To examine the epidemiology of infectious disease (ID) hospitalisations among Alaska Native (AN) people.
Hospitalisations with a first-listed ID diagnosis for American Indians and ANs residing in Alaska during 2001–2009 were selected from the Indian Health Service direct and contract health service inpatient data. ID hospitalisations to describe the general US population were selected from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Annual and average annual (2007–2009) hospitalization rates were calculated.
During 2007–2009, IDs accounted for 20% of hospitalisations among AN people. The 2007–2009 average annual age-adjusted ID hospitalisation rate (2126/100,000 persons) was higher than that for the general US population (1679/100,000; 95% CI 1639–1720). The ID hospitalisation rate for AN people increased from 2001 to 2009 (17%, p<0.001). Although the rate during 2001–2009 declined for AN infants (<1 year of age; p=0.03), they had the highest 2007–2009 average annual rate (15106/100,000), which was 3 times the rate for general US infants (5215/100,000; 95% CI 4783–5647). The annual rates for the age groups 1–4, 5–19, 40–49, 50–59 and 70–79 years increased (p<0.05). The highest 2007–2009 age-adjusted average annual ID hospitalisation rates were in the Yukon-Kuskokwim (YK) (3492/100,000) and Kotzebue (3433/100,000) regions; infant rates were 30422/100,000 and 26698/100,000 in these regions, respectively. During 2007–2009, lower respiratory tract infections accounted for 39% of all ID hospitalisations and approximately 50% of ID hospitalisations in YK, Kotzebue and Norton Sound, and 74% of infant ID hospitalisations.
The ID hospitalisation rate increased for AN people overall. The rate for AN people remained higher than that for the general US population, particularly in infants and in the YK and Kotzebue regions. Prevention measures to reduce ID morbidity among AN people should be increased in high-risk regions and for diseases with high hospitalisation rates.
Alaska Native; infectious disease; hospitalisations; Alaska; lower respiratory tract infection
We described disparities in infectious disease (ID) hospitalizations for American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) people.
We analyzed hospitalizations with an ID listed as the first discharge diagnosis in 1998–2006 for AI/AN people from the Indian Health Service National Patient Information Reporting System and compared them with records for the general U.S. population from the Nationwide Inpatient Survey.
The ID hospitalization rate for AI/AN people declined during the study period. The 2004–2006 mean annual age-adjusted ID hospitalization rate for AI/AN people (1,708 per 100,000 populiation) was slightly higher than that for the U.S. population (1,610 per 100,000 population). The rate for AI/AN people was highest in the Southwest (2,314 per 100,000 population), Alaska (2,063 per 100,000 population), and Northern Plains West (1,957 per 100,000 population) regions, and among infants (9,315 per 100,000 population). ID hospitalizations accounted for approximately 22% of all AI/AN hospitalizations. Lower-respiratory--tract infections accounted for the largest proportion of ID hospitalizations among AI/AN people (35%) followed by skin and soft tissue infections (19%), and infections of the kidney, urinary tract, and bladder (11%).
Although the ID hospitalization rate for AI/AN people has declined, it remains higher than that for the U.S. general population, and is highest in the Southwest, Northern Plains West, and Alaska regions. Lower-respiratory-tract infections; skin and soft tissue infections; and kidney, urinary tract, and bladder infections contributed most to these health disparities. Future prevention strategies should focus on high-risk regions and age groups, along with illnesses contributing to health disparities.
Native Americans experienced higher reported gonorrhea and syphilis morbidity than did non-Native Americans from 1984 through 1988 in 13 States with large Native American populations. Gonorrhea rates among American Indians and Alaska Natives were approximately twice the rates for non-Indians. The highest gonorrhea rate was reported among Alaska Natives, with a 5-year average of 1,470 cases per 100,000, more than five times the average non-Native rate in Alaska. The average primary and secondary (P&S) syphilis rate from 1984 through 1988 was more than two times higher among Native Americans, largely due to high syphilis morbidity in Arizona and New Mexico. In Arizona the average American Indian P&S syphilis case rate was seven times higher than the non-Indian rate. True rates for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) among Native Americans may be higher than those reported due to racial misclassification of Native American cases, particularly in nonreservation areas. Improved recognition and reporting of STD cases among Native Americans are needed to target STD prevention and education more effectively.
