning-mimicking agents.
cardiac electrophysiology; Protein Kinase C; reperfusion arrhythmia; optical mapping