To obtain reliable estimates of the effects of neuraxial blockade with epidural or spinal anaesthesia on postoperative morbidity and mortality.
Systematic review of all trials with randomisation to intraoperative neuraxial blockade or not.
141 trials including 9559 patients for which data were available before 1 January 1997. Trials were eligible irrespective of their primary aims, concomitant use of general anaesthesia, publication status, or language. Trials were identified by extensive search methods, and substantial amounts of data were obtained or confirmed by correspondence with trialists.
Main outcome measures
All cause mortality, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction, transfusion requirements, pneumonia, other infections, respiratory depression, and renal failure.
Overall mortality was reduced by about a third in patients allocated to neuraxial blockade (103 deaths/4871 patients versus 144/4688 patients, odds ratio=0.70, 95% confidence interval 0.54 to 0.90, P=0.006). Neuraxial blockade reduced the odds of deep vein thrombosis by 44%, pulmonary embolism by 55%, transfusion requirements by 50%, pneumonia by 39%, and respiratory depression by 59% (all P<0.001). There were also reductions in myocardial infarction and renal failure. Although there was limited power to assess subgroup effects, the proportional reductions in mortality did not clearly differ by surgical group, type of blockade (epidural or spinal), or in those trials in which neuraxial blockade was combined with general anaesthesia compared with trials in which neuraxial blockade was used alone.
Neuraxial blockade reduces postoperative mortality and other serious complications. The size of some of these benefits remains uncertain, and further research is required to determine whether these effects are due solely to benefits of neuraxial blockade or partly to avoidance of general anaesthesia. Nevertheless, these findings support more widespread use of neuraxial blockade.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported in 2003 that although the maternal mortality rate has decreased by 99% since 1900, there has been no further decrease in the last two decades1. A more recent report indicates a rate of 11.8 per 100,000 live births2, although anaesthesia-related maternal mortality and morbidity has considerably decreased over the last few decades. Despite the growing complexity of problems and increasing challenges such as pre-existing maternal disease, obesity, and the increasing age of pregnant mothers, anaesthesia related maternal mortality is extremely rare in the developed world. The current safety has been achieved through changes in training, service, technical advances and multidisciplinary approach to care. The rates of general anaesthesia for cesarean delivery have decreased and neuraxial anaesthetics have become the most commonly used techniques. Neuraxial techniques are largely safe and effective, but potential complications, though rare, can be severe.
Obstetric Anesthesia; Maternal mortality; Combined Spinal Epidural (CSE); Obesity; Preeclampsia; Hypotension
Anaesthesia guidelines recommend regional anaesthesia for most caesarean sections due to the risk of failed intubation and aspiration with general anaesthesia. However, general anaesthesia is considered to be safe for the foetus, based on limited evidence, and is still used for caesarean sections.
Cohorts of caesarean sections by indication (that is, planned repeat caesarean section, failure to progress, foetal distress) were selected from the period 1998 to 2004 (N = 50,806). Deliveries performed under general anaesthesia were compared with those performed under spinal or epidural, for the outcomes of neonatal intubation and 5-minute Apgar (Apgar5) <7.
The risk of adverse outcomes was increased for caesarean sections under general anaesthesia for all three indications and across all levels of hospital. The relative risks were largest for low-risk planned repeat caesarean deliveries: resuscitation with intubation relative risk was 12.8 (95% confidence interval 7.6, 21.7), and Apgar5 <7 relative risk was 13.4 (95% confidence interval 9.2, 19.4). The largest absolute increase in risk was for unplanned caesareans due to foetal distress: there were five extra intubations per 100 deliveries and six extra Apgar5 <7 per 100 deliveries.
The infants most affected by general anaesthesia were those already compromised in utero, as evidenced by foetal distress. The increased rate of adverse neonatal outcomes should be weighed up when general anaesthesia is under consideration.
