Background and Aims
The geographic distribution of the genus Plectocephalus comprises a single species in Ethiopia, two in North America and possibly four more in South America, in a striking disjunction that is exceptional for genera of the tribe Cardueae. The enormity of this disjunction cast doubts on the precise taxonomic delineation of the genus, which is not unanimously recognized as a natural entity. The aims of this study were to define the generic boundaries of Plectocephalus and to formulate a hypothesis that would explain its natural range.
A combined molecular approach, using nuclear internal transcribed spacers (ITS) and external transcribed spacers (ETS), and plastid trnL-trnL-F, rpl32-trnLUAG and ndhF markers, was chosen for phylogenetic reconstruction by maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference.
Phylogenetic analysis shows that Plectocephalus is a natural genus that includes the African species P. varians, together with all the native South American species, currently classified as Centaurea, C. cachinalensis, C. floccosa and C. tweediei. The recognition of Centaurodendron as an independent genus, which we consider appropriate, would make Plectocephalus paraphyletic. Affinities of Plectocephalus should lie with eastern representatives of Centaureinae. Geographic disjunction is explained as a consequence of dispersal via the Bering Land Bridge during the Miocene–Pliocene. The phylogeny of the basal grade of Centaureinae differs from previous phylogenies, and artefacts resulting from differences in mutation rates of annual and perennial taxa are confirmed. Sensitivity of ITS to these differences was the highest observed for all DNA regions used in this study.
The natural status of the genus Plectocephalus is confirmed and several nomenclatural combinations are proposed. New evidence contributes to the debate concerning problems posed by the use of ITS in the phylogenetic reconstruction of groups that differ in terms of their life cycles. Dispersal from Caucasus and Anatolia along the Siberian route and then across the Bering Land Bridge follows a route previously proposed for other taxonomic groups.
Plectocephalus; Compositae; Cardueae; Centaureinae; Centaurea; Bering Land Bridge; ETS; ITS; migration; ndhF; phylogeny; rpl32-trnLUAG; trnL-trnL-F
► Phylogenetic relationships are reconstructed within Myrceugenia. ► Genus Myrceugenia is monophyletic only when M. fernandeziana is excluded. ► Chilean and Brazilian species are two separate lineages. ► Brazilian species are included in a derived monophyletic group.
Myrceugenia is a genus endemic to South America with a disjunct distribution: 12 species occurring mainly in central Chile and approximately 25 in southeastern Brazil. Relationships are reconstructed within Myrceugenia from four plastid markers (partial trnK-matK, rpl32-trnL, trnQ-5′rps16 and rpl16) and two ribosomal nuclear regions (ETS and ITS) using maximum parsimony and Bayesian analyses. Relationships inferred previously from morphological data are not completely consistent with those from molecular data. All molecular analyses support the hypothesis that Myrceugenia is monophyletic, except for M. fernadeziana that falls outside the genus. Chilean species and Brazilian species form two separate lineages. Chilean species form three early diverging clades, whereas Brazilian species are a strongly supported monophyletic group in a terminal position. Least average evolutionary divergence, low resolution, short branches, and high species diversity found in the Brazilian clade suggest rapid radiation. Geographical distributions and phylogenetic reconstructions suggest that extant Myrceugenia species arose in northern Chile followed by colonization southward and finally to the Juan Fernández Islands and southeastern Brazil.
Blepharocalyx; cpDNA; ETS; ITS; Luma; Myrteae; Myrceugenia; South America
Background and Aims
Polyploidy is a central force structuring genetic diversity in angiosperms, but its ecological significance and modes of origin are not fully understood. This work investigated the patterns of coexistence and molecular relatedness of polyploids in the perennial herb, Arnica cordifolia.
The local- and broad-scale distributions of cytotypes were analysed using flow cytometry. Samples were collected from both roadside and understorey habitats to test the hypothesis of niche separation between triploids and tetraploids. The nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and plastid rpl16 spacer, trnL intron plus trnL-trnF spacer and trnK 3' intron regions were sequenced.
Broad-scale sampling established that both triploids and tetraploids were common throughout the range of the species, pentaploids were rare, and diploids were not found. Local-scale sampling revealed coexistence of both triploids and tetraploids within the majority of sites. Triploids and tetraploids were equally represented in the understorey and roadside habitat. Triploids were more variable than tetraploids, but both cytotypes shared polymorphisms in ITS.
Coexistence of cytotypes appears to be the norm in A. cordifolia, but habitat differentiation (roadside vs. understorey) is not supported as a coexistence mechanism. Molecular analyses supported multiple events creating triploids but revealed a lack of variation in the tetraploids. Additionally, sequence polymorphisms in ITS suggested a hybridization event prior to polyploidization.
Apomixis; Arnica cordifolia; flow cytometry; habitat differentiation; minority cytotype exclusion theory; polyploidy
Background and Aims
Laeliinae are a neotropical orchid subtribe with approx. 1500 species in 50 genera. In this study, an attempt is made to assess generic alliances based on molecular phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequence data.
