Alveolar macrophages (AMs) express the class A scavenger receptors (SRAs) macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO) and scavenger receptor AI/II (SRA-I/II), which recognize oxidized lipids and provide innate defense against inhaled pathogens and particles. Increased MARCO expression in lungs of ozone-resistant mice suggested an additional role protecting against inhaled oxidants. After ozone exposure, MARCO–/– mice showed greater lung injury than did MARCO+/+ mice. Ozone is known to generate oxidized, proinflammatory lipids in lung lining fluid, such as 5β,6β-epoxycholesterol (β-epoxide) and 1-palmitoyl-2-(9′-oxo-nonanoyl)-glycerophosphocholine (PON-GPC). Intratracheal instillation of either lipid caused substantial neutrophil influx in MARCO–/– mice, but had no effect in MARCO+/+ mice. Normal AMs showed greater uptake in vitro of β-epoxide compared with MARCO–/– AMs, consistent with SRA function in binding oxidized lipids. SR-AI/II–/– mice showed similar enhanced acute lung inflammation after β-epoxide or another inhaled oxidant (aerosolized leachate of residual oil fly ash). In contrast, subacute ozone exposure did not enhance inflammation in SR-AI/II–/– versus SR-AI/II+/+ mice, reflecting increased AM expression of MARCO. These data identify what we believe to be a novel function for AM SRAs in decreasing pulmonary inflammation after oxidant inhalation by scavenging proinflammatory oxidized lipids from lung lining fluids.
Chronic exposure to crystalline silica can lead to the development of silicosis, an irreversible, inflammatory and fibrotic pulmonary disease. Although, previous studies established the macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO) as an important receptor for binding and uptake of crystalline silica particles in vitro, the role of MARCO in regulating the inflammatory response following silica exposure in vivo remains unknown. Therefore, we determined the role of MARCO in crystalline silica–induced pulmonary pathology using C57Bl/6 wild-type (WT) and MARCO−/− mice. Increased numbers of MARCO+ pulmonary macrophages were observed following crystalline silica, but not phosphate-buffered saline and titanium dioxide (TiO2), instillation in WT mice, highlighting a specific role of MARCO in silica-induced pathology. We hypothesized that MARCO−/− mice will exhibit diminished clearance of silica leading to enhanced pulmonary inflammation and exacerbation of silicosis. Alveolar macrophages isolated from crystalline silica–exposed mice showed diminished particle uptake in vivo as compared with WT mice, indicating abnormalities in clearance mechanisms. Furthermore, MARCO−/− mice exposed to crystalline silica showed enhanced acute inflammation and lung injury marked by increases in early response cytokines and inflammatory cells compared with WT mice. Similarly, histological examination of MARCO−/− lungs at 3 months post–crystalline silica exposure showed increased chronic inflammation compared with WT; however, only a small difference was observed with respect to development of fibrosis as measured by hydroxyproline content. Altogether, these results demonstrate that MARCO is important for clearance of crystalline silica in vivo and that the absence of MARCO results in exacerbations in innate pulmonary immune responses.
fibrosis; silicosis; particle clearance; macrophages; scavenger receptors
Alveolar macrophages (AMs) express the class A scavenger receptor macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO), but its role in vivo in lung defense against bacteria and environmental particles has not been studied. We used MARCO-deficient mice to directly test the in vivo role of AM MARCO in innate defense against pneumococcal infection and environmental particles. In a murine model of pneumococcal pneumonia, MARCO−/− mice displayed an impaired ability to clear bacteria from the lungs, increased pulmonary inflammation and cytokine release, and diminished survival. In vitro binding of Streptococcus pneumoniae and in vivo uptake of unopsonized particles by MARCO−/− AMs were dramatically impaired. MARCO−/− mice treated with the “inert” environmental particle TiO2 showed enhanced inflammation and chemokine expression, indicating that MARCO-mediated clearance of inert particles by AMs prevents inflammatory responses otherwise initiated by other lung cells. Our findings point to an important role of MARCO in mounting an efficient and appropriately regulated innate immune response against inhaled particles and airborne pathogens.
macrophage; phagocytosis; environment; innate immunity
Virtually all of the elements of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) pathogenesis, including pro-inflammatory cytokine production, granuloma formation, cachexia, and mortality, can be induced by its predominant cell wall glycolipid, trehalose 6,6′-dimycolate (TDM/cord factor). TDM mediates these potent inflammatory responses via interactions with macrophages both in vitro and in vivo in a myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)-dependent manner via phosphorylation of the mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs), implying involvement of toll-like receptors (TLRs). However, specific TLRs or binding receptors for TDM have yet to be identified. Herein, we demonstrate that the macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO), a class A scavenger receptor, is utilized preferentially to “tether” TDM to the macrophage and to activate the TLR2 signaling pathway. TDM-induced signaling, as measured by a nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB)-luciferase reporter assay, required MARCO in addition to TLR2 and CD14. MARCO was used preferentially over the highly homologous scavenger receptor class A (SRA), which required TLR2 and TLR4, as well as their respective accessory molecules, in order for a slight increase in NF-κB signaling to occur. Consistent with these observations, macrophages from MARCO−/− or MARCO−/−SRA−/− mice are defective in activation of extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and subsequent pro-inflammatory cytokine production in response to TDM. These results show that MARCO-expressing macrophages secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to TDM by cooperation between MARCO and TLR2/CD14, whereas other macrophage subtypes (e.g. bone marrow–derived) may rely somewhat less effectively on SRA, TLR2/CD14, and TLR4/MD2. Macrophages from MARCO−/− mice also produce markedly lower levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to infection with virulent Mtb. These observations identify the scavenger receptors as essential binding receptors for TDM, explain the differential response to TDM of various macrophage populations, which differ in their expression of the scavenger receptors, and identify MARCO as a novel component required for TLR signaling.