High-risk obstetric patients in the immediate postpartum period are frequently admitted to the intensive care unit, but the necessity of this practice has recently been doubted. Herein we describe the efficiency of utilizing the post-anaesthesia care unit (PACU) as an intermediate intensive care facility for those patients.
Material and methods
We retrospectively described the reasons for admission, duration of stay, the anaesthetic used, main interventions and outcome for all obstetric admissions in the PACU during a period of 4 years in a university hospital.
During the 4-year period 47 women were admitted to the PACU after delivery. The frequency of admission to the PACU was 15.3 per 1000 deliveries, while obstetric cases represented 4.4 per 1000 admissions to the PACU. The majority represented caesarean sections (81%). The main reasons for admission to the PACU were haemorrhage (49%), cardiovascular problems (19%) and preeclampsia/eclampsia (17%). Mean length of stay in the PACU was 14.5 ±11.6 h, being significantly less in women having received epidural anaesthesia (8.2 ±5.6 h) compared to those who delivered with general anaesthesia (19.0 ±13.6 h, p < 0.05). General anaesthesia was used in 85% of cases in which emergency delivery was indicated, but only in 27% of cases without emergency indications for delivery (p < 0.01). No death or admission to the intensive care unit occurred during the study period.
The PACU can offer an intermediate intensive care facility for high-risk obstetric patients, thus reducing unnecessary admissions to the intensive care unit.
maternal morbidity and mortality; complications of pregnancy
Surgical site infections (SSI) remain a major clinical problem in terms of morbidity, mortality, and hospital costs. Nearly 60% of SSI diagnosis occur in the postdischarge period. However, literature provides little information on risk factors associated to in-hospital and postdischarge SSI occurrence. A national prospective multicenter study was conducted with the aim of assessing the incidence of both in-hospital and postdisharge SSI, and the associated risk factors.
In 2002, a one-month, prospective national multicenter surveillance study was conducted in General and Gynecological units of 48 Italian hospitals. Case ascertainment of SSI was carried out using standardized surveillance methodology. To assess potential risk factors for SSI we used a conditional logistic regression model. We also reported the odds ratios of in-hospital and postdischarge SSI.
SSI occurred in 241 (5.2%) of 4,665 patients, of which 148 (61.4%) during in-hospital, and 93 (38.6%) during postdischarge period. Of 93 postdischarge SSI, sixty-two (66.7%) and 31 (33.3%) were detected through telephone interview and questionnaire survey, respectively. Higher SSI incidence rates were observed in colon surgery (18.9%), gastric surgery (13.6%), and appendectomy (8.6%). If considering risk factors for SSI, at multivariate analysis we found that emergency interventions, NNIS risk score, pre-operative hospital stay, and use of drains were significantly associated with SSI occurrence. Moreover, risk factors for total SSI were also associated to in-hospital SSI. Additionally, only NNIS, pre-operative hospital stay, use of drains, and antibiotic prophylaxis were associated with postdischarge SSI.
Our study provided information on risk factors for SSI in a large population in general surgery setting in Italy. Standardized postdischarge surveillance detected 38.6% of all SSI. We also compared risk factors for in-hospital and postdischarge SSI, thus providing additional information to that of the current available literature. Finally, a large amount of postdischarge SSI were detected through telephone interview. The evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of the telephone interview as a postdischarge surveillance method could be an issue for further research.
Background: Kaiser Sunnyside Medical Center has participated in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) since January 2006. Data on general and colorectal surgical site infections (SSIs) demonstrated a need for improvement in SSI rates.
Objective: To evaluate application of a “care bundle” for patients undergoing colorectal operations, with the goal of reducing overall SSI rates.
Methods: We prospectively implemented multiple interventions, with retrospective analysis of data using the NSQIP database. The overall, superficial, deep, and organ/space SSI rates were compared before and after implementation of this colorectal care bundle.