Six DNA datasets were gathered: plastid trnL intron, trnL-F spacer, matK gene and trnK introns upstream and dowstream from matK and nuclear ITS rDNA. Data were analysed with maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayesian analysis with mixed models (BA).
Although relationships between Laeliinae and outgroups are well supported, within the subtribe sequence variation is low considering the broad taxonomic range covered. Localized incongruence between the ITS and plastid trees was found. A combined tree followed the ITS trees more closely, but the levels of support obtained with MP were low. The Bayesian analysis recovered more well-supported nodes. The trees from combined MP and BA allowed eight generic alliances to be recognized within Laeliinae, all of which show trends in morphological characters but lack unambiguous synapomorphies.
By using combined plastid and nuclear DNA data in conjunction with mixed-models Bayesian inference, it is possible to delimit smaller groups within Laeliinae and discuss general patterns of pollination and hybridization compatibility. Furthermore, these small groups can now be used for further detailed studies to explain morphological evolution and diversification patterns within the subtribe.
Laeliinae; Orchidaceae; ITS; trnL intron; trnL-F spacer; matK
Plastid trnL-trnF and nuclear ribosomal ITS sequences were obtained from selected wild-type individuals of Polygonum minus Huds. in Peninsular Malaysia. The 380 bp trnL-trnF sequences of the Polygonum minus accessions were identical. Therefore, the trnL-trnF failed to distinguish between the Polygonum minus accessions. However, the divergence of ITS sequences (650 bp) among the Polygonum minus accessions was 1%, indicating that these accessions could be distinguished by the ITS sequences. A phylogenetic relationship based on the ITS sequences was inferred using neighbor-joining, maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference. All of the tree topologies indicated that Polygonum minus from Peninsular Malaysia is unique and different from the synonymous Persicaria minor (Huds.) Opiz and Polygonum kawagoeanum Makino.
ITS; phylogenetics; plastid DNA; Polygonum minus; trnL-trnF
Background and Aims
Phylogenetic relationships of subtribes Cranichidinae and Prescottiinae, two diverse groups of neotropical terrestrial orchids, are not satisfactorily understood. A previous molecular phylogenetic study supported monophyly for Cranichidinae, but Prescottiinae consisted of two clades not sister to one another. However, that analysis included only 11 species and eight genera of these subtribes. Here, plastid and nuclear DNA sequences are analysed for an enlarged sample of genera and species of Cranichidinae and Prescottiinae with the aim of clarifying their relationships, evaluating the phylogenetic position of the monospecific genera Exalaria, Ocampoa and Pseudocranichis and examining the value of various structural traits as taxonomic markers.
Approx. 6000 bp of nucleotide sequences from nuclear ribosomal (ITS) and plastid DNA (rbcL, matK-trnK and trnL-trnF) were analysed with cladistic parsimony and Bayesian inference for 45 species/14 genera of Cranichidinae and Prescottiinae (plus suitable outgroups). The utility of flower orientation, thickenings of velamen cell walls, hamular viscidium and pseudolabellum to mark clades recovered by the molecular analysis was assessed by tracing these characters on the molecular trees.
Spiranthinae, Cranichidinae, paraphyletic Prescottia (with Pseudocranichis embedded), and a group of mainly Andean ‘prescottioid’ genera (the ‘Stenoptera clade’) were strongly supported. Relationships among these clades were unresolved by parsimony but the Bayesian tree provided moderately strong support for the resolution (Spiranthinae–(Stenoptera clade-(Prescottia/Pseudocranichis–Cranichidinae))). Three of the four structural characters mark clades on the molecular trees, but the possession of a pseudolabellum is variable in the polyphyletic Ponthieva.
No evidence was found for monophyly of Prescottiinae and the reinstatement of Cranichidinae s.l. (including the genera of ‘Prescottiinae’) is favoured. Cranichidinae s.l. are diagnosed by non-resupinate flowers. Lack of support from parsimony for relationships among the major clades of core spiranthids is suggestive of a rapid morphological radiation or a slow rate of molecular evolution.
Cranichideae; Cranichidinae; matK-trnK; molecular phylogenetics; nrITS; Orchidaceae; Prescottiinae; resupination; trnL-trnF
Background and Aims
Studies examining patterns and processes of speciation in South America are fewer than in North America and Europe. One of the least well documented processes has been progenitor–derivative speciation. A particularly instructive example occurs in the southern Andes in the genus Pozoa (Apiaceae, Azorelloideae), which consists of only two diploid outcrossing species, the widespread P. coriacea and the geographically and ecologically restricted P. volcanica. This paper tests the hypothesis that the latter species originated from the former through local geographical and ecological isolation by progenitor–derivative speciation.