OBJECTIVES: Cervical cancer mortality rates among the American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) population in North and South Dakota were five times the national average (15.6 per 100,000 vs. 3.1 per 100,000, age adjusted) when last evaluated (from 1989 through 1993). Our goals were to update the AI/AN population cervical cancer mortality rates and to present incidence rates for AI/AN women in the region. METHODS: We reviewed charts for women diagnosed with invasive cervical cancer at Indian Health Service (IHS) facilities in North and South Dakota from 1994 through 1998 and collected information about cervical cancer screening and treatment history. Incidence and mortality rates were standardized to the 1970 U.S. population. RESULTS: Twenty-one cases of invasive cervical cancer and eight deaths were identified. Annualized incidence and mortality rates were 11.5 per 100,000 and 4.5 per 100,000. These compare with national all-race/ethnicity rates of 8.5 per 100,000 and 2.7 per 100,000 for incidence and mortality. Fifteen (71%) of 21 cases were diagnosed due to symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: While cervical cancer mortality rates have declined, incidence and mortality rates among AI/AN women remain higher than in the general U.S. population. Increased use of pap tests and careful follow-up of abnormal results should be aggressively promoted among AI/AN women in North and South Dakota.
Objective—To determine the rate and causes of hospitalizations for injury among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth in the state of Washington, and to compare this with the rate of hospitalizations for injury among youth of all races.
Methods—Subjects were aged 0–19 years and were admitted to civilian hospitals for care of an injury (International Classification of Diseases N codes 800–995) in Washington between 1990 and 1994. Deaths occurring in the pre-hospital setting and emergency department are not included. Using several fields of identifying information, the Washington state hospital discharge database was linked with the Indian Health Service (IHS) patient registration database to identify AI/AN youth. Denominator data included the total age specific IHS user population for American Indians and US Census derived population estimates. Incidence ratios (IRs) were calculated to compare rates of hospitalization between AI/AN youth and all youth in Washington.
Results—A total of 694 and 29 048 hospitalizations for injury were identified for AI/AN youth and all races, respectively. The rate of hospitalization for injuries among AI/AN youth was 507 discharges per 100 000 youth (IR = 1.30; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.20 to 1.40. The leading mechanism of injury was motor vehicles (IR 1.73, CI 1.49 to 2.01), followed by falls (IR 0.95, CI 0.79 to 1.15), and poisoning (IR 1.20, CI 0.80 to 1.78). The disparity was greater for intentional injuries (IR 1.71, CI 1.44 to 2.04). The highest IR for all unintentional injuries was for injuries from fire (IR 2.35, CI 1.42 to 3.87). AI/AN children aged 15–19 had the greatest disparity for rates of injury hospitalization (IR 1.4, CI 1.25 to 1.56).
Conclusion—AI/AN youth in Washington had a higher hospitalization rate for injury compared with all youth in the state. Disparities were greatest for injuries related to motor vehicles and assaults. When linked, hospital discharge data can be used for surveillance of AI/AN hospitalizations.
To determine the rate and causes of hospitalization for injury among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth in Washington compared with youth of all races.
Subjects were aged 0 to 19 years and were admitted to civilian hospitals for care of an injury (International Classification of Diseases N codes 800-995) in Washington between 1990 and 1994. Deaths occurring in the pre-hospital setting and emergency department were not included. Using several fields of identifying information, the Washington state hospital discharge database was linked with the Indian Health Service (IHS) patient registration database to identify AI/AN youth. Denominator data included the total age-specific IHS user population for American Indians and population estimates derived from the US Census. Incidence ratios (IRs) were calculated to compare rates of hospitalization between AI/AN youth and all youth in Washington.
A total of 694 hospitalizations for injury were identified for AI/AN youth and 29,048 were identified for all races. The rate of hospitalization for injuries among AI/AN youth was 507 discharges per 100,000 youth (IR = 1.30; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20 to 1.40). The leading mechanism of injury was motor vehicles (IR 1.73, 95% CI 1.49 to 2.01), which was followed by falls (IR 0.95, 95% CI 0.79 to 1.15) and poisonings (IR 1.20, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.78). The disparity was greater for intentional injuries (IR 1.71, 95% CI 1.44 to 2.04). The highest IR for all unintentional injuries was for injuries from fire (IR 2.35, 95% CI 1.42 to 3.87). AI/AN children aged 15 to 19 had the greatest disparity for rates of injury hospitalization (IR 1.4, 95% CI 1.25 to 1.56).