Results: Between January 2006 and December 2009, there were 430 colorectal cases in our NSQIP report with 91 infections, an overall rate of 21.16%. Between January 2010, when the colorectal care bundle was implemented, and June 2011, there were 195 cases and 13 infections, a 6.67% overall rate. The absolute decrease of 14.49% is significant (p < 0.0001). The rate of superficial SSI decreased from 15.12% to 3.59% (p < 0.0001). The rates for deep and organ/space SSI also showed a decrease; however, this was not statistically significant. The NSQIP observed-to-expected ratio for colorectal SSI decreased from a range of 1.27 to 1.83 before implementation to 0.54 after implementation (fiscal year 2010).
Conclusions: Our institution was a NSQIP high outlier in general surgery SSIs and had a high proportion of these cases represented in colorectal cases. By instituting a care bundle composed of core and adjunct strategies, we significantly decreased our rate of colorectal SSIs.
Closed loop anaesthesia delivery systems (CLADSs) are a recent advancement in accurate titration of anaesthetic drugs. They have been shown to be superior in maintaining adequate depth of anaesthesia with few fluctuations as compared with target-controlled infusion or manual titration of drug delivery.
Twenty patients scheduled to undergo general abdominal or orthopaedic procedures under general anaesthesia at Leh (3505 m above sea level) were recruited as subjects. Anaesthesia was delivered by a patented closed loop system that uses the Bispectral Index (BIS™) as a feedback parameter to titrate the rate of propofol infusion. All vital parameters, drug infusion rate and the BIS™ values were continuously recorded and stored online by the system. The data generated was analysed for the adequacy of anaesthetic depth, haemodynamic stability and post-operative recovery parameters.
The CLADS was able to maintain a BIS™ within ±10 of the target of 50 for 85.0±7.8% of the time. Haemodynamics were appropriately maintained (heart rate and mean arterial blood pressure were within 25% of baseline values for 91.2±2.2% and 94.1±3% of the total anaesthesia time, respectively). Subjects were awake within a median of 3 min from cessation of drug infusion and achieved fitness to recovery room discharge within a median of 15 min. There were no adverse events or report of awareness under anaesthesia.
The study demonstrates the safety of our CLADS at high altitude. It seeks to extend the use of our system in challenging anaesthesia environments. The system performance was also adequate and no adverse events were recorded.
Bispectral index; closed loop anaesthesia; high altitude; propofol
In December 1979 97 patients underwent intracapsular cataract extraction under local anaesthetic with planned discharge on the day after operation. Twenty-three of these patients had a prolonged stay in hospital, and five of these required early operative intervention following surgical complications. Sixteen patients did not attain a visual acuity better than 6/18. The visual outcome and postoperative course are compared with those of a similar group of patients who stayed in hospital for five days after intracapsular cataract extraction.
Staphylococcus aureus is the most important pathogen in the development of surgical site infections (SSI). Patients who carry S. aureus in the nose are at increased risk for the development of SSI in cardiothoracic and orthopedic surgery. In these populations it has been shown that the risk for SSI can be substantially reduced by eradicating S. aureus carriage. For vascular surgery the relation between nasal carriage and surgical site infections has not been clearly investigated. For this reason we performed this study to analyze the relation between S. aureus nasal carriage and SSI in our vascular surgery population.
A prospective cohort study was undertaken, including all patients undergoing vascular surgery between January first 2010 and December 31th 2010. Before surgery patients were screened for S. aureus nasal carriage using a PCR technique. The presence of SSI was recorded based on criteria of the CDC.
Screening was performed in 224. Of those, 55 (24.5%) were positive, 159 (71.0%) were negative and 10 (4.5%) were inconclusive. In the screened vascular population 4 S. aureus SSI occurred in the 55 carriers compared with 6 in 159 non-carriers (p = 0.24). A stratified analysis revealed a 10-fold increased risk in nasal carriers undergoing central reconstruction surgery (3 S. aureus SSI in 20 procedures versus 1 in 65 procedures in non-carriers, p = 0.039).
