White clover (Trifolium repens) is a ubiquitous weed of the temperate world that through use of improved cultivars has also become the most important legume of grazed pastures world-wide. It has long been suspected to be allotetraploid, but the diploid ancestral species have remained elusive. Putative diploid ancestors were indicated by DNA sequence phylogeny to be T. pallescens and T. occidentale. Here, we use further DNA evidence as well as a combination of molecular cytogenetics (FISH and GISH) and experimental hybridization to test the hypothesis that white clover originated as a hybrid between T. pallescens and T. occidentale.
T. pallescens plants were identified with chloroplast trnL intron DNA sequences identical to those of white clover. Similarly, T. occidentale plants with nuclear ITS sequences identical to white clover were also identified. Reciprocal GISH experiments, alternately using labeled genomic DNA probes from each of the putative ancestral species on the same white clover cells, showed that half of the chromosomes hybridized with each probe. F1 hybrids were generated by embryo rescue and these showed strong interspecific chromosome pairing and produced a significant frequency of unreduced gametes, indicating the likely mode of polyploidization. The F1 hybrids are inter-fertile with white clover and function as synthetic white clovers, a valuable new resource for the re-incorporation of ancestral genomes into modern white clover for future plant breeding.
Evidence from DNA sequence analyses, molecular cytogenetics, interspecific hybridization and breeding experiments supports the hypothesis that a diploid alpine species (T. pallescens) hybridized with a diploid coastal species (T. occidentale) to generate tetraploid T. repens. The coming together of these two narrowly adapted species (one alpine and the other maritime), along with allotetraploidy, has led to a transgressive hybrid with a broad adaptive range.
Trifolium repens; White clover; Allopolyploid; Interspecific hybridization
Western clover (Trifolium occidentale) is a perennial herb with characteristics compatible for its development as an attractive model species for genomics studies relating to the forage legume, white clover (Trifolium repens). Its characteristics such as a small diploid genome, self-fertility and ancestral contribution of one of the genomes of T. repens, facilitates its use as a model for genetic analysis of plants transformed with legume or novel genes.
In this study, a reproducible transformation protocol was established following screening of T. occidentale accessions originating from England, Ireland, France, Spain and Portugal. The protocol is based upon infection of cotyledonary explants dissected from mature seed with the Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain GV3101 carrying vectors which contain the bar selection marker gene. Transformation frequencies of up to 7.5% were achieved in 9 of the 17 accessions tested. Transformed plants were verified by PCR and expression of the gusA reporter gene, while integration of the T-DNA was confirmed by Southern blot hybridisation and segregation of progeny in the T1 generation.
Development of this protocol provides a valuable contribution toward establishing T. occidentale as a model species for white clover. This presents opportunities for further improvement in white clover through the application of biotechnology.
Agrobacterium-mediated transformation; Trifolium occidentale; Genetic transformation; Organogenic regeneration; Accession
Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is a diploid (2n = 14), self-incompatible legume that is widely cultivated as a forage legume in cold geographical regions. Because it is a short-lived perennial species, improvement of plant persistency is the most important objective for red clover breeding. To develop a marker-assisted selection (MAS) approach for red clover, we identified candidate QTLs related to plant persistency. Two full-sib mapping populations, 272 × WF1680 and HR × R130, were used for QTL identification. Resistance to Sclerotinia trifoliorum and Fusarium species, as well as to winter hardiness, was investigated in the laboratory and in field experiments in Moscow region (Russia), and Sapporo (Japan). With the genotype data derived from microsatellite and other DNA markers, candidate QTLs were identified by simple interval mapping (SIM), Kruskal–Wallis analysis (KW analysis) and genotype matrix mapping (GMM). A total of 10 and 23 candidate QTL regions for plant persistency were identified in the 272 × WF1680 and the HR × R130 mapping populations, respectively. The QTLs identified by multiple mapping approaches were mapped on linkage group (LG) 3 and LG6. The significant QTL interactions identified by GMM explained the higher phenotypic variation than single effect QTLs. Identification of haplotypes having positive effect QTLs in each parent were first demonstrated in this study for pseudo-testcross mapping populations in plant species using experimental data.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00122-009-1253-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
White clover (Trifolium repens L.) is an outbreeding allotetraploid species and an important forage legume in temperate grassland agriculture. Comparison of sub-genome architecture and study of nucleotide sequence diversity within allopolyploids provides insight into evolutionary divergence mechanisms, and is also necessary for the development of whole-genome sequencing strategies. This study aimed to evaluate the degree of divergence between the O and P' sub-genomes of white clover through sequencing of BAC clones containing paired homoeoloci. The microsyntenic relationships between the genomes of white clover and the model legumes Lotus japonicus and Medicago truncatula as well as Arabidopsis thaliana were also characterised.