AI/AN youth in Washington had a higher rate of hospitalization for injury compared with all youth in the state. Disparities were greatest for injuries related to motor vehicles and assaults. When linked, hospital discharge data can be used for surveillance of AI/AN hospitalizations.
American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/AN) adults ≥65 years of age (older adults) have the second highest age group-specific infectious disease (ID) hospitalization rate. To assess morbidity and disparities of IDs for older AI/AN adults, this study examined the epidemiology of overall and specific infectious disease hospitalizations among older AI/AN adults.
ID hospitalization data for older AI/AN adults were analyzed by using Indian Health Service hospital discharge data for 1990 through 2002 and comparing it with published findings for the general U.S. population of older adults.
ID hospitalizations accounted for 23% of all hospitalizations among older AI/AN adults. The average annual ID hospitalization rate increased 5% for 1990–1992 to 2000–2002; however, the rate increased more than 20% in the Alaska and the Southwest regions. The rate for older AI/AN adults living in the Southwest region was greater than that for the older U.S. adult population. For 2000–2002, lower respiratory tract infections accounted for almost half of all ID hospitalizations followed by kidney, urinary tract, and bladder infections, and cellulitis.
The ID hospitalization rate increased among older AI/AN adults living in the Southwest and Alaska regions, and the rate for the older AI/AN adults living in the Southwest region was higher than that for the U.S. general population. Prevention measures should focus on ways to reduce ID hospitalizations among older AI/AN adults, particularly those living in the Southwest and Alaska regions.
In Uzbekistan, routine serologic testing has not been available to differentiate etiologies of acute viral hepatitis (AVH). To determine the age groups most affected by hepatitis E virus (HEV) during documented AVH epidemics, trends in AVH-associated mortality rate (MR) per 100,000 over a 15-year period and reported incidence of AVH over a 35-year period were examined.
Reported AVH incidence data from 1971 to 2005 and AVH-associated mortality data from 1981 to 1995 were examined. Serologic markers for infection with hepatitis viruses A, B, D, and E were determined from a sample of hospitalized patients with AVH from an epidemic period (1987) and from a sample of pregnant women with AVH from a non-epidemic period (1992).
Two multi-year AVH outbreaks were identified: one during 1975–1976, and one during 1985–1987. During 1985–1987, AVH-associated MRs were 12.3–17.8 per 100,000 for the general population. Highest AVH-associated MRs occurred among children in the first 3 years of life (40–190 per 100,000) and among women aged 20–29 (15–21 per 100,000). During 1988–1995 when reported AVH morbidity was much lower in the general population, AVH-associated MRs were markedly lower among these same age groups. In 1988, AVH-associated MRs were higher in rural (21 per 100,000) than in urban (8 per 100,000) populations (RR 2.6; 95% CI 1.16–5.93; p < 0.05). Serologic evidence of acute HEV infection was found in 280 of 396 (71%) patients with AVH in 1987 and 12 of 99 (12%) pregnant patients with AVH in 1992.
In the absence of the availability of confirmatory testing, inferences regarding probable hepatitis epidemic etiologies can sometimes be made using surveillance data, comparing AVH incidence with AVH-associated mortality with an eye to population-based viral hepatitis control measures. Data presented here implicate HEV as the probable etiology of high mortality observed in pregnant women and in children less than 3 years of age in Uzbekistan during 1985–1987. High mortality among pregnant women but not among children less than 3 years has been observed in previous descriptions of epidemic hepatitis E. The high mortality among younger children observed in an AVH outbreak associated with hepatitis E merits corroboration in future outbreaks.
Occupational hepatitis B remains a threat to healthcare workers (HCWs) worldwide, even with availability of an effective vaccine. Despite limited resources for public health, the Czech Republic instituted a mandatory vaccination program for HCWs in 1983. Annual incidence rates of acute hepatitis B were followed prospectively through 1995. Despite giving vaccine intradermally from 1983 to 1989 and intramuscularly as half dose from 1990 to 1995, rates of occupational hepatitis B decreased dramatically, from 177 cases per 100,000 workers in 1982 (before program initiated) to 17 cases per 100,000 in 1995. Among high-risk workers, the effect was even more dramatic (from 587 to 23 per 100,000). We conclude that strong public-health leadership led to control of occupational hepatitis B among HCWs in the Czech Republic, despite limited resources that precluded administering full-dose intramuscular vaccine for much of the program. Application of a similar program should be considered for other countries in regions that currently do not have a hepatitis B vaccination program.