The causative agent of tuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, has a lipid-rich cell wall that contains a high percentage of mycolic acids. These mycolic acids contribute to both the impermeable nature of the cell wall and to the immunostimulatory properties of the bacterium. Indeed, it has been known for over 50 years that trehalose 6,6′-dimycolate (TDM/cord factor) is the major immunogenic lipid of M. tuberculosis, which induces potent pro-inflammatory responses from macrophages, although the receptor has not been identified. We have demonstrated that the toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway is required for pro-inflammatory cytokine production in response to TDM; however, the TLRs alone, or in conjunction with known co-receptors, are not sufficient to induce a response. We demonstrate that the macrophage receptor MARCO, a scavenger receptor, is utilized preferentially to “tether” TDM to the macrophage and activate the TLR2 signaling pathway, and is used preferentially over the related SRA. Macrophages from MARCO−/− mice are defective in activation of TDM-induced signaling and subsequent pro-inflammatory cytokine production in response to both TDM-coated beads and virulent M. tuberculosis. By identifying the macrophage receptors involved in initial recognition we can now explain variable responses to TDM between different macrophage populations (which differ in scavenger receptor expression), and have identified a novel co-receptor that may be involved in lipid presentation to TLRs.
Alveolar type II epithelial or other pulmonary cells secrete GM-CSF that regulates surfactant catabolism and mucosal host defense through its capacity to modulate the maturation and activation of alveolar macrophages. GM-CSF enhances expression of scavenger receptors MARCO and SR-A. The alveolar macrophage SP-R210 receptor binds the surfactant collectin SP-A mediating clearance of respiratory pathogens. The current study determined the effects of epithelial-derived GM-CSF in host resistance to influenza A pneumonia. The results demonstrate that GM-CSF enhanced resistance to infection with 1.9 × 104 ffc of the mouse-adapted influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8) H1N1 strain, as indicated by significant differences in mortality and mean survival of GM-CSF-deficient (GM−/−) mice compared to GM−/− mice in which GM-CSF is expressed at increased levels. Protective effects of GM-CSF were observed both in mice with constitutive and inducible GM-CSF expression under the control of the pulmonary-specific SFTPC or SCGB1A1 promoters, respectively. Mice that continuously secrete high levels of GM-CSF developed desquamative interstitial pneumonia that impaired long-term recovery from influenza. Conditional expression of optimal GM-CSF levels at the time of infection, however, resulted in alveolar macrophage proliferation and focal lymphocytic inflammation of distal airways. GM-CSF enhanced alveolar macrophage activity as indicated by increased expression of SP-R210 and CD11c. Infection of mice lacking the GM-CSF-regulated SR-A and MARCO receptors revealed that MARCO decreases resistance to influenza in association with increased levels of SP-R210 in MARCO−/− alveolar macrophages. In conclusion, GM-CSF enhances early host resistance to influenza. Targeting of MARCO may reinforce GM-CSF-mediated host defense against pathogenic influenza.
GM-CSF; Influenza; Epithelial cells; Alveolar macrophages; SP-A; Scavenger receptors
MARCO is the predominant scavenger receptor for recognition and binding of silica particles by alveolar macrophages (AM). Previously, it was shown that mice null for MARCO have a greater inflammatory response to silica, but the mechanism was not described. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between MARCO and NLRP3 inflammasome activity. Silica increased NLRP3 inflammasome activation and release of the proinflammatory cytokine, IL-1β, to a greater extent in MARCO−/− AM compared to wild type (WT) AM. Furthermore, in MARCO−/− AM there was greater cathepsin B release from phagolysosomes, Caspase-1 activation, and acid sphingomyelinase activity compared to WT AM, supporting the critical role played by lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) in triggering silica-induced inflammation. The difference in sensitivity to LMP appears to be in cholesterol recycling since increasing cholesterol in AM by treatment with U18666A decreased silica-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation, and cells lacking MARCO were less able to sequester cholesterol following silica treatment. Taken together, these results demonstrate that MARCO contributes to normal cholesterol uptake in macrophages; therefore, in the absence of MARCO, macrophages are more susceptible to a greater inflammatory response by particulates known to cause NLRP3 inflammasome activation and the effect is due to increased LMP.
Alveolar macrophages (AMs) avidly bind and ingest unopsonized environmental particles and bacteria through scavenger-type receptors (SRs). AMs from mice with a genetic deletion of the major macrophage SR (types AI and AII; SR−/−) showed no decrease in particle binding compared with SR+/+ mice, suggesting that other SRs are involved. To identify these receptors, we generated a monoclonal antibody (mAb), PAL-1, that inhibits hamster AM binding of unopsonized particles (TiO2, Fe2O3, and latex beads; 66 ± 5, 77 ± 2, and 85 ± 2% inhibition, respectively, measured by flow cytometry). This antibody identifies a protein of ∼70 kD on the AM surface (immunoprecipitation) that is expressed by AMs and other macrophages in situ. A cDNA clone encoding the mAb PAL-1–reactive protein isolated by means of COS cell expression was found to be 84 and 77% homologous to mouse and human scavenger receptor MARCO mRNA, respectively. Transfection of COS cells with MARCO cDNA conferred mAb-inhibitable TiO2 binding. Hamster MARCO also mediates AM binding of unopsonized bacteria (67 ± 5 and 47 ± 4% inhibition of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus binding by mAb PAL-1). A polyclonal antibody to human MARCO identified the expected ∼70-kD band on Western blots of lysates of normal bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells (>90% AMs) and showed strong immunolabeling of human AMs in BAL cytocentrifuge preparations and within lung tissue specimens. In normal mouse AMs, the anti-MARCO mAb ED31 also showed immunoreactivity and inhibited binding of unopsonized particles (e.g., TiO2 ∼40%) and bacteria. The novel function of binding unopsonized environmental dusts and pathogens suggests an important role for MARCO in the lungs' response to inhaled particles.