A total of four paired homoeologous BACs were selected and sequenced to generate 173 kb of overlapping sequence between the O and P' sub-genomes. Equivalent gene content was generally observed, apart from small-scale deletions, in contrast to conservation of intergenic sequences, which varied between the four selected regions. Measurement of the number of synonymous substitutions between homoeologous genes led to estimation of a 4.2 million year divergence time between the two sub-genomes. Microsynteny was observed between the genomes of white clover and L. japonicus for all four targeted regions, but corresponding M. truncatula genomic regions were only identified for two BAC pairs.
This study describes the first analysis of sub-genome structural conservation across selected genomic regions in white clover. Although the high levels of sequence conservation between the O and P' sub-genomes would complicate efforts for whole genome sequence assembly, the conserved microsynteny with model legume genomes, especially that of L. japonicus, will be highly valuable for the future of white clover genomics and molecular breeding.
White clover (Trifolium repens L.) is an allotetraploid species possessing two highly collinear ancestral sub-genomes. The apparent existence of highly similar homeolog copies for the majority of genes in white clover is problematic for the development of genome-based resources in the species. This is especially true for the development of genetic markers based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), since it is difficult to distinguish between homeolog-specific and allelic variants. Robust methods for categorising single nucleotide variants as allelic or homeolog-specific in large transcript datasets are required. We illustrate one potential approach in this study.
We used 454-pyrosequencing sequencing to generate ~760,000 transcript sequences from an 8th generation white clover inbred line. These were assembled and partially annotated to yield a reference transcript set comprising 71,545 sequences. We subsequently performed Illumina sequencing on three further white clover samples, generating 14 million transcript reads from a mixed sample comprising 24 divergent white clover genotypes, and 50 million reads on two further eighth generation white clover inbred lines. Mapping these reads to the reference transcript set allowed us to develop a significant SNP resource for white clover, and to partition the SNPs from the inbred lines into categories reflecting allelic or homeolog-specific variation. The potential for using haplotype reconstruction and progenitor genome comparison to assign haplotypes to specific ancestral sub-genomes of white clover is demonstrated for sequences corresponding to genes encoding dehydration responsive element binding protein and acyl-coA oxidase.
In total, 208,854 independent SNPs in 31,715 reference sequences were discovered, approximately three quarters of which were categorised as representing allelic or homeolog-specific variation using two inbred lines. This represents a significant resource for white clover genomics and genetics studies. We discuss the potential to extend the analysis to identify a “core set” of ancestrally derived homeolog specific variants in white clover.
Allelic variants; Allotetraploid; Haplotype reconstruction; Next generation sequencing; Single nucleotide polymorphisms; Sub-genome; Transcript assembly; Trifolium; White clover
The reproductive potential of Meloidogyne graminicola was compared with that of M. incognita on Trifolium species in greenhouse studies. Twenty-five Trifolium plant introductions, cultivars, or populations representing 23 species were evaluated for nematode reproduction and root galling 45 days after inoculation with 3,000 eggs of M. graminicola or M. incognita. Root galling and egg production by the two root-knot nematode species was similar on most of the Trifolium species. In a separate study, the effect of initial population densities (Pi) of M. graminicola and M. incognita on the growth of white clover (T. repens) was determined. Reproductive and pathogenic capabilities of M. graminicola and M. incognita on Trifolium spp. were similar. Pi levels of both root-knot nematode species as low as 125 eggs per 10-cm-d pots severely galled white clover plants after 90 days. Meloidogyne graminicola has the potential to be a major pest of Trifolium species in the southeastern United States.
clover; Meloidogyne graminicola; Meloidogyne incognita; nematode; pathogenicity; resistance; rice root-knot nematode; southern root-knot nematode; Trifolium spp.