We sought to determine whether aggregate national data for American Indians/Alaska Natives (AIANs) mask geographic variation and substantial subnational disparities in prenatal care utilization.
We used data for US births from 1995 to 1997 and from 2000 to 2002 to examine prenatal care utilization among AIAN and non-Hispanic White mothers. The indicators we studied were late entry into prenatal care and inadequate utilization of prenatal care. We calculated rates and disparities for each indicator at the national, regional, and state levels, and we examined whether estimates for regions and states differed significantly from national estimates. We then estimated state-specific changes in prevalence rates and disparity rates over time.
Prenatal care utilization varied by region and state for AIANs and non-Hispanic Whites. In the 12 states with the largest AIAN birth populations, disparities varied dramatically. In addition, some states demonstrated substantial reductions in disparities over time, and other states showed significant increases in disparities.
Substantive conclusions about AIAN health care disparities should be geographically specific, and conclusions drawn at the national level may be unsuitable for policymaking and intervention at state and local levels. Efforts to accommodate the geographically specific data needs of AIAN health researchers and others interested in state-level comparisons are warranted.
Objective—To describe national trends in hospitalizations for motor vehicle related injuries among children and youth (0–24 years) of the United States Indian Health Service (IHS) from 1981–92.
Design—Descriptive epidemiologic study of the E coded national hospital discharge database of the IHS.
Results—From 1981 to 1992, the age standardized annual incidence of motor vehicle related injury hospitalizations (per 100 000 population) among American Indian and Alaskan Native (AI/AN) youth decreased more than 65% from 269 to 93. Substantial declines in hospitalization rates for all age and sex groups, all IHS areas, and most injury types were seen over this time. Injuries to vehicle occupants accounted for 78% of all motor vehicle related injury hospitalizations. The annual incidence of hospitalization (per 100 000 population) ranged from 291 in the Billings (Wyoming/Montana) and Aberdeen (the Dakotas) areas to 38 in the Portland area (Pacific Northwest).
Conclusions—National motor vehicle related injury hospitalization rates of AI/AN children and youth decreased significantly from 1981–92. This may be due to a reduction in the incidence of severe motor vehicle related trauma, changing patterns of medical practice, and changes in the use of services. Additional measures, such as passage and enforcement of tribal laws requiring the use of occupant restraints and stronger laws to prevent alcohol impaired driving, might further reduce the incidence of serious motor vehicle related injuries in this high risk population.
The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence rates for cervical, breast, and colorectal cancer screening among American Indian and Alaska Native people living in Alaska and in the Southwest US, and to investigate predictive factors associated with receiving each of the cancer screening tests.
We used the Education and Research Towards Health (EARTH) Study to measure self-reported cancer screening prevalence rates among 11,358 study participants enrolled in 2004–2007. We used prevalence odds ratios to examine demographic, lifestyle and medical factors associated with receiving age- and sex-appropriate cancer screening tests.
The prevalence rates of all the screening tests were higher in Alaska than in the Southwest. Pap test in the past 3 years was reported by 75.1% of women in Alaska and 64.6% of women in the Southwest. Mammography in the past 2 years was reported by 64.6% of women aged 40 years and older in Alaska and 44.0% of those in the Southwest. Colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy in the past 5 years was reported by 41.1% of study participants aged 50 years and older in Alaska and by 11.7% of those in the Southwest US. Multivariate analysis found that location (Alaska versus the Southwest), higher educational status, income and the presence of one or more chronic medical condition predicted each of the three screening tests. Additional predictors of Pap test were age (women aged 25–39 years more likely to be screened than older or younger women), marital status (ever married more likely to be screened), and language spoken at home (speakers of American Indian Alaska Native language only less likely to be screened). Additional predictors of mammography were age (women aged 50 years and older were more likely to be screened than those aged 40–49 years), positive family history of breast cancer, use of smokeless tobacco (never users more likely to be screened), and urban/rural residency (urban residents more likely to be screened). Additional predictors of colonoscopy/sigmoidoscopy were age (men and women aged 60 years and older slightly more likely to be screened than those aged 50–59 years), family history of any cancer, family history of colorectal cancer, former smoking, language spoken at home (speakers of American Indian Alaska Native language less likely to be screened), and urban/rural residence (urban residents more likely to be screened).