MARCO; alveolar; macrophage; unopsonized; environmental particle
Host control of influenza A virus (IAV) is associated with exuberant pulmonary inflammation characterized by the influx of myeloid cells and production of proinflammatory cytokines including interferons (IFNs). It is unclear, however, how the immune system clears the virus without causing lethal immunopathology. Here, we demonstrate that in addition to its known anti-viral activity, STAT1 signaling coordinates host inflammation during IAV infection in mice. This regulatory mechanism is dependent on both type I IFN and IFN-γ receptor signaling and, importantly, requires the functional interplay between the two pathways. The protective function of type I IFNs is associated with not only the recruitment of classical inflammatory Ly6Chi monocytes into IAV-infected lungs, but also the prevention of excessive monocyte activation by IFN-γ. Unexpectedly, type I IFNs preferentially regulate IFN-γ signaling in Ly6Clo rather than inflammatory Ly6Chi mononuclear cell populations. In the absence of type I IFN signaling, Ly6Clo monocytes/macrophages, become phenotypically and functionally more proinflammatory than Ly6Chi cells, revealing an unanticipated function of the Ly6Clo mononuclear cell subset in tissue inflammation. In addition, we show that type I IFNs employ distinct mechanisms to regulate monocyte and neutrophil trafficking. Type I IFN signaling is necessary, but not sufficient, for preventing neutrophil recruitment into the lungs of IAV-infected mice. Instead, the cooperation of type I IFNs and lymphocyte-produced IFN-γ is required to regulate the tissue neutrophilic response to IAV. Our study demonstrates that IFN interplay links innate and adaptive anti-viral immunity to orchestrate tissue inflammation and reveals an additional level of complexity for IFN-dependent regulatory mechanisms that function to prevent excessive immunopathology while preserving anti-microbial functions.
Influenza A virus (IAV) is a leading cause of respiratory infection and induces a strong acute inflammation manifested by the recruitment of monocytes and neutrophils as well as the production of proinflammatory cytokines in infected lungs. The interferons (IFNs) are strongly induced by IAV and are known to mediate host resistance to the infection. However, in contrast to their well-studied inhibitory effect on viral replication, the effects of IFNs on host inflammatory responses are less well understood. In this manuscript, we demonstrate that anti-viral IFN signaling is also required for the orchestration of a tissue response associated with the protection against IAV infection in mice. Importantly, we identify that type I IFNs cross-regulate and cooperate with IFN-γ to inhibit monocyte activation and neutrophil infiltration, respectively. This study also demonstrates that Ly6Clo monocytes/macrophages can potentially mediate influenza virus-induced inflammation, suggesting that IFNs dictate the homeostasis versus inflammatory function of mononuclear phagocytes in viral infection. Our study reveals a novel IFN-dependent regulatory mechanism designed to prevent the excessive immunopathology while preserving its anti-microbial functions. Moreover, these observations have particular relevance for understanding the mechanisms underlying the strong inflammatory response associated with lethal IAV strains and have implications for the development of new immunotherapies to treat influenza.
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the global leading cause of lower respiratory tract infection in infants. Nearly 30% of all infected infants develop severe disease including bronchiolitis, but susceptibility mechanisms remain unclear.
We infected a panel of 30 inbred strains of mice with RSV and measured changes in lung disease parameters 1 and 5 days post-infection and they were used in genome-wide association (GWA) studies to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) and susceptibility gene candidates.
GWA identified QTLs for RSV disease phenotypes, and the innate immunity scavenger receptor Marco was a candidate susceptibility gene; targeted deletion of Marco worsened murine RSV disease. We characterized a human MARCO promoter SNP that caused loss of gene expression, increased in vitro cellular response to RSV infection, and associated with increased risk of disease severity in two independent populations of children infected with RSV.
Translational integration of a genetic animal model and in vitro human studies identified a role for MARCO in human RSV disease severity. Because no RSV vaccines are approved for clinical use, genetic studies have implications for diagnosing individuals who are at risk for severe RSV disease, and disease prevention strategies (e.g. RSV antibodies).
•In a panel of inbred strains of mice, RSV disease phenotypes were characterized that resemble those in human disease.•We identified Marco as a susceptibility gene, and a human MARCO mutation increased risk of disease severity in children.•These studies have implications for diagnosing individuals who are at risk for severe RSV disease and prevent disease.
RSV disease is the primary global cause for hospitalization one year after birth but the causes of differential RSV disease severity are not understood. We show that RSV disease phenotypes vary significantly between inbred strains of mice, and resemble those in human disease. We used genetic approaches to identify and validate the innate immunity gene Marco as a host susceptibility determinant for murine RSV disease. We then characterized a loss of function polymorphism in human MARCO that increases risk of severe RSV disease risk in infants. Results have important implications for identifying genetic risk factors for severe RSV disease.
