NextGen sequencing is a powerful and cost efficient tool for ultra-high-throughput genome and transcriptome analysis. One of the key features of next generation sequencing is de novo whole genome sequencing, but assembly and genome finishing is still a major challenge due to short reads generated by these technologies. The 2kb-5kb mate pair reads combined with Illumina short pair-end reads are used in getting better genomic coverage across the genome. The standard 2kb-5kb Illumina mate-pair library construction protocol does not allow barcoding, and has built-in limitations that prevent getting more than 36bp reads at either end, as increasing read length can lead to elevated error rate. This is due to the fact that the junction reads cannot be identified easily if working with de novo assembly or those reads got discarded, since they would not align to reference sequence. Here, we demonstrate a modified 2kb-5kb mate pair library construction protocol for Illumina technologies that allows long barcoded, mate-paired reads without increasing error rates.
Next-Generation-Sequencing is advantageous because of its much higher data throughput and much lower cost compared with the traditional Sanger method. However, NGS reads are shorter than Sanger reads, making de novo genome assembly very challenging. Because genome assembly is essential for all downstream biological studies, great efforts have been made to enhance the completeness of genome assembly, which requires the presence of long reads or long distance information. To improve de novo genome assembly, we develop a computational program, ARF-PE, to increase the length of Illumina reads. ARF-PE takes as input Illumina paired-end (PE) reads and recovers the original DNA fragments from which two ends the paired reads are obtained. On the PE data of four bacteria, ARF-PE recovered >87% of the DNA fragments and achieved >98% of perfect DNA fragment recovery. Using Velvet, SOAPdenovo, Newbler, and CABOG, we evaluated the benefits of recovered DNA fragments to genome assembly. For all four bacteria, the recovered DNA fragments increased the assembly contiguity. For example, the N50 lengths of the P. brasiliensis contigs assembled by SOAPdenovo and Newbler increased from 80,524 bp to 166,573 bp and from 80,655 bp to 193,388 bp, respectively. ARF-PE also increased assembly accuracy in many cases. On the PE data of two fungi and a human chromosome, ARF-PE doubled and tripled the N50 length. However, the assembly accuracies dropped, but still remained >91%. In general, ARF-PE can increase both assembly contiguity and accuracy for bacterial genomes. For complex eukaryotic genomes, ARF-PE is promising because it raises assembly contiguity. But future error correction is needed for ARF-PE to also increase the assembly accuracy. ARF-PE is freely available at http://18.104.22.168/~tliu/arf-pe/.
Motivation: DNA sequence reads from Sanger and pyrosequencing platforms differ in cost, accuracy, typical coverage, average read length and the variety of available paired-end protocols. Both read types can complement one another in a ‘hybrid’ approach to whole-genome shotgun sequencing projects, but assembly software must be modified to accommodate their different characteristics. This is true even of pyrosequencing mated and unmated read combinations. Without special modifications, assemblers tuned for homogeneous sequence data may perform poorly on hybrid data.
Results: Celera Assembler was modified for combinations of ABI 3730 and 454 FLX reads. The revised pipeline called CABOG (Celera Assembler with the Best Overlap Graph) is robust to homopolymer run length uncertainty, high read coverage and heterogeneous read lengths. In tests on four genomes, it generated the longest contigs among all assemblers tested. It exploited the mate constraints provided by paired-end reads from either platform to build larger contigs and scaffolds, which were validated by comparison to a finished reference sequence. A low rate of contig mis-assembly was detected in some CABOG assemblies, but this was reduced in the presence of sufficient mate pair data.
Availability: The software is freely available as open-source from http://wgs-assembler.sf.net under the GNU Public License.
Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
Standard Illumina mate-paired libraries are constructed from 3- to 5-kb DNA fragments by a blunt-end circularization. Sequencing reads that pass through the junction of the two joined ends of a 3–5-kb DNA fragment are not easy to identify and pose problems during mapping and de novo assembly. Longer read lengths increase the possibility that a read will cross the junction. To solve this problem, we developed a mate-paired protocol for use with Illumina sequencing technology that uses Cre-Lox recombination instead of blunt end circularization. In this method, a LoxP sequence is incorporated at the junction site. This sequence allows screening reads for junctions without using a reference genome. Junction reads can be trimmed or split at the junction. Moreover, the location of the LoxP sequence in the reads distinguishes mate-paired reads from spurious paired-end reads. We tested this new method by preparing and sequencing a mate-paired library with an insert size of 3 kb from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We present an analysis of the library quality statistics and a new bio-informatics tool called DeLoxer that can be used to analyze an IlluminaCre-Lox mate-paired data set. We also demonstrate how the resulting data significantly improves a de novo assembly of the S. cerevisiae genome.
Until recently, read lengths on the Solexa/Illumina system were too short to reliably assemble transcriptomes without a reference sequence, especially for non-model organisms. However, with read lengths up to 100 nucleotides available in the current version, an assembly without reference genome should be possible. For this study we created an EST data set for the common pond snail Radix balthica by Illumina sequencing of a normalized transcriptome. Performance of three different short read assemblers was compared with respect to: the number of contigs, their length, depth of coverage, their quality in various BLAST searches and the alignment to mitochondrial genes.
A single sequencing run of a normalized RNA pool resulted in 16,923,850 paired end reads with median read length of 61 bases. The assemblies generated by VELVET, OASES, and SeqMan NGEN differed in the total number of contigs, contig length, the number and quality of gene hits obtained by BLAST searches against various databases, and contig performance in the mt genome comparison. While VELVET produced the highest overall number of contigs, a large fraction of these were of small size (< 200bp), and gave redundant hits in BLAST searches and the mt genome alignment. The best overall contig performance resulted from the NGEN assembly. It produced the second largest number of contigs, which on average were comparable to the OASES contigs but gave the highest number of gene hits in two out of four BLAST searches against different reference databases. A subsequent meta-assembly of the four contig sets resulted in larger contigs, less redundancy and a higher number of BLAST hits.
Our results document the first de novo transcriptome assembly of a non-model species using Illumina sequencing data. We show that de novo transcriptome assembly using this approach yields results useful for downstream applications, in particular if a meta-assembly of contig sets is used to increase contig quality. These results highlight the ongoing need for improvements in assembly methodology.
next generation sequencing; short read assembly; Mollusca
The feasibility of short-read sequencing for genomic analysis was demonstrated for Fibroporia radiculosa, a copper-tolerant fungus that causes brown rot decay of wood. The effect of read quality on genomic assembly was assessed by filtering Illumina GAIIx reads from a single run of a paired-end library (75-nucleotide read length and 300-bp fragment size) at three different stringency levels and then assembling each data set with Velvet. A simple approach was devised to determine which filter stringency was “best.” Venn diagrams identified the regions containing reads that were used in an assembly but were of a low-enough quality to be removed by a filter. By plotting base quality histograms of reads in this region, we judged whether a filter was too stringent or not stringent enough. Our best assembly had a genome size of 33.6 Mb, an N50 of 65.8 kb for a k-mer of 51, and a maximum contig length of 347 kb. Using GeneMark, 9,262 genes were predicted. TargetP and SignalP analyses showed that among the 1,213 genes with secreted products, 986 had motifs for signal peptides and 227 had motifs for signal anchors. Blast2GO analysis provided functional annotation for 5,407 genes. We identified 29 genes with putative roles in copper tolerance and 73 genes for lignocellulose degradation. A search for homologs of these 102 genes showed that F. radiculosa exhibited more similarity to Postia placenta than Serpula lacrymans. Notable differences were found, however, and their involvements in copper tolerance and wood decay are discussed.