Recent studies of Northern Hemisphere biogeography have highlighted potentially significant differences between disjunction patterns in plants versus animals. To assess such differences, we compiled a larger sample of relevant plant phylogenies from which disjunction patterns, ancestral areas and directions of movement could be inferred. We considered 66 plant clades with species variously endemic today to eastern Asia (EA), Europe (including southwestern Asia), eastern North America (ENA), and/or western North America (WNA). Within these clades we focused on 100 disjunctions among these major areas, for 33 of which absolute divergence times have also been inferred. Our analyses uphold the view that disjunctions between EA and ENA are exceptionally common in plants, apparently more so than in animals. Compared with animals, we find few disjunctions between EA and WNA, consistent with increased extinction in WNA or failure of some groups to colonize that region. Taken at face value, our data also support the view that many temperate forest plant groups originated and diversified within EA, followed by movement out of Asia at different times, but mostly during the last 30 Myr. This favours Beringia over a North Atlantic land bridge as the primary path between the Old World and the New World. Additional studies are needed, especially to evaluate the impacts of differential extinction on these patterns, to more confidently establish divergence times, and to assess the statistical significance of these findings. Fortunately, many more plant groups show relevant disjunction patterns and could soon be added to such analyses.
Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria from the soil of white clover-ryegrass pastures were screened for their ability to nodulate white clover (Trifolium repens) cultivar Grasslands Huia and for DNA homology with genomic DNA from Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar trifolii ICMP2668 (NZP582). Of these strains, 3.2% were able to hybridize with strain ICMP2668 and nodulate white clover and approximately 19% hybridized but were unable to nodulate. Strains which nodulated but did not hybridize with strain ICMP2668 were not detected. DNA from R. leguminosarum biovar trifolii (strain PN165) cured of its symbiotic (Sym) plasmid and a specific nod probe were used to show that the relationship observed was usually due to chromosomal homology. Plasmid pPN1, a cointegrate of the broad-host-range plasmid R68.45 and a symbiotic plasmid pRtr514a, was transferred by conjugation to representative strains of nonnodulating, gram-negative, rod-shaped soil bacteria. Transconjugants which formed nodules were obtained from 6 of 18 (33%) strains whose DNA hybridized with that of PN165 and 1 of 9 (11%) strains containing DNA which did not hybridize with that of PN165. The presence and location of R68.45 and nod genes was confirmed in transconjugants from three of the strains which formed nodules. Similarly, a pLAFR1 cosmid containing nod genes from a derivative of R. leguminosarum biovar trifolii NZP514 formed nodules when transferred to soil bacteria.
Legumes of the genera Astragalus (milkvetch), Coronilla (crownvetch), Lathyrus (pea vine), Lotus (birdsfoot trefoil), Medicago (alfalfa), Melilotus (clover), Trifolium (clover), and Vicia (common vetch) were inoculated with a population of Melaidogyne chitwoodi from Utah or with one of three M. hapla populations from California, Utah, and Wyoming.Thirty-nine percent to 86% of alfalfa (M. scutellata) and 10% to 55% of red clover (T. pratense) plants survived inoculation with the nematode populations at a greenhouse temperature of 24 ± 3°C. All plants of the other legume species survived all nematode populations, except 4% of the white clover (T. repens) plants inoculated with the California M. hapla population. Entries were usually more susceptible to the M. hapla populations than to M. chitwoodi. Galling of host roots differed between nematode populations and species. Root-galling indices (1 = none, 6 = severely galled) ranged from 1 on pea vine inoculated with the California population of M. hapla to 6 on yellow sweet clover inoculated with the Wyoming population of M. hapla. The nematode reproductive factor (Rf = final nematode population/initial nematode population) ranged from 0 for all nematode populations on pea vine to 35 for the Wyoming population of M. hapla on alfalfa (M. sativa).
host suitability; legumes; leguminosae; Meloidogyne chitwoodi; M. hapla; pathology; reproduction; root galling; root-knot nematode; resistance; shoot weight; survival; susceptibility
Background and Aims
Current agricultural practices are based on growing monocultures or binary mixtures over large areas, with a resultant impoverishing effect on biodiversity at several trophic levels. The effects of increasing the biodiversity of a sward mixture on dry matter yield and unsown species invasion were studied.