In patients undergoing central reconstruction surgery nasals carriers are at increased risk for the development of S. aureus SSI. These patients will probably benefit from perioperative treatment to eradicate nasal carriage.
To compare the anaesthetic techniques for laparoscopic tubal ligation using either general anaesthesia with LMA or a combination of local anaesthetic and intravenous sedation, this study was conducted on 60 ASA-1/2 patients in the age group of 20-40 years.
Patients & Methods:
60 ASA grade I & II female patients undergoing laparoscopic tubal ligation on a day care basis were randomly divided in two groups- group I (GA using LMA, n=30), group II (Local anaesthesia, n=30). Both groups received similar premedication. General anaesthesia in group I was induced with propofol 2-3 mg kg-1 and following LMA insertion, the anaesthesia was maintained with 0.5-1.5% halothane. In group II the incision site was infiltrated with 10 ml of 1.5% lidocaine with adrenaline and patients were sedated with intravenous midazolam 0.07mg kg-1 and ketamine 0.5 mg kg-1. A rescue dose of 0.15 mg kg-1 of ketamine was given in group II if the patient complained of pain or discomfort during the procedure. Diclofenac sodium 1 mg kg-1 was used for postoperative analgesia in both the groups. All patients were observed in the PACU until they met the discharge criteria.
The demographic profile was similar in both the groups. The induction to skin incision time was significantly more in group I (5.13 ±0.93 min vs 3.01 ±1.86 min in group II). The decrease in pulse rate and blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) was also significant in group I. The incidence of intraoperative bradycardia was 16.7% and 10% in group I & group II respectively. The changes in SpO2 during the procedure, recovery time and time to meet discharge criteria were comparable in both the groups. The incidence of PONV was 20% & 3.3% in group I and 10% & 6.6% in group II respectively. All patients in both the groups required postoperative analgesics.
Both the techniques were found to be comparable for laparoscopic sterilization, however a longer induction to skin incision time and higher incidence of PONV and shivering in GA group makes LA with sedation a better choice.
Laparoscopy; Tubal ligation; Propofol; Ketamine; Local anesthesia
To assess the impact of introducing spinal anaesthesia for obstetric operative procedures on use of general anaesthesia and quality of regional anaesthesia in a unit with an established epidural service a retrospective analysis of routinely collected data on method of anaesthesia, efficacy, and complications was carried out. Data were collected from 1988 to 1991 on 1670 obstetric patients requiring an operative procedure. The introduction of spinal anaesthesia in 1989 significantly reduced the proportion of operative procedures performed under general anaesthesia, from 60% (234/390) in 1988 to 30% (124/414) in 1991. The decrease was most pronounced for manual removal of the placenta (88%, 48/55 v 9%, 3/34) and emergency caesarean section (67%, 129/193) v 38%, 87/229). Epidural anaesthesia decreased in use most significantly for elective caesarean section (65%, 77/118 v 3% 3/113; x2=139, p<0.0001). The incidence of severe pain and need for conversion to general anaesthesia was significantly less with spinal anaesthesia (0%, 0/207 v 3%, 5/156; p<0.05). Hypotension was not a problem, and the incidence of headache after spinal anaesthetic decreased over the period studied. Introducing spinal anaesthesia therefore reduced the need for general anaesthesia and improved the quality of regional anaesthesia.
There has been a shift towards greater use of neuraxial over general anaesthesia for patients undergoing total hip or knee arthroplasty. Furthermore, suggestions that peripheral nerve block may reduce adverse effects have recently been put forward. Although older studies showed a reduction in venous thromboembolism (VTE) with neuraxial compared with general anaesthesia, this difference has not been confirmed in studies using effective current thromboprophylaxis. We used a large data set to investigate the pattern of anaesthesia usage, and whether anaesthesia type affects efficacy and bleeding outcomes of thromboprophylaxis overall, within each treatment group, or for the novel oral anticoagulant dabigatran etexilate versus enoxaparin.