Motivation: Next-generation sequencing captures sequence differences in reads relative to a reference genome or transcriptome, including splicing events and complex variants involving multiple mismatches and long indels. We present computational methods for fast detection of complex variants and splicing in short reads, based on a successively constrained search process of merging and filtering position lists from a genomic index. Our methods are implemented in GSNAP (Genomic Short-read Nucleotide Alignment Program), which can align both single- and paired-end reads as short as 14 nt and of arbitrarily long length. It can detect short- and long-distance splicing, including interchromosomal splicing, in individual reads, using probabilistic models or a database of known splice sites. Our program also permits SNP-tolerant alignment to a reference space of all possible combinations of major and minor alleles, and can align reads from bisulfite-treated DNA for the study of methylation state.
Results: In comparison testing, GSNAP has speeds comparable to existing programs, especially in reads of ≥70 nt and is fastest in detecting complex variants with four or more mismatches or insertions of 1–9 nt and deletions of 1–30 nt. Although SNP tolerance does not increase alignment yield substantially, it affects alignment results in 7–8% of transcriptional reads, typically by revealing alternate genomic mappings for a read. Simulations of bisulfite-converted DNA show a decrease in identifying genomic positions uniquely in 6% of 36 nt reads and 3% of 70 nt reads.
Availability: Source code in C and utility programs in Perl are freely available for download as part of the GMAP package at http://share.gene.com/gmap.
The development of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies has dramatically increased the throughput, speed, and efficiency of genome sequencing. The short read data generated from NGS platforms, such as SOLiD and Illumina, are quite useful for mapping analysis. However, the SOLiD read data with lengths of <60 bp have been considered to be too short for de novo genome sequencing. Here, to investigate whether de novo sequencing of fungal genomes is possible using only SOLiD short read sequence data, we performed de novo assembly of the Aspergillus oryzae RIB40 genome using only SOLiD read data of 50 bp generated from mate-paired libraries with 2.8- or 1.9-kb insert sizes. The assembled scaffolds showed an N50 value of 1.6 Mb, a 22-fold increase than those obtained using only SOLiD short read in other published reports. In addition, almost 99% of the reference genome was accurately aligned by the assembled scaffold fragments in long lengths. The sequences of secondary metabolite biosynthetic genes and clusters, whose products are of considerable interest in fungal studies due to their potential medicinal, agricultural, and cosmetic properties, were also highly reconstructed in the assembled scaffolds. Based on these findings, we concluded that de novo genome sequencing using only SOLiD short reads is feasible and practical for molecular biological study of fungi. We also investigated the effect of filtering low quality data, library insert size, and k-mer size on the assembly performance, and recommend for the assembly use of mild filtered read data where the N50 was not so degraded and the library has an insert size of ∼2.0 kb, and k-mer size 33.
The advent of next-generation sequencing technologies is accompanied with the development of many whole-genome sequence assembly methods and software, especially for de novo fragment assembly. Due to the poor knowledge about the applicability and performance of these software tools, choosing a befitting assembler becomes a tough task. Here, we provide the information of adaptivity for each program, then above all, compare the performance of eight distinct tools against eight groups of simulated datasets from Solexa sequencing platform. Considering the computational time, maximum random access memory (RAM) occupancy, assembly accuracy and integrity, our study indicate that string-based assemblers, overlap-layout-consensus (OLC) assemblers are well-suited for very short reads and longer reads of small genomes respectively. For large datasets of more than hundred millions of short reads, De Bruijn graph-based assemblers would be more appropriate. In terms of software implementation, string-based assemblers are superior to graph-based ones, of which SOAPdenovo is complex for the creation of configuration file. Our comparison study will assist researchers in selecting a well-suited assembler and offer essential information for the improvement of existing assemblers or the developing of novel assemblers.