DNA sequences were analysed from Pozoa and the related South American genera Asteriscium, Eremocharis and Gymnophyton from non-coding regions of the plastid genome, ndhF-rpl32 and rpl32-trnL, plus incorporation of previously reported rpl16 intron and trnD-trnT intergenic spacer sequences. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) data from 105 individuals in 21 populations throughout the entire range of distribution of the genus were used for estimation of genetic diversity, divergence and SplitsTree network analysis. Ecological factors, including habitat and associated species, were also examined.
Pozoa coriacea is more similar genetically to the outgroup genera, Asteriscium and Eremocharis, than is P. volcanica. At the population level, only P. volcanica is monophyletic, whereas P. coriacea is paraphyletic. Analyses of genetic differentiation among populations and genetic divergence and diversity of the species show highest values in P. coriacea and clear reductions in P. volcanica. Pozoa coriacea occurs in several types of high elevation habitats, whereas P. volcanica is found only in newly formed open volcanic ash zones.
All facts support that Pozoa represents a good example of progenitor–derivative speciation in the Andes of southern South America.
AFLP; Andes mountains; Apiaceae; DNA sequencing; genetic diversity; geographical origin; Pozoa coriacea; P. volcanica; speciation
Background and Aims
Gagea is a Eurasian genus of petaloid monocots, with a few species in North Africa, comprising between 70 and approximately 275 species depending on the author. Lloydia (thought to be the closest relative of Gagea) consists of 12–20 species that have a mostly eastern Asian distribution. Delimitation of these genera and their subdivisions are unresolved questions in Liliaceae taxonomy. The objective of this study is to evaluate generic and infrageneric circumscription of Gagea and Lloydia using DNA sequence data.
A phylogenetic study of Gagea and Lloydia (Liliaceae) was conducted using sequences of nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and plastid (rpl16 intron, trnL intron, trnL-F spacer, matK and the psbA-trnH spacer) DNA regions. This included 149 accessions (seven as outgroups), with multiple accessions of some taxa; 552 sequences were included, of which 393 were generated as part of this research.
A close relationship of Gagea and Lloydia was confirmed in analyses using different datasets, but neither Gagea nor Lloydia forms a monophyletic group as currently circumscribed; however, the ITS and plastid analyses did not produce congruent results for the placement of Lloydia relative to the major groups within Gagea. Gagea accessions formed five moderately to strongly supported clades in all trees, with most Lloydia taxa positioned at the basal nodes; in the strict consensus trees from the combined data a basal polytomy occurs. There is limited congruence between the classical, morphology-derived infrageneric taxonomy in Gagea (including Lloydia) and clades in the present phylogenetic analyses.
The analyses support monophyly of Gagea/Lloydia collectively, and they clearly comprise a single lineage, as some previous authors have hypothesized. The results provide the basis for a new classification of Gagea that has support from some morphological features. Incongruence between plastid and nuclear ITS results is interpreted as potentially due to ancient hybridization and/or paralogy of ITS rDNA.
Gagea; Lloydia; Liliaceae; ITS ribosomal DNA sequences; plastid DNA sequences
Backgrounds and Aims
Twenty-five genera having sterile inflorescence branches were recognized as the bristle clade within the x = 9 Paniceae (Panicoideae). Within the bristle clade, taxonomic circumscription of Cenchrus (20–25 species), Pennisetum (80–140) and the monotypic Odontelytrum is still unclear. Several criteria have been applied to characterize Cenchrus and Pennisetum, but none of these has proved satisfactory as the diagnostic characters, such as fusion of bristles in the inflorescences, show continuous variation.
A phylogenetic analysis based on morphological, plastid (trnL-F, ndhF) and nuclear (knotted) data is presented for a representative species sampling of the genera. All analyses were conducted under parsimony, using heuristic searches with TBR branch swapping. Branch support was assessed with parsimony jackknifing.
Based on plastid and morphological data, Pennisetum, Cenchrus and Odontelytrum were supported as a monophyletic group: the PCO clade. Only one section of Pennisetum (Brevivalvula) was supported as monophyletic. The position of P. lanatum differed among data partitions, although the combined plastid and morphology and nuclear analyses showed this species to be a member of the PCO clade. The basic chromosome number x = 9 was found to be plesiomorphic, and x = 5, 7, 8, 10 and 17 were derived states. The nuclear phylogenetic analysis revealed a reticulate pattern of relationships among Pennisetum and Cenchrus, suggesting that there are at least three different genomes. Because apomixis can be transferred among species through hybridization, its history most likely reflects crossing relationships, rather than multiple independent appearances.
Due to the consistency between the present results and different phylogenetic hypotheses (including morphological, developmental and multilocus approaches), and the high support found for the PCO clade, also including the type species of the three genera, we propose unification of Pennisetum, Cenchrus and Odontelytrum. Species of Pennisetum and Odontelytrum are here transferred into Cenchrus, which has priority. Sixty-six new combinations are made here.
