Here we examine the expression pattern of HMGN1, a nucleosome binding protein that affects chromatin structure and activity, in the hair follicle and test whether loss of HMGN1 affects the development or cycling of the follicle. We find that at the onset of hair follicle development, HMGN1 protein is expressed in the epidermal placode and in aggregated dermal fibroblasts. In the adult hair follicle, HMGN1 is specifically expressed in the basal layer of epidermis, in the outer root sheath, in the hair bulb, but not in the inner root sheath and hair shaft. The expression pattern of HMGN1 is very similar to p63, suggesting a role for HMGN1 in the transiently amplifying cells. We also find HMGN1 expression in some, but not all hair follicle stem cells as detected by its colocalization with Nestin and with BrdU label-retaining cells. The appearance of the skin and hair follicle of Hmgn1-/- mice was indistinguishable from that of their Hmgn1+/+ littermates. We found that in the hair follicle the expression of HMGN2 is very similar to HMGN1 suggesting functional redundancy between these closely related HMGN variants.
chromatin; HMGN; p63; hair follicle
White clover root hairs which were inoculated with Rhizobium trifolii 4S (infectious strain) contained infection threads which were observed by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Three morphological types of root hairs retaining infection threads were recognized. The bacteria were strongly attached between the surfaces of two plant cell walls as follows: between surfaces of a root hair tip curled back on itself, between a protuberance from a root hair and its cell surface, or between two root hair tips clinging together. An anatomical analysis documented the attachment site of the infection thread sheath from the inside of the root hair cell.
Background and Aims
A previous paper (Annals of Botany 103: 673–685) described formation of clayey pavements in lateral root catchments of eucalypts colonizing a recently formed sand dune in south-west Western Australia. Here chemical and morphological aspects of their formation at the site are studied.
Chemical and physical examinations of soil cores through pavements and sand under adjacent heath assessed build-up of salts, clay and pH changes in or below pavements. Relationships of root morphology to clay deposition were examined and deposits subjected to scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. Xylem transport of mineral elements in eucalypt and non-eucalypt species was studied by analysis of xylem (tracheal) sap from lateral roots.
The columns of which pavements are composed develop exclusively on lower-tier lateral roots. Such sites show intimate associations of fine roots, fungal filaments, microbiota and clay deposits rich in Si, Al and Fe. Time scales for construction of pavements by eucalypts were assessed. Cores through columns of pavemented profiles showed gross elevations of bulk density, Al, Fe and Si in columns and related increases in pH, Mg and Ca status in lower profiles. A cutting through the dune exhibited pronounced alkalinity (pH 7–10) under mallee woodland versus acidity (pH 5–6·5) under proteaceous heath. Xylem sap analyses showed unusually high concentrations of Al, Fe, Mg and Si in dry-season samples from column-bearing roots.
Deposition of Al–Fe–Si-rich clay is pivotal to pavement construction by eucalypts and leads to profound chemical and physical changes in relevant soil profiles. Microbial associates of roots are likely to be involved in clay genesis, with parent eucalypts supplying the required key mineral elements and carbon sources. Acquisition of the Al and Fe incorporated into clay derives principally from hydraulic uplift from ground water via deeply penetrating tap roots.
Niche construction; eucalypts; root morphology; xylem transport; hydraulic lift; element mining; soil formation; biomineralization; soil pans; duplex soils
The formation of root hairs is a unique developmental process that requires the concerted action of a multitude of proteins. Root hair development is controlled by intrinsic programs, but fine-tuning of these programs occurs in response to environmental signals, dictating the shape and function of epidermal cells. In particular, low availability of soil-immobile mineral nutrients such as phosphate (Pi) affects the density and length of root hairs, resulting in an increased absorptive surface area. We recently reported on a time-course transcriptional profiling study aimed at identifying gene networks that signal Pi deficiency and mediate adaptation to Pi shortage. Using root-specific coexpression analysis of early Pi-responsive genes, we identified a subset of novel loci crucial for the development of root hairs under Pi-deficient conditions. Remodeling of cell wall structures may be associated with the TOR (Target of Rapamycin) pathway, a highly conserved central regulator of growth and development in eukaryotic cells that senses nutrient availability.