Motivation: Shotgun sequencing generates large numbers of short DNA reads from either an isolated organism or, in the case of metagenomics projects, from the aggregate genome of a microbial community. These reads are then assembled based on overlapping sequences into larger, contiguous sequences (contigs). The feasibility of assembly and the coverage achieved (reads per nucleotide or distinct sequence of nucleotides) depend on several factors: the number of reads sequenced, the read length and the relative abundances of their source genomes in the microbial community. A low coverage suggests that most of the genomic DNA in the sample has not been sequenced, but it is often difficult to estimate either the extent of the uncaptured diversity or the amount of additional sequencing that would be most efficacious. In this work, we regard a metagenome as a population of DNA fragments (bins), each of which may be covered by one or more reads. We employ a gamma distribution to model this bin population due to its flexibility and ease of use. When a gamma approximation can be found that adequately fits the data, we may estimate the number of bins that were not sequenced and that could potentially be revealed by additional sequencing. We evaluated the performance of this model using simulated metagenomes and demonstrate its applicability on three recent metagenomic datasets.
Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
Motivation: Several new de novo assembly tools have been developed recently to assemble short sequencing reads generated by next-generation sequencing platforms. However, the performance of these tools under various conditions has not been fully investigated, and sufficient information is not currently available for informed decisions to be made regarding the tool that would be most likely to produce the best performance under a specific set of conditions.
Results: We studied and compared the performance of commonly used de novo assembly tools specifically designed for next-generation sequencing data, including SSAKE, VCAKE, Euler-sr, Edena, Velvet, ABySS and SOAPdenovo. Tools were compared using several performance criteria, including N50 length, sequence coverage and assembly accuracy. Various properties of read data, including single-end/paired-end, sequence GC content, depth of coverage and base calling error rates, were investigated for their effects on the performance of different assembly tools. We also compared the computation time and memory usage of these seven tools. Based on the results of our comparison, the relative performance of individual tools are summarized and tentative guidelines for optimal selection of different assembly tools, under different conditions, are provided.
Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
Next Generation Sequencing technologies are able to provide high genome coverages at a relatively low cost. However, due to limited reads' length (from 30 bp up to 200 bp), specific bioinformatics problems have become even more difficult to solve. De novo assembly with short reads, for example, is more complicated at least for two reasons: first, the overall amount of "noisy" data to cope with increased and, second, as the reads' length decreases the number of unsolvable repeats grows. Our work's aim is to go at the root of the problem by providing a pre-processing tool capable to produce (in-silico) longer and highly accurate sequences from a collection of Next Generation Sequencing reads.
In this paper a seed-and-extend local assembler is presented. The kernel algorithm is a loop that, starting from a read used as seed, keeps extending it using heuristics whose main goal is to produce a collection of error-free and longer sequences. In particular, GapFiller carefully detects reliable overlaps and operates clustering similar reads in order to reconstruct the missing part between the two ends of the same insert. Our tool's output has been validated on 24 experiments using both simulated and real paired reads datasets. The output sequences are declared correct when the seed-mate is found. In the experiments performed, GapFiller was able to extend high percentages of the processed seeds and find their mates, with a false positives rate that turned out to be nearly negligible.
GapFiller, starting from a sufficiently high short reads coverage, is able to produce high coverages of accurate longer sequences (from 300 bp up to 3500 bp). The procedure to perform safe extensions, together with the mate-found check, turned out to be a powerful criterion to guarantee contigs' correctness. GapFiller has further potential, as it could be applied in a number of different scenarios, including the post-processing validation of insertions/deletions detection pipelines, pre-processing routines on datasets for de novo assembly pipelines, or in any hierarchical approach designed to assemble, analyse or validate pools of sequences.