Pennisetum; Cenchrus; Odontelytrum; Poaceae; phylogenetic analyses; ndhF; trnL-trnF; kn1; apomixis
Background and Aims
The main assemblage of the grass subfamily Chloridoideae is the largest known clade of C4 plant species, with the notable exception of Eragrostis walteri Pilg., whose leaf anatomy has been described as typical of C3 plants. Eragrostis walteri is therefore classically hypothesized to represent an exceptional example of evolutionary reversion from C4 to C3 photosynthesis. Here this hypothesis is tested by verifying the photosynthetic type of E. walteri and its classification.
Carbon isotope analyses were used to determine the photosynthetic pathway of several E. walteri accessions, and phylogenetic analyses of plastid rbcL and ndhF and nuclear internal transcribed spacer DNA sequences were used to establish the phylogenetic position of the species.
Carbon isotope analyses confirmed that E. walteri is a C3 plant. However, phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that this species has been misclassified, showing that E. walteri is positioned outside Chloridoideae in Arundinoideae, a subfamily comprised entirely of C3 species.
The long-standing hypothesis of C4 to C3 reversion in E. walteri is rejected, and the classification of this species needs to be re-evaluated.
C4 photosynthesis; evolution; reversion; Eragrostis; Chloridoideae; Arundinoideae; Poaceae; Africa; Namibia
The plastid ndhH–D operon produces several transcripts containing ndhA sequence with and without its group II intron. After sequencing an 8125 bp fragment of barley plastid DNA including the ndhH–D operon, we investigated the editing–splicing status of transcripts in the range 1.0–7.8 kb. Reverse transcription and sequencing of RNA bands separated by electrophoresis were used to determine C→U editing sites. Sites I, II and IV of ndhA and site V of ndhD were edited in all transcripts analysed and, probably, were edited before any splicing had taken place. In contrast, site III of ndhA (13 bp from the 5′-end base of the second exon) was not edited in transcripts containing the intron (including the 1.7 kb intermediary transcript consisting of the intron and the second exon) but was edited in all transcripts lacking the ndhA intron. Comparison of the secondary structures of the ndhA intron and intron–second exon intermediate suggests that G pairing prevents editing of site III in transcripts containing the intron and maintains the secondary structure required for splicing. Splicing of the ndhA intron releases the site III C from pairing and, probably, brings it close to cis- acting elements for editing upstream in the first exon.
The genus Remusatia (Araceae) includes four species distributed in the tropical and subtropical Old World. The phylogeny of Remusatia was constructed using parsimony and Bayesian analyses of sequence data from three plastid regions (the rbcL gene, the trnL-trnF intergenic spacer, and the rps16 intron). Phylogenetic analyses of the concatenated plastid data suggested that the monophyly of Remusatia was not supported because R. hookeriana did not form a clade with the other three species R. vivipara, R. yunnanensis, and R. pumila. Nevertheless, the topology of the analysis constraining Remusatia to monophyly was congruent with the topology of the unconstrained analysis. The results confirmed the inclusion of the previously separate genus Gonatanthus within Remusatia and disagreed with the current infrageneric classification of the genus.
Araceae; phylogeny; Remusatia; taxonomy
The complexity of the plastid transcriptional apparatus (two or three different RNA polymerases and numerous regulatory proteins) makes it very difficult to attribute specific function(s) to its individual components. We have characterized an Arabidopsis T-DNA insertion line disrupting the nuclear gene coding for one of the six plastid sigma factors (SIG4) that regulate the activity of the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase PEP. This mutant shows a specific diminution of transcription of the plastid ndhF gene, coding for a subunit of the plastid NDH [NAD(P)H dehydrogenase] complex. The absence of another NDH subunit, i.e. NDHH, and the absence of a chlorophyll fluorescence transient previously attributed to the activity of the plastid NDH complex indicate a strong down-regulation of NDH activity in the mutant plants. Results suggest that plastid NDH activity is regulated on the transcriptional level by an ndhF-specific plastid sigma factor, SIG4.
Past studies in the legume family (Fabaceae) have uncovered several evolutionary trends including differential mutation and diversification rates across varying taxonomic levels. The legume tribe Psoraleeae is shown herein to exemplify these trends at the generic and species levels. This group includes a sizable diversification within North America dated at approximately 6.3 million years ago with skewed species distribution to the most recently derived genus, Pediomelum, suggesting a diversification rate shift. We estimate divergence dates of North American (NAm) Psoraleeae using Bayesian MCMC sampling in BEAST based on eight DNA regions (ITS, waxy, matK, trnD-trnT, trnL-trnF, trnK, trnS-trnG, and rpoB-trnC). We also test the hypothesis of a diversification rate shift within NAm Psoraleeae using topological and temporal methods. We investigate the impact of climate change on diversification in this group by (1) testing the hypothesis that a shift from mesic to xeric habitats acted as a key innovation and (2) investigating diversification rate shifts along geologic time, discussing the impact of Quaternary climate oscillations on diversification.