phosphate deficiency; coexpression networks; cell walls; TOR pathway; root hairs
Trichohyalin is a structural protein that is produced and retained in the cells of the inner root sheath and medulla of the hair follicle. The gene for sheep trichohyalin has been purified and the complete amino acid sequence of trichohyalin determined in an attempt to increase the understanding of the structure and function of this protein in the filamentous network of the hardened inner root sheath cells. Sheep trichohyalin has a molecular weight of 201,172 and is characterized by the presence of a high proportion of glutamate, arginine, glutamine, and leucine residues, together totaling more than 75% of the amino acids. Over 65% of trichohyalin consists of two sets of tandem peptide repeats which are based on two different consensus sequences. Trichohyalin is predicted to form an elongated alpha-helical rod structure but does not contain the sequences required for the formation of intermediate filaments. The amino terminus of trichohyalin contains two EF hand calcium-binding domains indicating that trichohyalin plays more than a structural role within the hair follicle. In situ hybridization studies have shown that trichohyalin is expressed in the epithelia of the tongue, hoof, and rumen as well as in the inner root sheath and medulla of the hair follicle.
A precursor protein associated with the formation of the citrulline- containing intermediate filaments of the hair follicle has been isolated and characterized. The protein, with a molecular weight of 190,000, was isolated from sheep wool follicles and purified until it yielded a single band on a SDS polyacrylamide gel. The Mr 190,000 protein has a high content of lysine and glutamic acid/glutamine residues and is rich in arginine residues, some of which, it is postulated, undergo a side chain conversion in situ into citrulline residues. Polyclonal antibodies were raised to the purified protein, and these cross-react with similar proteins from extracts of guinea pig and human follicles and rat vibrissae inner root sheaths. Tissue immunochemical methods have localized the Mr 190,000 protein to the trichohyalin granules of the developing inner root sheath of the wool follicle. We propose that the old term trichohyalin be retained to describe this Mr 190,000 protein. Immunoelectron microscopy has located the Mr 190,000 protein to the trichohyalin granules but not to the newly synthesized filaments. This technique has revealed that trichohyalin becomes associated with the filaments at later stages of development. These results indicate a possible matrix role for trichohyalin.
The hair erection muscle, arrector pili, is a kind of smooth muscle located in the mammalian dermis. The immunohistochemical study using an antibody against smooth muscle alpha actin (SMA) showed that the arrector pili muscle develops approximately 1–2 weeks after birth in dorsal and ventral skin, but thereafter they degenerate. The arrector pili muscle was not detected in the mystacial pad during any stage of development, even in the neighboring pelage-type hair follicle. A strong signal of SMA in the skin was located in the dermal sheath as well as in some outer root sheath cells in the hair and vibrissal follicles. Positive areas in the dermal and outer root sheaths were restricted to a lower moiety, particularly areas of similar height, where keratinization of the hair shaft occurs. This rule is valid for both pelage hair follicles and vibrissal follicles. At medium heights of the follicle, SMA staining in the dermal sheath was patchy and distant from the boundary between dermis and epidermis. In contrast to SMA, vimentin was expressed over the entire height of the dermal sheath. Unlike the arrector pili muscle, the expression of SMA in the dermal sheath was observed during fetal, neonatal, and adult stages. The presence of actin-myosin and vimentin fibers in supporting cells is thought to be beneficial for the hair follicle to cope with the movement of the hair shaft, which may be caused by physical contacts with outside materials or by the contraction of internal muscles.
hair; arrector pili muscle; smooth muscle actin; vimentin; dermal sheath
• Background and Aims Actin distribution in root hair tips is a controversial topic. Although the relationship between Ca2+ gradient and actin dynamics in plant tip-growth has been a focus of study, there is still little direct evidence on the exact relationship in root hair tip-growth.
• Methods G-actin was labelled by fluorescein isothiocyanate–DNase I. F-actin was labelled by tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate–phalloidin. Actin in root hairs of Triticum aestivum (wheat) was investigated using confocal laser-scanning microscopy.
• Key Results Thick F-actin bundles did not extend into a region of approx. 5–10 µm from the tip of the growing root hairs, although they gave off branches of fine actin filaments in the hair tips. A tip-focused G-actin gradient was shown at the extreme apex of growing root hairs. In full-grown wheat root hairs, the tip-focused G-actin gradient disappeared while the thick F-actin bundles extended into the tips. BAPTA-AM, a Ca2+ disruption agent, also caused the tip-focused G-actin gradient to disappear and the diffuse F-actin bundles to appear in the tips of wheat root hairs.