de novo assembly; paired reads; (Hamming-aware) hash functions; Next Generation Sequencing data
While recently developed short-read sequencing technologies may dramatically reduce the sequencing cost and eventually achieve the $1000 goal for re-sequencing, their limitations prevent the de novo sequencing of eukaryotic genomes with the standard shotgun sequencing protocol. We present SHRAP (SHort Read Assembly Protocol), a sequencing protocol and assembly methodology that utilizes high-throughput short-read technologies. We describe a variation on hierarchical sequencing with two crucial differences: (1) we select a clone library from the genome randomly rather than as a tiling path and (2) we sample clones from the genome at high coverage and reads from the clones at low coverage. We assume that 200 bp read lengths with a 1% error rate and inexpensive random fragment cloning on whole mammalian genomes is feasible. Our assembly methodology is based on first ordering the clones and subsequently performing read assembly in three stages: (1) local assemblies of regions significantly smaller than a clone size, (2) clone-sized assemblies of the results of stage 1, and (3) chromosome-sized assemblies. By aggressively localizing the assembly problem during the first stage, our method succeeds in assembling short, unpaired reads sampled from repetitive genomes. We tested our assembler using simulated reads from D. melanogaster and human chromosomes 1, 11, and 21, and produced assemblies with large sets of contiguous sequence and a misassembly rate comparable to other draft assemblies. Tested on D. melanogaster and the entire human genome, our clone-ordering method produces accurate maps, thereby localizing fragment assembly and enabling the parallelization of the subsequent steps of our pipeline. Thus, we have demonstrated that truly inexpensive de novo sequencing of mammalian genomes will soon be possible with high-throughput, short-read technologies using our methodology.
Illumina paired-end reads are used to analyse microbial communities by targeting amplicons of the 16S rRNA gene. Publicly available tools are needed to assemble overlapping paired-end reads while correcting mismatches and uncalled bases; many errors could be corrected to obtain higher sequence yields using quality information.
PANDAseq assembles paired-end reads rapidly and with the correction of most errors. Uncertain error corrections come from reads with many low-quality bases identified by upstream processing. Benchmarks were done using real error masks on simulated data, a pure source template, and a pooled template of genomic DNA from known organisms. PANDAseq assembled reads more rapidly and with reduced error incorporation compared to alternative methods.
PANDAseq rapidly assembles sequences and scales to billions of paired-end reads. Assembly of control libraries showed a 4-50% increase in the number of assembled sequences over naïve assembly with negligible loss of "good" sequence.
Recent advances in next-generation sequencing technologies have drastically increased throughput and significantly reduced sequencing costs. However, the average read lengths in next-generation sequencing technologies are short as compared with that of traditional Sanger sequencing. The short sequence reads pose great challenges for de novo sequence assembly. As a pilot project for whole genome sequencing of the catfish genome, here we attempt to determine the proper sequence coverage, the proper software for assembly, and various parameters used for the assembly of a BAC physical map contig spanning approximately a million of base pairs.
A combination of low sequence coverage of 454 and Illumina sequencing appeared to provide effective assembly as reflected by a high N50 value. Using 454 sequencing alone, a sequencing depth of 18 X was sufficient to obtain the good quality assembly, whereas a 70 X Illumina appeared to be sufficient for a good quality assembly. Additional sequencing coverage after 18 X of 454 or after 70 X of Illumina sequencing does not provide significant improvement of the assembly. Considering the cost of sequencing, a 2 X 454 sequencing, when coupled to 70 X Illumina sequencing, provided an assembly of reasonably good quality. With several software tested, Newbler with a seed length of 16 and ABySS with a K-value of 60 appear to be appropriate for the assembly of 454 reads alone and Illumina paired-end reads alone, respectively. Using both 454 and Illumina paired-end reads, a hybrid assembly strategy using Newbler for initial 454 sequence assembly, Velvet for initial Illumina sequence assembly, followed by a second step assembly using MIRA provided the best assembly of the physical map contig, resulting in 193 contigs with a N50 value of 13,123 bp.
A hybrid sequencing strategy using low sequencing depth of 454 and high sequencing depth of Illumina provided the good quality assembly with high N50 value and relatively low cost. A combination of Newbler, Velvet, and MIRA can be used to assemble the 454 sequence reads and the Illumina reads effectively. The assembled sequence can serve as a resource for comparative genome analysis. Additional long reads using the third generation sequencing platforms are needed to sequence through repetitive genome regions that should further enhance the sequence assembly.