Three previously reported trials compared 220 mg and 150 mg dabigatran etexilate once daily with enoxaparin after knee or hip arthroplasty. A pooled analysis was performed in patients receiving general or neuraxial anaesthesia, or the combination of either with peripheral nerve block (n = 8062). Outcome measures were major VTE plus VTE-related mortality, major bleeding and major plus clinically relevant bleeding events.
General, neuraxial and combination anaesthesia were used in 29%, 52% and 19% of patients, respectively. Differences in efficacy and safety between anaesthesia subgroups were small and not significant, except for a slightly higher rate of major VTE and VTE-related mortality with general versus neuraxial anaesthesia (odds ratio: 1.40; 95% confidence interval: 1.03–1.90; p = 0.035) in the overall population. There were no significant effects of anaesthesia type on efficacy or safety of dabigatran etexilate versus enoxaparin.
Anaesthesia type did not greatly affect efficacy and safety outcomes in the pooled population of all three treatment groups. The efficacy and safety of dabigatran etexilate was comparable with enoxaparin, regardless of type of anaesthesia.
ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT00168805, NCT00168818, NCT00152971.
Thromboprophylaxis; Type of anaesthesia; Venous thromboembolism; Bleeding; Dabigatran etexilate
Epidural anaesthesia in total hip replacement is an established and safe practice. It may be used alone or in combination with general anaesthesia for analgesia. Urethral catheterization in the perioperative period is known to greatly increase the complication of deep sepsis following total hip replacement. We assessed the effect on the incidence of urinary catheterization of using bupivocaine epidural anaesthesia in addition to general anaesthesia in total hip replacement. A prospective study was made of 113 total hip replacements. The incidence of catheterization in male patients who received an epidural was 67% compared to only 12% who had no epidural [P = 0.001]. In women the corresponding rates were 30% and 23%. We conclude that in men the use of supplementary epidural anaesthesia with bupivocaine is associated with a worrying increased need for urinary catheterization. This must be balanced against the claimed benefits of this form of anaesthesia.
Any anaesthetic technique, either regional or general, has potential for complications. Moreover, it has been seen that in obstetric patients, the complications are potentiated due to pregnancy-related changes in physiology and due to various other factors. Increasing trend of caesarean section in the setting of increasing maternal age, obesity and other concomitant diseases will continue to challenge the obstetric anaesthetist in his/her task of providing safe regional and general anaesthesia. This review has highlighted the possible complications of regional and general anaesthesia encountered during the obstetric anaesthesia practice.
Complications of anaesthesia; general anaesthesia; regional anaesthesia; obstetric anaesthesia practice
Surgical site infections (SSI) are undesired and troublesome complications after spinal surgery. The reported infection rates range from 0.7 to 11.9%, depending on the diagnosis and the complexity of the procedure. Besides operative factors, patient characteristics could also account for increased infection rates. Because the medical, economic and social costs of SSI are enormous, any significant reduction in risks will pay dividends. The purpose of this study is to compare patients who developed deep SSI following lumbar or thoracolumbar spinal fusion with a randomly selected group of patients who did not develop this complication in order to identify changeable risk factors. With a case–control analysis nested in a historical cohort of patients who had had a spinal fusion between January 1999 and December 2008, we identified 36 cases with deep SSI (CDC criteria). Information regarding patient-level and surgical-level risk factors was derived from standardized but routinely recorded data and compared with those acquired in a random selection of 135 uninfected patients. Univariate analyses and a multivariate logistic regression were performed. The overall rate of infection in 1,615 procedures (1,568 patients) was 2.2%. A positive history of spinal surgery was associated with an almost four times higher infection rate (OR = 3.7, 95% BI = 1.6–8.6). The risk of SSI increased with the number of levels fused, patients with diabetes had an almost six times higher risk and smokers had more than a two times higher risk for deep SSI. The most common organism cultured was Staphylococcus aureus. All infected patients underwent at least one reoperation, including an open débridement and received appropriate antibiotics to treat the organism. Patients who had had a previous spinal surgery are a high-risk group for infection compared with those that never had surgery. Total costs associated with preventive measures are substantial and should be compensated by health care insurance companies by means of separate clinical pathways. High-risk patients should be informed about the increased risk of complications.