• Conclusions These results suggest that the tip-focused gradient of intracellular G-actin concentration at the extreme apex may be essential for root hair growth, and that preserving the tip-focused gradient needs a high Ca2+ concentration in the root hair tips.
G-actin; F-actin; root hairs; plant tip-growth; Ca2+; BAPTA-AM; Triticum aestivum; wheat
Dlx homeobox transcription factors regulate epidermal, neural and osteogenic cellular differentiation. Here we demonstrate the central role of Dlx3 as a crucial transcriptional regulator of hair formation and regeneration. The selective ablation of Dlx3 in the epidermis results in complete alopecia due to failure of the hair shaft and inner root sheath to form, which is caused by the abnormal differentiation of the cortex. Significantly, we elucidate the regulatory cascade that positions Dlx3 downstream of Wnt signaling and as an upstream regulator of other transcription factors that regulate hf differentiation, such as Hoxc13 and Gata3. Co-localization of phospho-SMAD1/5/8 and Dlx3 is consistent with a regulatory role of BMP signaling of Dlx3 during hair morphogenesis. Importantly, mutant catagen follicles undergo delayed regression and display persistent proliferation. Moreover, ablation of Dlx3 expression in the telogen bulge stem cells is associated with a loss of BMP signaling, precluding re-initiation of the hf growth cycle. Taken together with hf abnormalities in humans with Tricho-Dento-Osseous (TDO) syndrome, an autosomal dominant ectodermal dysplasia linked to mutations in the DLX3 gene, our results establish that Dlx3 is essential for hair morphogenesis, differentiation and cycling programs.
Agar substrates for in vitro culture are well adapted to plant micropropagation, but not to plant rooting and acclimatization. Conversely, paper-pulp-based substrates appear as potentially well adapted for in vitro culture and functional root production. To reinforce this hypothesis, this study compares in vitro development of nemesia on several substrates. Strong differences between nemesia roots growing in agar or in paper-pulp substrates were evidenced through scanning electron microscopy. Roots developed in agar have shorter hairs, larger rhizodermal cells, and less organized root caps than those growing on paper pulp. In conclusion, it should be noted that in this study, in vitro microporous substrates such as paper pulp lead to the production of similar root hairs to those found in greenhouse peat substrates. Consequently, if agar could be used for micropropagation, rooting, and plant acclimatization, enhancement could be achieved if rooting stage was performed on micro-porous substrates such as paper pulp.
Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) links integrins to the actin cytoskeleton and is believed to phosphorylate several target proteins. We report that a keratinocyte-restricted deletion of the ILK gene leads to epidermal defects and hair loss. ILK-deficient epidermal keratinocytes exhibited a pronounced integrin-mediated adhesion defect leading to epidermal detachment and blister formation, disruption of the epidermal–dermal basement membrane, and the translocation of proliferating, integrin-expressing keratinocytes to suprabasal epidermal cell layers.
The mutant hair follicles were capable of producing hair shaft and inner root sheath cells and contained stem cells and generated proliferating progenitor cells, which were impaired in their downward migration and hence accumulated in the outer root sheath and failed to replenish the hair matrix. In vitro studies with primary ILK-deficient keratinocytes attributed the migration defect to a reduced migration velocity and an impaired stabilization of the leading-edge lamellipodia, which compromised directional and persistent migration. We conclude that ILK plays important roles for epidermis and hair follicle morphogenesis by modulating integrin-mediated adhesion, actin reorganization, and plasma membrane dynamics in keratinocytes.
We used bright-field, time-lapse video, cross-polarized, phase-contrast, and fluorescence microscopies to examine the influence of isolated chitolipooligosaccharides (CLOSs) from wild-type Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii on development of white clover root hairs, and the role of these bioactive glycolipids in primary host infection. CLOS action caused a threefold increase in the differentiation of root epidermal cells into root hairs. At maturity, root hairs were significantly longer because of an extended period of active elongation without a change in the elongation rate itself. Time-series image analysis showed that the morphological basis of CLOS-induced root hair deformation is a redirection of tip growth displaced from the medial axis as previously predicted. Further studies showed several newly described infection-related root hair responses to CLOSs, including the localized disruption of the normal crystallinity in cell wall architecture and the induction of new infection sites. The application of CLOS also enabled a NodC- mutant of R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii to progress further in the infection process by inducing bright refractile spot modifications of the deformed root hair walls. However, CLOSs did not rescue the ability of the NodC- mutant to induce marked curlings or infection threads within root hairs. These results indicate that CLOS Nod factors elicit several host responses that modulate the growth dynamics and symbiont infectibility of white clover root hairs but that CLOSs alone are not sufficient to permit successful entry of the bacteria into root hairs during primary host infection in the Rhizobium-clover symbiosis.