The presence of duplicates introduced by PCR amplification is a major issue in paired short reads from next-generation sequencing platforms. These duplicates might have a serious impact on research applications, such as scaffolding in whole-genome sequencing and discovering large-scale genome variations, and are usually removed. We present FastUniq as a fast de novo tool for removal of duplicates in paired short reads. FastUniq identifies duplicates by comparing sequences between read pairs and does not require complete genome sequences as prerequisites. FastUniq is capable of simultaneously handling reads with different lengths and results in highly efficient running time, which increases linearly at an average speed of 87 million reads per 10 minutes. FastUniq is freely available at http://sourceforge.net/projects/fastuniq/.
The relatively short read lengths from next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies still pose a challenge for de novo assembly of complex mammal genomes. One important solution is to use paired-end (PE) sequence information experimentally obtained from long-range DNA fragments (>1 kb). Here, we characterize and extend a long-range PE library construction method based on direct intra-molecule ligation (or molecular linker-free circularization) for NGS.
We found that the method performs stably for PE sequencing of 2- to 5- kb DNA fragments, and can be extended to 10–20 kb (and even in extremes, up to ∼35 kb). We also characterized the impact of low quality input DNA on the method, and develop a whole-genome amplification (WGA) based protocol using limited input DNA (<1 µg). Using this PE dataset, we accurately assembled the YanHuang (YH) genome, the first sequenced Asian genome, into a scaffold N50 size of >2 Mb, which is over100-times greater than the initial size produced with only small insert PE reads(17 kb). In addition, we mapped two 7- to 8- kb insertions in the YH genome using the larger insert sizes of the long-range PE data.
In conclusion, we demonstrate here the effectiveness of this long-range PE sequencing method and its use for the de novo assembly of a large, complex genome using NGS short reads.
New short-read sequencing technologies produce enormous volumes of 25–30 base paired-end reads. The resulting reads have vastly different characteristics than produced by Sanger sequencing, and require different approaches than the previous generation of sequence assemblers. In this paper, we present a short-read de novo assembler particularly targeted at the new ABI SOLiD sequencing technology.
This paper presents what we believe to be the first de novo sequence assembly results on real data from the emerging SOLiD platform, introduced by Applied Biosystems. Our assembler SHORTY augments short-paired reads using a trivially small number (5 – 10) of seeds of length 300 – 500 bp. These seeds enable us to produce significant assemblies using short-read coverage no more than 100×, which can be obtained in a single run of these high-capacity sequencers. SHORTY exploits two ideas which we believe to be of interest to the short-read assembly community: (1) using single seed reads to crystallize assemblies, and (2) estimating intercontig distances accurately from multiple spanning paired-end reads.
We demonstrate effective assemblies (N50 contig sizes ~40 kb) of three different bacterial species using simulated SOLiD data. Sequencing artifacts limit our performance on real data, however our results on this data are substantially better than those achieved by competing assemblers.
Recent studies on genome assembly from short-read sequencing data reported the limitation of this technology to reconstruct the entire genome even at very high depth coverage. We investigated the limitation from the perspective of information theory to evaluate the effect of repeats on short-read genome assembly using idealized (error-free) reads at different lengths.
We define a metric H(k) to be the entropy of sequencing reads at a read length k and use the relative loss of entropy ΔH(k) to measure the impact of repeats for the reconstruction of whole-genome from sequences of length k. In our experiments, we found that entropy loss correlates well with de-novo assembly coverage of a genome, and a score of ΔH(k)>1% indicates a severe loss in genome reconstruction fidelity. The minimal read lengths to achieve ΔH(k)<1% are different for various organisms and are independent of the genome size. For example, in order to meet the threshold of ΔH(k)<1%, a read length of 60 bp is needed for the sequencing of human genome (3.2 109 bp) and 320 bp for the sequencing of fruit fly (1.8×108 bp). We also calculated the ΔH(k) scores for 2725 prokaryotic chromosomes and plasmids at several read lengths. Our results indicate that the levels of repeats in different genomes are diverse and the entropy of sequencing reads provides a measurement for the repeat structures.
The proposed entropy-based measurement, which can be calculated in seconds to minutes in most cases, provides a rapid quantitative evaluation on the limitation of idealized short-read genome sequencing. Moreover, the calculation can be parallelized to scale up to large euakryotic genomes. This approach may be useful to tune the sequencing parameters to achieve better genome assemblies when a closely related genome is already available.