Infectious disease; Innate immunity; Lung; Single nucleotide polymorphism; SNP; Promoter; Haplotype
The scavenger receptor MARCO mediates macrophage recognition and clearance of pathogens and their polyanionic ligands. However, recent studies demonstrate MARCO expression and function in dendritic cells, suggesting MARCO might serve to bridge innate and adaptive immunity. To gain additional insight into the role of MARCO in dendritic cell activation and function, we profiled transcriptomes of mouse splenic dendritic cells obtained from MARCO deficient mice and their wild type counterparts under resting and activating conditions. In silico analysis uncovered major alterations in gene expression in MARCO deficient dendritic cells resulting in dramatic alterations in key dendritic cell-specific pathways and functions. Specifically, changes in CD209, FCGR4 and Complement factors can have major consequences on DC-mediated innate responses. Notably, these perturbations were magnified following activation with the TLR-4 agonist lipopolysaccharide. To validate our in silico data, we challenged DC‘s with various agonists that recognize all mouse TLRs and assessed expression of a set of immune and inflammatory marker genes. This approach identified a differential contribution of MARCO to TLR activation and validated a major role for MARCO in mounting an inflammatory response. Together, our data demonstrate that MARCO differentially affects TLR-induced DC activation and suggest targeting of MARCO could lead to different outcomes that depend on the inflammatory context encountered by DC.
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common human pathogen that accounts for over a million deaths every year. Colonization of the nasopharynx by S. pneumoniae precedes pulmonary and other invasive diseases, and is therefore a promising target for intervention. Since the receptors Scavenger Receptor A (SRA), Macrophage Receptor with Collagenous Structure (MARCO), and Mannose Receptor (MR) have previously been identified as non-opsonic receptors for S. pneumoniae in the lung, we utilized scavenger receptor knock out mice to study the roles of these receptors in the clearance of S. pneumoniae from the nasopharynx. MARCO−/−, but not SRA−/− or MR−/−, mice had significantly impaired clearance of S. pneumoniae from the nasopharynx. In addition to impairment in bacterial clearance, MARCO−/− mice had abrogated cytokine production and cellular recruitment to the nasopharynx following colonization. Furthermore, macrophages from MARCO−/− mice were deficient in cytokine and chemokine production, including type I interferons, in response to S. pneumoniae. MARCO was required for maximal TLR2- and NOD2-dependent NF-κB activation and signaling that ultimately resulted in clearance. Thus, MARCO is an important component of anti-S. pneumoniae responses in the murine nasopharynx during colonization.
Innate Immunity; Macrophage; Scavenger Receptor; MARCO; Streptococcus pneumoniae; Colonization; Nasopharynx
Staphylococcus aureus is a major human opportunistic pathogen responsible for a broad spectrum of infections ranging from benign skin infection to more severe life threatening disorders (e.g. pneumonia, sepsis), particularly in intensive care patients. Scavenger receptors (SR-A and CD36) are known to be involved in S. aureus recognition by immune cells in addition to MARCO, TLR2, NOD2 and α5β1 integrin. In the present study, we further deciphered the contribution of SR-A and CD36 scavenger receptors in the control of infection of mice by S. aureus. Using double SR-A/CD36 knockout mice (S/C-KO) and S. aureus strain HG001, a clinically relevant non-mutagenized strain, we showed that the absence of these two scavenger receptors was protective in peritoneal infection. In contrast, the deletion of these two receptors was detrimental in pulmonary infection following intranasal instillation. For pulmonary infection, susceptible mice (S/C-KO) had more colony-forming units (CFU) in their broncho-alveolar lavages fluids, associated with increased recruitment of macrophages and neutrophils. For peritoneal infection, susceptible mice (wild-type) had more CFU in their blood, but recruited less macrophages and neutrophils in the peritoneal cavity than resistant mice. Exacerbated cytokine levels were often observed in the susceptible mice in the infected compartment as well as in the plasma. The exception was the enhanced compartmentalized expression of IL-1β for the resistant mice (S/C-KO) after peritoneal infection. A similar mirrored susceptibility to S. aureus infection was also observed for MARCO and TLR2. Marco and tlr2 -/- mice were more resistant to peritoneal infection but more susceptible to pulmonary infection than wild type mice. In conclusion, our results show that innate immune receptors can play distinct and opposite roles depending on the site of infection. Their presence is protective for local pulmonary infection, whereas it becomes detrimental in the peritoneal infection.
The two major class A scavenger receptors are scavenger receptor A (SRA), which is constitutively expressed on most macrophage populations, and macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO), which is constitutively expressed on a more restricted subset of macrophages, (e.g. alveolar macrophages) but whose expression increases on most macrophages during the course of infection. Although the primary role of SRA appears to be clearance of modified host proteins and lipids, mice defective in expression of either MARCO or SRA are immunocompromised in multiple models of infection and in vitro assays, the scavenger receptors have been demonstrated to bind bacteria and to enhance pro-inflammatory signalling to many bacterial lung pathogens; however their importance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, is less clear.
To determine whether polymorphisms in either SRA or MARCO were associated with tuberculosis, a case–control study of was performed. DNA samples from newly-detected, smear-positive, pulmonary tuberculosis cases were collected from The Gambia. Controls for this study consisted of DNA from cord bloods obtained from routine births at local Gambian health clinics. Informed written consent was obtained from patients or their parents or guardians. Ethical approval was provided by the joint The Gambian Government/MRC Joint Ethics Committee.
We studied the frequencies of 25 polymorphisms of MSR1 (SRA) and 22 in MARCO in individuals with tuberculosis (n=1284) and matched controls (n=1349). No SNPs within the gene encoding or within 1 kb of the promoter sequence of MSR1 were associated with either susceptibility or resistance to tuberculosis. Three SNPs in MARCO (rs4491733, Mantel-Haenszel 2x2 χ2 = 6.5, p = 0.001, rs12998782, Mantel-Haenszel 2x2 χ2 = 6.59, p = 0.001, rs13389814 Mantel-Haenszel 2x2 χ2 = 6.9, p = 0.0009) were associated with susceptibility to tuberculosis and one (rs7559955, Mantel-Haenszel 2x2 χ2 = 6.9, p = 0.0009) was associated with resistance to tuberculosis.
These findings identify MARCO as a potentially important receptor in the host response to tuberculosis.