The interaction between Rhizobium lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and white clover roots was examined. The Limulus lysate assay indicated that Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii (hereafter called R. trifolii) released LPS into the external root environment of slide cultures. Immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy showed that purified LPS from R. trifolii 0403 bound rapidly to root hair tips and infiltrated across the root hair wall. Infection thread formation in root hairs was promoted by preinoculation treatment of roots with R. trifolii LPS at a low dose (up to 5 micrograms per plant) but inhibited at a higher dose. This biological activity of LPS was restricted to the region of the root present at the time of exposure to LPS, higher with LPS from cells in the early stationary phase than in the mid-exponential phase, incubation time dependent, incapable of reversing inhibition of infection by NO3- or NH4+, and conserved among serologically distinct LPSs from several wild-type R. trifolii strains (0403, 2S-2, and ANU843). In contrast, infections were not increased by preinoculation treatment of roots with LPSs from R. leguminosarum bv. viciae strain 300, R. meliloti 102F28, or members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Most infection threads developed successfully in root hairs pretreated with R. trifolii LPS, whereas many infections aborted near their origins and accumulated brown deposits if pretreated with LPS from R. meliloti 102F28. LPS from R. leguminosarum 300 also caused most infection threads to abort. Other specific responses of root hairs to infection-stimulating LPS from R. trifolii included acceleration of cytoplasmic streaming and production of novel proteins. Combined gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and proton nuclear magnetic resonance analyses indicated that biologically active LPS from R. trifolii 0403 in the early stationary phase had less fucose but more 2-O-methylfucose, quinovosamine, 3,6-dideoxy-3-(methylamino)galactose, and noncarbohydrate substituents (O-methyl, N-methyl, and acetyl groups) on glycosyl components than did inactive LPS in the mid-exponential phase. We conclude that LPS-root hair interactions trigger metabolic events that have a significant impact on successful development of infection threads in this Rhizobium-legume symbiosis.
Background and Aims
Basic information about the root and root nodule structure of leguminous crop plants is incomplete, with many aspects remaining unresolved. Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) forms root nodules in a unique process. Structures of various peanut root types were studied with emphasis on insufficiently characterized lateral roots, changes in roots during their ontogenesis and root modification by nodule formation.
Peanut plants were grown in the field, in vermiculite or in filter paper. The taproot, first-order and second-order lateral roots and root nodules were analysed using bright-field and fluorescence microscopy with hand sections and resin sections.
Three root categories were recognized. The primary seminal root was thick, exhibiting early and intensive secondary thickening mainly on its base. It was tetrarch and contained broad pith. First-order lateral roots were long and thin, with limited secondary thickening; they contained no pith. Particularly different were second- and higher-order lateral roots, which were anatomically simple and thin, with little or no secondary growth. Unusual wall ingrowths were visible in the cells of the central part of the cortex in the first-order and second-order lateral roots. The nodule body was formed at the junction of the primary and lateral roots by the activity of proliferating cells derived originally from the pericycle.
Two morphologically and anatomically distinct types of lateral roots were recognized: long, first-order lateral roots, forming the skeleton of the root system, and thin and short second- and higher-order lateral roots, with an incomplete second state of endodermal development, which might be classified as peanut ‘feeder roots’. Formation of root nodules at the base of the lateral roots was the result of proliferating cell divisions derived originally from the pericycle.
Endodermis; lateral root structure; nodule structure; peanut; Arachis hypogaea; primary root structure
Strawberry roots were sampled through the year to determine the populations and distribution of Pratylenchus penetrans and Meloidogyne hapla. Three strawberry root types were sampled—structural roots; feeder roots without secondary tissues; and suberized, black perennial roots. Both lesion and root-knot nematodes primarily infected feeder roots from structural roots or healthy perennial roots. Few nematodes were recovered from soil, diseased roots, or suberized roots. Lesion nematode recovery was correlated with healthy roots. In both 1997 and 1998, P. penetrans populations peaked about day 150 (end of May) and then declined. The decline in numbers corresponded to changes in total strawberry root weight and root type distribution. The loss of nematode habitat resulted from loss of roots due to disease and the transition from structural to suberized perennial roots. Meloidogyne hapla juvenile recovery peaked around 170 days (mid June) in 1997 and at 85, 147, 229, and 308 days (late March, late May, mid August, and early November, respectively) in 1998. There appear to be at least four generations per year of M. hapla in Connecticut. Diagnostic samples from an established strawberry bed may be most reliable and useful when they include feeder roots taken in late May.