NAm Psoraleeae represents a recent, rapid radiation with several genera originating during the Pleistocene, 1 to 2 million years ago. A shift in diversification rate is supported by both methods with a 2.67-fold increase suggested around 2 million years ago followed by a 8.73-fold decrease 440,000 years ago. The hypothesis that a climate regime shift from mesic to xeric habitats drove increased diversification in affected taxa was not supported. Timing of the diversification rate increase supports the hypothesis that glaciation-induced climate changes during the Quaternary influenced diversification of the group. Nonrandom spatial diversification also exists, with greater species richness in the American Southwest.
This study outlines NAm Psoraleeae as a model example of a recent, rapid radiation. Diversification rate shifts in NAm Psoraleeae are not due to current climate regimes as represented by habitat, but instead to past global climate change resulting from Quaternary glaciations. NAm Psoraleeae diversification is a good example of how earthly dynamics including global climate change and topography work together to shape biodiversity.
Background and Aims
The phylogenetic relationships between species of Coffea and Psilanthus remain poorly understood, owing to low levels of sequence variation recovered in previous studies, coupled with relatively limited species sampling. In this study, the relationships between Coffea and Psilanthus species are assessed based on substantially increased molecular sequence data and greatly improved species sampling.
Phylogenetic relationships are assessed using parsimony, with sequence data from four plastid regions [trnL–F intron, trnL–F intergenic spacer (IGS), rpl16 intron and accD–psa1 IGS], and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of nuclear rDNA (ITS 1/5·8S/ITS 2). Supported lineages in Coffea are discussed within the context of geographical correspondence, biogeography, morphology and systematics.
Several major lineages with geographical coherence, as identified in previous studies based on smaller data sets, are supported. Other lineages with either geographical or ecological correspondence are recognized for the first time. Coffea subgenus Baracoffea is shown to be monophyletic, but Coffea subgenus Coffea is paraphyletic. Sequence data do not substantiate the monophyly of either Coffea or Psilanthus. Low levels of sequence divergence do not allow detailed resolution of relationships within Coffea, most notably for species of Coffea subgenus Coffea occurring in Madagascar. The origin of C. arabica by recent hybridization between C. canephora and C. eugenioides is supported. Phylogenetic separation resulting from the presence of the Dahomey Gap is inferred based on sequence data from Coffea.
Africa; accD–psa1 IGS; Coffea; coffee; Indian Ocean Islands; ITS; Madagascar; molecular phylogeny; rpl16 intron; Rubiaceae; trnL–F intron; trnL–F IGS
Background and Aims
Farfugium (Asteraceae) is a small genus that contains the two species F. japonicum and F. hiberniflorum and is distributed along a long archipelago in east Asia. The common taxon, F. japonicum, includes three varieties associated with a wide range of habitats, including forest understorey (sciophytes), coastal crag (heliophytes) and riverbed (rheophytes). Leaf shape is an important taxonomic character within this genus and is associated with the habitat.
Twenty populations that included all Farfugium taxa were collected throughout its range. Leaf morphology was measured to determine differences amongst the taxa. Phylogenetic analyses based on sequences of the internal transcribed spacer of nuclear rDNA and four plastid DNA regions (matK, trnL-trnF, trnH-psbA and rpl20-rps12) were conducted separately.
Leaf morphology was significantly different amongst taxa, but morphological variations were partly explained by adaptation to certain environmental conditions that each population inhabited. Molecular phylogenies for the nDNA internal transcribed spacer and cpDNA were consistent in classifying F. hiberniflorum and the Taiwanese var. formosanum, whilst suggesting polyphyletic origins for the rheophyte, sciophyte and heliophyte taxa. All samples from the southern Ryukyus (Japan) and Taiwan clustered into a monophyletic group, which corroborates the land configuration theory involving Quaternary land-bridge formation and subsequent fragmentation into islands. The incongruence between the two DNA datasets may imply traces of introgressive hybridization and/or incomplete lineage sorting.
The occurrence of rheophyte, sciophyte and heliophyte plants within Farfugium may be attributable to their isolation on islands and subsequent adaptation to the riparian, coastal crag and forest understorey environments, following their migration over the Quaternary land-bridge formation along their distribution range. Nearly identical DNA sequences coupled with highly divergent morphologies amongst these taxa suggest that diversification was rapid.
Habitat radiation; heliophyte; leaf shape; rheophyte; Ryukyu Islands; sciophyte
Adaptive radiation in Mediterranean plants is poorly understood.
The white-flowered Cistus lineage consists of
12 species primarily distributed in Mediterranean habitats and
is herein subject to analysis.