A field experiment involving four grassland species [two grasses – perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata) – and two legumes – red clover (Trifolium pratense) and white clover (Trifolium repens)], grown in monocultures and mixtures in accordance with a simplex design, was carried out. The legumes were included either as single varieties or as one of two broad genetic-base composites. The experiment was harvested three times a year over three years; dry matter yield and yield of unsown species were determined at each harvest. Yields of individual species and interactions between all species present were estimated through a statistical modelling approach.
Species diversity produced a strong positive yield effect that resulted in transgressive over-yielding in the second and third years. Using broad genetic-base composites of the legumes had a small impact on yield and species interactions. Invasion by unsown species was strongly reduced by species diversity, but species identity was also important. Cocksfoot and white clover (with the exception of one broad genetic-base composite) reduced invasion, while red clover was the most invaded species.
The results show that it is possible to increase, and stabilize, the yield of a grassland crop and reduce invasion by unsown species by increasing its species diversity.
Cocksfoot; Dactylis glomerata; diversity effect; invasion; legumes; perennial ryegrass; Lolium perenne; red clover; Trifolium pratense; simplex design; statistical modelling; transgressive over-yielding; white clover; T. repens
White clover (Trifolium repens L.) is an allotetraploid species (2n = 4X = 32) that is widely distributed in temperate regions and cultivated as a forage legume. In this study, we developed expressed sequence tag (EST)–derived simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, constructed linkage maps, and performed comparative mapping with other legume species. A total of 7982 ESTs that could be assembled into 5400 contigs and 2582 singletons were generated. Using the EST sequences that were obtained, 1973 primer pairs to amplify EST-derived SSR markers were designed and used for linkage analysis of 188 F1 progenies, which were generated by a cross between two Japanese plants, ‘273-7’ and ‘T17-349,’ with previously published SSR markers. An integrated linkage map was constructed by combining parental-specific maps, which consisted of 1743 SSR loci on 16 homeologous linkage groups with a total length of 2511 cM. The primer sequences of the developed EST-SSR markers and their map positions are available on http://clovergarden.jp/. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) was observed on 9 of 16 linkage groups of a parental-specific map. The genome structures were compared among white clover, red clover (T. pratense L.), Medicago truncatula, and Lotus japonicus. Macrosynteny was observed across the four legume species. Surprisingly, the comparative genome structure between white clover and M. truncatula had a higher degree of conservation than that of the two clover species.
comparative map; white clover; linkage disequilibrium; expressed sequence tag–simple sequence repeat
Allotetraploid white clover (Trifolium repens L.), a cool-season perennial legume used extensively as forage for livestock, is an important target for marker-assisted breeding. A genetic linkage map of white clover was constructed using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers based on sequences from several Trifolieae species, including white clover, red clover (T. pratense L.), Medicago truncatula (Gaertn.) and soybean (Glycine max L.). An F1 population consisting of 179 individuals, from a cross between two highly heterozygous genotypes, GA43 and Southern Regional Virus Resistant, was used for genetic mapping. A total of 1,571 SSR markers were screened for amplification and polymorphism using DNA from two parents and 14 F1s of the mapping population. The map consists of 415 loci amplified from 343 SSR primer pairs, including 83 from white clover, 181 from red clover, 77 from M. truncatula, and two from soybean. Linkage groups for all eight homoeologous chromosome pairs of allotetraploid white clover were detected. Map length was estimated at 1,877 cM with 87% genome coverage. Map density was approximately 5 cM per locus. Segregation distortion was detected in six segments of the genome (homoeologous groups A1, A2, B1, B2, C1, and D1). A comparison of map locations of markers originating from white clover, red clover, and alfalfa (M. sativa L.) revealed putative macro-colinearity between the three Trifolieae species. This map can be used to link quantitative trait loci with SSR markers, and accelerate the improvement of white clover by marker-assisted selection and breeding.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00122-007-0523-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