black root rot; Fragaria × ananassa; lesion nematode; Meloidogyne hapla; population dynamics; Pratylenchus penetrans; Rhizoctonia fragariae; root-knot nematode; strawberry
Tooth root development begins after the completion of crown formation in mammals. Previous studies have shown that Hertwig's epithelial root sheath (HERS) plays an important role in root development, but the fate of HERS has remained unknown. In order to investigate the morphological fate and analyze the dynamic movement of HERS cells in vivo, we generated K14-Cre;R26R mice. HERS cells are detectable on the surface of the root throughout root formation and do not disappear. Most of the HERS cells are attached to the surface of the cementum, and others separate to become the epithelial rest of Malasez. HERS cells secrete extracellular matrix components onto the surface of the dentin before dental follicle cells penetrate the HERS network to contact dentin. HERS cells also participate in the cementum development and may differentiate into cementocytes. During root development, the HERS is not interrupted, and instead the HERS cells continue to communicate with each other through the network structure. Furthermore, HERS cells interact with cranial neural crest derived mesenchyme to guide root development. Taken together, the network of HERS cells is crucial for tooth root development.
HERS; tooth root; Cre recombinase; LacZ; ROSA26 conditional reporter (R26R); K14 promoter; Wnt1 promoter
We show that removing the Shh signal tranducer Smoothened from skin epithelium secondarily results in excess Shh levels in the mesenchyme. Moreover, the phenotypes we observe reflect decreased epithelial Shh signaling, yet increased mesenchymal Shh signaling. For example, the latter contributes to exuberant hair follicle (HF) induction, while the former depletes the resulting follicular stem cell niches. This disruption of the niche apparently also allows the remaining stem cells to initiate hair formation at inappropriate times. Thus, the temporal structure of the hair cycle may depend on the physical structure of the niche. Finally, we find that the ablation of epithelial Shh signaling results in unexpected transformations: the follicular outer root sheath takes on an epidermal character, and certain HFs disappear altogether, having adopted a strikingly mammary gland-like fate. Overall, our study uncovers a multifaceted function for Shh in sculpting and maintaining the integrity and identity of the developing HF.
The association between grass roots and Azospirillum brasilense Sp 7 was investigated by the Fahraeus slide technique, using nitrogen-free medium. Young inoculated roots of pearl millet and guinea grass produced more mucilaginous sheath (mucigel), root hairs, and lateral roots than did uninoculated sterile controls. The bacteria were found within the mucigel that accumulated on the root cap and along the root axes. Adherent bacteria were associated with granular material on root hairs and fibrillar material on undifferentiated epidermal cells. Significantly fewer numbers of azospirilla attached to millet root hairs when the roots were grown in culture medium supplemented with 5 mM potassium nitrate. Under these growth conditions, bacterial attachment to undifferentiated epidermal cells was unaffected. Aseptically collected root exudate from pearl millet contained substances which bound to azospirilla and promoted their adsorption to the root hairs. This activity was associated with nondialyzable and proteasesensitive substances in root exudate. Millet root hairs adsorbed azospirilla in significantly higher numbers than cells of Rhizobium, Pseudomonas, Azotobacter, Klebsiella, or Escherichia. Pectolytic activities, including pectin transeliminase and endopolygalacturonase, were detected in pure cultures of A. brasilense when this species was grown in a medium containing pectin. These studies describe colonization of grass root surfaces by A. brasilense and provide a possible explanation for the limited colonization of intercellular spaces of the outer root cortex.
We report the dermoscopic features of pemphigus vulgaris (PV) involving the scalp of a 57-year-old African-American female. Among our findings, there were hair casts – movable tubular structures that envelop the hair shafts. We suggest that the development of those casts occurs through acantholysis within the outer root sheath, a mechanism not yet considered in the literature. This report also highlights how dermoscopy may contribute to the evaluation of disease activity, especially in those cases of PV in which scalp involvement is recalcitrant to treatment. Finally, we recommend that the presence of hair casts should herald the need of therapy adjustment for better disease control.