We conducted a “total evidence” analysis
combining nuclear (ncpGS, ITS) and plastid
trnS-trnG, rbcL) DNA
sequences and using MP and BI to test the hypothesis of
radiation as suggested by previous phylogenetic results. One of
the five well-supported lineages of the
Cistus-Halimium complex, the white-flowered
Cistus lineage, comprises the higher
number of species (12) and is monophyletic. Molecular dating
estimates a Mid Pleistocene (1.04±0.25 Ma)
diversification of the white-flowered lineage into two groups
(C. clusii and C.
salviifolius lineages), which display asymmetric
characteristics: number of species (2 vs. 10), leaf morphologies
(linear vs. linear to ovate), floral characteristics (small,
three-sepalled vs. small to large, three- or five-sepalled
flowers) and ecological attributes (low-land vs. low-land to
mountain environments). A positive phenotype-environment
correlation has been detected by historical reconstructions of
morphological traits (leaf shape, leaf labdanum content and leaf
pubescence). Ecological evidence indicates that modifications of
leaf shape and size, coupled with differences in labdanum
secretion and pubescence density, appear to be related to
success of new species in different Mediterranean habitats.
The observation that radiation in the Cistus
salviifolius lineage has been accompanied by the
emergence of divergent leaf traits (such as shape, pubescence
and labdanum secretion) in different environments suggets that
radiation in the group has been adaptive. Here we argued that
the diverse ecological conditions of Mediterranean habitats
played a key role in directing the evolution of alternative leaf
strategies in this plant group. Key innovation of morphological
characteristics is supported by our dated phylogeny, in which a
Mediterranean climate establishment (2.8 Ma) predated the
adaptive radiation of the white-flowered
• Background and Aims Representatives from Papaver, Roemeria, Stylomecon and Meconopsis were studied to elucidate phylogenetic relationships between Papaver and these closely allied genera.
• Methods Two molecular data sets were used individually and combined and included sequences from the internally transcribed spacer region (ITS) of 18S–26S nuclear ribosomal DNA and the trnL intron and the trnL–trnF intergenic spacer region of plastid DNA.
• Key Results Parsimony analysis demonstrated that the genus is not monophyletic unless the closely related Roemeria, Stylomecon and Meconopsis cambrica are included in a revised circumscription of Papaver. Three distinct clades are resolved in a combined ITS and trnL–F analysis. Clade 1 consists of Papaver sect. Meconella and Asian Meconopsis. Clade 2 contains a group here identified as Papaver s.s., comprising sections Carinatae, Meconidium, Oxytona, Papaver, Pilosa, Pseudopilosa and Rhoeadium. Clade 3 consists of Papaver sect. Argemonidium and Roemeria refracta. A number of diagnostic indels support these groupings. Within clade 2, sects. Papaver and Rhoeadium are either not monophyletic or lack evidence supporting their monophyly.
• Conclusions The results of this molecular analysis indicate that a number of morphological characters such as valvate capsule dehiscence, dark or light filaments and sessile stigmatic discs have arisen in parallel. The phylogenetic trees are incongruent with the existing taxonomy of Papaver, and a revised classification is suggested.
DNA; Meconopsis; nrITS; Papaver; phylogenetics; Roemeria; Stylomecon; trnL–F
Melon, Cucumis melo, and cucumber, C. sativus, are among the most widely cultivated crops worldwide. Cucumis, as traditionally conceived, is geographically centered in Africa, with C. sativus and C. hystrix thought to be the only Cucumis species in Asia. This taxonomy forms the basis for all ongoing Cucumis breeding and genomics efforts. We tested relationships among Cucumis and related genera based on DNA sequences from chloroplast gene, intron, and spacer regions (rbcL, matK, rpl20-rps12, trnL, and trnL-F), adding nuclear internal transcribed spacer sequences to resolve relationships within Cucumis.
Analyses of combined chloroplast sequences (4,375 aligned nucleotides) for 123 of the 130 genera of Cucurbitaceae indicate that the genera Cucumella, Dicaelospermum, Mukia, Myrmecosicyos, and Oreosyce are embedded within Cucumis. Phylogenetic trees from nuclear sequences for these taxa are congruent, and the combined data yield a well-supported phylogeny. The nesting of the five genera in Cucumis greatly changes the natural geographic range of the genus, extending it throughout the Malesian region and into Australia. The closest relative of Cucumis is Muellerargia, with one species in Australia and Indonesia, the other in Madagascar. Cucumber and its sister species, C. hystrix, are nested among Australian, Malaysian, and Western Indian species placed in Mukia or Dicaelospermum and in one case not yet formally described. Cucumis melo is sister to this Australian/Asian clade, rather than being close to African species as previously thought. Molecular clocks indicate that the deepest divergences in Cucumis, including the split between C. melo and its Australian/Asian sister clade, go back to the mid-Eocene.
Based on congruent nuclear and chloroplast phylogenies we conclude that Cucumis comprises an old Australian/Asian component that was heretofore unsuspected. Cucumis sativus evolved within this Australian/Asian clade and is phylogenetically far more distant from C. melo than implied by the current morphological classification.
Background and Aims
Brachypodium distachyon is being widely investigated across the world as a model plant for temperate cereals. This annual plant has three cytotypes (2n = 10, 20, 30) that are still regarded as part of a single species. Here, a multidisciplinary study has been conducted on a representative sampling of the three cytotypes to investigate their evolutionary relationships and origins, and to elucidate if they represent separate species.