Despite the power of massively parallel sequencing platforms, a drawback is the
short length of the sequence reads produced. We demonstrate that short reads can
be locally assembled into longer contigs using
paired-end sequencing of
DNA (RAD-PE) fragments. We use this RAD-PE contig
approach to identify single
nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)
and determine haplotype structure in threespine stickleback and to sequence
E. coli and stickleback genomic DNA with overlapping
contigs of several hundred nucleotides. We also demonstrate that adding a
circularization step allows the local assembly of contigs up to 5 kilobases (kb)
in length. The ease of assembly and accuracy of the individual contigs produced
from each RAD site sequence suggests RAD-PE sequencing is a useful way to
convert genome-wide short reads into individually-assembled sequences hundreds
or thousands of nucleotides long.
Motivation: Novel high-throughput sequencing technologies pose new algorithmic challenges in handling massive amounts of short-read, high-coverage data. A robust and versatile consensus tool is of particular interest for such data since a sound multi-read alignment is a prerequisite for variation analyses, accurate genome assemblies and insert sequencing.
Results: A multi-read alignment algorithm for de novo or reference-guided genome assembly is presented. The program identifies segments shared by multiple reads and then aligns these segments using a consistency-enhanced alignment graph. On real de novo sequencing data obtained from the newly established NCBI Short Read Archive, the program performs similarly in quality to other comparable programs. On more challenging simulated datasets for insert sequencing and variation analyses, our program outperforms the other tools.
Availability: The consensus program can be downloaded from http://www.seqan.de/projects/consensus.html. It can be used stand-alone or in conjunction with the Celera Assembler. Both application scenarios as well as the usage of the tool are described in the documentation.
High throughput sequencing (HTS) platforms produce gigabases of short read (<100 bp) data per run. While these short reads are adequate for resequencing applications, de novo assembly of moderate size genomes from such reads remains a significant challenge. These limitations could be partially overcome by utilizing mate pair technology, which provides pairs of short reads separated by a known distance along the genome.
We have developed SOPRA, a tool designed to exploit the mate pair/paired-end information for assembly of short reads. The main focus of the algorithm is selecting a sufficiently large subset of simultaneously satisfiable mate pair constraints to achieve a balance between the size and the quality of the output scaffolds. Scaffold assembly is presented as an optimization problem for variables associated with vertices and with edges of the contig connectivity graph. Vertices of this graph are individual contigs with edges drawn between contigs connected by mate pairs. Similar graph problems have been invoked in the context of shotgun sequencing and scaffold building for previous generation of sequencing projects. However, given the error-prone nature of HTS data and the fundamental limitations from the shortness of the reads, the ad hoc greedy algorithms used in the earlier studies are likely to lead to poor quality results in the current context. SOPRA circumvents this problem by treating all the constraints on equal footing for solving the optimization problem, the solution itself indicating the problematic constraints (chimeric/repetitive contigs, etc.) to be removed. The process of solving and removing of constraints is iterated till one reaches a core set of consistent constraints. For SOLiD sequencer data, SOPRA uses a dynamic programming approach to robustly translate the color-space assembly to base-space. For assessing the quality of an assembly, we report the no-match/mismatch error rate as well as the rates of various rearrangement errors.
Applying SOPRA to real data from bacterial genomes, we were able to assemble contigs into scaffolds of significant length (N50 up to 200 Kb) with very few errors introduced in the process. In general, the methodology presented here will allow better scaffold assemblies of any type of mate pair sequencing data.