Alopecia; dermoscopy; hair casts; pemphigus vulgaris
The root epidermis is composed of two cell types: trichoblasts (or hair cells) and atrichoblasts (or non-hair cells). In lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv. Grand Rapids var. Rapidmor oscura) plants grown hydroponically in water, the root epidermis did not form root hairs. The addition of 10 µM sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a nitric oxide (NO) donor, resulted in almost all rhizodermal cells differentiated into root hairs. Treatment with the synthetic auxin 1-naphthyl acetic acid (NAA) displayed a significant increase of root hair formation (RHF) that was prevented by the specific NO scavenger carboxy-PTIO (cPTIO). In Arabidopsis, two mutants have been shown to be defective in NO production and to display altered phenotypes in which NO is implicated. Arabidopsis nos1 has a mutation in an NO synthase structural gene (NOS1), and the nia1 nia2 double mutant is null for nitrate reductase (NR) activity. We observed that both mutants were affected in their capacity of developing root hairs. Root hair elongation was significantly reduced in nos1 and nia1 nia2 mutants as well as in cPTIO-treated wild type plants. A correlation was found between endogenous NO level in roots detected by the fluorescent probe DAF-FM DA and RHF. In Arabidopsis, as well as in lettuce, cPTIO blocked the NAA-induced root hair elongation. Taken together, these results indicate that: (1) NO is a critical molecule in the process leading to RHF and (2) NO is involved in the auxin-signaling cascade leading to RHF.
auxin; nitric oxide; root hair; lettuce; arabidopsis; nos1 mutant; nia1; nia2 mutant
A split-root technique was used to examine the interaction between Pratylenchus penetrans and the cortical root-rotting pathogen Rhizoctonia fragariae in strawberry black root rot. Plants inoculated with both pathogens on the same half of a split-root crown had greater levels of root rot than plants inoculated separately or with either pathogen alone. Isolation of R. fragariae from field-grown roots differed with root type and time of sampling. Fungal infection of structural roots was low until fruiting, whereas perennial root colonization was high. Isolation of R. fragariae from feeder roots was variable, but was greater from feeder roots on perennial than from structural roots. Isolation of the fungus was greater from structural roots with nematode lesions than from non-symptomatic roots. Rhizoctonia fragariae was a common resident on the sloughed cortex of healthy perennial roots. From this source, the fungus may infect additional roots. The direct effects of lesion nematode feeding and movement are cortical cell damage and death. Indirect effects include discoloration of the endodermis and early polyderm formation. Perhaps weakened or dying cells caused directly or indirectly by P. penetrans are more susceptible to R. fragariae, leading to increased disease.
black root rot; Fragaria × ananassa; interaction; lesion nematode; Pratylenchus penetrans; Rhizoctonia fragariae; strawberry
• Background and Aims Aerenchyma formation in maize adventitious roots is induced in nutrient solution by the deprivation of sulfate (S) under well-oxygenated conditions. The aim of this research was to examine the extent of aerenchyma formation in the cortex of sulfate-deprived adventitious roots along the root axis, in correlation with the presence of reactive oxygen species (ROS), calcium levels and pH of cortex cells and root lignification.
• Methods The morphometry of the second whorl of adventitious (W2) roots, subject to S-deprivation conditions throughout development, was recorded in terms of root length and lateral root length and distribution. W2 roots divided into sectors according to the mean length of lateral roots, and cross-sections of each were examined for aerenchyma. In-situ detection of alterations in ROS presence, calcium levels and pH were performed by means of fluorescence microscopy using H2DCF-DA, fluo-3AM and BCECF, respectively. Lignification was detected using the Wiesner test.
• Key Results S-deprivation reduced shoot growth and enhanced root proliferation. Aerenchyma was found in the cortex of 77 % of the root length, particularly in the region of emerging or developing lateral roots. The basal and apical sectors had no aerenchyma and no aerenchyma connection was found with the shoot. S-deprivation resulted in alterations of ROS, calcium levels and pH in aerenchymatous sectors compared with the basal non-aerenchymatous region. Lignified epidermal layers were located at the basal and the proximal sectors. S-deprivation resulted in shorter lateral roots in the upper sectors and in a limited extension of the lignified layers towards the next lateral root carrying sector.
• Conclusions Lateral root proliferation is accompanied by spatially localized induced cell death in the cortex of developing young maize adventitious roots during S-deprivation.