Statistical analyses of 15 selected phenotypic traits were conducted in individuals from 36 lines or populations. Cytogenetic analyses were performed through flow cytometry, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with genomic (GISH) and multiple DNA sequences as probes, and comparative chromosome painting (CCP). Phylogenetic analyses were based on two plastid (ndhF, trnLF) and five nuclear (ITS, ETS, CAL, DGAT, GI) genes from different Brachypodium lineages, whose divergence times and evolutionary rates were estimated.
The phenotypic analyses detected significant differences between the three cytotypes and demonstrated stability of characters in natural populations. Genome size estimations, GISH, FISH and CCP confirmed that the 2n = 10 and 2n = 20 cytotypes represent two different diploid taxa, whereas the 2n = 30 cytotype represents the allotetraploid derived from them. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the 2n = 20 and 2n = 10 cytotypes emerged from two independent lineages that were, respectively, the maternal and paternal genome donors of the 2n = 30 cytotype. The 2n = 20 lineage was older and mutated significantly faster than the 2n = 10 lineage and all the core perennial Brachypodium species.
The substantial phenotypic, cytogenetic and molecular differences detected among the three B. distachyon sensu lato cytotypes are indicative of major speciation processes within this complex that allow their taxonomic separation into three distinct species. We have kept the name B. distachyon for the 2n = 10 cytotype and have described two novel species as B. stacei and B. hybridum for, respectively, the 2n = 20 and 2n = 30 cytotypes.
Brachypodium distachyon; Brachypodium stacei; Brachypodium hybridum; cytogenetics; evolutionary systematics; nomenclature; speciation
Stelis (Orchidaceae) encompasses approximately 1100 species of epiphytic orchids distributed throughout the Neotropics, with the highest diversity in Andean South America. Sixty-two species were recorded previously in Mexico.
We formally describe here Stelis zootrophionoides as a new species from Chiapas, Mexico. To determine its systematic position, we conducted a morphological comparison with other members of Pleurothallidinae and a phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences from the plastid matK/trnK and trnL/trnF regions, as well as the nuclear ribosomal ITS region for 52 species of Pleurothallidinae. Sequences of 49 species were downloaded from GenBank and those of three species, including the new taxon, were newly generated for this work. The new species is described and illustrated; notes on its ecological preferences and a comparison with closely related species are presented.
The new species, known only from one location and apparently restricted to the cloud forest in the central highlands of Chiapas, Mexico, is considered a rare species. This small epiphyte is unique among the Mexican species of Stelis by the combination of dark purple flowers with the distal third of the dorsal sepal adhered to the apices of the lateral sepals, which are partially united into a bifid synsepal, leaving two lateral window-like openings, and sagittate labellum. Stelis jalapensis, known from southern Mexico and Guatemala, also has the apices of the sepals adhered to each other, but it is distinguished by its larger flowers with lanceolate, acute dorsal sepal, completely fused lateral sepals (i.e. the synsepal is not bifid), and oblong-elliptic labellum. The phylogenetic analysis shows that S. zootrophionoides is closely related to other Mexican Stelis and corroborates previous suggestions that fused sepal apices have arisen independently in different lineages of Pleurothallidinae.
Background and Aims
The subgenus Ceratotropis in the genus Vigna is widely distributed from the Himalayan highlands to South, Southeast and East Asia. However, the interspecific and geographical relationships of its members are poorly understood. This study investigates the phylogeny and biogeography of the subgenus Ceratotropis using chloroplast DNA sequence data.
Sequence data from four intergenic spacer regions (petA-psbJ, psbD-trnT, trnT-trnE and trnT-trnL) of chloroplast DNA, alone and in combination, were analysed using Bayesian and parsimony methods. Divergence times for major clades were estimated with penalized likelihood. Character evolution was examined by means of parsimony optimization and MacClade.
Parsimony and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses on the combined data demonstrated well-resolved species relationships in which 18 Vigna species were divided into two major geographical clades: the East Asia–Southeast Asian clade and the Indian subcontinent clade. Within these two clades, three well-supported eco-geographical groups, temperate and subtropical (the East Asia–Southeast Asian clade) and tropical (the Indian subcontinent clade), are recognized. The temperate group consists of V. minima, V. nepalensis and V. angularis. The subtropical group comprises the V. nakashimae–V. riukiuensis–V. minima subgroup and the V. hirtella–V. exilis–V. umbellata subgroup. The tropical group contains two subgroups: the V. trinervia–V. reflexo-pilosa–V. trilobata subgroup and the V. mungo–V. grandiflora subgroup. An evolutionary rate analysis estimated the divergence time between the East Asia–Southeast Asia clade and the Indian subcontinent clade as 3·62 ± 0·3 million years, and that between the temperate and subtropical groups as 2·0 ± 0·2 million years.