The Caucasus, at the border of Europe and Asia, is important for migration and over-wintering of wild waterbirds. Three flyways, the Central Asian, East Africa-West Asia, and Mediterranean/Black Sea flyways, converge in the Caucasus region. Thus, the Caucasus region might act as a migratory bridge for influenza virus transmission when birds aggregate in high concentrations in the post-breeding, migrating and overwintering periods. Since August 2009, we have established a surveillance network for influenza viruses in wild birds, using five sample areas geographically spread throughout suitable habitats in both eastern and western Georgia. We took paired tracheal and cloacal swabs and fresh feces samples. We collected 8343 swabs from 76 species belonging to 17 families in 11 orders of birds, of which 84 were real-time RT-PCR positive for avian influenza virus (AIV). No highly pathogenic AIV (HPAIV) H5 or H7 viruses were detected. The overall AIV prevalence was 1.6%. We observed peak prevalence in large gulls during the autumn migration (5.3–9.8%), but peak prevalence in Black-headed Gulls in spring (4.2–13%). In ducks, we observed increased AIV prevalence during the autumn post-moult aggregations and migration stop-over period (6.3%) but at lower levels to those observed in other more northerly post-moult areas in Eurasia. We observed another prevalence peak in the overwintering period (0.14–5.9%). Serological and virological monitoring of a breeding colony of Armenian Gulls showed that adult birds were seropositive on arrival at the breeding colony, but juveniles remained serologically and virologically negative for AIV throughout their time on the breeding grounds, in contrast to gull AIV data from other geographic regions. We show that close phylogenetic relatives of viruses isolated in Georgia are sourced from a wide geographic area throughout Western and Central Eurasia, and from areas that are represented by multiple different flyways, likely linking different host sub-populations.
Rhizobium leguminosarum bv trifolii is the effective nitrogen fixing microsymbiont of a diverse range of annual and perennial Trifolium (clover) species. Strain WSM2304 is an aerobic, motile, non-spore forming, Gram-negative rod, isolated from Trifolium polymorphum in Uruguay in 1998. This microsymbiont predominated in the perennial grasslands of Glencoe Research Station, in Uruguay, to competitively nodulate its host, and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Here we describe the basic features of WSM2304, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. This is the first completed genome sequence for a nitrogen fixing microsymbiont of a clover species from the American center of origin. We reveal that its genome size is 6,872,702 bp encoding 6,643 protein-coding genes and 62 RNA only encoding genes. This multipartite genome was found to contain 5 distinct replicons; a chromosome of size 4,537,948 bp and four circular plasmids of size 1,266,105 bp, 501,946 bp, 308,747 bp and 257,956 bp.
microsymbiont; non-pathogenic; aerobic; Gram-negative rod; root-nodule bacteria; nitrogen fixation; Alphaproteobacteria
Several isolates of coelomycetous fungi with pigmented conidia were consistently isolated from diseased roots of Zea mays in irrigated plots monitored in the KwaZulu-Natal Province of South Africa. Based on their morphology, these isolates could be identified as representative of Stenocarpella macrospora, S. maydis, and Phaeocytostroma ambiguum. Although species of Stenocarpella are well-known as causal agents of cob and stalk rot and leaf blight of maize in South Africa, the occurrence and importance of P. ambiguum is less well documented and understood. To determine the role of P. ambiguum as a root pathogen of maize, pathogenicity tests were conducted under glasshouse conditions at 18 °C night and 28 °C day temperatures using a pasteurised soil, river sand and perlite medium and a 0.5 % sand-bran inoculum. Based on these results, P. ambiguum was shown to be a primary pathogen of maize, but to be less virulent than the positive control, S. maydis. Furthermore, to clarify the higher-level phylogeny of these fungal genera, isolates were subjected to DNA sequencing of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (ITS & LSU). Partial gene sequences of the translation elongation factor 1-alpha gene were added to confirm the species monophyly. To resolve the generic placement of Phaeocytostroma, additional species such as P. sacchari, P. plurivorum and P. megalosporum were also added to the analysis. Based on these results, Stenocarpella and Phaeocytostroma were shown to be two well defined genera, belonging to Diaporthales, Diaporthaceae, being closely allied to Phomopsis (Diaporthe). All three genera were also observed to form alpha as well as beta conidia, and although this phenomenon is well documented for Phomopsis and Phaeocytostroma, it is a new observation for Stenocarpella. In spite of the differences in conidial pigmentation, no support could be obtained for polyphyly in Diaporthaceae, suggesting that as observed in Botryosphaeriaceae (Botryosphaeriales), conidial pigmentation is not informative at the family level in Diaporthales.