Surgical site infection; Risk factors; Preventive measures; Spinal fusion
OBJECTIVE--To determine whether epidural anaesthesia during labour and delivery is a risk factor for postpartum back pain. DESIGN--Prospective cohort study with follow up at one day, seven days, and six weeks after delivery. SETTING--Teaching hospital in Montreal. SUBJECTS--329 women who delivered a live infant(s) during the study period. Exclusion criteria were back pain before pregnancy and delivery by elective caesarean section. INTERVENTION--Epidural anaesthesia during labour and delivery. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES AND RESULTS--The primary outcome variable was development of postpartum low back pain. Back pain was quantified with self reports (yes/no), a pain score (numeric rating scale), and degree of interference with daily activities. Of the 329 women, 164 received epidural anaesthesia during labour and 165 did not. The incidence of low back pain in epidural v non-epidural group was 53% v 43% on day one; 21% on day seven; and 14% v 7% at six weeks. The relative risk for low back pain (epidural v non-epidural) adjusted for parity, delivery, ethnicity, and weight was 1.76 (95% confidence interval 1.06 to 2.92) on day one; 1.00 (0.54 to 1.86) on day seven; and 2.22 (0.89 to 5.53) at six weeks. There were no differences between the two groups in pain scores or the frequency of interference with daily activities. Similar results were obtained in the subgroup of women with low back pain of new onset--that is, those women with no back pain during their pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS--Postpartum low back pain was common but decreased considerably over the short term. The association between epidural anaesthesia and postpartum low back pain was inconsistent over time with a significantly increased risk of low back pain (epidural v non-epidural) noted only on the first day after delivery.
Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are at a higher risk for chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis (LC) and mortality than the general population. Optimal modalities of renal replacement therapy for ESRD patients with concomitant end-stage liver disease remain controversial. We investigated the long-term outcome for chronic liver disease among dialysis patients in an endemic area.
Using Taiwan’s National Health Insurance claim data (NHRI-NHIRD-99182), We performed a longitudinal cohort study to investigate the impact of comorbidities on mortality in dialysis patients. We followed up 11293 incident hemodialysis (HD) and 761 peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients from the start of dialysis until the date of death or the end of database period (December 31, 2008). A Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify the risk factors for all-cause mortality.
Patients receiving PD tended to be younger and less likely to have comorbidities than those receiving HD. At the beginning of dialysis, a high prevalence rate (6.16 %) of LC was found. Other than well-known risk factors, LC (hazard ratio [HR] 1.473, 95 % CI: 1.329-1.634) and dementia (HR 1.376, 95 % CI: 1.083-1.750) were also independent predictors of mortality. Hypertension and mortality were inversely associated. Dialysis modality and three individual comorbidities (diabetes mellitus, chronic lung disease, and dementia) interacted significantly on mortality risk.
LC is an important predictor of mortality; however, the effect on mortality was not different between HD and PD patients.
Hemodialysis; Peritoneal dialysis; Mortality; Liver cirrhosis
Pulmonary hypertension is a rare condition and in combination with pregnancy, it can result in high maternal mortality. Mitral stenosis is one of the complicated cardiac diseases that may occur during pregnancy. In this report, we describe our management of such a case, which was even more difficult in combination with pulmonary hypertension, mitral stenosis, and aortic and tricuspid valve insufficiency requiring emergency caesarean section under general anaesthesia.
A 29-year-old primiparae was presented to the anaesthetic department for an urgent caesarean section with a diagnosis of severe pulmonary hypertension in combination with mitral stenosis. The patient was hospitalized prepartum and received oxygen therapy and anticoagulation with heparin. The patient was monitored during labour and delivery with oximetry and arterial and central venous pressure line. Pulmonary arterial lines were not used due to an increased risk and questionable usefulness. Echocardiography revealed a systolic pulmonary arterial pressure of 75 mmHg, and mitral stenosis, aortic and tricuspid valve insufficiency.