The findings provide an improved understanding of the interspecific relationships, and ecological and geographical phylogenetic structure of the subgenus Ceratotropis. The quaternary diversification of the subgenus Ceratotropis implicates its geographical dispersal in the south-eastern part of Asia involving adaptation to climatic condition after the collision of the Indian subcontinent with the Asian plate. The phylogenetic results indicate that the epigeal germination is plesiomorphic, and the germination type evolved independently multiple times in this subgenus, implying its limited taxonomic utility.
Subgenus Ceratotropis; Vigna; Leguminosae; diversification; intergenic spacer; germination type
Background and Aims
Cypripedium calceolus, although widespread in Eurasia, is rare in many countries in which it occurs. Population genetics studies with nuclear DNA markers on this species have been hampered by its large nuclear genome size. Plastid DNA markers are used here to gain an understanding of variation within and between populations and of biogeographical patterns.
Thirteen length-variable regions (microsatellites and insertions/deletions) were identified in non-coding plastid DNA. These and a previously identified complex microsatellite in the trnL-trnF intergenic spacer were used to identify plastid DNA haplotypes for European samples, with sampling focused on England, Denmark and Sweden.
The 13 additional length-variable regions identified were two homopolymer (polyA) repeats in the rps16 intron and a homopolymer (polyA) repeat and ten indels in the accD-psa1 intergenic spacer. In accD-psa1, most of these were in an extremely AT-rich region, and it was not possible to design primers in the flanking regions; therefore, the whole intergenic spacer was sequenced. Together, these new regions and the trnL-trnF complex microsatellite allowed 23 haplotypes to be characterized. Many were found in only one or a few samples (probably due to low sampling density), but some commoner haplotypes were widespread. Most of the genetic variation was found within rather than between populations (83 vs. 18%, respectively). Two haplotypes occurred from the Spanish Pyrenees to Sweden.
Plastid DNA data can be used to gain an understanding of patterns of genetic variation and seed-mediated gene flow in orchids. Although these data are less information-rich than those for nuclear DNA, they present a useful option for studying species with large genomes. Here they support the hypothesis of long-distance seed dispersal often proposed for orchids.
Biogeography; Cypripedium calceolus; genome size; plastid microsatellites; population genetics; seed dispersal
Brachypodium distachyon s. l. has been widely investigated across the world as a model plant for temperate cereals and biofuel grasses. However, this annual plant shows three cytotypes that have been recently recognized as three independent species, the diploids B. distachyon (2n = 10) and B. stacei (2n = 20) and their derived allotetraploid B. hybridum (2n = 30).
We propose a DNA barcoding approach that consists of a rapid, accurate and automatable species identification method using the standard DNA sequences of complementary plastid (trnLF) and nuclear (ITS, GI) loci. The highly homogenous but largely divergent B. distachyon and B. stacei diploids could be easily distinguished (100% identification success) using direct trnLF (2.4%), ITS (5.5%) or GI (3.8%) sequence divergence. By contrast, B. hybridum could only be unambiguously identified through the use of combined trnLF+ITS sequences (90% of identification success) or by cloned GI sequences (96.7%) that showed 5.4% (ITS) and 4% (GI) rate divergence between the two parental sequences found in the allopolyploid.
Our data provide an unbiased and effective barcode to differentiate these three closely-related species from one another. This procedure overcomes the taxonomic uncertainty generated from methods based on morphology or flow cytometry identifications that have resulted in some misclassifications of the model plant and its allies. Our study also demonstrates that the allotetraploid B. hybridum has resulted from bi-directional crosses of B. distachyon and B. stacei plants acting either as maternal or paternal parents.
Palaeobiogeographic reconstructions are underpinned by phylogenies, divergence times and ancestral area reconstructions, which together yield ancestral area chronograms that provide a basis for proposing and testing hypotheses of dispersal and vicariance. Methods for area coding include multi-state coding with a single character, binary coding with multiple characters and string coding. Ancestral reconstruction methods are divided into parsimony versus Bayesian/likelihood approaches. We compared nine methods for reconstructing ancestral areas for placental mammals. Ambiguous reconstructions were a problem for all methods. Important differences resulted from coding areas based on the geographical ranges of extant species versus the geographical provenance of the oldest fossil for each lineage. Africa and South America were reconstructed as the ancestral areas for Afrotheria and Xenarthra, respectively. Most methods reconstructed Eurasia as the ancestral area for Boreoeutheria, Euarchontoglires and Laurasiatheria. The coincidence of molecular dates for the separation of Afrotheria and Xenarthra at approximately 100 Ma with the plate tectonic sundering of Africa and South America hints at the importance of vicariance in the early history of Placentalia. Dispersal has also been important including the origins of Madagascar's endemic mammal fauna. Further studies will benefit from increased taxon sampling and the application of new ancestral area reconstruction methods.
ancestral areas; dispersal; historical biogeography; Mammalia; vicariance