Adventitious root; aerenchyma; calcium; lateral root; lignification; reactive oxygen species; sulfate deprivation; Zea mays
ADAM proteases play important roles in processes of development and differentiation. However, no report has been found in the literature addressing the expression and function of ADAM proteases during hair cycling.
Cytoplasmic expression pattern of ADAM 10, 12 was similar between normal epidermis and hair infundibulum. In addition, cytoplasmic expression of ADAM 10 was observed in the hair bulb keratinocytes and fibroblasts of dermal papilla in anagen I–III hair follicles. In contrast, decreased ADAM 10 expression was observed in the hair matrix keratinocytes as compared to the hair bulb keratinocytes in anagen I–III hair follicles. Interestingly, ADAM 10 immunoreactivity was expressed weakly in the lower portion of outer root sheath (ORS) of anagen VI hair follicles, and strong ADAM 10 expression was detected in the ORS of catagen and telogen hair follicles. By contrast, ADAM 12 expression was not detected in the hair bulb keratinocytes of anagen I–III hair follicles. ADAM 12 immunoreactivity firstly appeared in the inner root sheath ( IRS ) of anagen IV—V hair follicles and was down-regulated in the IRS and hair cortex and medulla of catagen hair follicles, Strong ADAM 12 immunoreactivity was observed in the ORS of catagen and telogen hair follicles.
Material and methods
Samples of normal human skin (n = 30) were used. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed using ADAM 10, 12 specific polyclonal antibodies and a sensitive streptavidin-peroxidase technique.
Our study demonstrates a comparable staining pattern of decreased ADAM 10 immunoreactivity in hair matrix keratinocytes and the basal cell layer of normal epidermis and hair infundibulum. Expression of ADAM 10 in dermal papilla cells may imply a role in the induction and development of anagen hair follicles. In addition, expression of ADAM 10 in the ORS and hair bulb assume the involvment of ADAM 10 in the downward migration of anagen hair follicles. Furthermore ADAM 12 expression in the IRS may indicate a role in the differentiation of anagen hair follicles. Downregulation of ADAM 12 upon the onset of catagen hair stage suggests that ADAM 12 may play an important role of ADAM 12 in the apoptosis of hair follicle keratinocytes. In summary our findings suggest that ADAM 10 and 12 may be of importance for the regulation of hair cycling.
ADAM 10; ADAM 12; hair cycle; immunohistochemistry; hair follicle
SCRAMBLED (SCM), a leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase, mediates positional signaling and cell-type pattern formation in the epidermis of Arabidopsis roots. The precise mechanism of SCM action has been unclear. In a recent report, we find that accumulation of the SCM-GFP fusion protein varies in a cell-type-specific manner during root epidermis development. At early stages, SCM-GFP accumulates equally in both root-hair cells and nonhair cells, but at later stages of epidermis development, it accumulates preferentially in root-hair cells. The importance of epidermal production of SCM was demonstrated by epidermis-specific SCM-GFP silencing, which caused an epidermal patterning defect. Further, the expression of SCM-GFP by a root-hair-cell promoter complements the scm-2 epidermal defect completely, whereas a non-hair-cell promoter complements the scm-2 epidermal phenotype partially. From these results we conclude that the spatial distribution of a positional cue and the accumulation of the SCM receptor are both required for optimal positional signaling in epidermal patterning.
Arabidopsis; cell fate; leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase; pattern formation; positional signaling; root epidermis; root hairs
Population dynamics, rate of root penetration, and external root feeding behavior of Pratylenchus agilis (Pa) in monoxenic cultures of intact corn seedlings and root explants of corn, tomato, and soybean were studied. In descending order of suitability as hosts were I. O. Chief corn, Rutgers tomato, and Williams soybean. Soybean entries Kent, Pickett 71, PI 90763, and Essex were poor hosts. Numbers of eggs and vermiform Pa in the agar medium indicated total fecundity and host suitability. Agar, sand, or soil as support media did not appear to affect Pa root penetration, but the rate of corn root growth did. Whereas most vermiform Pa and eggs were in roots, substantial numbers appeared able to feed and complete their life cycle as ectoparasites on root epidermal cells and root hairs.
corn; ectoparasite; feeding behavior; Glycine max; host; lesion nematode; Lycopersicon esculentum; population dynamics; Pratylenchus agilis; resistance; root population; soybean; technique; tissue culture; tomato; Zea mays