We decided to proceed under general anaesthesia. Anaesthesia was induced with etomidate, and succinylcholine. Dopamine and nitroglycerin infusion was preoperatively started and infusion was also preoperatively continued. Hemodynamic parameters were stable during delivery. Neonatal weight and apgar score were satisfactory. After the delivery of a healthy baby, oxytocin was administered. Surgery was completed uneventfully. During the postoperative period, the patient received furosemide and morphine. As the arterial blood gas analyses were stable and the chest-ray was normal, the patient was extubated postoperatively in the second hour in ICU.
Patients with significant multivalvular heart disease require careful preoperative, multidisciplinary assessment and anesthetic planning before delivery in order to optimize cardiac function during the peripartum period and make informed decisions regarding the mode of delivery and anaesthetic technique.
The number of caesarean sections has increased over the last two decades, especially in the developed countries. Hence, it has increasingly become a greater challenge to provide care for the parturient, but this has given obstetric anaesthetists a greater opportunity to contribute to obstetric services. While caesarean deliveries were historically performed using general anaesthesia, there is a recent significant move towards regional anaesthesia. Unique problems that patients with obesity and pre-eclampsia present will be discussed in the present article. New medications and devices now used in obstetric anaesthesia will change the practice and perspectives of our clinical practice.
Caesarean section; obstetrics; regional anaesthesia
Recently two parturients with Eisenmenger's syndrome underwent caesarean section at our hospital. They were managed by a multidisciplinary team during their perioperative period. The caesarean sections were uneventfully performed, one under general anaesthesia and one with epidural anaesthesia, with delivery of two newborns with satisfactory Apgar scores. One patient died in the post-partum period, and the other did well. We discuss the anaesthetic considerations in managing these high-risk patients.
Complications of regional anaesthesia has been recognised from very long time. Fortunately serious complication are rare. Safe, effective practice of neuraxial anaesthesia requires a detailed knowledge of potential complications, their incidence and risk factors associated with their occurrence. The incidence of complication were higher for spinal than for epidural anaesthesia. These complications being rare, so existing studies are mainly retrospective, providing information about incidence and their associations but not necessarily demonstrate causality.
There are many areas of controversies regarding the usage of regional anaesthesia i.e. in outpatient surgical procedures, epidural test dose, its safety in infected / febrile / immuno compromised patients, / in patients with neurological disorder and in patients receiving anti-coagulants. Recommendations proposed may be acceptable based on the judgment of the responsible anaesthesiologist. The consensus statements are designed to encourage safe and quality patient care but cannot guarantee a specific outcome.
Regional anaesthesia; Complications; Controversies
The number of day-care surgeries is increasing every day. The boundaries of day-care surgeries are being redefined on a continual basis. Multi-dimensional benefits to the patient, hospital and national economy are the driving forces behind the changing scenario on the horizon of day surgery. The literature search included Google, medlinx, pubmed and medline. We have attempted to look at the controversies in patient selection with comorbidities, pre-operative assessment and an acceptable ASA grade of patients. An attempt is also made to look at suitable surgical procedures, a pathway of introducing procedures, which are still complex and specialist procedures in challenging environment. The techniques of general anaesthesia, central neuraxial blocks, regional nerve blocks with indwelling catheters and monitoring techniques are deliberated upon. Finally the most important post-operative issues of discharge criteria, including recovery after spinal anaesthetic, oral fluid intake, voiding and travel after day surgery, are considered.
Ambulatory surgery; anaesthetic techniques; controversies; day surgery; discharge; patient selection; surgical procedures
Day care surgery is still in its infancy in India. Both regional and general anaesthesia can be used for this. Central neuraxial blocks are simple cheap and easy to perform. This study was done to evaluate usefulness of spinal and epidural anaesthesia for day care surgery.