Programs to improve screening among American Indian and Alaska Native people should include efforts to reach individuals of lower socioeconomic status and who do not have regular contact with the medical care system. Special attention should be made to identify and provide needed services to those who live in rural areas, and to those living in the Southwest US.
Papanicolaou test; Mammography; Colon cancer screening; American Indian; Alaska Native
To describe the occurrence of pancreatic, biliary tract, and gallbladder cancers within the Alaska Native (AN) population.
Population-based analysis utilizing a tumor registry and comparative population data.
Pancreaticobiliary cancers rates for AN people during 1973–2007 were determined from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) AN Tumor Registry. Cancer incidence rates were age-adjusted to the World Standard Million and compared over 2 time periods with US white and black rates.
During 1973–2007, 213 AN people developed pancreatic cancer, 73 gallbladder cancer and 61 biliary tract cancer. Pancreatic cancer occurs at similar rates in AN men and women, but data for 1993–2007 indicate that the rates among AN men may be increasing. The incidence rate in AN women (9.5/100,000) was statistically higher than in US white women (5.8/100,000). The incidence for biliary tract cancer in AN men and gallbladder cancer in AN men and women is statistically higher than that for US whites and blacks.
Pancreaticobiliary cancers, particularly biliary tract and gallbladder cancers, in both AN men and women and pancreatic cancer in women occur at an increased rate in AN people. Risk factors relating to the elevated rate are discussed. Certain factors are potentially modifiable, such as the use of tobacco and obesity.
Alaska Native; American Indian; pancreatic cancer; biliary tract cancer; gallbladder cancer; epidemiology
Breast cancer is a common disease estimated to occur in 1 in 9 women over their lifetime. Epidemiological research has identified a number of risk factors for breast cancer. Racial and ethnic differences in breast cancer mortality rates have been difficult to ascertain. The present review reports that there was an increase in the incidence of breast cancer in Arica, Chile, from 1997 to 2007, particularly in 2005, reaching 55.1% per 100,000 women, while the percentage decreased in 2006 and 2007. A greater percentage of breast cancer was found in individuals between 46 and 65 years of age when the population was distributed by age. The Indian population, Aymara, had only a 13.9% incidence of the disease. The incidence for breast cancer for patients with no family background reached approximately 88%, with or without Indian ethnicity, and 98.4% of these women did not have prior hormonal therapy. When the stage of the disease and the number of pregnancies were considered, results showed that there was an increase in the progression of the disease from stage I to stage III in women that had 1–3 pregnancies. Results also showed that 20.9 and 33.2% who received prior tamoxifen treatment were in stages I and IIA, respectively. The breast cancer incidence reached 42.4% when patients had a sister with the disease. It can be concluded that important differences in the risk factors of breast cancer should be identified in the future for a comparison with other biological factors, such as genetic and molecular factors. This may provide greater insight into breast cancer aetiology in different populations.
breast cancer; hormonal replacement; family history
OBJECTIVE: To enumerate drowning fatalities in Alaska in order to identify risk factors and areas for intervention. METHODS: Information from death certificates, state troopers' reports, and medical examiner reports were abstracted and analyzed. Rates were calculated using 1990 census figures as denominator data. RESULTS: There were 542 drowning fatalities in Alaska for the years 1988 to 1992. The 20-29 age group had the highest frequency and rate of drownings. The incidence rate for the state was 20 drownings per 100,000 population per year, almost 10 times higher than the overall U.S. rate of 2.11 per 100,000 per year. Incidence rates were highest among adolescent males (10-19), young adult males (20-29). Alaska Natives, and rural residents. Alaska Native males, ages 30-39 averaged 159 drownings per 100,000 per year, the highest drowning rates in the state. CONCLUSIONS: Drowning is a major public health concern in Alaska. People who fish commercially and young Native males are groups at high risk for drowning. Intervention efforts should be concentrated on these two populations.