Diplodia; diplodiosis; Phaeocytostroma; phylogeny; Stenocarpella; systematics; Zea mays
Indigenous serotypes 1-01 and 2-02 of Rhizobium trifolii occupied similar percentages (18 to 23%) of root nodules on soil-grown subclover (Trifolium subterraneum L.) and were virtually absent (4.5%) from nodules of soil-grown white clover (Trifolium repens L.). In contrast (with the exception of one dilution [10−4]), serotype 1-01 occupied a substantial portion of nodules (16 to 40%) on white clover seedlings grown on mineral salts agar and exposed to samples of the same soil in the form of a 10-fold dilution series (10−1 to 10−5). Under the latter conditions, occupancy of subclover nodules by 1-01 and of nodules of both plant species by 2-02 was consistent with the results obtained with soil-grown plants.
Plant species introduced into new regions can both leave behind co-evolved pathogens and acquire new ones. Traits important to infection and virulence are subject to rapid evolutionary change in both plant and pathogen. Using Stemphylium solani, a native foliar necrotroph on clovers (Trifolium and Medicago) in California, USA, we explore how plant-fungal interactions may change in an invasion context. After four generations of experimental serial passage through multiple hosts, Stemphylium consistently showed increased infection rates but no consistent change in damage to the host. In a historical opportunity study, we compared infection and virulence across four groups of clover hosts: California natives, European clovers not found in California, and both California and European genotypes of species naturalized in California. There was significant variation among hosts, but no pattern across the four groups. However, in direct comparisons of familiar California genotypes to unfamiliar European genotypes of the same naturalized species, Stemphylium consistently infected familiar hosts more frequently, while causing less damage on them. This pattern is consistent with the hypothesis of adaptive evolution in both the pathogen (ability to infect) and the host (tolerance of infection). Together these results suggest the potential for rapid evolution to alter interactions between plant invaders and their natural enemies.
biological invasions; biotic resistance; clovers; escape from natural enemies; host range of plant pathogenic fungi; Medicago; rapid evolution; Trifolium
Trifolium hybridum (alsike clover) has been implicated as the cause of two diseases of the horse. One of these is photosensitivity, of which alsike clover is only one of a number of presumed causal agents. The other is a fatal syndrome which is known as “alsike clover poisoning” and which is manifest by progressive loss of condition, signs of hepatic failure, and varying degrees of neurological impairment. The underlying lesion of alsike clover poisoning is fibrosis and proliferation of the biliary tree. The experimental evidence implicating alsike clover as the cause of this syndrome comes entirely from a series of feeding trials performed by Dr. Frank Schofield between 1928 and 1933.
This review surveys the literature on the association of alsike clover with both photosensitivity and biliary fibrosis in horses, and summarizes the clinical and pathological features of “alsike clover poisoning”. The experimental evidence that has been used to implicate Trifolium hybridum as the cause of alsike clover poisoning is critically examined. It is concluded that the existing experimental evidence is insufficient to prove that Trifolium hybridum is the cause of alsike clover poisoning.
Rhizobium leguminosarum bv trifolii is a soil-inhabiting bacterium that has the capacity to be an effective nitrogen fixing microsymbiont of a diverse range of annual Trifolium (clover) species. Strain WSM1325 is an aerobic, motile, non-spore forming, Gram-negative rod isolated from root nodules collected in 1993 from the Greek Island of Serifos. WSM1325 is produced commercially in Australia as an inoculant for a broad range of annual clovers of Mediterranean origin due to its superior attributes of saprophytic competence, nitrogen fixation and acid-tolerance. Here we describe the basic features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. This is the first completed genome sequence for a microsymbiont of annual clovers. We reveal that its genome size is 7,418,122 bp encoding 7,232 protein-coding genes and 61 RNA-only encoding genes. This multipartite genome contains 6 distinct replicons; a chromosome of size 4,767,043 bp and 5 plasmids of size 828,924 bp, 660,973 bp, 516,088 bp, 350,312 bp and 294,782 bp.