Patients & Method:
100 patients were randomized to either spinal (n=50) or epidural (n=50) group anaesthetized with either 0.5% hyperbaric 2ml bupivacaine or 0.5% 20ml bupivacaine respectively. In spinal group 27 gauze quincke needle and in epidural group 18 gazue tuohy needle was used. Both the groups were compared for haemodynamic stability, side effects, complications, postanaesthesia discharge score (PADS), time taken to micturate, total duration of stay in hospital and patient satisfaction score for technique.
We observed that spinal anaesthesia had significantly early onset of anaesthesia and better muscle relaxation (p<0.05) as compared to epidural block otherwise both groups were comparable for haemodynamic stability, side effects or complications. Although more patients in spinal group (64% vs 48%) achieved PADS earlier (in 4-8 hours) but statistically it was insignificant. Time to micturition (6.02 0.55 v/s 6.03 0.47 hours) and total duration of stay (7.49 1.36 v/s 8.03 1.33 hours) were comparable in both the groups.
Both spinal and epidural anaesthesia can be used for day care surgery. Spinal anaesthesia with 27 gauze quincke needle and 2ml 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine provides added advantage of early onset and complete relaxation.
Day Care; Spinal; Epidural; Bupivacaine
OBJECTIVE--To examine the association between obstetric epidural anaesthesia and subsequent long term problems. DESIGN--Postal questionnaire on health problems after childbirth linked to maternity case note data. SETTING--Maternity hospital in Birmingham. SUBJECTS--11701 women who delivered their most recent child during 1978-85 and who returned completed questionnaires. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Frequencies of long term symptoms after childbirth. RESULTS--Compared with the 6935 women who did not have epidural anaesthesia the 4766 women who did more commonly experienced backache (903 (18.9%) with epidural v 731 (10.5%) without epidural), frequent headaches 220 (4.6%) v 199 (2.9%)), migraine (92 (1.9%) v 73 (1.1%)), neckache (116 (2.4%) v 112 (1.6%)), and tingling in hands or fingers (143 (3.0%) v 150 (2.2%)). The results could not be explained by correlated social or obstetric factors. The associations with head, neck, and hand symptoms were found only in women who reported backache. An excess of visual disturbances among women who had epidural anaesthesia (83 (1.7%) v 91 (1.3%)) was present only in association with migraine, but excess of dizziness or fainting (102 (2.1%) v 109 (1.6%)) was independent of other symptoms. 26 women had numbness or tingling in the lower back, buttocks, and leg, of whom 23 had had epidural anaesthesia. Of 34 women with spinal headache, nine (five after accidental dural puncture; four after spinal block) reported long term headaches. CONCLUSIONS--These associations may indicate a causal sequence, although this cannot be proved from this type of study. Randomised trials of epidural anaesthesia are required to determine whether causal relations exist.
Claims data complement other data sources for identification of surgical site infections following breast surgery and cesarean section.
We investigated using administrative claims data to identify surgical site infections (SSI) after breast surgery and cesarean section. Postoperative diagnosis codes, procedure codes, and pharmacy information were automatically scanned and used to identify claims suggestive of SSI ("indicators") among 426 (22%) of 1,943 breast procedures and 474 (10%) of 4,859 cesarean sections. For 104 breast procedures with indicators explained in available medical records, SSI were confirmed for 37%, and some infection criteria were present for another 27%. Among 204 cesarean sections, SSI were confirmed for 40%, and some criteria were met for 27%. The extrapolated infection rates of 2.8% for breast procedures and 3.1% for cesarean section were similar to those reported by the National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance program but differ in representing predominantly outpatient infections. Claims data may complement other data sources for identification of surgical site infections following breast surgery and cesarean section.
cesarean section; puerperal infection; mastectomy; surgical wound infection; health maintenance organizations; ambulatory care; population surveillance; medical records; medical records systems; infection control; research