Scavenger receptors; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Single nucleotide polymorphisms; Case control study; MARCO
Alveolar macrophages (AM) in the lung have been documented to play pivotal roles in inflammation and fibrosis (silicosis) following inhalation of crystalline silica (CSiO2). In contrast, exposure to either titanium dioxide (TiO2) or amorphous silica (ASiO2) is considered relatively benign. The scavenger receptor macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO), expressed on AM, binds and internalizes environmental particles such as silica and TiO2. Only CSiO2 is toxic to AM, while ASiO2 and TiO2 are not. We hypothesize that differences in induction of pathology between toxic CSiO2 and nontoxic particles ASiO2 and TiO2 may be related to their differential binding to MARCO. In vitro studies with Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells transfected with human MARCO and mutants were conducted to better characterize MARCO-particulate (ASiO2, CSiO2, and TiO2) interactions. Results with MARCO-transfected CHO cells and MARCO-specific antibody demonstrated that the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) domain of MARCO was required for particle binding for all the tested particles. Only TiO2 required divalent cations (viz., Ca+2 and/or Mg+2) for binding to MARCO, and results from competitive binding studies supported the notion that TiO2 and both the silica particles bound to different motifs in SRCR domain of MARCO. The results also suggest that particle shape and/or crystal structure may be the determinants linking particle binding to MARCO and cytotoxicity. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the SRCR domain of MARCO is required for particle binding and that involvement of different regions of SRCR domain may distinguish downstream events following particle binding.
MARCO; crystalline silica; amorphous silica; TiO2; binding; apoptosis
Influenza A virus (IAV) is an airborne pathogen that causes significant morbidity and mortality each year. Macrophages (Mϕ) are the first immune population to encounter IAV virions in the lungs and are required to control infection. In the present study, we explored the mechanism by which cytokine signaling regulates the phenotype and function of Mϕ via epigenetic modification of chromatin. We have found that type I interferon (IFN-I) potently upregulates the lysine methyltransferase Setdb2 in murine and human Mϕ, and in turn Setdb2 regulates Mϕ-mediated immunity in response to IAV. The induction of Setdb2 by IFN-I was significantly impaired upon inhibition of the JAK-STAT signaling cascade, and chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that both STAT1 and interferon regulatory factor 7 bind upstream of the transcription start site to induce expression. The generation of Setdb2LacZ reporter mice revealed that IAV infection results in systemic upregulation of Setdb2 in myeloid cells. In the lungs, alveolar Mϕ expressed the highest level of Setdb2, with greater than 70% lacZ positive on day 4 post-infection. Silencing Setdb2 activity in Mϕ in vivo enhanced survival in lethal IAV infection. Enhanced host protection correlated with an amplified antiviral response and less obstruction to the airways. By tri-methylating H3K9, Setdb2 silenced the transcription of Mx1 and Isg15, antiviral effectors that inhibit IAV replication. Accordingly, a reduced viral load in knockout mice on day 8 post-infection was linked to elevated Isg15 and Mx1 transcript in the lungs. In addition, Setdb2 suppressed the expression of a large number of other genes with proinflammatory or immunomodulatory function. This included Ccl2, a chemokine that signals through CCR2 to regulate monocyte recruitment to infectious sites. Consistently, knockout mice produced more CCL2 upon IAV infection and this correlated with a 2-fold increase in the number of inflammatory monocytes and alveolar Mϕ in the lungs. Finally, Setdb2 expression by Mϕ suppressed IL-2, IL-10, and IFN-γ production by CD4+ T cells in vitro, as well as proliferation in IAV-infected lungs. Collectively, these findings identify Setdb2 as a novel regulator of the immune system in acute respiratory viral infection.
IAV causes seasonal epidemics that result in significant morbidity and mortality annually. Less frequently, novel viral strains emerge and are responsible for much larger outbreaks around the globe. In the last pandemic in 2009, an estimated 300,000 people died from IAV infection or secondary complications. Since the virus rapidly evolves, a new vaccine must be developed each year. Since vaccine effectiveness can be highly variable, identifying other therapeutic targets is appealing for the treatment of severe disease in high-risk individuals such as young children, the elderly, and immunocompromised individuals. In this study, we found that the protein Setdb2 regulates the immune response to IAV via an epigenetic mechanism in Mϕ. Inhibition of Setdb2 activity was beneficial for host protection due to an amplified antiviral response, which correlated with accelerated viral clearance and less damage to the lungs. Therefore, targeting Setdb2 may be a powerful therapeutic strategy for treating severe pulmonary disease caused by IAV and potentially other viral pathogens that trigger robust IFN-I production.
Recent studies have suggested that the scavenger receptor MARCO (macrophage receptor with collagenous structure) mediates activation of the immune response in bacterial infection of the central nervous system (CNS). The chemotactic G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) formyl-peptide-receptor like-1 (FPRL1) plays an essential role in the inflammatory responses of host defence mechanisms and neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Expression of the antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin CRAMP/LL-37 is up-regulated in bacterial meningitis, but the mechanisms underlying CRAMP expression are far from clear.
Using a rat meningitis model, we investigated the influence of MARCO and FPRL1 on rCRAMP (rat cathelin-related antimicrobial peptide) expression after infection with bacterial supernatants of Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) and Neisseria meningitides (NM). Expression of FPRL1 and MARCO was analyzed by immunofluorescence and real-time RT-PCR in a rat meningitis model. Furthermore, we examined the receptor involvement by real-time RT-PCR, extracellular-signal regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation and cAMP level measurement in glial cells (astrocytes and microglia) and transfected HEK293 cells using receptor deactivation by antagonists. Receptors were inhibited by small interference RNA and the consequences in NM- and SP-induced Camp (rCRAMP gene) expression and signal transduction were determined.