BACKGROUND: Few studies have reported population-based information on the treatment trends and outcomes of patients who have had an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We therefore examined patterns of care and outcomes for AMI patients in Quebec, Canada, between 1988 and 1995. METHODS: Longitudinal data files of hospital admissions in Quebec (Med-Echo database) and inpatient and outpatient services (Régie de l'Assurance Maladie du Québec database) were used to construct cohorts of all AMI patients in the province between 1988 and 1995. Temporal trends in the use of cardiac procedures after an AMI, discharge prescriptions and mortality rates were examined. RESULTS: Between 1988 and 1995 the age- and sex-adjusted rates of AMI in the Quebec population declined (148 per 100,000 in 1988 to 137 per 100,000 in 1995). The use of intensive cardiac procedures increased in the same period; the 1-year cumulative incidence rate of catheterization increased from 28% in 1988 to 31% in 1994, that of angioplasty rose from 8% to 15% and that of coronary artery bypass surgery from 6% to 8%. Prescriptions for ASA, beta-blockers, lipid-lowering agents and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors increased, and prescriptions for nitrates and calcium antagonists decreased. These temporal changes were paralleled by a decrease in mortality rates post-AMI. All-cause 1-year cumulative incidence mortality rates decreased from 23% in 1988 to 19% in 1994. INTERPRETATION: The decrease in AMI-related mortality in Quebec between 1988 and 1995 may be linked to changes in treatment strategies (i.e., increased use of cardiac surgical procedures and medications shown to increase survival).
The epidemiology of Molluscum contagiosum (MC) in the United States is largely unknown, despite the fact that the virus is directly communicable and large outbreaks occur. This study provides population-based estimates to describe the epidemiology of MC in the United States among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) persons. This population was selected because of the comprehensiveness and quality of available data describing utilization of out-patient services.
Outpatient visits listing MC as a diagnosis in the Indian Health Service National Patient Information Reporting System during 2001–2005 were analyzed to assess patient characteristics, visit frequency and concurrent skin conditions. Outpatient visit rates and incidence rates were calculated based on known population denominators (retrospective cohort). Overall outpatient visit rates were also calculated for the general US population using national data. The average annual rate of MC-associated outpatient visits was 20.15/10,000 AI/AN persons for 2001–2005 (13,711 total visits), which was similar to the rate for the general US population (22.0/10,000 [95% CI: 16.9–27.1]). The incidence of MC-associated visits was 15.34/10,000. AI/AN children 1–4 years old had the highest incidence (77.12), more than twice that for children 5–14 years old (30.79); the incidence for infants (<1 year) was higher than that for adults. AI/AN persons living in the West region had the highest incidence, followed by those in the East and Alaska regions (26.96, 22.88 and 21.38, respectively). There were age-specific associations between MC and concurrent skin conditions (e.g., atopic dermatitis, eczema).
This study highlights the need for periodic population-based measurements to assess trends in incidence and healthcare utilization for MC in the United States. High rates of MC were found among AI/AN persons, especially among children <15 years old. The AI/AN population would benefit from greater availability of effective strategies for prevention and treatment of MCV infection.
THE AUTHORS EXAMINED THE PREVALENCE of clinically diagnosed hypertension among all American Indian and Alaska Native outpatients served in Indian Health Service (IHS) facilities in fiscal year 1992, and compared these rates with a similar analysis done in 1987. In this report they provided data on that analysis as well as on the association between hypertension and diabetes. The 1992 overall estimated age-adjusted prevalence of clinically diagnosed hypertension in adults older than age 15 was 10.4%, compared with 10.9% in 1987, a small but significant decrease. Considerable variation exists in hypertension prevalence rates in American Indian communities as analyzed by IHS service area. This report represents an attempt to use ambulatory patient care data to demonstrate a means for ongoing surveillance of a chronic disease for the entire service population of the IHS. This comprehensive data set represents approximately 60% of the entire U.S. American Indian and Alaska Native population. Based on the ongoing nature of this ambulatory patient care data system, this model for hypertension surveillance permits a unique opportunity for longitudinal evaluation of quality improvement efforts for the American Indian and Alaska Native populations served by the IHS.
Population rates of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are changing. Consistent case definitions to evaluate these trends and make comparisons are essential. The World Health Organization (WHO) AMI diagnostic algorithm and clinical judgments were the standards for classification. However, in recent years, five new algorithms, to include diagnostic advances, are advocated by professional organizations. This study compares AMI rates derived from six algorithms and the impact of troponins on those rates.
The authors utilize the population-based Minnesota Heart Survey hospital data in 1995 and 2001 to compare six published diagnostic algorithms and the impact of troponins.
In 1995 differences in AMI rates between algorithms ranged from 281/100,000 to 440/100,000 for men and 98/100,000 to 139/100,000 for women. The use of troponin, a more sensitive biomarker, adds to the differences by increasing eligible cases. Using 2001 data in patients where creatine kinase and troponin were simultaneously measured, a 64% and 95% increase in AMI rates among men and women, respectively, was observed.