microsymbiont; non-pathogenic; aerobic; Gram-negative rod; root-nodule bacteria; nitrogen fixation; Alphaproteobacteria
Fuller's rose weevil, Naupactus cervinus (Boheman) (Curculionidae: Entiminae), is an important quarantine pest of New Zealand kiwifruit exported to Asian markets. Both adults and larvae are considered to be polyphagous. In this study, the survival of larval N. cervinus was estimated on common groundcover species of kiwifruit (Actinidia spp.) in the Bay of Plenty, the main region in New Zealand where kiwifruit is grown. The botanical composition of groundcover in commercial kiwifruit orchards, characterised by survey, was dominated by ryegrass (Lolium perenne), with white clover (Trifolium repens), creeping buttercup (Ranunculus repens), wild strawberry (Duchesnea indica) and broadleaf dock (Rumex obtusifolius) in lower abundance. Survival to mature larvae or adult was relatively low (·11%) for N. cervinus introduced as neonates to field plots or potted ryegrass, white clover and broadleaf dock. White clover was a more favourable host for survival to adults than ryegrass. This study suggests that increased survival of N. cervinus larvae may occur where white clover and large dock plants are abundant, but that survival is likely to be highly variable because of the heterogeneous availability of preferred host plants and host plant quality. These data suggest that larval polyphagy is a strategy that enables N. cervinus to persist at low densities in kiwifruit orchards despite variation in the quality and diversity of groundcover.
Actinidia spp. Fuller rose beetle; larvae; polyphagy; Lolium perenne; Trifolium repens; Ranunculus repens; Duchesnea indica; Rumex obtusifolius
Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is a major forage legume that has a strong self-incompatibility system and exhibits high genetic diversity within populations. For several crop species, integrated consensus linkage maps that combine information from multiple mapping populations have been developed. For red clover, three genetic linkage maps have been published, but the information in these existing maps has not been integrated.
A consensus linkage map was constructed using six mapping populations originating from eight parental accessions. Three of the six mapping populations were established for this study. The integrated red clover map was composed of 1804 loci, including 1414 microsatellite loci, 181 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) loci and 204 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) loci, in seven linkage groups. The average distance between loci and the total length of the consensus map were 0.46 cM and 836.6 cM, respectively. The locus order on the consensus map correlated highly with that of accession-specific maps. Segregation distortion was observed across linkage groups. We investigated genome-wide allele frequency in 1144 red clover individuals using 462 microsatellite loci randomly chosen from the consensus map. The average number of alleles and polymorphism information content (PIC) were 9.17 and 0.69, respectively.
A consensus genetic linkage map for red clover was constructed for the first time based on six mapping populations. The locus order on the consensus map was highly conserved among linkage maps and was sufficiently reliable for use as a reference for genetic analysis of random red clover germplasms.
Our analysis of the ND2 sequences revealed six clades within winter wrens (Troglodytes troglodytes). These clades corresponded to six geographical regions: western Nearctic, eastern Nearctic, eastern Asia, Nepal, Caucasus and Europe, and differed by 3-8.8% of sequence divergence. Differences among regions explained 96% of the sequence variation in winter wren. Differences among individuals within localities explained 3% of the sequence variation, and differences among localities within regions explained 1%. Grouping sequences into subspecies instead of localities did not change these proportions. Proliferation of the six clades coincided with Early and Middle Pleistocene glaciations. The distribution of winter wren clades can be explained by a series of five consecutive vicariant events. Western Nearctic wrens diverged from the Holarctic ancestor 1.6 Myr before the present time (MYBP). Eastern Nearctic and Palaearctic wrens diverged 1 MYBP. Eastern and western Palaearctic birds diverged 0.83 MYBP. Nepalese and east Asian wrens diverged 0.67 MYBP, and Caucasian birds diverged from European wrens 0.54 MYBP. The winter wren has a much greater degree of inter- and intracontinental differentiation than the three other Holarctic birds studied to date--dunlin (Calidris alpina), common raven (Corvus corax) and three-toed woodpecker (Picoides trydactylus)--and represents an example of cryptic speciation that has been overlooked.