We show an NM-induced increase of MARCO expression by immunofluorescence and real-time RT-PCR in glial and meningeal cells. Receptor deactivation by antagonists and small interfering RNA (siRNA) verified the importance of FPRL1 and MARCO for NM- and SP-induced Camp and interleukin-1β expression in glial cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated a functional interaction between FPRL1 and MARCO in NM-induced signalling by real-time RT-PCR, ERK1/2 phosphorylation and cAMP level measurement and show differences between NM- or SP-induced signal transduction.
We propose that NM and SP induce glial cell activation and rCRAMP expression also via FPRL1 and MARCO. Thus the receptors contribute an important part to the host defence against infection.
Laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is a widely used model to mimic many features of CNV resulting from wet AMD. Macrophages have been implicated in the pathogenesis of AMD. Class A scavenger receptors, scavenger receptor-A (SR-A) and macrophage receptor with collagenous domain (MARCO), are expressed on macrophages and are associated with macrophage function. The goal of this study is to examine the role of macrophage scavenger receptors in immune cell recruitment and the formation of CNV.
Laser photocoagulation was performed in wild-type and knockout mice with deletion of SR-A (SR-A−/−), MARCO (MARCO−/−), or both SR-A and MARCO double knockout (DKO). Immune cell recruitment at different time points and CNV lesions at 14 days after laser treatment were evaluated through immunostaining and confocal microscopy. Microarray analysis was performed in eyes 1 day after laser injury.
Wild-type eyes showed higher chemokine/receptor expression compared with knockout eyes after laser injury. Scavenger receptor deficiency markedly impaired the recruitment of neutrophils and macrophages to CNV lesions at 1- and 3-days post laser injury, respectively. Significantly reduced CNV volumes were found in the eyes from scavenger receptor knockout mice compared with wild-type mice.
The deficiency of scavenger receptors impairs the formation of CNV and immune cell recruitment. Our findings suggest a potential role for scavenger receptors in contributing to CNV formation and inflammation in AMD.
Class A scavenger receptor deficiency impairs immune cell recruitment and the formation of choroidal neovascularization (CNV). This suggests that scavenger receptors may contribute to CNV formation and inflammation seen in AMD.
AMD; CNV; macrophages; scavenger receptors
Macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO) is a Class A Scavenger Receptor (cA-SR) that recognizes and phagocytoses of a wide variety of pathogens. Most cA-SRs that contain a C-terminal Scavenger Receptor Cysteine Rich (SRCR) domain use the proximal collagenous domain to bind ligands. In contrast, for the role of the SRCR domain of MARCO in phagocytosis, adhesion and pro-inflammatory signalling is less clear. The discovery of a naturally-occurring transcript variant lacking the SRCR domain, MARCOII, provided the opportunity to study the role of the SRCR domain of MARCO. We tested whether the SRCR domain is required for ligand binding, promoting downstream signalling, and enhancing cellular adhesion. Unlike cells expressing full-length MARCO, ligand binding was abolished in MARCOII-expressing cells. Furthermore, co-expression of MARCO and MARCOII impaired phagocytic function, indicating that MARCOII acts as a dominant negative variant. Unlike MARCO, expression of MARCOII did not enhance Toll-Like Receptor 2 (TLR2)-mediated pro-inflammatory signalling in response to bacterial stimulation. MARCO-expressing cells were more adherent and exhibited a dendritic-like phenotype, while MARCOII-expressing cells were less adherent and did not exhibit changes in morphology. These data suggest the SRCR domain of MARCO is the key domain in modulating ligand binding, enhancing downstream pro-inflammatory signalling, and MARCO-mediated cellular adhesion.
Scavenger Receptor; MARCO; SRCR; Phagocytosis; Cell Adhesion; Macrophage; Host-Pathogen Interaction
The innate immune response provides the first line of defense against viruses and other pathogens by responding to specific microbial molecules. Influenza A virus (IAV) produces double-stranded RNA as an intermediate during the replication life cycle, which activates the intracellular pathogen recognition receptor RIG-I and induces the production of proinflammatory cytokines and antiviral interferon. Understanding the mechanisms that regulate innate immune responses to IAV and other viruses is of key importance to develop novel therapeutic strategies. Here we used myeloid cell specific A20 knockout mice to examine the role of the ubiquitin-editing protein A20 in the response of myeloid cells to IAV infection. A20 deficient macrophages were hyperresponsive to double stranded RNA and IAV infection, as illustrated by enhanced NF-κB and IRF3 activation, concomitant with increased production of proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines and type I interferon. In vivo this was associated with an increased number of alveolar macrophages and neutrophils in the lungs of IAV infected mice. Surprisingly, myeloid cell specific A20 knockout mice are protected against lethal IAV infection. These results challenge the general belief that an excessive host proinflammatory response is associated with IAV-induced lethality, and suggest that under certain conditions inhibition of A20 might be of interest in the management of IAV infections.
Influenza virus or flu epidemics represent a recurrent threat to the public health, especially for individuals which are part of a high-risk group such as children, elderly or immune-compromised people. Sporadic pandemic flu outbreaks, such as the Spanish flu of 1918, may cause high grades of mortality among healthy persons. A better understanding of how the immune system deals with these pathogens is of key importance. The protein A20 is an important negative regulator of both innate and adaptive immune responses. We show that the specific deletion of A20 in myeloid cells, such as macrophages and neutrophils, improves the resistance against otherwise lethal influenza infections. This protective effect is mediated by an enhanced innate immune response following respiratory challenge with influenza virus. Although exaggerated pulmonary immune responses are believed to be the primary cause of often life threatening influenza virus induced pneumonia, we demonstrate that boosting the innate immune response by selectively targeting the functionality of A20 in myeloid cells is beneficial for the host survival. This finding provides us with a novel valuable approach for treating influenza and potentially other respiratory viral infections.