Accurate and consistent AMI definitions are crucial for clinical trials, epidemiology and public health research. Demonstrated here is the sensitivity of AMI rates to changing case definitions and the biomarker troponin.
Acute myocardial infarction(AMI); AMI rates; AMI algorithms; registries; creatine kinase; troponins
The magnitude of chronic conditions and risk factors among American Indian/Alaska Native women of reproductive age is unknown. The objective of our study was to estimate this magnitude.
We analyzed data for 2,821 American Indian/Alaska Native women and 105,664 non-Hispanic white women aged 18 to 44 years from the 2005 and 2007 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. We examined prevalence of high cholesterol, high blood pressure, diabetes, body mass index (kg/m2) ≥25.0, physical inactivity, smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and frequent mental distress, and the cumulative number of these chronic conditions and risk factors (≥3, 2, 1, or 0). In a multivariable, multinomial logistic regression model, we examined whether American Indian/Alaska Native race was associated with the cumulative number of chronic conditions and risk factors.
American Indian/Alaska Native women, compared with white women, had significantly higher rates of high blood pressure, diabetes, obesity, smoking, and frequent mental distress. Of American Indian/Alaska Native women, 41% had 3 or more chronic conditions or risk factors compared with 27% of white women (χ2
, P < .001). After adjustment for income, education, and other demographic variables, American Indian/Alaska Native race was not associated with having either 1, 2, or 3 or more chronic conditions or risk factors.
Three out of every 5 American Indian/Alaska Native women aged 18 to 44 years have 3 or more chronic conditions or risk factors. Improving economic status and education for AI/AN women could help eliminate disparities in health status.
We report prevalence rates and correlates of cigarette smoking among
a population-based sample of Chinese- and Filipino-American adults together
with rates found in other racial/ethnic groups in California.
All analyses are based on the 2001 California Health Interview
The proportion of current smokers among males was lowest among
Chinese Americans (14%), followed by Non-Hispanic Whites
(19%), Hispanics (20%), African Americans
(22%), Filipino Americans (24%), American
Indians/Alaska Natives (29%), and Pacific Islanders
(32%). The proportion of current smokers among females was
lowest among Chinese Americans (6%), followed by Hispanics
(8%), Filipino Americans (11%), Non-Hispanic Whites
(17%), African Americans (20%), Pacific Islander
(21%), and American Indians/Alaska Natives (32%).
Smoking rates were higher among foreign-born versus U.S.-born Asian males.
CHIS data show an opposite effect among Asian women: acculturation to the
U.S. is associated with increased smoking prevalence rates. Multivariate
analyses with Chinese and Filipino respondents showed that the likelihood of
smoking varied among foreign-born versus U.S.-born men (OR 2.59 for Chinese,
1.42 for Filipino, 2.01 for all Asian men combined) and for foreign-born
versus U.S.-born women (OR 0.41 for Chinese, 0.38 for Filipino, and 0.59 for
all Asian women combined).
Public health intervention efforts should take into account Asian
ethnic subgroup, gender, and acculturation status in targeting high-risk
Population-based survey; Smoking; Asian American; Correlates
Current mortality rates are essential for monitoring, understanding and developing policy for a population's health. Disease-specific Alaska Native mortality rates have been undergoing change.
This article reports recent mortality data (2004–2008) for Alaska Native/American Indian (AN/AI) people, comparing mortality rates to US white rates and examines changes in mortality patterns since 1980.
We used death record data from the state of Alaska, Department of Vital Statistics and SEER*Stat software from the National Cancer Institute to calculate age-adjusted mortality rates.
Annual age-adjusted mortality from all-causes for AN/AI persons during the period 2004–2008 was 33% higher than the rate for US whites (RR=1.33, 95% CI 1.29–1.38). Mortality rates were higher among AN/AI males than AN/AI females (1212/100,000 vs. 886/100,000). Cancer remained the leading cause of death among AN/AI people, as it has in recent previous periods, with an age-adjusted rate of 226/100,000, yielding a rate ratio (RR) of 1.24 compared to US whites (95% CI 1.14–1.33). Statistically significant higher mortality compared to US white mortality rates was observed for nine of the ten leading causes of AN/AI mortality (cancer, unintentional injury, suicide, alcohol abuse, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD], cerebrovascular disease, chronic liver disease, pneumonia/influenza, homicide). Mortality rates were significantly lower among AN/AI people compared to US whites for heart disease (RR=0.82), the second leading cause of death. Among leading causes of death for AN/AI people, the greatest disparities in mortality rates with US whites were observed in unintentional injuries (RR=2.45) and suicide (RR=3.53). All-cause AN/AI mortality has declined 16% since 1980–1983, compared to a 21% decline over a similar period among US whites.