Seabuckthorn (Hippophaerhamnoides L.) is known for its medicinal, nutritional and environmental importance since ancient times. However, very limited efforts have been made to characterize the genome and transcriptome of this wonder plant. Here, we report the use of next generation massive parallel sequencing technology (Illumina platform) and de novo assembly to gain a comprehensive view of the seabuckthorn transcriptome. We assembled 86,253,874 high quality short reads using six assembly tools. At our hand, assembly of non-redundant short reads following a two-step procedure was found to be the best considering various assembly quality parameters. Initially, ABySS tool was used following an additive k-mer approach. The assembled transcripts were subsequently subjected to TGICL suite. Finally, de novo short read assembly yielded 88,297 transcripts (> 100 bp), representing about 53 Mb of seabuckthorn transcriptome. The average length of transcripts was 610 bp, N50 length 1198 BP and 91% of the short reads uniquely mapped back to seabuckthorn transcriptome. A total of 41,340 (46.8%) transcripts showed significant similarity with sequences present in nr protein databases of NCBI (E-value < 1E-06). We also screened the assembled transcripts for the presence of transcription factors and simple sequence repeats. Our strategy involving the use of short read assembler (ABySS) followed by TGICL will be useful for the researchers working with a non-model organism’s transcriptome in terms of saving time and reducing complexity in data management. The seabuckthorn transcriptome data generated here provide a valuable resource for gene discovery and development of functional molecular markers.
Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) is a disruptive technology that has found widespread acceptance in the life sciences research community. The high throughput and low cost of sequencing has encouraged researchers to undertake ambitious genomic projects, especially in de novo genome sequencing. Currently, NGS systems generate sequence data as short reads and de novo genome assembly using these short reads is computationally very intensive. Due to lower cost of sequencing and higher throughput, NGS systems now provide the ability to sequence genomes at high depth. However, currently no report is available highlighting the impact of high sequence depth on genome assembly using real data sets and multiple assembly algorithms. Recently, some studies have evaluated the impact of sequence coverage, error rate and average read length on genome assembly using multiple assembly algorithms, however, these evaluations were performed using simulated datasets. One limitation of using simulated datasets is that variables such as error rates, read length and coverage which are known to impact genome assembly are carefully controlled. Hence, this study was undertaken to identify the minimum depth of sequencing required for de novo assembly for different sized genomes using graph based assembly algorithms and real datasets. Illumina reads for E.coli (4.6 MB) S.kudriavzevii (11.18 MB) and C.elegans (100 MB) were assembled using SOAPdenovo, Velvet, ABySS, Meraculous and IDBA-UD. Our analysis shows that 50X is the optimum read depth for assembling these genomes using all assemblers except Meraculous which requires 100X read depth. Moreover, our analysis shows that de novo assembly from 50X read data requires only 6–40 GB RAM depending on the genome size and assembly algorithm used. We believe that this information can be extremely valuable for researchers in designing experiments and multiplexing which will enable optimum utilization of sequencing as well as analysis resources.
With high quantity and quality data production and low cost, next generation sequencing has the potential to provide new opportunities for plant phylogeographic studies on single and multiple species. Here we present an approach for in silicio chloroplast DNA assembly and single nucleotide polymorphism detection from short-read shotgun sequencing. The approach is simple and effective and can be implemented using standard bioinformatic tools.
The chloroplast genome of Toona ciliata (Meliaceae), 159,514 base pairs long, was assembled from shotgun sequencing on the Illumina platform using de novo assembly of contigs. To evaluate its practicality, value and quality, we compared the short read assembly with an assembly completed using 454 data obtained after chloroplast DNA isolation. Sanger sequence verifications indicated that the Illumina dataset outperformed the longer read 454 data. Pooling of several individuals during preparation of the shotgun library enabled detection of informative chloroplast SNP markers. Following validation, we used the identified SNPs for a preliminary phylogeographic study of T. ciliata in Australia and to confirm low diversity across the distribution.
Our approach provides a simple method for construction of whole chloroplast genomes from shotgun sequencing of whole genomic DNA using short-read data and no available closely related reference genome (e.g. from the same species or genus). The high coverage of Illumina sequence data also renders this method appropriate for multiplexing and SNP discovery and therefore a useful approach for landscape level studies of evolutionary ecology.
Illumina; Shotgun sequencing; Chloroplast genome; SNP; Phylogeography