p53 is a tumor suppressor that contributes to the host immune response against viral infections in addition to its well-established protective role against cancer development. In response to influenza A virus (IAV) infection, p53 is activated and plays an essential role in inhibiting IAV replication. As a transcription factor, p53 regulates the expression of a range of downstream responsive genes either directly or indirectly in response to viral infection. We compared the expression profiles of immune-related genes between IAV-infected wild-type p53 (p53WT) and p53-deficient (p53KO) mice to gain an insight into the basis of p53-mediated antiviral response.
p53KO and p53WT mice were infected with influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (PR8) strain. Clinical symptoms and body weight changes were monitored daily. Lung specimens of IAV-infected mice were collected for analysis of virus titers and gene expression profiles. The difference in immune-related gene expression levels between IAV-infected p53KO and p53WT mice was comparatively determined using microarray analysis and confirmed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.
p53KO mice showed an increased susceptibility to IAV infection compared to p53WT mice. Microarray analysis of gene expression profiles in the lungs of IAV-infected mice indicated that the increased susceptibility was associated with significantly changed expression levels in a range of immune-related genes in IAV-infected p53KO mice. A significantly attenuated expression of Ifng (encoding interferon (IFN)-gamma), Irf7 (encoding IFN regulator factor 7), and antiviral genes, such as Mx2 and Eif2ak2 (encoding PKR), were observed in IAV-infected p53KO mice, suggesting an impaired IFN-mediated immune response against IAV infection in the absence of p53. In addition, dysregulated expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, such as Ccl2 (encoding MCP-1), Cxcl9, Cxcl10 (encoding IP-10), and Tnf, were detected in IAV-infected p53KO mice during early IAV infection, reflecting an aberrant inflammatory response.
Lack of p53 resulted in the impaired expression of genes involved in IFN signaling and the dysregulated expression of cytokine and chemokine genes in IAV-infected mice, suggesting an essential role of p53 in the regulation of antiviral and inflammatory responses during IAV infection.
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Influenza A virus (IAV) is the etiological agent of a highly contagious acute respiratory disease that causes epidemics and considerable mortality annually. Recently, we demonstrated, using an in vitro approach, that the pattern recognition Toll-like receptor (TLR)3 plays a key role in the immune response of lung epithelial cells to IAV. In view of these data and the fact that the functional role of TLR3 in vivo is still debated, we designed an investigation to better understand the role of TLR3 in the mechanisms of IAV pathogenesis and host immune response using an experimental murine model. The time-course of several dynamic parameters, including animal survival, respiratory suffering, viral clearance, leukocyte recruitment into the airspaces and secretion of critical inflammatory mediators, was compared in infected wild-type and TLR3−/− mice. First, we found that the pulmonary expression of TLR3 is constitutive and markedly upregulated following influenza infection in control mice. Notably, when compared to wild-type mice, infected TLR3−/− animals displayed significantly reduced inflammatory mediators, including RANTES (regulated upon activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted), interleukin-6, and interleukin-12p40/p70 as well as a lower number of CD8+ T lymphocytes in the bronchoalveolar airspace. More important, despite a higher viral production in the lungs, mice deficient in TLR3 had an unexpected survival advantage. Hence, to our knowledge, our findings show for the first time that TLR3-IAV interaction critically contributes to the debilitating effects of a detrimental host inflammatory response.
Influenza A virus (IAV) is responsible for highly contagious acute respiratory disease. Recent concerns have risen concerning a possible influenza pandemic in the near future. Thus, a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of IAV pathogenesis and host immune responses is required for the development of more efficient means of prevention and treatment of influenza. The Toll-like receptor (TLR)3 is a member of a family of receptors that detects microbes and triggers host defenses. We previously demonstrated using an in vitro approach, that the TLR3 plays a key role in the response of lung epithelial cells to IAV. Here, we used a mouse model to dissect the in vivo importance of TLR3-dependent responses during influenza. The time-course of several parameters, including animal survival, respiratory distress, viral clearance, and inflammation, was compared in infected control wild-type and TLR3-deficient mice. Our findings reveal that TLR3−/− mice have an unexpected advantage against IAV challenge as we show for the first time that a reduction of TLR3-mediated inflammatory response reduces the clinical manifestations of IAV-induced pneumonia.
HSV-1 is an important epithelial pathogen and has the potential for significant morbidity in humans. Here we demonstrate that a cell surface scavenger receptor, macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO), previously thought to enhance antiviral defense by enabling nucleic acid recognition, is usurped by HSV-1 and functions together with heparan sulfate proteoglycans to mediate adsorption to epithelial cells. Ligands of MARCO dramatically inhibit HSV-1 adsorption and infection of human keratinocytes and protect mice against infection. HSV-1 glycoprotein C (gC) closely co-localizes with MARCO at the cell surface, and gC binds directly to purified MARCO with high affinity. Increasing MARCO expression enhances HSV-1 infection while MARCO-/- mice have reduced susceptibility to infection by HSV-1. These findings demonstrate that HSV-1 binds to MARCO to enhance its capacity for disease, and suggests a new therapeutic target to alter pathogenicity of HSV-1 in skin infection.