The predominant root-knot nematode in New Zealand pastures is Meloidogyne trifoliophila, identified until recently as M. hapla. Clarification was needed on the host range of these two species on legumes found in New Zealand pastures and on clover species closely related to Trifolium repens. In a greenhouse test, 15 Trifolium spp. and Medicago sativa were inoculated with eggs of M. trifoliophila, M. hapla, M. incognita, or M. javanica. All legumes tested were hosts to some degree to each of the root-knot nematodes used, except for T. striatum and M. sativa whose status as hosts to M. trifoliophila was doubtful. Low galling rates occurred on T. glomeratum infected by M. hapla (mean of 3% of the root system galled), on T. semipilosum infected by M. javanica (2%), on T. striatum infected by M. trifoliophila (2%), and on T. micranthum (4%) and M. sativa (6%) infected by M. incognita. The most heavily parasitized clovers were T. repensinfected by M. trifoliophila (92%), T. pratense infected by M. incognita (91%), and T. argutum infected by M. incognita (88%).
alfalfa; breeding; clover; detection; diagnosis; lucerne; Meloidogyne hapla; Meloidogyne incognita; Meloidogyne javanica; Meloidogyne trifoliophila; nematode; New Zealand; pasture; resistance; root-knot nematode; Trifolium spp.; white clover
There is uncertainty about the potential reduction of soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emission when fertilizer nitrogen (FN) is partially or completely replaced by biological N fixation (BNF) in temperate grassland. The objectives of this study were to 1) investigate the changes in N2O emissions when BNF is used to replace FN in permanent grassland, and 2) evaluate the applicability of the process-based model DNDC to simulate N2O emissions from Irish grasslands. Three grazing treatments were: (i) ryegrass (Lolium perenne) grasslands receiving 226 kg FN ha−1 yr−1 (GG+FN), (ii) ryegrass/white clover (Trifolium repens) grasslands receiving 58 kg FN ha−1 yr−1 (GWC+FN) applied in spring, and (iii) ryegrass/white clover grasslands receiving no FN (GWC-FN). Two background treatments, un-grazed swards with ryegrass only (G–B) or ryegrass/white clover (WC–B), did not receive slurry or FN and the herbage was harvested by mowing. There was no significant difference in annual N2O emissions between G–B (2.38±0.12 kg N ha−1 yr−1 (mean±SE)) and WC-B (2.45±0.85 kg N ha−1 yr−1), indicating that N2O emission due to BNF itself and clover residual decomposition from permanent ryegrass/clover grassland was negligible. N2O emissions were 7.82±1.67, 6.35±1.14 and 6.54±1.70 kg N ha−1 yr−1, respectively, from GG+FN, GWC+FN and GWC-FN. N2O fluxes simulated by DNDC agreed well with the measured values with significant correlation between simulated and measured daily fluxes for the three grazing treatments, but the simulation did not agree very well for the background treatments. DNDC overestimated annual emission by 61% for GG+FN, and underestimated by 45% for GWC-FN, but simulated very well for GWC+FN. Both the measured and simulated results supported that there was a clear reduction of N2O emissions when FN was replaced by BNF.
Pleistocene glacial cycles play a major role in diversification and speciation, although the relative importance of isolation and expansion in driving diversification remains debated. We analysed mitochondrial DNA sequence data from 15 great reed warbler (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) populations distributed over the vast Eurasian breeding range of the species, and revealed unexpected postglacial expansion patterns from two glacial refugia. There were 58 different haplotypes forming two major clades, A and B. Clade A dominated in Western Europe with declining frequencies towards Eastern Europe and the Middle East, but showed a surprising increase in frequency in Western and Central Asia. Clade B dominated in the Middle East, with declining frequencies towards north in Central and Eastern Europe and was absent from Western Europe and Central Asia. A parsimonious explanation for these patterns is independent postglacial expansions from two isolated refugia, and mismatch distribution analyses confirmed this suggestion. Gene flow analyses showed that clade A colonised both Europe and Asia from a refugium in Europe, and that clade B expanded much later and colonised parts of Europe from a refugium in the Middle East. Great reed warblers in the eastern parts of the range have slightly paler plumage than western birds (sometimes treated as separate subspecies; A. a. zarudnyi and A. a. arundinaceus, respectively) and our results suggest that the plumage diversification took place during the easterly expansion of clade A. This supports the postglacial expansion hypothesis proposing that postglacial expansions drive diversification in comparatively short time periods. However, there is no indication of any (strong) reproductive isolation between clades and our data show that the refugia populations became separated during the last glaciation. This is in line with the Pleistocene speciation hypothesis invoking that much longer periods of time in isolation are needed for speciation to occur.