Mortality rates and trends are essential to understanding the health of a population and guiding policy decisions. The overall AN/AI mortality rate is higher than that of US whites, although encouraging declines in mortality have occurred for many cause specific deaths, as well as for the overall rate. The second leading cause of AN/AI mortality, heart disease, remains lower than that of US whites.
Native American; unintentional injury; suicide; death; vital statistics
Acetaminophen overdose (AO) is the most common cause of acute liver failure. We examined temporal trends and sociodemographic risk factors for AO in a large Canadian health region.
1,543 patients hospitalized for AO in the Calgary Health Region (population ~1.1 million) between 1995 and 2004 were identified using administrative data.
The age/sex-adjusted hospitalization rate decreased by 41% from 19.6 per 100,000 population in 1995 to 12.1 per 100,000 in 2004 (P < 0.0005). This decline was greater in females than males (46% vs. 29%). Whereas rates fell 46% in individuals under 50 years, a 50% increase was seen in those ≥ 50 years. Hospitalization rates for intentional overdoses fell from 16.6 per 100,000 in 1995 to 8.6 per 100,000 in 2004 (2004 vs. 1995: rate ratio [RR] 0.49; P < 0.0005). Accidental overdoses decreased between 1995 and 2002, but increased to above baseline levels by 2004 (2004 vs. 1995: RR 1.24;P < 0.0005). Risk factors for AO included female sex (RR 2.19; P < 0.0005), Aboriginal status (RR 4.04; P < 0.0005), and receipt of social assistance (RR 5.15; P < 0.0005).
Hospitalization rates for AO, particularly intentional ingestions, have fallen in our Canadian health region between 1995 and 2004. Young patients, especially females, Aboriginals, and recipients of social assistance, are at highest risk.
Molecular characterization of wild-type measles viruses in China during 1995-2004 demonstrated that genotype H1 was endemic and widely distributed throughout the country. H1-associated cases and outbreaks caused a resurgence of measles beginning in 2005. A total of 210,094 measles cases and 101 deaths were reported by National Notifiable Diseases Reporting System (NNDRS) and Chinese Measles Laboratory Network (LabNet) from 2006 to 2007, and the incidences of measles were 6.8/100,000 population and 7.2/100,000 population in 2006 and 2007, respectively. Five hundred and sixty-five wild-type measles viruses were isolated from 24 of 31 provinces in mainland China during 2006 and 2007, and all of the wild type virus isolates belonged to cluster 1 of genotype H1. These results indicated that H1-cluster 1 viruses were the predominant viruses circulating in China from 2006 to 2007. This study contributes to previous efforts to generate critical baseline data about circulating wild-type measles viruses in China that will allow molecular epidemiologic studies to help measure the progress made toward China's goal of measles elimination by 2012.
Metabolic syndrome occurs commonly in the United States. The purpose of this study was to measure the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among American Indian and Alaska Native people.
We measured the prevalence rates of metabolic syndrome, as defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program, among four groups of American Indian and Alaska Native people aged 20 years and older. One group was from the southwestern United States (Navajo Nation), and three groups resided within Alaska. Prevalence rates were age-adjusted to the U.S. adult 2000 population and compared to rates for U.S. whites (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey [NHANES] 1988–1994).
Among participants from the southwestern United States, metabolic syndrome was found among 43.2% of men and 47.3% of women. Among Alaska Native people, metabolic syndrome was found among 26.5% of men and 31.2% of women. In Alaska, the prevalence rate varied by region, ranging among men from 18.9% (western Alaska) to 35.1% (southeast), and among women from 22.0% (western Alaska) to 38.4 % (southeast). Compared to U.S. whites, American Indian/Alaska Native men and women from all regions except western Alaska were more likely to have metabolic syndrome; men in western Alaska were less likely to have metabolic syndrome than U.S. whites, and the prevalence among women in western Alaska was similar to that of U.S. whites.
The prevalence rate of metabolic syndrome varies widely among different American Indian and Alaska Native populations. Differences paralleled differences in the prevalence rates of diabetes.