Interleukin-22 (IL-22) has redundant, protective, or pathogenic functions during autoimmune, inflammatory, and infectious diseases. Here, we addressed the potential role of IL-22 in host defense and pathogenesis during lethal and sublethal respiratory H3N2 influenza A virus (IAV) infection. We show that IL-22, as well as factors associated with its production, are expressed in the lung tissue during the early phases of IAV infection. Our data indicate that retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor-γt (RORγt)-positive αβ and γδ T cells, as well as innate lymphoid cells, expressed enhanced Il22 transcripts as early as 2 days postinfection. During lethal or sublethal IAV infections, endogenous IL-22 played no role in the control of IAV replication and in the development of the IAV-specific CD8+ T cell response. During lethal infection, where wild-type (WT) mice succumbed to severe pneumonia, the lack of IL-22 did not accelerate or delay IAV-associated pathogenesis and animal death. In stark contrast, during sublethal IAV infection, IL-22-deficient animals had enhanced lung injuries and showed a lower airway epithelial integrity relative to WT littermates. Of importance, the protective effect of endogenous IL-22 in pulmonary damages was associated with a more controlled secondary bacterial infection. Indeed, after challenge with Streptococcus pneumoniae, IAV-experienced Il22−/− animals were more susceptible than WT controls in terms of survival rate and bacterial burden in the lungs. Together, IL-22 plays no major role during lethal influenza but is beneficial during sublethal H3N2 IAV infection, where it limits lung inflammation and subsequent bacterial superinfections.
Influenza virus A (IAV) causes annual epidemics and intermittent pandemics that affect millions of people worldwide. Potent inflammatory responses are commonly associated with severe cases of IAV infection. The complement system, an important mechanism of innate and humoral immune responses to infections, is activated during primary IAV infection and mediates, in association with natural IgM, viral neutralization by virion aggregation and coating of viral hemmagglutinin. Increased levels of the anaphylatoxin C5a were found in patients fatally infected with the most recent H1N1 pandemic virus. In this study, our aim was to evaluate whether targeting C5 activation alters inflammatory lung injury and viral load in a murine model of IAV infection. To address this question C57Bl/6j mice were infected intranasally with 104 PFU of the mouse adapted Influenza A virus A/WSN/33 (H1N1) or inoculated with PBS (Mock). We demonstrated that C5a is increased in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) upon experimental IAV infection. To evaluate the role of C5, we used OmCI, a potent arthropod-derived inhibitor of C5 activation that binds to C5 and prevents release of C5a by complement. OmCI was given daily by intraperitoneal injection from the day of IAV infection until day 5. Treatment with OmCI only partially reduced C5a levels in BALF. However, there was significant inhibition of neutrophil and macrophage infiltration in the airways, Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs) formation, death of leukocytes, lung epithelial injury and overall lung damage induced by the infection. There was no effect on viral load. Taken together, these data suggest that targeting C5 activation with OmCI during IAV infection could be a promising approach to reduce excessive inflammatory reactions associated with the severe forms of IAV infections.
Inflammation is a highly coordinated host response to infection, injury, or cell stress. In most instances, the inflammatory response is pro-survival and is aimed at restoring physiological tissue homeostasis and eliminating invading pathogens, although exuberant inflammation can lead to tissue damage and death. Intravascular injection of adenovirus (Ad) results in virus accumulation in resident tissue macrophages that trigger activation of CXCL1 and CXCL2 chemokines via the IL-1α-IL-1RI signaling pathway. However, the mechanistic role and functional significance of this pathway in orchestrating cellular inflammatory responses to the virus in vivo remain unclear. Resident metallophilic macrophages expressing macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO+) in the splenic marginal zone (MZ) play the principal role in trapping Ad from the blood. Here we show that intravascular Ad administration leads to the rapid recruitment of Ly-6G+7/4+ polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) in the splenic MZ, the anatomical compartment that remains free of PMNs when these cells are purged from the bone marrow via a non-inflammatory stimulus. Furthermore, PMN recruitment in the splenic MZ resulted in elimination of virus-containing cells. IL-1α-IL-1RI signaling is only partially responsible for PMN recruitment in the MZ and requires CXCR2, but not CXCR1 signaling. We further found reduced recruitment of PMNs in the splenic MZ in complement C3-deficient mice, and that pre-treatment of IL-1α-deficient, but not wild-type mice, with complement inhibitor CR2-Crry (inhibits all complement pathways at C3 activation) or CR2-fH (inhibits only the alternative complement activation pathway) prior to Ad infection, abrogates PMN recruitment to the MZ and prevents elimination of MARCO+ macrophages from the spleen. Collectively, our study reveals a non-redundant role of the molecular factors of innate immunity – the chemokine-activating IL-1α-IL-1RI-CXCR2 axis and complement – in orchestrating local inflammation and functional cooperation of PMNs and resident macrophages in the splenic MZ, which collectively contribute to limiting disseminated pathogen spread via elimination of virus-containing cells.
Adenovirus (Ad) induces a potent activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines upon interaction with tissue macrophages in vivo. However, critical factors affecting cellular inflammatory responses to Ad and their functional significance remain unclear. Here we show that in the model of disseminated infection, intravenous Ad administration leads to a rapid release of pro-inflammatory Ly-6G+7/4+ leukocytes (PMNs) from the bone marrow into the blood. PMNs enter into peripheral tissues and, in the case of spleen, are accumulated in proximity to the virus-containing MARCO+ macrophages within the splenic marginal zone (MZ). Mechanistic dissection of molecular queues that guide PMN migration reveals that CXCL1 and CXCL2 chemokines are only partially responsible for CXCR2-dependent PMN recruitment into the splenic MZ. We further found that complement cooperates with IL-1α-IL-1RI-CXCR2 signaling pathways in recruitment of PMNs to the splenic MZ, which results in elimination of virus-containing MARCO+ macrophages from the spleen. Administration of complement-blocking CR2-Crry or CR2-fH proteins into IL-1α-deficient, but not wild-type, mice prevents PMN accumulation in the splenic MZ and elimination of virus-containing macrophages from the spleen. Our study defines the functional significance of molecular and cellular host defense mechanisms that cooperate in eliminating virus-containing cells in the model of acute disseminated Ad infection.